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Algebra First semester Credit Points: 10 Mandatory Prerequisites: none Hours per class Hours per week

Algebra

First semester Credit Points: 10

Mandatory Prerequisites: none

Hours per class Hours per week Hours per semester

1

5

80

Objectives: This course introduces the basic topics of mathematics and in particular of algebra; those are the foundations of the courses imparted in the bachelor degree. This course offers half of what is considered elemental.

Course Topics:

1. Sets an functions:

16 hrs

Notion of set. Subsets. Operations and properties (union, intersection, complement, difference). Power set. Relations between sets. Functions. Function composition. Injective, sujective and bijective functions. Invertible functions. Cardinality of a set. Finite and infinite sets. Functions between finite sets. Principle of induction.

16 hrs

Matrices: Definition and operations. The transpose of a matrix. Special matrices. Elemental operations. Equivalent matrices. Row echelon form. Range of a matrix. Elemental matrices. Invertible Matrices. Calculation of the inverse of a matrix.

The determinant of a square matrix: Definition and properties. Determinants calculation. Cramer’s rule. Calculation of the inverse of a matrix.

16 hrs

Solutions of a system. Equivalent systems. Homogeneous systems (the solutions space of a homogeneous system). Nonhomogeneous systems. Solutions existence criteria. Resolution of systems.

16 hrs

The field of complex numbers: operations and properties. Complex conjugate (properties). Modulus of a complex number (properties). Second order equations. Polar representation. De Moivre’s theorem. Complex numbers roots.

16 hrs

Polynomials with coefficients on a field (Q, R, C). Operations. Division algorithms. Roots of a polyno- mial. Residue theorem and factor theorem. Polynomials factorization. Synthetic division. Approximate calculation of roots.

2. Matrices and determinats:

3. Systems of linear equations:

4. Complex numbers:

5. Polynomials and equations:

Basic bibliography:

Albert, A.A., 1967, Algebra superior , UTEHA, Mexico. Algebra superior, UTEHA, Mexico.

Cardenas, H. Lluis E., 1990, Algebra superior , Trillas, M´exico. Algebra superior, Trillas, M´exico.

Birkhoff, G., MacLane, S., 1977, A survey of modern algebra , 4th edition, MacMillan, New York, USA. A survey of modern algebra, 4th edition, MacMillan, New York, USA.

Beaumont, R. A., Pierce R. S., The algebraic foundations of Mathematics , AddisonWesley The algebraic foundations of Mathematics, AddisonWesley

Complementary bibliography:

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Dickson, L.A., 1939, A first course on the theory of equations , New York, USA. A first course on the theory of equations, New York, USA.

Halmos, P., 1973, Teor´ıa intuitive de los conjuntos , CECSA, M´exico. Teor´ıa intuitive de los conjuntos, CECSA, M´exico.

Landau, E. G. H., 1977, Foundations of analysis: The arithmetic of whole, rational, irrational and complex numbers a supplement to Foundations of analysis: The arithmetic of whole, rational, irrational and complex numbers a supplement to textbooks on the differential and integral calculus, Chelsa, New York.

Uspensky, J. V., 2000, Teor´ıa de ecuaciones , Limusa, M´exico. Teor´ıa de ecuaciones, Limusa, M´exico.

Johnsonbaugh, R., 1990, Discrette mathematics , Collier Mcmillan, London. Discrette mathematics, Collier Mcmillan, London.

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