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########Cassava starch as an effective component for Ideal Biodegradable PlasticsAn
Investigatory Project submitted tothe High School Department ofSt. Paul College,
Pasigin partial fulfillment of therequirements in ChemistrySubmitted by:Group
Number 9 Dianne Marie C. RoxasKarla Angela P. Sese Jannica Sibal Mariel P. Sta. Ana
Teacher: Ms. Mendiola Date of Submission: December 7, 2009 Abstract The purpose of
this experiment is to be able to help the society with its environmental issues by
creating a biodegradable plastic out of Cassava Starch. The researchers will use
environment-friendly materials which can be made into biodegradable plastics that
will not harm the environment and will not add to pollution problems. Cassava
Tubers were ground and squeezed to extract its starch. Starch obtained was weighed
and divided into three equal parts; 80 grams in trial 1, trial 2 and trial 3. T1,
T2 and T3 also consisted of 60 ml Polyester resin and 50 grams of Polymer MEKP
Hardener for T1, 75 grams for T2 and 125 grams in T3. The components in every
treatment or trial were mixed, stirred and then poured in 3 different shirts with
Petroleum Jelly and then sun-dried. Afterwards, different methods were used to test
the effectivity of the plastic. T1, T2 and T3 were sun-dried but they did not look
like a plastic at all. The researchers observed the product while waiting for it to
dry but there were no signs of turning into a plastic. The Cassava starch was too
thick and the researchers realized that it would not turn into a plastic because of
its heavy weight and it would take more time before it would dry because of its
thickness. After letting T1, T2 and T3 dry under the sun, it became hard. Although
the researchers had unexpected results and the Cassava starch did not turn into
plastic, studies have already proven that Cassava starch could be used for making
various types of packaging products. Cassava is a promising raw material for the
development of biodegradable plastics. The research activities have shown and
proven that cassava starch is effective in the development of biodegradable
packaging materials such as plastics. Studies determined the effectiveness of
cassava starch as component of biodegradable plastic. Results confirmed that
cassava starch is ideal as tests proved its worth. Therefore, Cassava Starch is an
effective component for Biodegradable plastic.Table of Contents
Introduction 1 Significance of the
Study ...2Review of Related
Literature .3Scope and
Limitation .5Definition of
Terms 5
Methodology .7Data and
Results 8Discussion and
Analysis ..12
Conclusion ...13
Recommendations 13
Bibliography 14
Acknowledgment .15I. IntroductionPlastics are used
because they are very useful, cheap, manageable and handy. Plastics have been the
fastest growing basic material because they are versatile, light weight, energy
saving, durable and recyclable. It has become a popular material used in a wide
variety of ways. Plastics can last a long time but unfortunately, this same useful
quality can make plastic a huge pollution problem. Its long life means it survives
in the environment for long periods where it can do great harm. Non-biodegradable
plastics are durable but they degrade very slowly; molecular bonds that make
plastic so durable make it equally resistant to natural process of degradation.
Plastic packaging provides excellent protection for the product, it is cheap to
manufacture and seems to last forever. Lasting forever, however, is proving to be a
major environmental problem. Plastics are also a huge problem in waste disposal and
studies have been made to find a substitute material which can be used in making
biodegradable plastics. Because plastic does not decompose, and requires high
energy ultra-violet light to break down, the amount of plastic waste in our oceans
is steadily increasing. Studies that have been done locally show about 3, 500
particles of plastic per square kilometer of sea off the southern African coast.
The world production of plastic is estimated to be more than 100 million tons per
year. Plastics are indeed a threat to wild life. A great proof for this is that
plastics have been found in the stomachs of sea turtles, birds, and fish all over
the world. Tragically, millions of tons of plastic are poisoning our oceans.
Plastic pollution harms people, animals, and the environment because it is non-
biodegradable. In the marine environment, plastic breaks down into smaller and
smaller particles that absorb toxic chemicals, are ingested by wildlife, and enter
the food chain that we depend on. People need alternative and effective components
of plastic that is safe and biodegradable which will not harm and pollute the
earth. Page 1II. ProblemCould Cassava Starch be an effective component for ideal
Biodegradable plastic? III. Hypothesis a. If youd use the starch of Cassava plant
as a component of plastic, then the plastic will be biodegradable.b. If youd use
the starch of Cassava plant as a component of plastic, then the plastic will be
non-biodegradable. IV. Significance of the Study This study is important to be
able to help Mother Earth in reducing its pollutants and toxic or harmful wastes.
Through this study, the researchers will be able to help other people, the animals
and the environment. The researchers would like to stop plastic pollution and be
part of the solution. Plastic bags and bottles, like all forms of plastic, create
significant environmental and economic burdens. They consume growing amounts of
energy and other natural resources, degrading the environment in numerous ways. In
addition to using up fossil fuels and other resources, plastic products create
litter, hurt marine life, and threaten the basis of life on earth. There is over 45
million tons of plastics per year and nearly every piece of plastic ever made still
exists today because of its long-life properties. Biodegradable plastics could be
an effective solution to all of these problems. Biodegradable plastics are a much
better choice than non biodegradable plastics because they are friendlier to the
earth and the environment. Biodegradable plastics break down faster, can be
recycled easier and are non-toxic. With these characteristics of biodegradable
plastics, we could help save lives and the environment as well and reduce the
threat plastics give to marine life. Plastic, the wonder material that we use for
everything, is perhaps the most harmful of this trash because it does not readily
break down in nature but if it is biodegradable, Page 2these plastics break down
faster so they have a much shorter effect on the earth, and they will degrade
completely. Normal plastics are manufactured using oil, and this process is very
harmful to the environment by polluting the air and environment, but this is not
the case with green biodegradable plastics. Using biodegradable plastics will
minimize the effects that these products have on the earth, and help eliminate
their waste much faster. V. Review of Related Literature In the past few decades,
there has been a marked advance in the development of biodegradable plastics from
renewable resources, especially for those derived from starch-based materials. The
goal of this development is to obtain biodegradable plastics that perform as well
as traditional plastics when in use and which completely biodegrade at disposal.
Several starch-based plastics have been introduced into the market, and are used in
some applications now. Starch foam is one of the major starch-based packaging
materials. It is produced by extrusion or compression/explosion technology. This
product has been developed as a replacement for polystyrene which is used to
produce loose-fillers and other expanded items. Another type of starch-based
plastics is produced by blending or mixing starch with synthetic polyester. For
this type of biodegradable plastics, granular starch can be directly blended with
polymer, or its granular structure can be destructurized before being incorporated
into the polymer matrix. The type of starch and synthetic polymer as well as their
relative proportions in the blends influence the properties of the resulting
plastics. The last group of starch-based plastics is polyesters that are produced
from starch. The major starch-derived polyesters in the market now are polylactic
acid and polyhydroxyalkanoate. Experimental studies have demonstrated that cassava
starch could be used for making various types of packaging products. As a major
source of starch in tropical and subtropical regions, cassava is a promising raw
material for the development of biodegradable plastics in these areas.Page 3
Research has been done on#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodegradable" \t "_blank" \o
"Biodegradable"#biodegradable#plastics that break down with exposure to sunlight
(e.g.,#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultra-violet_radiation" \t "_blank"
\o "Ultra-violet radiation"#ultra-violet radiation#), water or dampness,
bacteria, enzymes, wind abrasion and some instances rodent pest or insect attack
are also included as forms of#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodegradation" \t "_blank" \o
"Biodegradation"#biodegradation#or#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_degradation" \t "_blank" \o
"Environmental degradation"#environmental degradation#. It is clear some of these
modes of degradation will only work if the plastic is exposed at the surface, while
other modes will only be effective if certain conditions exist in landfill or
composting systems.#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Starch" \t "_blank" \o
"Starch"#Starch#powder has been mixed with plastic as a filler to allow it to
degrade more easily, but it still does not lead to complete breakdown of the
plastic. Some researchers have actually#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_engineering" \t "_blank" \o "Genetic
engineering"#genetically engineered#bacteria that synthesize a completely
biodegradable plastic, but this material, such as#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biopol" \t "_blank" \o "Biopol"#Biopol#, is expensive
at present.The diversity and ubiquity of plastic products substantially testify to
the versatility of the special class of engineering materials known as polymers.
However, the non-biodegradability of these petrochemical-based materials has been a
source of environmental concerns and hence, the driving force in the search for
green alternatives for which starch remains the frontliner. Starch is a natural
biopolymer consisting predominantly of two polymer types of glucose namely amylose
and amylopectin. The advantages of starch for plastic production include its
renewability, good oxygen barrier in the dry state, abundance, low cost and
biodegradability. The longstanding quest of developing starch-based biodegradable
plastics has witnessed the use of different starches in many forms such as native
granular starch, modified starch, plasticized starch and in blends with many
synthetic polymers, both biodegradable and non-biodegradable, for the purpose of
achieving cost effectiveness and biodegradation respectively. In this regard,
starch has been used as fillers in starch-filled polymer blends, thermoplastic
starch (TPS) (produced from the combination of starch, plasticizer and
thermomechanical energy), in the production of foamed starch and biodegradable
synthetic polymer like polylactic acid (PLA) with varying results. However, most
starch-based composites exhibit poor material properties such as tensile strength,
yield strength, stiffness and elongation at break, and also poor moisture
stability. This therefore warranted Page 4scientific inquiries towards improving
the properties of these promising starch-based biocomposites through starch
modification, use of compatibilizers and reinforcements (both organic and
inorganic), processing conditions, all in the hope of realizing renewable
biodegradable substitutes for the conventional plastics.VI. Scope and Limitations
This experiment only covers plastic bags, not including other plastic materials
such as plastic containers, plastic cups, straws and other plastic utensils. The
experiment can be done in a matter of 2 hours, excluding the sun-drying procedure.
Most of the materials used in the experiment are accessible and can be bought in
supermarkets. However, there are a few which are not available in nearby stores.
Premix Polyester Resin and Polymer MEKP Hardener are manufactured by Polymer
Products (Phil) Inc. and can be bought in Bagong Ilog, Pasig City. VII. Definition
of TermsBiodegradable - able to decompose naturally: made of substances that will
decay relatively quickly as a result of the action of bacteria and break down into
elements such as carbon that are recycled naturallyStarch a white, granular or
powdery, odorless, tasteless and complex carbohydrate found chiefly in seeds,
fruits, tubers, roots and stem pith of plants, notably in corn, potatoes, wheat,
and rice; an important foodstuff and used otherwise especially in adhesives and as
fillers and stiffeners for paper and textiles. Plastics the word plastic is
derived from the words plasticus (Latin for capable of molding) and plastikos
(Greek to mold, or fit for molding). Plastics are polymeric, moldable and
synthetic materials which are derived from fossil fuels, such as oil, coal or
natural gas. Plastics consist of organic (carbon-containing) long molecular chains
that give them many of their unique properties. They can be made hard, flexible,
strong, transparent, light and elastic. Page 5Polymer long-chain molecules that
repeat their structures over and overPolyethylene Bags - the bags that you will see
commonly used, such as plastic grocery bags, are made from petroleum byproducts,
which is the root of most all of the environmental problems that they are the
source of. Not only do they take substantially longer to break down or degrade, but
as they do they release highly toxic chemicals.Resin It is a hydrocarbon
secretion of many #HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant" \o
"Plant"#plants#, particularly coniferous trees. It is valued for its chemical
constituents and uses, such as varnishes and #HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adhesive" \o "Adhesive"#adhesives#, as an important
source of raw materials for organic synthesis, or for incense and perfume. Polymer
Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide (MEKP) - The most popular type of hardener because of
its economy and ease of use. Polyester Resin - Polyester resins are the most
commonly used matrix in the marine and composite industry. These resins are
styrene-based, flammable and catalyzed when combined with Methyl Ethyl Ketone
Peroxide(MEKP). Polyester resins are unsaturated resins formed by the reaction of
dibasic organic acids and polyhydric alcohols.Premix Polyester Resin R10-60 It is
a fast gel premix polyester resin used for wood, kapiz, and other lamination with
cellophane, Lumirror or Mylar films. It is also used to make decorative jewels
and flowers from ceramic molds, to make small coatings from polyethylene & silicone
rubber molds, and to cast on intrinsic molds such as steel or bass frames. Plastic
Resin Glue Plastic resins are made by heating hydrocarbons in what is known as
the Page 6"cracking process." The goal here is to break down the larger molecules
into ethylene, propylene, and other types of hydrocarbons. The amount of ethylene
produced depends on the cracking temperature. Once the cracking process has been
completed, the compounds are formed into chains that are known as polymers.
Different polymers are combined to make plastic resins that have the
characteristics needed for different applications. Once the plastic resins have
been formed, they are used to make many different kinds of products. Catalyst -
chemical that accelerates chemical reaction:a substance that increases the rate of
a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any changeVIII. MethodologyA.
Materials2 Cassava Tubers 180 ml of Premix Polyester Resin300 ml of Polymer MEKP
Hardener 100 grams Petroleum Jelly3 old shirts Measuring cupGrater Plastic Spoon
Knife3 Plastic Containers Chopping board Page 7B. Procedure Gather the Cassava
Tubers. Ground and squeeze it to extract the starch. Get hold of 240 grams of the
starch and divide it into 3 equal parts: 80 grams in trial 1, trial 2 and trial 3.
Place 60 ml of the plastic resin glue (Premix Polyester Resin) with 50 grams of
flour catalyst for T1, 75 grams for T2 and 125 grams in T3. Mix and stir the
components and pour it in the shirt with Petroleum Jelly and let it dry under the
sun.To test its capacity to carry weight, use the plastic to carry objects. For its
ability to hold water, put water inside the plastic. To test its tensile and
bending properties, stretch the plastic as far as you can. Repeat steps 5-7 using
T2 and T3. IX. Data and Results # # Trial 1
Trial 2 Page 8# #Trial 3 Materials#Sun drying
procedure# ## # #Amount of
Cassava Starch (g)#Amount of Plastic Resin Glue (ml) #Amount of Polymer MEKP
Hardener (g)#Did the color change?#Hardness#Can it be peeled from the shirt
completely?#Texture of the final product##T1#80 g#60 ml #50 g #No#It hardened but
did not turn into plastic.#It can be peeled off the shirt completely#
Rough##T2#80 g #60 ml #75 g #No#Hardened a little but did not turn into plastic.
#It can be peeled off the shirt but not completely#Some parts are smooth but most
of the parts are rough.##T3#80 g #60 ml#125 g #Yes, it changed to color Yellow.#Did
not harden at all. #It cannot be peeled off the shirt at all#Some parts are rough
but most parts aresmooth.##The researchers had unforeseen outcomes. The researchers
had 3 trials: T1, T2 and T3. The three trials contained 80 grams of cassava starch
and 60 ml of plastic resin glue each. They also put 50 grams of Polymer MEKP
Hardener in T1, 75 grams in T2 and 125 grams in T3. The researchers used plastic
resin glue because plastic resins are made by heating hydrocarbons where larger
molecules is breaking down Page 10into ethylene propylene. Once the process has
been completed, the compounds are formed into chains that are known as polymers.
Polymers are combined to make plastic resins. Once the plastic resins have been
formed, they are used to make several varieties of products. Another reason on why
the researchers used plastic resin glue on their experiment because based on
studies, plastic resin glue dries to a glass-hard consistency depending on the
ambient temperature. On the other hand, the researchers used Polymer MEKP Hardener
on their research because when it is mixed with the
resin, the resulting chemical reaction causes heat to build up and improve or
harden the resin to make the product more effective. They used different amounts of
MEKP so that the researchers would know if what would work the best, the container
with more MEKP or the one with less. After mixing and stirring the treatments, it
was transferred on 3 separate shirts with Petroleum Jelly then sun-dried. After 4
hours of observing the conducted experiment, their products hardened but did not
look like it would turn into plastic like they have been expecting. T1 is the
hardest of them all hence, it can be peeled off the shirt and since T3 did not
harden, its texture is smooth and it cannot be peeled off the shirt in any way. T2
hardened a little but still did not look like plastic. Some parts are smooth but
most parts are rough. It can also be peeled off the shirt but not completely. In
order for us to test its capacity to carry weight, we used the plastic to carry
objects, we also tested its tensile and bending properties, T1 had the best result
for both. We also tested for its ability to hold water by putting water inside the
three trials, none of our trials worked. In view of the fact that the thickness of
the cassava starch on the shirt is a factor why the outcome didnt work as
expected. The cassava starch was not spread evenly making it so thick, thus, the
cassava starch being too thick means it would also be difficult for it to dry.
Page 11X. Discussion and Analysis The researchers have studied the final product
of all three trials and have observed that: In the first trial, the researchers
have observed that among the three trials it was the most successful because of the
hard and sturdy layer it produced. It was strong enough to carry objects but it can
also be bent without breaking. Even when it was peeled from the white cloth it did
not break down. The researchers believe that trial one would be the most reasonable
and efficient trial to use for a biodegradable plastic. In the second trial, the
researchers observed that the final product was somewhat not as whole as trial one.
It made a rather sticky substance that was very flimsy and fragile, especially when
it was peeled off the white cloth. In the third trial, the researchers have
observed the looseness of the final product. Though it has been sun dried, it kept
its damp and very sticky attribute. It showed since of being very flimsy and loose.
When trial three was peeled of it easily broke down because of its very gooey
feature. The researchers believe that trial three would be the most inefficient
trial to use for a biodegradable plastic because its lack in plastic features.
The physical properties of plastic include transparency, flexibility,
elasticity, permeability, ductility, electrical resistance and its ability to hold
water. The researchers observed that the final products lack plastic properties.
None of the 3 trials were transparent and for its flexibility, it was only T1 that
can be bent without getting destroyed. Though T1, T2 and T3 lack those properties,
it can still be considered as an effective component for biodegradable plastics
because they are biodegradable. Studies have already proven that cassava starch
is an effective component of biodegradable plastics. However, the end product of
the experiment did not look like a plastic at all. The researchers had altered the
suggested procedure found on the internet. The procedure was not also vey precise
and specific. A factor that might have affected the results was the use of
chemicals. The shirts, petroleum jelly, Polymer MEKP Hardener were only used as
substitutes for the actual materials. The shirt was used Page 12to replace silk
screen and Petroleum Jelly was used instead of oil. Polymer MEKP Hardener was used
a substitute for the flour catalyst. Also, the appropriate type of Plastic Resin
must be selected to make the particular type of product needed but in the
procedure, no type was specified so the researchers used Premix Polyester Resin.
There were lots of flaws in the experiment which probably was the reason why the
researchers failed in the experiment. The cassava starch was not also ground and it
was the reason why it was thick and it was not also spread thoroughly. The weather
was also a factor because sunlight and heat was really needed for the cassava
starch to dry but then, it was not too sunny. XI. Conclusion Even though the
researchers had unanticipated outcome, they still conclude that Cassava starch can
be used as a biodegradable polymer to replace plastics in packaging materials.
Cassava starch can be applied for the production of biodegradable plastics. Starch
can be incorporated into plastics to improve the biodegradability of the plastic
and finished product. According to different studies and research, cassava starch
could be used for making a range of types of plastics and is now being used in the
market. Cassava has a promising raw material and its starch have the characteristic
of being able to absorb humidity, just like normal plastics. Its also has a low
bulk density and only a little modification is needed to increase its moisture
content which is needed in producing plastics. Since starch is a natural polymer
and is biodegradable, it can play as an important role in the biodegradable plastic
manufacturing. Therefore, Cassava starch is an effective component in biodegradable
plastics. XII. Recommendations Although the researchers were not successful in
this experiment and had unexpected results, they still recommend this topic which
can be used in Investigatory Projects. For those who are interested in this topic
and would like to perform this experiment in the future, the researchers are
suggesting that you should follow the right procedure and be accurate with your
measurements. People should have sufficient Page 13background information about the
chemicals that they will be using and they make sure that they areusing the right
materials or chemicals. Remember that little factors might affect the outcome so
you should be careful in performing the different steps. Future experimenters
should clarify the procedure and make sure that the ingredients that you will be
using as substitutes will be effective in this project. XIII. BibliographyJodee
Redmond. (2003) What is Plastic Resin? Retrieved December 2009 , from#HYPERLINK
"http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-plastic-resin.htm"#http://www.wisegeek.com/what-
is-plastic-resin.htm#Australian Academy of Science (2002) Making packaging greener
biodegradable plastics Retrieved December 2009 #HYPERLINK
"http://www.science.org.au/nova/061/061key.htm"#http://www.science.org.au/nova/061/
061key.htm#Cassava and Starch Technology Research Unit (19 9 8) Biodegradable and
Physical Properties of Cassava Starch/Polycaprolactone Blend. Retrieved September
2009 from #HYPERLINK
"http://www.cassava.org/Pub/19 9 8/19 9 8_04.htm"#http://www.cassava.org/Pub/19 9 8/19 9 8_
04.htm#(2007) Cassava starch as an effective component for Ideal Biodegradable
Plastic Retrieved September 2009 from#HYPERLINK
"http://www.investigatoryprojectexample.com/biochemistry/cassava-starch-as-
biodegradable-
plastic.html"#http://www.investigatoryprojectexample.com/biochemistry/cassava-
starch-as-biodegradable-plastic.html#Jaarsma, Frank. (2000) Physical And Mechanical
Properties of Plastics. Retrieved December 2009 from #HYPERLINK
"http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Physical+And+Mechanical+Properties+of+Plastics.-
a067717233"#http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Physical+And+Mechanical+Properties+of+Pla
stics.-a067717233#Biodegradable plastic. In Wikipedia. Retrieved September 2009 ,
from #HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodegradable_plastic" \l
"Advantages_and_disadvantages"#http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodegradable_plastic#A
dvantages_and_disadvantages##HYPERLINK "http://sundoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/diss-
online/02/02H017/t7.pdf"#http://sundoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/diss-
online/02/02H017/t7.pdf#Page 14#HYPERLINK
"http://www.ciat.cgiar.org/asia_cassava/pdf/proceedings_workshop_00/538.pdf"#http:/
/www.ciat.cgiar.org/asia_cassava/pdf/proceedings_workshop_00/538.pdf#Japan Echo
Inc. (2005) Plastic from plants Retrieved December 2009 from, #HYPERLINK
"http://web-japan.org/trends/business/bus050107.html"#http://web-
japan.org/trends/business/bus050107.html#Biodegradable Plastic. Retrieved December
2009 from, #HYPERLINK "http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/Biodegradable-
Plastic.htm"#http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/Biodegradable-Plastic.htm#XIV.
Acknowledgement The researchers would like to acknowledge Dianne Roxas parents
for allowing them to work on the experiment in their house.Page 15####
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