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STUDY OF IC ENGINES

Ex. no: 01 Date:

Aim:
To study about the working and components of internal combustion engines.

Components of IC engine

IC engines have many components and use several mechanisms for its
functioning. The principal parts of IC engines are discussed below.

Cylinder bore (B): The nominal inner diameter of the working cylinder.

Piston area (A): the area of a circle diameter equal to the cylinder bore.

Top Dead Center (T.D.C.): the extreme position of the piston at the top of the
cylinder. In the case of the horizontal engines this is known as the outer dead
center (O.D.C.).

Basic terminology in IC engines

1
Piston and cylinder assembly

2
Bottom Dead Center (B.D.C.): the extreme position of the piston at the bottom of
the cylinder. In horizontal engine this is known as the Inner Dead Center (I.D.C.).

Stroke: the distance between TDC and BDC is called the stroke length and is equal
to double the crank radius.

Swept volume: the volume swept through by the piston in moving between TDC
and BDC is denoted by Vs.

Clearance volume: the space above the piston head at the TDC, and is denoted by
Vc.

Compression ratio: it is the ratio of the total volume of the cylinder to the clearance
volume, and is denoted by (r).

Spark ignition (SI): high-voltage electrical discharge between two electrodes


ignites air-fuel mixture in combustion chamber surrounding spark plug.

Compression ignition (CI): air-fuel mixture self-ignites due to high temperature in


combustion chamber caused by high compression, Diesel engine.

Four-stroke: four piston movements over two engine revolutions for each engine
cycle

Two-stroke: two piston movements over one revolution for each engine cycle.

Cylinder Block: body of engine containing cylinders.

Bearing: main bearing for crankshaft

Camshaft: rotating shaft used to push open valves at the proper time in engine
cycle.

Carburetor: Venturi flow device to draw fuel and mix with air

Catalytic converter: reduces emissions by chemical reaction

Combustion chamber: volume between cylinder head and piston face

Connecting rod: connects piston with crankshaft

Crankcase: part of engine block surrounding crankshaft

3
4
Crankshaft: rotating shaft through which engine work output is supplied to
external systems, rotated by reciprocating pistons through connecting rods.

Exhaust manifold: piping which carries exhaust gases away From engine cylinders

Fan: to increase air flow through radiator

Flywheel: to smoothen engine rotation

Fuel injector: pressurized nozzle to inject fuel into air or cylinder

Fuel pump: to move fuel from tank to engine

Glow plug: electrical resistance inside combustion chamber to help cold start

Head: piece which closes end of cylinders

Head gasket: sealant between engine block and head

Intake manifold: piping which delivers incoming air to cylinders

Oil pan: oil reservoir on bottom of engine block, part of the crankcase

Oil pump: to distribute oil from sump

Oil sump: reservoir for the oil system of the engine

Piston rings: metal rings around piston to seal gap between piston and cylinder

Push rods: linkage between camshaft and valves on OHV engines

Radiator: liquid to air heat exchanger to cool engine

Rod bearing: rod connecting the piston with the rotating crankshaft

Spark plug: creates high-voltage discharge across an electrode gap

Speed control-cruise control: control system

Starter: hand starter, electric motor, or small IC engines for large IC engines

Supercharger: compressor powered from crankshaft to compress incoming air

5
Working of four stroke petrol engine

6
Throttle: butterfly valve at upstream end of intake manifold to control air flow rate
into SI engine.

Turbocharger: turbine-compressor powered by exhaust flow to compress


incoming air.

Valves: controls flow of air in and out of the cylinders

Water jacket: liquid flow passages around cylinder for cooling

Water pump: to circulate coolant.

Working of IC engines

Suction stroke:

Pistons travels from TDC (top dead center) to BDC (bottom dead center) with intake
valve open and exhaust valve closed Volume increases in combustion chamber and
creates vacuum. Air pushed through cylinder. As air passes through intake system,
fuel is added.

Compression stroke:

Piston reaches BDC, intake valve closes and piston travels back to TDC with all
valves closed Air-fuel mixture compresses and temperature and pressure increase
near end of compression stroke, spark plug fired and combustion initiated.

Combustion

Piston near TDC: nearly constant-volume combustion Changes composition of gas


mixture to exhaust products and temperature and pressure increases.

Power (Expansion stroke)

All valves are closed high pressure pushes piston away from TDC: produces work
output of engine cycle Piston moves from TDC to BDC: volume increases and
pressure and temperature drop.

Exhaust blow down

Late in power cycle exhaust valve is opened pressure differential pushes hot exhaust
gas out of cylinder and through exhaust system when piston is at BDC Exhaust gas
carries away high amount of enthalpy, which Lowers cycle thermal efficiency.

7
Answer the entire viva-voce question
1. Give some Applications of IC engines.

2. How do you classify automobile?

3. What is the purpose of piston and piston ring?

4. Differentiate two stroke and four stroke engine

5. What is the function of flywheel?

6. What is meant by 3- way catalytic converter?

7. Differentiate between brake power and indicated power of an IC engine.

8. What is the purpose of lubrication in IC engines?

8
Exhaust stroke

When piston is at BDC cylinder is still full of exhaust gases at atmospheric pressure.
Exhaust valve stays open and piston moves from BDC to TDC pushing out most of
the remaining exhaust gases into the exhaust system .Near end of exhaust stroke
before TDC, Intake valve starts to open and is fully open by TDC when intake stroke
starts next cycle. Near TDC the exhaust valve starts to close and is fully closed
sometime after TDC Period where both intake valve and exhaust valve are open is
called valve overlap

Result:

Thus the components and working of IC engines are studied.

9
TABULATION:

Reference Distance from the nearest


Before
point centre
Si.No particular Or
[nearest dead
After cm degrees
centre]

1 IVO TDC BEFORE

2 IVC BDC AFTER

3 EVO BDC BEFORE

4 EVC TDC AFTER

Circumference of wheel (c) = 2r

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VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM OF FOUR STROKE CYCLE DIESEL ENGINE

EX. no: 01 Date:

AIM:

To draw the valve timing diagram of four stroke cycle diesel engine.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Cut section model of four stroke engine


Measuring tape
Chalk and paper

PROCEDURE:

Remove the crank case cover and the valve doors if necessary.
Identify the valves .the valve nearer to the inlet manifold is inlet valve or the
valve which opens during downward movement of the piston inlet valve.
The valves nearer to the exhaust manifold is exhaust valve or the valve which
opens during the upward movement of the piston is exhaust valve

TO FIND DIRECTION OF ROTATION OF CRANK SHAFT:

Insert the starting handle in the main crankshaft or CAM shaft whenever the
provision is made rotate the fly wheel making by the use of handle .only in correct
direction of rotation the handle will fix in with the main crank shaft. Rotate crank
shaft in correct direction of rotation and note action of valves. First valve which will
open after the compression stroke is exhaust valve .the inlet valve will open
immediately after closing of exhaust valve .thus correct direction of rotation may be
checked.

MAKING TDC AND BDC POSITION:

BDC POSITON:

Slowly rotate crank in correct direction of rotation. As between edge of piston


coincide will reference bottom edge of the cylinder make a mark on fly wheel with
reference to fixed point. Further rotate crank in same direction. Now the piston will

11
MODEL CALCULATION:

1
1 = 360 X

2
2 = 360 X

3
3 = 360 X

4
4 = 360 X

Suction angle = 180 + 1

Compression angle = 180 - 2

Power angle = 180 - 3

Exhaust angle = 180 + 3 + 4

Angle of Valve overlapping = 1 + 4

Angle of Valve leading = 1

Angle of Valve lagging = 4

Inlet valve opening period = 180 + 1 + 2

Exhaust valve opening period = 180 + 3 + 4

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come out of the cylinder edge and again it moves toward the top end. Make mark on
the flywheel centre of two points marked on the fly wheel. This represents the
bottom dead centre (BDC) position of piston.

TDC POSITION:

Measure the circumference of fly wheel from BDC position. Mark out half the
circumference of fly wheel. This point indicates top dead centre (TDC)

TO FIND IVO AND IVC:

Insert a paper strip in clearance of tapped feed. The movement of taper by


giving back and forth motion to crankshaft. The free movement of paper indicates
that the valve is closed. Slowly rotate the fly wheel in correct direction of rotation.
Stop the fly wheel where paper rotates the crank further in same direction, the inlet
valve will fully opened and while closing note the paper strip which is free to move
to top of the crank. Now make a mark on the fly wheel with reference to fixed mark.
This point represent that the inlet valve is closing.

TO FIND EVO AND EVC:

Exhaust valve opening and exhaust valve closing can be determined in similar
way by repeating the procedure for finding IVO and IVC .measure the
circumference of fly wheel and circular distance of all events[IVO.IVC,EVO,EVC] is
marked on the fly wheel from nearest dead centre and tabulate the reading .

13
Answer the entire viva-voce question
1. What is valve-timing diagram?

2. What is overlapping?

3. Valve leading?

4. What is lagging?

5. What is the function of camshaft?

14
RESULT:

Valve timing of given engine is drawn


Valve opening period in Suction stroke -
Valve opening period in Compression stroke -
Valve opening period in Power stroke -
Valve opening period in Exhaust stroke -
Valve leading -
Valve lagging -
Valve over lapping -

15
TABULATION:

Reference Distance from the nearest


Before centre
point
Si.No particular Or
[nearest dead
After cm degrees
centre]

1 TPO BDC BEFORE

2 TPC BDC AFTER

3 EPO BDC BEFORE

4 EPC BDC AFTER

Circumference of wheel (c) = 2r

16
PORT TIMING DIAGRAM OF TWO STROKE CYCLE ENGINE

Ex. no: 02 Date:

AIM:

To draw the port timing diagram of two stroke cycle engine.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Two stroke cycle engine


Measuring tape
Chalk and paper

PROCEDURE:

Remove the port covers, if necessary.


Mark the fixed or reference point on the frame on rate pointer attached to
frame.
Top dead centre (TDC) and bottom dead centre (BDC) rotate the fly wheel in
the correct direction.
The piston moves from IDC to TDC and when the top edge of the piston
completely closes the exhaust part, mark a line on the fly wheel as TDC.

TRANSFER PORT:

When the piston first opens the transfer port, mark point on the fly wheel
With respect to fixed point.
When the piston completely closes the transfer part mark a point on fly
Wheel with respect to fixed point.

EXHAUST PORT:

When the piston just opens the exhaust port mark a point on the fly wheel
With respect to fixed point (EPO).
Measure the length from the nearest dead Center to TPO, TDC, EPO, and EPC.
Enter all reading in tabulation.

17
MODEL CALCULATION:

1
1 = 360 X

2
2 = 360 X

3
3 = 360 X

4
4 = 360 X

Suction angle = 1 + 2

Compression angle = 180 3

Power angle = 180 4

Exhaust angle = 3 + 4

18
19
Answer the entire viva-voce question
1. What is scavenging?

2. What is overlapping?

3. What is TPO?

4. What is TPC?

5. What is EPO?

6. What is EPC?

20
RESULT:

Thus port diagram of given engine is drawn

Period of suction =

Period of compression =

Period of power =

Period of exhaust =

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22
PERFORMANCE TEST ON FOUR STROKE DIESEL ENGINE

Ex. No: 03 Date:

Aim:
To conduct performance test on given diesel engine in order to determine:
1. Brake power of the engine
2. Indicated power of the engine
3. Total fuel consumption
4. Specific fuel consumption
5. Mechanical efficiency
6. Break thermal efficiency or overall efficiency
7. Indicated thermal efficiency

Apparatus Required:
1. Diesel engine with loading arrangement
2. Thread and scale (or) measuring tape
3. Stop watch
4. Tachometer

Theory and Description:

In diesel engine the diesel is used as the fuel. The diesel engine may be either
two stroke engine or four stroke engine. In two stroke engine there is a one power
stroke for each revolution of the crank shaft. In four stroke engine there is a one
power stroke for every two revolution of the crank shaft, Most of the heavy duty
engines are four stroke engines. The engine is provided with suitable loading
arrangement to apple and measure the load. The provisions are also available to
measure the fuel consumption and speed.

Definitions:
Break power:
The useful power available at the crank shaft of the engine is called brake
power (BP ) . The brake power of the engine are determined by
1. Rope brake dynamometer ( T = WRe ) and
2. Prony brake dynamometer (T = WL ) and
3. Hydraulic dynamometer BP = WN / C kW
4. Electrical dynamometer
BP = 2NT kW
60 x 1000
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MODEL CALCULATION:

24
Indicated power:
The power actually developed inside the cylinder due to the combustion of
fuel are called indicated power (IP)
IP = F.P + B.P
Where F.P = Frictional Power

Specific Fuel Consumption:


It is defined as the mass of the fuel consumed per hour per brake power of the
engine. Its unit is Kg / KW hr

SFC = TFC
B.P
Where TFC = Total Fuel consumption in kg / hr

Total Fuel Consumption:


It is the mass of fuel consumed at particular load consumed at particular load
per hour .It is expressed in kg / hr

TFC = 10*3600* Kg/hr


106 x t

Mechanical Efficiency:
It is defined as the ratio of Brake power to indicated power
mech = B.Px 100
I.P
Brake thermal efficiency or overall efficiency:

It is defined as the ratio of brake power to heat supplied by the combustion of


fuel .
B.T or overall = B.P x 100
Heat Supplied

Heat supplied = mass of the fuel consumed per sec x calorific value of fuel
= mf x C.V

mf = TFC Kg/Sec
3600

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The calorific value of the diesel ranges from 42,000 KJ / Kg to 45,000 KJ/Kg
depends on the quality of the fuel.

The calorific value of petrol ranges from 41000 KJ/Kg to 44000 KJ/Kg

Indicated thermal efficiency or Thermal efficiency


It is defined as the ratio of indicated power to heat supplied by the
combustion of fuel
I.T = I.P x 100
Heat Supplied

= I.P x 100
mf X C.V

mf = TFC Kg/Sec
3600
Procedure:
1. From the name plate details calculate the maximum load that can be applied on
the given engine.
2. Check the engine for fuel availability, lubricant and cooling water connection.
3. Release the load on the engine and start the engine with no load condition. Allow
the engine to run for few minute to attain rated speed
4. Note the speed of the engine and time taken for consumption of 10 cc of fuel
5. Increase the load on the engine and note the speed of the engine and time taken
for 10cc of fuel consumption
6. Repeat the procedure 5 up to 75% of the maximum load and tabulate the
readings.

Graph:

The following graphs has to be drawn


1. B.P Vs TFC
2. B.P Vs SFC
3. B.P Vs mech
4. B.P Vs B.T
5. B.P Vs I.T

27
Answer the entire viva-voce question
1. What is a Four-stroke diesel engine?

2. What is the process involving in Combustion of CI Engines?

3. State the essential conditions for good Combustion?

4. Say which differs from SI, CI Engines?

5. What is known as pre-flame reaction?

6. Define Delay Period & Delay Period Angle.

7. What is Controlled combustion?

8. Working principle of indirect injection system.

9. The fuel supply system in CI engine is totally different compared to SI engine


explain?

28
Results:
Load test on given diesel engine were conducted and the TFC, BP, IP, SFC,
mech, B.T and I.T were determined at different load.

29
30
HEAT BALANCE SHEET ON IC ENGINE

Ex. No: 04 Date:

Aim:

To conduct the test on the given IC engine and to prepare the heat balance
sheet

Apparatus Required:

1. Given IC engine with loading arrangement


2. measuring tape or Thread and scale
3. Tachometer
4. Stop watch
5. Bucket
6. Spring balance
7. Thermometer (3 Nos)

Theory and Description:

A heat balance sheet is an account of heat supplied and heat utilised in


various ways in the system. Necessary information concerning the performance of
the engine is obtained from the heat balance sheet. The heat balance sheet is
generally done on second basis or minute basis or hour basis.

The engine should equip with suitable loading arrangement to measure the
brake power of the engine. Provisions are also made to measure the amount of air
intake. Amount of fuel consumed, temperature of cooling water at inlet and outlet of
the engine amount of cooling water circulated and temperature of exhaust gases.

The heat supplied to the engine is only in the form of fuel heat and is equal
to.

Qs = mf x C.V

Where,
mf = mass of fuel used in kg/min
C.V = Calorific value of fuel in KJ /kg

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MODEL CALCULATION:

32
The various ways in which the heat is utilized are

1. Heat equivalent to brake power of the engine.


2. Heat carried away by the cooling water
3. Heat carried away by the exhaust gases
4. Unaccounted heat losses.

Formulae Used:

Heat equivalent to: (B.P)

The brake power in KW is converted into KJ/min


QB.P = B.P x 60 KJ/min

Heat carried away by the cooling water: (Qw)

Qw = Mw x CPw (Two Twi ) in KJ/min


Where,
Mw = mass of cooling water circulated in kg/min
CPw = Specific heat of cooling water
= 4.186 KJ/kgK
Twi = Temperature of cooling water at inlet in C
Two = Temperature of cooling water at outlet of the engine in C

Heat carried away by the exhaust gases: (Qg)

Qg = mg CPg (Tg TR )
Where,
mg = mass of the exhaust gases in kg/min
ma = mass of air consumed in kg/min
mf = mass of fuel consumed in kg/min
Cpg = Specific heat of exhaust gases
= 1.005 KJ/kgK
Tg = Temperature of exhaust gases in C
TR = Room temperature in C

Unaccounted heat losses:


Qun = Qs - (Q.B.P + Qw + Qg) in KJ / min
Procedure:
1. From the name plate details, calculate the maximum load that can be
applied on the given engine.
2. Check the engine for fuel availability , lubricant and cooling water
connection

33
Heat Balance Sheet:
Credits Debits
S No Particulars
KJ/min % KJ/min %

1 Qs

2 QBP

3 Qw

4 Qg

5 Qun

Total

Answer the entire viva-voce question


1. What is a principle of heat engine?

2. What is the process involving in Combustion of CI Engines?

3. State the essential conditions for good Combustion?

4. What are the losses that occur in heat engines?

5. What is heat balance sheet?

34
3. Release the load on engine completely and start the engine with no load
condition. Allow the engine to run for few minute to attain the rated speed
4. Adjust the cooling water flow and maintain steady flow of water.
5. Apply the load, from no load to required load slowly. At required load
slowly. At required load note the following.
i) Load on the engine
ii) Speed of the engine in Rpm
iii) Time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption
iv) Manometer readings
v) Temperature of cooling water at engine inlet and engine outlet
in C
vi) Time taken for collection of 5 lit or 10 lit of cooling water
vii) Room temperature and temperature of exhaust gases

Result:

The test was conducted on the given IC engine and the heat balance sheet was
prepared for the particular load.

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36
MORSE TEST ON MULTI CYLINDER PETROL ENGINE
Ex. No: 05 Date:
Aim:
To conduct mores test on given multi cylinder petrol engine in order to
determine the indicated power developed in the each cylinder of the engine and to
determine the mechanical efficiency.
Apparatus Required:
1. Multi cylinder petrol engine with ignition cut off arrangement
2. Loading arrangements
3. Tachometer
Theory and Description:
For slow speed engine the indicated power is directly calculated from the
indicator diagram. But in modern high speed engines, it is difficult to obtain
accurate indicator diagram due to inertia forces, and therefore, this method cannot
be applied. In such cases the mores test can be used to measure the indicated power
and mechanical efficiency of multi cylinder engines. The engines test is carried out
as follows. The engine is run at maximum load at certain speed. The B.P is then
measured when all cylinders are working.
Then one cylinder is made in operative by cutting off the ignition to that cylinder. As
a result of this the speed of the engine will decrease. Therefore, the load on the
engine is reduced so that the engine speed is restored to its initial value. The
assumption made on the test is that frictional power is depends on the speed and
not upon the load on the engine.

Definitions:
Break power: (BP)
The useful power available at the crank shaft of the engine is called brake
power of the engine. The brake power of the engine are determined by
1. Rope brake dynamometer.
T = W * Re
W = net load
Re = effective radius of the brake drum

37
Observation and Tabulation:
(1) Brake power B.P = KW
(2) Rated Speed N = Rpm
(3) Type of loading: =
(4) Radius of brake drum: R = m
(5) Radius of Rope r = m
(6) Number of cylinders = 4

Loading BP
Speed
S No Conditions W1 W2 Net load KW
W1 kg W2 kg Rpm
kg W in N

All cylinders
1 are working

First cylinder
was cut off and
2 remaining are
in working
Second
cylinder was
3 cut off and
remaining are
in working
Third cylinder
was cut off and
4 remaining are
in working

Fourth cylinder
was cut off and
5 remaining are
in working

Note: The speed should be same for all readings


38
2. Prony brake dynamometer
T=W*L
W = Load
L = Distance at which the load is applied
3. Hydraulic dynamometer
B.P = W * N
C
W = Load
N = Speed in RPM
C = Dynamometer constant
4. Electrical dynamometer

Indicated power: (IP)


The power actually developed inside the engine cylinder due to the
combustion of the fuel is called indicated power.
IP = FP + BP;
FP = Frictional power
Frictional power (FP)
The power loss due to friction between the moving parts is called as
frictional power.
Mechanical efficiency: (mech)
It is defined as the ratio of Brake power to indicated power.
Mech = B.P x 100
I.P
Procedure:
1. From the name plate details, determine the maximum load that can be given
to the engine

39
MODEL CALCULATION:

40
For example: B.P = 12.5 kw , N = 2000 rpm
B.P = __2NT__
60 x 1000

T = 60 x 1000 x 12.5 = 59.68 N-m


2 x 2000

T = W * Re Say Re = 0.4 m

... W = T__ = 59.68 = 149.2N


Re 0.4
~ 150 N
Maximum load that can be given to the engine was
75% w = 75 x 150 = 112.5N
100
Max = net load = 112.5 = 11.25kg
10
2. Check the engine for fuel availability, lubricant and cooling water
connections.
3. Release the load completely on the engine and start the engine in no load
conditions and allow the engine to run for few minutes to attain the rated
speed.
4. Apply the load and increase the load up to maximum load. (All four cylinders
should be in working). Now note the load on the engine and speed of the
engine say the speed is N rpm
5. Cut-off the ignition of first cylinder, Now the speed of engine decreased.
Reduce the load on the engine and bring the speed of the engine to N rpm.
Now note the load on the engine.
6. Bring the all four cylinders are in working conditions and cut off the 2 nd , 3rd
and 4th cylinder in turn and adjust the load to maintain same N rpm and note
the load .

41
Answer the entire viva-voce question
1. What is Morse test?

2. Why do we need multi cylinder engines?

3. Give the applications of IC engines.

4. Give classification of multi cylinder engines

5. Give the firing order of 4 cylinder engines.

42
Result:
Morse test was conducted on given petrol engine and indicated power
developed in each cylinder is determined and mechanical efficiency is also
determined.

43
TABULAR COLUMN (For retardation test):

Angular
deceleration
Frictional
S. Load t1 t2 (rad/sec2) Speed range Frictional
Torque
No. (Kg) (sec) (sec) (rpm) Power
With Without (kg.m)
flywheel flywheel

44
RETARDATION TEST ON A DIESEL ENGINE

Ex.No: 06 Date:
Aim:

Determination of frictional power of an engine by retardation through additional


flywheel method.

DESCRIPTION

The mechanical brake drum is fixed to the engine flywheel and the engine mounted
on the M.S. channel chasi and further mounted on antivibromounts. A separate
panel board is used to fix burette with 3 way cock, digital temperature indicator &
rpm indicator, temperature selector switch, U tube manometer.
SPECIFICATION:

ENGINE : FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER


BHP : 5 HP
SPEED : 1500 rpm
FUEL : DIESEL
No OF CYLINDERS : SINGLE
BORE DIA : 80 mm
STROKE LENGTH : 110 mm
STARTING : CRANKI NG
WORKING CYCLE : FOUR STROKE
METHOD OF COOLING : WATER COOLED
METHOD OF IGNITION : COMPRESSION IGNITION

INSTRUMENTATION :
1. Digital speed indicator to measure the speed of the engine.
2. Digital temperature indicator to measure various temperatures.

45
MODEL CALCULATION:

46
Formulas used:

1. Mass moment of inertia of additional flywheel.

If ..kg m/sec2

But, If = W x r2 .. Kg. m2

Where,

W = weight of the additional flywheel in kg = 40 kg.

r=Radius of the additional flywheel in meter.

2. Angular deceleration.

a. with additional flywheel, Ad1 = rad/sec2

()
b. without additional flywheel, Ad2 = rad/sec2

where,

N1=Initial speed of the engine (1500 rpm)


N2 = Final speed of the engine (1400 rpm)
t1=Time taken for the speed to come down from 1500 to 1400 RPM with
flywheel.
t2=Time taken for the speed to come down from 1500 to 1400 RPM without
flywheel.

Therefore,

Frictional torque = mass moment of inertia x angular deceleration

i.e. Tf = If x Ad1

47
48
To find frictional power,

FP =

(+)
where, N = average speed =

Tf = Frictional torque.

3. Differential manometer to measure quantity of air sucked into cylinder.


4. Burette with manifold to measure the rate of fuel consumed.

LOADING SYSTEM:
The brake drum is directly coupled to the engine flywheel and a rope brake is
wounded around the drum, Top end of the rope is connected to a spring balance and
bottom end of the rope is connected to a weight platform. The load to the engine can
be varied by adding slotted weights provided on to the platform. (Please see that the
weight platform is above the base, while the engine is loaded; to do so, use the hand
wheel provided on the loading frame).

AIR INTAKE MEASUREMENT:


The suction side of the engine is connected to an Air tank. The atmospheric air is
drawn into the engine cylinder through the air tank. The manometer is provided to
measure the pressure drop across an orifice provided in the intake pipe of the Air
tank. This pressure drop is used to calculate the volume of air drawn into the
cylinder. (Orifice diameter is 20 mm)

FUEL MEASUREMENT:
The fuel is supplied to the engine from the main fuel tank through a graduated
measuring fuel gauge (Burette).
LUBRICATION:
The engine is lubricated by mechanical lubrication.
Lubricating oil recommended SAE 40 OR Equivalent.
PROCEDURE:

1. Start the engine and allow it to stabilize rated speed. (1500 rpm).

2. Remove the brake load by removing the dead weight of the dead weight and
rope to keep the speed at 1500 rpm.

49
Answer the entire viva-voce question

1. What is acceleration?

2. What is retardation?

3. What is Brake power?

4. What is Indicated power?

5. What is the function of flywheel?

50
3. Cut off the fuel supply completely by pressing the rack of the fuel pump to stop
position.

4. Note down the time taken in second (t1) for the speed to come down from 1500
to 1400 rpm.

5. Now declutch the additional flywheel even while the engine running. Repeat the
steps 2 to 4 and note down the time (t2) for the engine to come down from
1500 to 1400 rpm. In both cases, the engine speed comes down only due to
frictional power of the engine. From these, we can observe that the time t1 is
greater than t2 because of inertia of the additional flywheel.

RESULT:

Thus the retardation test on four stroke diesel engine was carried out and the
frictional power was determined.

51
Tabulation:

S.No Temperature (oC) Observation

10

11

12

13

14

15

52
FLASH POINT AND FIRE POINT BY OPEN CUP APPARATUS

Ex. no: 07 Date:

AIM:

To find the flash point and fire point of given fuel.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Open cup apparatus


2. Thermometer
3. fuel
4. Fire sticks

PROCEDURE:

Fill the cleaned open cup with the given fuel.


Insert the thermometer in the holder and make sure that the bulb of the
thermometer is immersed in the fuel.
Heat the sample of oil by means of an electric holder.
When the fuel gives out vapors, start to introduce glowing fire sticks and
watch for any flash.
Continue the heating further after the retaining the flash point and watch the
fire.
When the body of fuel vapor ignites, continue to burn at least for 5 seconds.

53
Answer the entire viva-voce question

1. Which type of fuel using in this experiment?

2. What is the main aim of this experiment?

3. What is flash point?

4. What is fire point?

5. What are the properties of fuels?

54
RESULT:

The flash point of the given fuel is = oC

The fire point of the given fuel is = oC

55
Tabulation:

S.No Temperature (oC) Observation

10

11

12

13

14

15

56
FLASH POINT AND FIRE POINT BY OPEN CUP APPARATUS

Ex. no: 08 Date:

AIM:

To find the flash point and fire point of given oil.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Open cup apparatus


2. Thermometer
3. Oil
4. Fire sticks

PROCEDURE:

Fill the cleaned open cup with the given oil.


Insert the thermometer in the holder and make sure that the bulb of the
thermometer is immersed in the oil.
Heat the sample of oil by means of an electric holder.
When the oil gives out vapors, start to introduce glowing fire sticks and watch
for any flash.
Continue the heating further after the retaining the flash point and watch the
fire.
When the body of oil vapor ignites, continue to burn at least for 5 seconds.

57
Answer the entire viva-voce question

1. Define viscosity?

2. What is meant by 20/40W in oil?

3. Define mist lubrication system?

4. Mention the oil grade using in differential drive?

5. What are the properties of lubricating oil?

58
RESULT:

The flash point of the given oil is = oC

The fire point of the given oil is = oC

59
SPECIFICATIONS:

Specimen diameter (d) = 0.15m =150mm



Area of Specimen (A) = 2 = (0.15)2 = 0.018m2
4 4

Heat Input (Q) = 0.86 x VI (Watts)

Specimen thickness each (L) = 12 mm

TABULATION:

Ammeter
Voltmeter
S.No reading T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9
reading (V)
(A)

Main
Heater

Ring
Heater

MODEL CALCULATION:

Heat input (q) = Main heater (q) + Guard heater (q)

60
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT USING GUARDED PLATE
APPARATUS

Ex. no: 09 Date:

AIM:

To determine the thermal conductivity of a poor conducting material say


asbestos.
THEORY:
Thermal conductivity is a specific property of conduction material which is
defined by below for a homogeneous solid as the quantity of heat conducted across
a unit area normal to the flow direction in unit time and for unit temperature
gradient along the flow.

=

Where
Q = heat conducted in watts

L=Thickness of the specimen

A =Area of conduction heat transfer, m2

T=temperature difference across the thickness

PROCEDURE:
Supply a small quantity of energy to the source H.
Now adjust the input to the guard heater such that temperature is some as
that of the main heater.
Allow the water cooler through cooling circuit slowly.
Allow 30-60 Min for the temperature to stabilize.
Note down all the parameters.
Repeat the experiment at different temperature values by adjusting
approximately the input conditions.

61
Answer the entire viva-voce question
1. What is the formula to find out K?

2. What is meant by L?

3. What is the unit for Thermal conductivity?

4. Define thermal conductivity.

5. State Fouriers law of heat conduction.

6. Define Conduction?

7. Define Heat transfer.

62
RESULT:

Thermal conductivity of a poor conductor (asbestos sheet) is K=

63
OBSERVATION:
Diameter of the cylinder, D =
Length of the cylinder, L =
TABULATION:

Heat input Surface temperature ambient


temperature

Volts Amps Watts T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T


v i q C C C C C C C C

MODEL CALCULATION:

64
DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL
CONVECTION USING VERTICAL CYLINDER

Ex.no: 10 Date:

AIM:

To determine the surface heat transfer coefficient for a given vertical cylinder.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Free convection heat transfer coefficient apparatus.

THEORY:

Convection heat transfer takes place by the movement of fluid particles in


free convection. Fluid motion is due to buoyancy force within the fluid. The
buoyancy force is due to the presence of the fluid density gradient and body force
that is proportional to density. Density variation in fluid occurs due to the presence
of temperature difference between the body force and gravitational force.

FORMULA USED:

EXPERIMENT VALUE OF H

Heat input (q) : h*A*T

Surface area of the pipe (A) : 2L, m2

H experiment : q/A (Ts-T)

Nusselt number

Nu = h*l
K

Prandtl number:
Pr = V
Q

65
Answer the entire viva-voce question
1. What is free convection?

2. What is natural convection?

3. What is the formula for heat transfer coefficient?

4. What is the formula for prandl number?

5. What is the formula Grashoffs number?

66
Grashoffs number
Gr = gL3T
V4
Where,
= volumetric expansion coefficient of fluid.

Tf = film temperature

L = length of the specimen

Tw = wall temperature

T = ambient temperature

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the equipment to power supplies. Set the voltmeter reading to some
value say 70v using the dimmer stat and maintain it as constant.
2. Allow sufficient time for observation of steady state condition.
3. After steady state reached noted down the temperature T 1-T2 from the
indication b obtaining the temperature switch.
4. Note down ambient temperature.
5. Note down the distance of the thermo couple from starting to end.
6. Repeat the experiment to different heat input.

RESULT:
Thus, the surface heat transfer coefficient for a given vertical for natural
convection is determined.
Heat transfer coefficient, hthe.
Heat transfer coefficient, hexp....
67
SPECIFICATIONS:

Inside diameter of tube = 40 mm


Orifice diameter = 24.8 mm
Co-efficient of discharge of orifice = 0.62
Test section length = 300 mm

TABULATION:

Volt Air Surface temp


Ammeter Heat Air Mano
meter Out
Reading Input In put Meter
Si.NO Reading put T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
(I) (Q) Temp Reading
(V) Temp c c c c c
amps watts T1c cm
Volts T7c

MODEL CALCULATION:

68
DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT UNDER FORCED
CONVECTION USING INSIDE TUBE

Ex.No: 11 Date:

AIM:

To determine the heat transfer coefficient in forced convection of air in a


table.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Forced convection heat transfer coefficient apparatus.

FORMULA USED:

1. Heat input, Q = V x I, watts.



2. Heat transfer co-efficient, h = , .

3. Heat loss in air = Heat transfer across the test selection surface.
q = macp (T1-T2)
Where,

ma discharge of air = =

Q= aCd

Cd= 0.62


a=


hair =


4. Reynolds number, Re=


V=

69
Answer the entire viva-voce question
1. What is Forced Convection?

2. What is the formula for h?

3. What is Reynolds number?

4. What is the formula for ma?

5. How to find out discharge?

6. What is the unit for h?

70
PROCEDURE:

1. Start blower by keeping valves fully open.


2. Switch on heater and adjust the heat rating to a suitable level.
3. Allow system to initialize it to attain steady state.
4. Record all temperature heat input and pressure drop across orifice.
5. Repeat the experiment at different heat input and air flow rate.

RESULT:

Thus the heat transfer coefficient in forced convection has found out,
The heat transfer coefficient is,

hthe =
hair =

71
Reciprocating Air compressor

TABULATION:

Delivery Head in cm
Room
Si.No Pressure in H1 H2
H= h1-h2 temperature C
kg/cm2 cm cm
1

72
PERFORMANCE TEST ON A RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSOR

Ex. no: 12 Date:

AIM:

To conduct a test on two stroke two stage air compressor and to determine
the mechanical efficiency and isothermal efficiency at various delivery pressure.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Air compressor
2. U-tube manometer
3. Tachometer
4. thermometer
DESCRIPTION:
Two stage compressors is a reciprocating type driven by a prime mover AC
Motor through belt. The testrig consists of a base on which the tank (air reservoir) is
mounted. The outlet of the air compressor is indicated by a thermometer and
pressure gauge. The electrical safety valve is provided and also a mechanical safety
valve is provided as an additional safety valve is provided for an additional safety.
The suction is connected to the air tank with a calibrated orifice plate through the
water manometer. The input to the motor is recorded by an energy meter.
COMPRESSOR DETAILS:
Maximum working pressure
Bore diameter of cylinder
Stroke length
Orifice diameter
Speed

73
TABULATION:

Difference in Volume
Orifice pressure of air
Vstp Vt Volumetric
Si.No area a in Water Air sucked
m3/s m3/s efficiency
m2 column column vain
hw, m ha in m m3/s

MODEL CALCULATION:

74
PRECAUTIONS:
The orifice of the air tank should never be closed to prevent manometer liquid to
flow back inside the tank.
PROCEDURE:
Close the outlet valve.
Check the manometer connections. The manometer is filled with water up to
the half level.
Start the compressor & wait till the pressure reaches 2 bars.
The tank pressure gauge is read for a particular pressure.
Note down the rpm of the compressor.
Note down the manometer reading.
Reading of energy mater.
Repeat the experiment for various pressure like 2, 4, 6,8,10 bars.

FORMULAS USED

HNTP = hw = ha (w / a)

Where,
w - Density of water = 1000 Kg/m3
a Density of air = 1.293 Kg/m3
ha - Manometer reading in mm

Density of air at Room temperature.



= Kg/m3

Actual Volume of Air Drawn At RTP Condition

Va = Cd x A x ((2gh) (w / a))m3 /sec

Where,
Cd Coefficient of discharge - 0.62

Area of orifice = (d) 2 in m2


4

75
Answer the entire viva-voce question
1. Define volumetric efficiency of the compressor.

2. Define isentropic efficiency.

3. What is the purpose of inter cooling and explain its process?

4. What are the differences between centrifugal and axial flow compressors?

5. What is the purpose of inter cooling and explain its process?

76
D = Diameter of orifice = mm ( m)

h = (ha(w / a)) in m

Vstp=Va *(Tn/TR)

Where,
Tn=Normal temperature (273K)
TR=Room temperature in K
a= 1.293Kg / m3
w= 1000 Kg/m3
haManometer reading in m

Swept volume = Vs

Vs = (d) 2x L x N cm3 /sec


4 60

Dia of piston - in m
Length of stroke = in m
Nc is speed of the motor in rpm
(RPM Constant at all load conditions)
Volumetric Efficiency = Va / Vs

RESULT:

Thus the volumetric efficiency of compressor has been determined.

77
SPECIFICATIONS:

Length of the fin = 150 mm

Diameter of the fin = 12 mm

Thermal conductivity of fin = 110 w/m.k

Diameter of the orifice = 0.02 m

Diameter of the pipe = 3.81 cm

Width of the duct = 0.15 m

Breath of the duct = 0.1m

Coefficient of discharge of the orifice = 0.61

Density of mercury = 15.6x10

TABULATION:

VOLTS AMPS WATTS


S.NO T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
(V) (I) (W)

MODEL CALCULATION:

78
HEAT TRANSFER FROM PIN-FIN

Ex.no:13 Date:

AIM:

To determine the temperature distribution effectiveness and efficiency of a


pin-fin.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Pin-fin apparatus.

FORMULA USED:

1. Velocity of orifice (V) =Cd[2gh(m-a/a)] x 1/1-4.


Where ,
m - Density of a manometer fluid = 1.36x10^3 kg/m.
a Density of manometer air = 1.17 kg/m.
L Pressure drop = 0.028 m.

2. Velocity of air (Va) = Velocity of orifice (Vo) x Cross sec area of


duct .
Va = (Vo) x (/) x (d0/Wb)
Where,

d0 Diameter of orifice = 0.2 m

w Width of the duct = 0.15 m

dp diameter of pipe = 3.81x 10-2 m

B Breath of the duct = 0.1 m

79
80
3. Average surface temperature of finis given by,
Ts=(T1+T2+T3+T4+T5)/5

4. Mean temperature =(T1+Ts)/2


T-Ambient temperature=23.5

5. Reynolds number, Re = (Va.df)/V


Df-diameter of fin = 0.012m

6. Nusselt number Nu = C.Ren.Pr0.333


C = 0.683, n = 0.46.

7. Heat transfer co-efficient he = Nu.K/df

8. Efficiency = /ML

Where, M =


()
9. Effectiveness, E=

+
()
10. To =
()

11. Q = (hp kA) 0.5 (To-T)tanh(mL)

PROCEDURE:

i. Note down the diameter and length of pin and location of thermocouple.
ii. Set the power input of the heater to a desired level through the dimersed.
iii. Switch the blower and set the air flow rate to any desired valve.
iv. Allow the system to attain stead y state.

81
Answer the entire viva-voce question
1. Define fins.

2. What are the applications of fins?

3. Mention some common types of fin configurations available.

4. Define efficiency of fin.

5. How to find Nusselt number?

6. What is the formula for efficiency for the fin?

7. What is the formula for Effectiveness?

8. How to find out heat transfer coefficient?

82
v. At steady state record the surface temperature and ambient temperature.
vi. Note down the different in level of two limbs of manometer.
vii. Repeat the experiment for various loads.

RESULT:

Thus the heat transfer from pin-fin is studied as,

Fin efficiency =

Pin efficiency =

83
SPECIFICATION:
T1= T2= T3= T4=
Diameter of the disc (d) = 20 mm
Thickness of disc (t) = 1.5 mm
Mass of the disc (m) = 5 Kgs
Sp. heat of the disc (Sp) = 380 J/kgk
Inner dia of the hemispherical surface = 200 mm
TABULATION:

S.NO Time t Sec Temperature (T) C

MODEL CALCULATION:

84
DETERMINATION OF STEFAN BOLTZMAN CONSTANT

Ex.no: 14 Date:

AIM:

To determine the value of Stefan Boltzmann constant for radiation.

APPRATUS REQUIRED:

Stefan Boltzmann apparatus.

THEORY:

Stefan Boltzmann law states that the total emissive power of a perfect black
body is proportional to fourth power of absolute temperature.

Eb = T4

FORMULA USED:

1) QS = mCp(dT/dt)

2) Area of hemisphere(As) = (/4)ds2

3) Area of disc(Ae) = (/4)dc2


Qs = Ae (Ts4-Tw4)

(1/Ee)+ (Ae/As) (1/Es-1)

4) Average temp (Tavg) = (T1+T2+T3+T4+T5+T6)/6

Where Es Emissivity of hemisphere = 0.725

Ee Emissivity of disc = 0.6

85
Answer the entire viva-voce question
1. Define Stefan Boltzmann law?

2. What is emissive power?

3. Define radiation Heat transfer.

4. What is the range of electromagnetic waves used in heat transfer?

5. Define Reflectivity?

86
PROCEDURE:

1) Fill the water in the stainless steel container with immersion heater
kept on top of the panel.
2) Remove the test tube disc before starting the experiment.
3) Heat the water in the SS container to its boiling point.
4) Allow the boiling water into the container kept into the bottom
containing copper hemisphere until it is full. Allow sufficient time to
attain the thermal equilibrium which is indicated by the three
thermocouples provided on the hemisphere.
5) Insert the test disc fixed on the Bakelite sleeve fully in and lock it. Start
the stop clock simultaneously.
Note down the temperature of the disc at an interval of 10 sec for about
5 to 10 min

RESULT:

The Stefan Boltzmann constant had determined

Stefan Boltzmann constant =

Experimental value of Stefan Boltzmann constant =

87