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INTRODUCTION

Nongovernmental organizations, or NGOs, are generally accepted to be organizations which have not been established by governments or agreements

among governments. It is task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information. Some are organized around specific issues, such as human rights, environment or health. They provide analysis and expertise, serve as early warning mechanisms and help monitor and implement international agreements. Their relationship with offices and agencies of the United Nations system differs depending on their goals, their venue and the mandate of a particular institution (Carolyn Stephenson 2005).

Faith-based organization is an organization whose values are based on faith and/or beliefs, which has a mission based on social values of the particular faith, and which most often draws its activists (leaders, staff, volunteers) from a particular faith group.

Community based organizations (CBO's) are nonprofit groups that work at a local level to improve life for residents. The focus is to build equality across society in all streams health care, environment, quality of education, access to technology, access to spaces and information for the disabled. The purpose of CBOs is to plan, implement, and monitor social and economic development programs and provide technical and financial help to communities.

Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO, 1948).

Development is viewed into two levels, at the level of an individual it implies increased skills and capacity, greater freedom, creativity, self discipline, responsibility and material wellbeing, at the level of social group it implies an increased capacity to regulate both the internal and external relation. W.Rodney(1976).

Non-Governmental Organization is contributing in the development of Health sectors into different ways in Tanzania. For example, of roles and responsible organizations are as follows below on table 1.The role of NGO’s in tabular form with its examples

Roles of NGO’s

Examples of NGO’s

Advocacy(policy making process)

Civil Society in Tanzania (CSO’s) they try to advance in policies and institutional. TACAIDS (The Tanzanian Commission for

AIDS). WHO (World Health Organization.

Research programs

AMREF (The African Medical and Research Foundation). WHO (World Health Organization).

International management accountancy (IMA).

Provision of services such as HIV/AIDS prevention and control.

USAIDS They supports(MOHSW) to increase the effectiveness of PMTCT, ART, VMMC, vulnerable children services and child protection, and community-based services and linkages to promote ART adherence and retention in care, AMREF (The African Medical and Research Foundation). TUNAJALI they Improved access to quality and comprehensive HIV care and treatment services.

Empowerment and capacity building such as fighting against Malaria in Tanzania (the prevention of Malaria in children under five years), through health education on how to prevent, mosquito nets distribution and Medication.

TAM (Together Against Malaria) responsible for pregnant mothers and children <5 years. AFM(African fighting Malaria) USAID-they provide mosquito nets, free treatment of Malaria<5 years and pregnant mothers.

Family planning, they provide health education and the use of family planning methods in order to afford and meet basic

Engender Health provides family planning services in Tanzania. PSI (Population Service International). UNDFP They spread family planning message and services to the

needs of the whole family.

community (Health education).

Prevention of TB and Leprosy (early diagnosis and treatment)

NTLP-National Tuberculosis and Leprosy program. PASADA (Pastoral Activity and services for people with AIDS in

Dar es salaam) operates health services for HIV and TB patients,

WHO (World Health Organization).

Screening of cancer (cervical) and treatment in early stages, Programs aim to provide adequate screening (Mara Region).

Ocean road health facility International management accountancy(IMA) USAID.

In Tanzania faith-based organizations (FBOs) are the key link in sustainability of accessible health care and represent huge potential in the effort to strengthen human resources for health (HRH).

The role of FBO’s in tabular form with its examples as follows below in table 2.

Roles of FBOs in Health sector development

Examples of FBO’s in Health sector development

Advocacy (Policymaking process).

Civil society in Tanzania they express interests of social groups and raises awareness of key issues to influence policy and decision making. IMF (International Monetary fund) involves with structural and social policies in support of growth and poverty reduction. AMREF (The African Medical and Research Foundation).

Provision of services (promotion, prevention, and curative services) such as Health

The FBO’s program has provided antiretroviral

AID’s relief they address the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and help save the lives of those suffering from the disease in Africa.

Education to strengthen HIV/AIDS prevention.

treatment (ART) to infected people and supported HIV testing and counseling (HTC).

IMA World Health. WHO (World Health Organization).

Strengthening Human Recourses for Health Improve quality of health services through training health services providers, Provide essential medical supplies and equipments.

IMA World Health, they provide health services and to build healthy communities around the world. CHA’s (the African Christianity health Association). WHO(World Health Organization).

Strengthening behavior change and communication.

IMA-promotion of health behavior. CHA’s the African Christianity health Association. TAYOA (Tanzania Youth Alliance) behavior counseling, HIV and

sexual reproductive health education.

Empowerment and capacity building

IMA World Health

(training programs) such as strengthening education and health facilities (provide health care services).

Anglican church (SJUT) AHS (Anglican health services)

Health Infrastructure (strengthened).

WHO (World Health Organization), Global Health Foundation and World Vision and Amref Health in Africa.

To improve maternal and new born Health.

IMA World Health. UNFPA( United National Population Fund) Working on three interventions to save that life, i) universal access to contraception to avoid unintended pregnancies, ii) access to skilled care during delivery and iii) rapid access to quality emergency obstetric care and Global Health action.

Community-based organizations (CBO’s) support population health through care coordination, daily living support, caregiver support, and delivery of evidence-based self-management programs. Their services are essential in supporting the poor and underserved in maintaining their health and housing. Their services promote health care delivery goals of better care for

individual’s health for the population, and lower cost through improvement as shown below on

table 3.

Roles of CBOs in Health sector Development

Examples of CBO’s in health sector development in Tanzania

Research programs

WHO (World Health Organization).AMREF (The African Medical and Research Program. TACAIDS (The Tanzania commission for AIDS.

Capacity building and training-CBO’s provide Health Education on prevention Measures of chronic condition such as Diabetes and self- management.

WHO (World Health Organization). NCD(non communicable diseases) CDC (Centre of Disease control and Prevention).

Access to safe water and Basic Sanitation.

SWIM-safe water international Ministry. CDC (water and sanitation) NSP- World Bank Water and sanitation

Provision of services (promotion, prevention,

TACAIDS (The Tanzanian Commission for AIDS) were collecting

and curative services such as to provides Health care services.

data on knowledge and behavior regarding HIV/AIDS and measure HIV prevalence among women and men age 15-49. ACO (Accountable Care Organization) are group of doctors, hospitals and other health care providers who came together voluntarily to give coordinated high quality care to their Medicare patients). CCBRT Disability Hospital in providing free treatment of Fistula in Tanzania.

Floods Management.

APEM-Associated Program on Flood Management. TRCNC-Tanzania Red Cross National Society. UNEP-United Nations Environmental Program

Environment Management System,

LEAP (Local environmental Action Planning). UNEP-Clearing the air and combating air pollution (United Nation Assembly). World Vision they respond to various disasters.

CONCLUSION

Finally NGOs, FBOs and CBOs contributing at a maximum in health sector development and reaching many people whose the government itself can not in different parts of Tanzania.

REFERENCES

UNDP: Human Development Report (2002): Deepening Democracy in a Fragmented World.

New

York.

Global Forum for Health Research: The 10/90 report on health research 2000. 2001, Geneva:

c/o WHO. Retrieved on 28 th December 2016.

Butterfoss FD: Coalitions and partnerships in community health (2007), San Francisco, CA, US:

Jossey-BassBarton-Villagrana H, Bedney BJ, Miller RL: Peer relationships among community- based organizations (CBO) providing HIV prevention services.

ST JOHNS UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA

INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Sno. student name registration faculty signature Presentation Report Total no. score score

INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES

Sno.

student name

registration

faculty

signature

Presentation

Report

Total

 

no.

score

score

  • 1 MOSES A MATOLA

2015/1081

SONU

  • 2 CATHERINE PIMA

2015/1229

SONU

  • 3 JOHN CLEOPA

2015/1232

SONU

  • 4 NEEMA AMBROSE

2015/1448

SONU

  • 5 ELIZABETH FIDELIS

2015/1401

SONU

QUESTION: In tabular form briefly explain the role of NGO’s, FBO’s and CBO’s in Health sector development in Tanzania.

SEMINAR GROUP AND SUB –GROUP: GROUP 4 SUB-GROUP 1.

SEMINAR DAY: MONDAY

TIME OF SEMINAR: 1800-1900.

SEMINAR LEADER:

VENUE: SR 3.

ACADEMIC YEAR 2016/2017

SUBMISSION DATE 1 st JANUARY 2017