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DIFFERENTIATION

FRANCISCO CHAMERA

LUANAR-BUNDA

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Definition

I Suppose f (x) is defined when x is near

the number a, i.e., f is defined on some
open interval that contains a except
possibly at a itself.
I Then the limit of f (x), as x approaches
a, equals L, written limxa f (x) = L if
the values of f (x) are arbitrarily close to
L as x is sufficiently close to a.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Definition cont....

1
I Suppose f (x) = (3x 1) and consider
2
a = 4.
I We are interested in values of f (x) when
x is close to 4 from both sides but not
necessarily equal to 4.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Definition cont...

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Definition cont...

I As x comes closer to 4 from either side,

f(x) becomes closer to 5.5.
 
1
I Hence limx4 (3x 1) = 5.5.
2

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Definition cont....

I Altenative notation for

lim f (x) = L
xa

is f (x) L as x a.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Limit Laws

Suppose that c, L and M are constants and

that limxa f (x) = L and limxa g (x) = M.
Then
1. limxa c = c and
limxa [cf (x)] = c limxa f (x) = cL.
2. limxa [f (x) + g (x)] = L + M
3. limxa [f (x) g (x)] = L M

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Limit Laws

Suppose that c, L and M are constants and

that limxa f (x) = L and limxa g (x) = M.
Then
4 limxa [f (x)g (x)] = LM
f (x) L
5 limxa = provided
g (x) M
limxa g (x) = M 6= 0.
6 limxa [f (x)]n = [limxa f (x)]n where n is
a positive integer.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
LIMITS - Substitution Property

following;

Direct Substitution Property

If f is a polynomial or a rational function and
a is in the domain of f , then
lim f (x) = f (a).
xa

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Example 1

Evaluate the following limits

1. limx5(2x 2 3x + 4)
x 3 + 2x 2 1
2. limx2
5 3x

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Solution to Example 1

We use limit laws and the substitution

property.
1.
lim (2x 2 3x + 4)
x5
= 2 lim x 2 3 lim x + lim 4
x5 x5 x5
2
= 2(5) 3(5) + 4
= 39.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Solution to Example 1 cont....

Substituting directly saves time and space.

2
x 3 + 2x 2 1 (2)3 + 2(2)2 1
lim =
x2 5 3x 5 3(2)
8 + 8 1
=
5+6
1
= .
11

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - When direct substitution fails

I Not all limits can be evaluated by direct

substitution.
I For example, directly substituting 2 for x
x2 4
in evaluating limx2 gives the
x 2
0
undefined .
0
I It looks like the limit does not exist.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - When direct substitution fails cont...

I But factorising the numerator, we have

x2 4 (x + 2)(x 2)
lim = lim
x2 x 2 x2 x 2
= lim (x + 2)
x2
= 2 + 2 = 4.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - When direct substitution fails

In general, preliminary algebra is used to wite

the function in equivalent form before
substitution is done.

Important property
If f (x) = g (x) when x 6= a, then
lim f (x) = lim g (x),
xa xa

provided the limits exist.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
LIMITS - Example 2

(3 + h)2 9
1. limh0
p h
(t 2 + 9) 3
2. limt0
t2

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Solution to Example 2

We use preliminary algebra first.

1.
(3 + h)2 9 9 + 6h + h2 9
lim = lim
h0 h h0 h
2
6h + h
= lim
h0 h
= lim 6 + h
h0
= 6 + 0 = 6.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Solution to Example 2 cont...

Rationalisepthe numerator.
(t 2 + 9) 3
2 limt0
p t2 p
2
(t + 9) 3 (t 2 + 9) + 3
= limt0 p
t2 (t 2 + 9) + 3
=
2
t + 9 + 3 t + 9 3 t2 + 9 9
2
limt0
t 2( t 2 + 9 + 3)
t2
= limt0 .
t 2( t 2 + 9 + 3)
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
LIMITS - Solution to Example 2 cont...

2
1
= lim
t0 t2 + 9 + 3
1
=
9+3
1
= .
6

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - One sided limits

I We write limxa f (x) = L and say the

limit of f (x) as x approaches a from
the left is equal to L if we can make
the values of f (x) arbitrarily close to L by
taking x sufficiently close to a and x < a.
I If we require that x be greater than a, we
get the right hand limit of f (x) as x
approaches a equal to L and we write
limxa+ f (x) = L.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
LIMITS - One sided limits cont....

The following theorem describes existence of

the limit of a function based on the left and
right hand limits.

Theorem
limxa f (x) = L if and only if
limxa+ f (x) = L and limxa f (x) = L.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Example 3

|x|
1. Show that limxo does not exist.
( x
x 4 if x > 4
2. If f (x) = determine
8 2x if x < 4
whether limx4 f (x) exists.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Solution to example 3

|x| x
1. limxo + = limxo + = limxo + 1 =
x x
1
|x| x
limxo = limxo =
x x
limxo 1 = 1
|x| |x|
Since limxo + 6= limxo ,
x x
|x|
limxo does not exist.
x

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Solution to example 3

2 Since f (x) = x 4 forx > 4, we have
limx4+ f (x) = limx4+ x 4 =

44=0
Similarly, limx4 f (x) =
limx4 8 2x = 8 2(4) = 0.
Since limx4+ f (x) = limx4 f (x) = 0,
limx4 f (x) = 0.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Limits at infinity and horizontal asymptotes

I Let f be a function defined on some

interval (a, ).
I Then limx f (x) = L means that the
values of f (x) can be made arbitrarily
close to L by taking x sufficiently large.
I limx f (x) = L means the values of
f (x) can be made arbitrarily close to L by
taking x sufficiently large negative.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Limits at infinity and horizontal asymptotes
cont..

I Recall that is not a number.

I The line y = L is called a horizontal
asymptote of the curve y = f (x) if
either limx f (x) = L or
limx f (x) = L.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Limits at infinity cont...

The following theorem is important when

calculating limits at infinity.

Theorem
If r > 0 is a rational number, then
1 1
lim r = lim r = 0.
x x x x

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Important Results

1
1. limx = 0.
x2
1
2. limx = 0.
x
2 1
3. limx 3 = 2 limx 3 = 2 0 = 0.
x x

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Example 4

Evaluate
3x 2 x 2
1. limx 2 .
5x + 4x + 1
2. limx(x 2 x).

2x 2 + 1
3. limx .
3x 5
4x 2 + 1
4. limx .
2x + 17

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Solution to example 4

1. We need to do some preliminary algebra.

We first divide both the numerator and
denominator by the highest power of x
that occurs in the denominator.
3x 2
x2
xx2 x22 3 x1 x22
lim = lim
x 5x 2 + 4x + 1 x 5 + 4 + 12
x 2 x 2 x 2 x x
300
=
5+0+0
3
= .
5
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
LIMITS - Solution to example 4 cont...

2. We can not use limit laws since is not

a number. Hence it is wrong to write
limx(x 2 x) =
limx x 2 limx x = .
Clearly x 2 x = x(x 1) gets large as x
is large. So limx x(x 1) = .

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Solution to example 4 cont...

Recall that x 2 = x for any x R. We
divide by x 2 = x in both numerator and
denominator.
3.

2x 2 + 1 ( 2x 2 + 1)/ x 2
lim = lim
x 3x 5 x (3x 5)/ x 2
q
2x 2
x2
+ x12
= lim 3x 5
x x
x

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Solution to example 4 cont...

3.
q
2 + x12
= lim
x 3 5
x
2+0
=
3 0
2
= .
3

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Vertical asymptotes

I The line x = a is called a vertical

asymptote of the curve y = f (x) if at
least one of the following statements is
true;
1. limxa f (x) =

2. limxa f (x) =
3. limxa+ f (x) =
4. limxa f (x) =
5. limxa+ f (x) =
6. limxa f (x) = .
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
LIMITS - Example 5

2x
1. Find limx3+ .
x 3

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Solution to example 5

1. If x is close to 3 but larger than 3, the

denominator x 3 is small positive and
2x is close to 6.
2x
So is a large positive number.
x 3
2x
Thus limx3+ = and the line
x 3
x = 3 is a vertical asymptote.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Continuous functions

Definition
A function f is continuous at a number a if
the following conditions are satisfied:
1. f is defined on an open interval
containing a.
2. limxa f (x) exists.
3. limxa f (x) = f (a).
If f is not continuous at a, then we say it is
discontinuous at a or has a discontinuity at a.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
LIMITS - Example 6

Where is each of these functions

discontinuous?
x2 x 2
1. f (x) = .
2x 2
x x 2 if x 6= 2
2. f (x) = x 2
1 if x = 2

1 if x 6= 0
3. f (x) = x 2
1 if x = 0
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
LIMITS - Solution to example 6

1. Notice that f (2) is not defined, so f is

discontinuous at 2.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Solution to example 6 cont....

2 Here f (2) = 1 is defined and

x2 x 2
limx2 f (x) = limx2 =
x 2
(x 2)(x + 1)
limx2 =
x 2
limx2(x + 1) = 3 exists.
But limx2 f (x) 6= f (2), so f is
discontinuous at 2.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Solution to example 6

3 Here f (0) = 1, is defined but

1
limx0 f (x) = limx0 2 does not exist.
x
So f is discontinuous at 0.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Continuous functions cont...

Definition
A function f is continuous at an interval if it
is continuous at every number in the interval.
If f is defined only on one side of an end
point of the interval, we understand
continuous at the end point to mean
continuous from the right or continuous from
the left.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Continuous functions cont...

Theorem
If f and g are continuous functions at a and
c is a constant, then the following functions
are also continuous:
1. cf
2. f + g
3. fg
f
4. provided g (a) 6= 0.
g
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
LIMITS - Continuous functions cont...

Theorem
The following functions are continuous at ev-
ery number in their domain:
1. Polynomials
2. Root functions
3. Rational functions
4. Exponential and logarithmic.
5. Trigonometric and inverse trigonometric
functions.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
LIMITS - Secant and tangent lines

I A secant line of a curve is a line that

intersects two points on the curve.
I A tangent line to a curve is a line which
intersects the curve at exactly one point.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Secant and tangent lines cont...

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Secant and tangent lines cont..

I In the figure above, AB and CD are

secant and tangent lines respectively.
I Clearly a secant line that intersects a
curve y = f (x) at (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) has
y2 y1
slope m = .
x2 x1
I Therefore the equation of the secant line
y y1 y2 y1
is = .
x x1 x2 x1

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Secant and tangent lines cont..

I We use limits to calculate the slope of the

tangent line to the curve.
I The slope of the tangent line to the curve
y = f (x) at the point P(a, f (a)) is given
by
f (x) f (a)
m = lim
xa x a
provided that the limit exists.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Example 7

Find an equation of the tangent line to the

curve y = x 2 at the point P(1, 1).

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Solution to example 7

Here a = 1, f (x) = x 2 and f (a) = 1, so the

slope is
f (x) f (1)
m = lim
x1 x 1
x2 1
= lim
x1 x 1
(x 1)(x + 1)
= lim
x1 x 1
= lim (x + 1) = 2.
x1

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Solution to example 7 cont...

Using the point-slope form of the equation of

a line, we find that the equation of the
tangent line in question is
y 1 = 2(x 1)
or
y = 2x 1.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - The derivative of a function

Definition
The derivative of a function f at a number a,
denoted by f 0(a), is
f (a + h) f (a)
f 0(a) = lim
h0 h
if this limit exists.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Differentiation from first principles

I The process of finding the derivative of a

function is called differentiation.
I Finding the derivative of a function using
the definition above is called
differentiation from first principles.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Differentiation from first principles cont...

I If we put x = a + h, then we have

h = x a and h approaches 0 if and only
if x approaches a.
I So the definition of derivative is
f (x) f (a)
equivalent to f 0(a) = limxa .
x a
I Therefore the slope of the tangent line to
y = f (x) at (a, f (a)) is the derivative of
f at a.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Example 8

1. f (x) = 2x 2 at the number a = 2.

2. f (x) = x 2 8x + 9 at the number a = 5

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to example 8

1.
f (2 + h) f (2)
f 0(2) = lim
h0 h
2(2 + h)2 2(2)2
= lim
h0 h
8 + 8h + 2h2 8
= lim
h0 h
2
8h + 2h
= lim
h0 h
= lim 8 + 2h = 8.
h0
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Solution to example 8 cont...

2 f 0(5)
f (5 + h) f (5)
= lim
h0 h
[(5 + h)2 8(5 + h) + 9] [52 8(5) + 9]
= lim
h0 h
2
25 + 10h + h 40 8h + 9 25 + 40 9
= lim
h0 h
2
10h + h 8h
= lim
h0 h
= lim 10 + h 8 = 2.
h0

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - The derivative as a function

If we replace a in the definition of the

derivative by a variable x, we obtain
f (x + h) f (x)
f 0(x) = lim .
h0 h

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Example 9

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to example 9

1. f 0(x)
f (x + h) f (x)
= lim
h0 h
[(x + h)3 (x + h)] [x 3 x]
= lim
h0 h
x + 3x h + 3xh2 + h3 x h x 3 + x
3 2
= lim
h0 h
2 2 3
3x h + 3xh + h h
= lim
h0 h
= lim 3x + 3xh + h2 1 = 3x 2 1.
2
h0

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Other Notations

Common altenative notations for the

derivative of y = f (x) with respect to x are;
1. y 0
dy
2.
dx
df
3.
dx
d
4. (f (x))
dx
5. Df (x)
6. Dx f (x)
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Differentiable function

Definition
A function f is differentiable at a if f 0(a) ex-
ists. It is differentiable at an open interval
(a, b) [or (a, ), (, b), (, )] if it is
differentiable at every number in the interval.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Differentiable function cont...

The theorem below states when a function is

differentiable.
Theorem
If f is differentiable at a, then f is continuous
at a.
The theorem above can be stated
altenatively as if f is not continuous at a,
then f is not differentiable at a.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Differentiable function cont...

x2
I For example, since f (x) = is not
x 3
continuous at 3, f 0(3) does not exist, i.e.,
f (x) is not differentiable at 3.
The converse of the theorem above is false,
that is there are functions that are
continuous but not differentiable.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Higher derivatives

I The second derivative of a function f ,

denoted (f 0)0 = f 00, is obtained by
differentiating f 0, the derivative of f .
I Other notations for f 00 include.
1. f (2) 
d dy
2.
dx dx
d 2y
3. 2
dx
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Example 10

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to example 10

1. By example 9, f 0(x) = 3x 2 1, so
00 f 0(x + h) f 0(x)
f (x) = lim
h0 h
[3(x + h)2 1] [3x 2 1]
= lim
h0 h
3x + 6xh + 3h2 1 3x 2 + 1
2
= lim
h0 h
= lim (6x + 3h) = 6x.
h0

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Higher derivatives cont...

I The third derivative of a function f ,

denoted (f 00)0 = f 000, is obtained after
differentiating the second derivative and
is denoted by;
1. f (3)
d d 2y

2.
dx dx 2
d 3y
3. 3
dx
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Exercise 1

1. If f (x) = x 3 x, verify that f (3)(x) = 6

[Hint: Example 9 and example 10].

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - derivative of a constant
Theorem
Let c be any constant. Then the derivative of
d
c with respect to x is zero, i.e., (c) = 0.
dx
For example;
d
1. (20) = 0
dx
d
2. (1000) = 0
dx
d
3. (0.35) = 0
dx
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Power Rule

Theorem
d n
If n is any real number, then (x ) = nx n1.
dx
For example;
d
1. (x 7) = 7x 71 = 7x 6
dx
d 2 2
2. (x 2/3) = x 2/31 = x 1/3
dx 3 3
d
3. (x) = 1
dx
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Constant multiple Rule

Theorem
If c is a constant and f is a differentiable func-
d d
tion, then [cf (x)] = c [f (x)].
dx dx
For example;
1. If f (x) = 2x 3, then
d d
(f (x)) = 2 (x 3) = 2(3x 31) = 6x 2.
dx dx
2. If f (x) = 17x , then f 0(x) = 34x 3.
2

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - The sum and difference Rule
Theorem
Let f and g be differentiable functions. Then
d d d
[f (x) g (x)] = [f (x)] [g (x)].
dx dx dx
For example;
1. If f (x) = 3x 2 + 4x 6, then
d d d
f 0(x) = 3 [x 2]+4 [x]  = 6x +4.
dx dx dx
Note that here we have used the constant,
power, constant multiple and sum and
difference rules.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - The Product Rule

Theorem
Let f and g be differentiable functions. Then
d d d
[f (x)g (x)] = f (x) [g (x)]+g (x) [f (x)].
dx dx dx

The derivative of a product of two functions

is the first function times the derivative of
the second function plus the second function
times the derivative of the first function.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Example 11

1. Differentiate f (x) = x 2(2x 3 1).

2. If f (x) = 8x(3x 2 + x), find f 0(1).
3. Find y 0 given that
y = (2x + 7)(x 2 5x + 2).

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to example 11

1. By the product rule,

d d
f 0(x) = x 2 [2x 3 1] + (2x 3 1) [x 2]
dx dx
2 2 3
= x (6x ) + (2x 1)(2x)
= 6x 4 + 4x 4 2x
= 10x 4 2x.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to example 11

2 By the product rule,

d d
f 0(x) = 8x [3x 2 + x] + (3x 2 + x) [8x]
dx dx
2
= 8x(6x + 1) + (3x + x)(8)
= 48x 2 + 8x + 24x 2 + 8x
= 72x 2 + 16x.
Hence f 0(1) = 72(1)2 + 16(1) = 88.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - The Quotient Rule

Theorem
If f and g are differentiable functions, then
d d

d f (x)
 g (x) [f (x)] f (x) [g (x)]
= dx dx .
dx g (x) [g (x)]2

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - The Quotient Rule cont...

The derivative of the quotient is the

denominator times the derivative of the
numerator minus the numerator times the
derivative of the denominator, all divided by
the square of the denominator.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Example 12

x
1. Find f 0(x) for f (x) = .
x2 1
x2
2. Differentiate y = with respect to
2x + 1
x.
0 x 4(2x + 7)
3. Find y given that y = .
(x 2 + 2)
[Hint: The Product and Quotient rules.]

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to example 12

1.
d d
(x 2 1) [x] x [x 2 1]
f 0(x) = dx dx
2
(x 1) 2

(x 2 1) x(2x)
=
(x 2 1)2
x 2 1 2x 2
=
(x 2 1)2
(x 2 + 1)
= .
(x 2 1)2
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Solution to example 12 cont...

2
d 2 d
(2x + 1) [x ] x 2 [2x + 1]
y0 = dx dx
(2x + 1) 2

(2x + 1)2x x 2(2)

=
(2x + 1)2
4x 2 + 2x 2x 2
=
(2x + 1)2
2x 2 + 2x
= .
(2x + 1)2
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - The Chain Rule

The Chain rule is used to find the derivative

of a composite function.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - The Chain Rule cont...
Theorem
dy
If y = f (u), u = g (x), and the derivatives
du
du
and both exist, then the derivative of the
dx
composite function defined by y = f (g (x)) is
given by
dy dy du
= = f 0(u)g 0(x)
dx du dx
= f 0(g (x))g 0(x).

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Example 12

dy
1. If y = u 3 and u = x 2 + 1, find .
dx

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to example 12

1. By the Chain Rule,

dy dy du
=
dx du dx
= (3u 2)(2x)
= 3(x 2 + 1)2(2x).

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - The Power Rule and Chain Rule combined
Theorem
If g is a differentiable function and n is any
real number, then
d d
[g (x)]n = n[g (x)]n1 [g (x)].
dx dx

The easier form to remember is

d n d
[u ] = nu n1 [u].
dx dx
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Example 13

1. Find f 0(x) if f (x) = (x 5 4x + 8)7.

dy
2. Find for y = (x 2 3x + 1)4.
dx

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to example 13

1.
d 5
f 0(x) = 7(x 5 4x + 8)6 [x 4x + 8]
dx
= 7(x 5 4x + 8)6(5x 4 4)
2.
dy d
= 4(x 2 3x + 1)3 [x 2 3x + 1]
dx dx
2 3
= 4(x 3x + 1) (2x 3).

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Exercise 2

1. If f (x) = (x 5 4x + 8)7(x 2 3x + 1)4,

find f 0(x). [Hint: The product rule and
chain rule.]
2. Find thederivative
9of the function
x 2
f (x) = . [Hint: The quotient
2x + 1
rule and chain rule.]

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Implicit Differentiation

I We have so far dealt with functions of the

general form y = f (x) in which one
variable is explicitly expressed interms of
the other.
I For example
y = 2x + 1 and
y = 3 4x 2 3.
I Some functions are defined implicitly by a
relation between x and y .
I For example x 3 + y 3 x 2y = 6xy and
y 4 + 3y x 3 = 5x.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Implicit Differentiation cont...

I In such cases it is not always practical to

solve for one variable explicitly interms of
the other to compute derivatives.
I Instead the derivatives of such functions
are found by the method of implicit
differentiation.
I This consists of differentiating both sides
with respect to x and then solving the
resulting equation for y 0.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Example 14

1. If x 2 + y 2 = 25, find y 0.
2. Differentiate with respect to x,
y 4 + 3y 4x 3 = 5x + 1.
3. Find the slope of the tangent line to the
graph of y 4 + 3y 4x 3 = 5x + 1 at the
point (1, 2).

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to example 14

Differentiate both sides

d d
1. [x 2 + y 2] = 
dx dx
d 2 d d
[x ] + [y 2] = 0 2x + [y 2] = 0.
dx dx dx
Since y is a function of x, we use the
chain rule to find
d 2 d
[y ] = (y 2)y 0 = 2yy 0.Thus
dx dx x
2x + 2yy 0 = 0 giving y 0 =
y
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Solution to example 14 cont...

Differentiate both sides

2
d 4 d
(y + 3y 4x 3) = (5x + 1)
dx dx
3 0 0 2
4y y + 3y 12x = 5
(4y 3 + 3)y 0 = 5 + 12x 2
0 12x 2 + 5
y = .
4y 3 + 3

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to example 14 cont...

3 Recall that the slope of the tangent line

to the curve y = f (x) at (a, f (a)) is
equal to f 0(a), the derivative of f at a.
0 12x 2 + 5
From 2 above, y = .
4y 3 + 3
12(1) + 5 17
Hence slope = m = = .
4(2)3 + 3 29

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Trigonometric Functions

I We state derivatives of trigonometric

functions below without proof.
I These formulae are valid only when x is

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Trigonometric Functions cont...
d
1. [sin x] = cos x
dx
d
2. [cos x] = sin x
dx
d
3. [tan x] = sec2 x
dx
d
4. [cot x] = csc2 x
dx
d
5. [csc x] = csc x cot x
dx
d
6. [sec x] = sec x tan x
dx
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Example 15

Find the derivative of each function with

respect to x;

1. y = x cot x
2. y = tan x 3
3. y = sin 3x
4. y = cos(5x + 4)
5. y = cot(x 2 + x)
6. y = sin(sin x)

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 15

1. By the Product Rule,

d d
y 0 = cot x [ x] + x [cot x]
dx  dx
1 1/2
= (cot x) x + x( csc2 x)
2
cot x
= x csc2 x.
2 x

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 15 cont...

2 By the Chain Rule,

d 3
y 0 = (sec2 x) [x ]
dx
= 3x 2 sec2 x.
3 By the Chain Rule,
d
y 0 = (cos 3x) [3x]
dx
= 3 cos 3x.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 15 cont...

4 By the Chain Rule,

d
y 0 = ( sin(5x + 4) [5x + 4]
dx
= 5 sin(5x + 4).

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - sin(ax + b) and cos(ax + b)

I We generalise parts 3 and 4 of Example

15 as follows;
d
1. [sin(ax + b)] = a cos(ax + b)
dx
d
2. [cos(ax + b)] = a sin(ax + b)
dx
where a and b are any constants.
I The idea is easily extended to other trig
functions.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Exponential Functions

I Recall that an exponential function takes

the general form
y = af (x)
where a is constant and a > 0.
I We consider exponential functions of base
e ( 2.7182818285) the natural
exponential function.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Exponential Functions cont...

We have the following results

d
1. [e x ] = e x .
dx
d
2. [e f (x)] = f 0(x)e f (x).
dx

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Example 16

Find the derivative of each function with

respect to x;
1. y = e 2x

2. y = e x
3. y = e 3x e 3x

2
4. y = e 1+x
5. y = x 2e x sin x
6. y = 4x 3e (4x+1)
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 16

d
1. y 0 = (e 2x ) (2x) = 2e 2x
dx
d 1
2. y 0 = e x [ x] = e x
dx 2 x
3.
d d
y 0 = e 3x [3x] e 3x [3x]
dx dx
3x 3x
= e (3) e (3)
= 3e 3x + 3e 3x = 3(e 3x + e 3x )

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 16

4
d
0 1+x 2
y =e [ 1 + x 2]
dx
21 d
= e 1+x (1 + x 2)1/2 [1 + x 2]
2 dx
2 2x
= e 1+x
2 1 + x2
x 2
= e 1+x
1 + x2

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Logarithmic Functions

I A logarithmic function is a function of the

form
y = loga x
where a is constant and a > 0.
I We have this result;
d 1
[loga x] =
dx x ln a
where ln a = loge a, the natural logarithm.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Logarithmic Functions

I Putting a = e in the result above we have

d d
[loge x] = [ln x]
dx dx
1
=
x ln e
1
=
x
since
ln e = loge e = 1.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Example 17

Find the derivative of each function with

respect to x;
1. y = log2(2 + sin x)
2. y = ln(x 3 + 1)
3. y = ln cos x
4. y = log10(4x 2 5x)

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 17

1 d
1. y 0 = [2 + sin x] =
(2 + sin x) ln 2 dx
cos x
(2 + sin x) ln 2
0 1 d 3 3x 2
2. y = 3 [x + 1] = 3
x + 1 dx x +1
1 d sin x
3. y 0 = [cos x] = = tan x
cos x dx cos x

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Rates of change
dy
I If y = f (x), then the derivative is the
dx
rate of change of y with respect to x.
I If x changes from x1 to x2 then the
change in x is x = x2 x1 and the
corresponding change in y is
y = f (x2) f (x1)
y f (x2) f (x1)
I The quotient = is the
x x2 x1
average rate of change of y with
respect to x.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Rates of change cont...

I The limit as x 0 is the derivative

f 0(x) interpreted as the instantaneous
rate of change of y with respect to
x.
I It is also the slope of the tangent line at
the point P(x1, f (x1)).

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Example 18

A scientist finds that if a certain substance is

heated, the celcius ttemperature after t
minutes, where 0 t 5, is given by
g (t) = 30t + 6 t + 8.
a. Find the average rate of chenge of g (t)
during the time interval [4, 4.41].
b. Find the rate of change of g (t) at t = 4.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 18

a. Average rate of change

g (4.41) g (4) 12.9
= = = 31.46C /min
4.41 4 0.41
3
b. The rate of change is g 0(t) = 30 + .
t
At t = 4,
3
g 0(4) = 30 + = 31.5C /min.
4

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Velocity and Acceleration

Definition
Let s(x) be the position of a particle that is
moving on a straight line. Then
i. The velocity v (t) of the particle is
v (t) = s 0(t).
ii. The speed is the absolute value of
velocity at time t, i.e., |v (t)|.
iii. Acceleration a(t) is given by
a(t) = v 0(t) = s 00(t).
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Example 19

A particle starts from a point O and moves

in a straight line so that its distance scm
from O after time t in seconds is given by
2 t3
s = 2t . Find
6
a. its initial velocity and acceleration.
b. the time after the start when it comes to
a momentary halt.
c. its distance from O at this time.
d. the maximim velocity the particle reaches.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 19

0 t2
Velocity = v (t) = s (t) = 4t
2
Acceleration = a(t) = v 0(t) = s 00(t) = 4 t.

a. When t = 0, v (0) = 0 and a(0) = 4.

t2
b. v (t) = 0 when 4t = 0, i.e.,
2
t
t(4 ) = 0 giving t = 0 or t = 8. So it
2
comes to a halt after 8 seconds.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 19 cont...

0 t2
Velocity = v (t) = s (t) = 4t
0
2
00
Acceleration = a(t) = v (t) = s (t) = 4 t.

c. When t = 8,
2 83 128
s(8) = 2(8) = cm.
6 3
d. The maximum velocity occurs when
a(t) = 0, i.e., 4 t = 0 giving t = 4. So
42
v (4) = 4(4) = 8cms 1.
2
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Increments and Differentials

I Consider the equation y = f (x).

I If x changes from x1 to x2, then the
amount of change x = x2 x1 is called
an increment of x.
I Note that x2 = x + x1.
I The increment of y is given by
y = f (x2) f (x1) = f (x1 + x) f (x1).

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Geometric interpretation

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Example 20

Suppose y = 3x 2 5,
a. if x is given an increment x, find y .
b. use y to calculate the numerical change
in y if x chenges from 2 to 2.1.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 20

a.
y = f (x + x) f (x)
= [3(x + x)2 5] [3x 2 5]
= 3x 2 + 6x(x) + 3(x)2 5 3x 2 + 5
= 6x(x) + 3(x)2
b. Here x = 2.1 2 = 0.1. Hence
y = 6(2)(0.11) + 3(0.1)2
= 12(0.1) + 3(0.001) = 1.23.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Differentials

Definition
Let y = f (x) where f is differentiable, and let
be an increment of x.
i. The differential dx of the independent
variable x is dx = x.
ii. The differential dy of the dependent
variable y is dy = f 0(x)x = f 0(x)dx.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Example 21

a. If y = 3x 2 5, use dy to approximate
y if x changes from 2 to 2.1.
b. If y = 2x 2 3x + 1, find the positive
change of x for which y = 3. Hence find
the approximate increase in x which will
change y from 3 to 3.015.
c. Use differentials to approximate the
change in sin x if x changes from 60 to
61. [Hint: Convert the angles to radian
measure].
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 21

a. By Example 19, y = 1.23. Now

dy = f 0(x)dx
= 6xdx.
x = 2 and x = dx = 0.1, so
dy = 6(2)(0.1) = 1.2

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Increasing and decreasing functions
Definition
Let a function f be defined on an open interval
I and let x1 and x2 be numbers in the interval.
Then
i. f is increasing on I if f (x1) < f (x2)
whenever x1 < x2.
ii. f is decreasing on I if f (x1) > f (x2)
whenever x1 < x2.
iii. f is constant on I if f (x1) = f (x2) for
every x1 and x2.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
LIMITS - Increasing and decreasing functions cont...

I In the figure below, f is an increasing

functionand g is a decreasing function in
the interval indicated.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Increasing and decreasing functions cont...

I The curve of an increasing function

dy
y = f (x) slopes upwards so that > 0.
dx
dy
I For a decreasing function < 0.
dx
dy
I At any point where = 0, f (x) has a
dx
stationary value and f (x) is neither
increasing nor decreasing.
I This is typical of the interval where the
function is constant.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Example 22

For what range of values of x is the function

y = x 3 3x 2 9x + 4
a. increasing?
b. decreasing?

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 22

dy
= 3x 2 6x 9 = 3(x 3)(x + 1)
dx
dy
a. Note that is positive when (x 3)
dx
and (x + 1) have the same sign, i.e., both
are positive or negative. this happens
when x < 1 or x > 3. So the function
is increasing in these intervals.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 22 cont....

dy
= 3x 2 6x 9 = 3(x 3)(x + 1)
dx
dy
b. < 0 when (x + 1) and (x 3) have
dx
different signs. But when (x + 1) is
negative, (x 3) is also negative. So we
look for values of x such that (x 3) is
negative but (x + 1) is positive. this
happens in the interval 1 < x < 3.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Exercise 4

a. For what range of values of x is the

1
function y = x + increasing?
4x
b. What are the coordinates of the
stationary point?

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Maximum and minimum values

Definition
Let c be a number in the domain D of a func-
tion f . Then f (c) is the
i. absolute maximum value of f on D if
f (c) f (x) for all x D.
ii. absolute minimum value of f on D if
f (c) f (x) for all x D.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Maximum and minimum values cont...

I The maximum and minimum values of f

are called extreme values or extrema
of f .
I Sometimes we are interested in local
extrema of f defined in the next slide.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Maximum and minimum values cont...

Definition
The number f (c) is a
i. local maximum value of f if
f (c) f (x) when x is near c.
ii. local minimum value of f if
f (c) f (x) when x is near c.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Maximum and minimum values cont...

I Here x is near c means x is in some

open interval containing c.
I The word local is used to show that our
interest is on a small interval containing
c.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Example 23

a. For the function f (x) = sin x, the (local

and absolute) maximum value is 1 and its
minimum value is -1.
b. For f (x) = x 2, the absolute and local
minimum value is 0 since f (x) f (0) for
all x because x 2 0 always. So f (0) = 0
is the minimum.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

LIMITS - Graph of y = x 2

I Note that the graph of y = x 2 has no

maximum value.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
LIMITS - Maximum and minimum values cont...

I The theorem and definition in the next

slides are a step forward in finding local
extremum.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Maximum and minimum values cont...

Theorem
If a function has a local extremum at a number
c in an open interval, then either f 0(c) = 0 or
f 0(c) does not exist.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Maximum and minimum values cont...

Definition
A number c in the domain of f is a critical
number of f if either f 0(c) = 0 or f 0(c) does
not exist.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Maximum and minimum values cont...

I Absolute maximum of a function f on a

closed interval [a, b], by definition, is the
largest of all local maximum values of f
on [a, b].
I Similarly, absolute minimum is the
smallest of all local minimum values.
I So to find absolute extrema of a function
on aclosed interval [a, b] follow steps in
the next slide.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Maximum and minimum values cont...

i. Find all the critical numbers of f .

ii. Calculate f (c) for each critical number c.
iii. Calculate f (a) and f (b).
iv. The absolute maximum and minimum of
f on [a, b] are the largest and smallest of
the values obtained in (ii) and (iii).

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Example 24

Find the absolute maximum and minimum

values of the function f (x) = x 3 3x 2 + 1 in
the interval [1/2, 4].

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 24

f 0(x) = 3x 2 6x = 3x(x 2).

f 0(x) = 0 when 3x(x 2) = 0 giving x = 0
and x = 2.
So the two critical numbers are 0 and 2.
Now f (0) = 1, f (2) = 3, f (1/2) = 1/8
and f (4) = 17.
Hence the absolute maximum value is
f (4) = 17 and the absolute minimum value
is f (2) = 3.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - The First Derivative Test

Suppose c is a critical number of a function f

which is continuous on [a, b].
i. If f 0(x) changes from positive to negative
at c, that is f 0(x) > 0 for a < x < c and
f 0(x) < 0 for c < x < b, then f (c) is a
local maximum of f .

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - The First Derivative Test cont...

Suppose c is a critical number of a function f

which is continuous on [a, b].
ii. If f 0(x) changes from negative to positive
at c, then f (c) is a local minimum of f .
iii. If f 0(x) does not change sign at c, that is
f 0(x) > 0 or f 0(x) < 0 on both sides of c,
then f (c) is not a local extremum of f .

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Example 25

Find the local maxima and minima of f if

f (x) = x 1/3(8 x).

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 25

d d
f 0(x) = x 1/3 [8 x] + (8 x) [x 1/3]
dx  dx 
1 2/3
= x 1/3(1) + (8 x) x
3
3x + (8 x) 4(2 x)
= = .
3x 2/3 3x 2/3
Note that f 0(x) does not exist for x = 0.
Furthermore f 0(x) = 0 when x = 2.
Hence critical numbers are 0 and 2.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 25 cont...

We consider the sign of f 0(x) corresponding

to the intervals (, 0), (0, 2) and (2, ).

(, 0) 1 4 +
(0, 2) 1 4/3 +
4
(2, ) 3
( 3 3)5

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 25 cont...

Conclusion
i. f does not have extremum at 0 since
f 0(x) is positive on both sides of 0.
ii. f has a local maximum at 2 since f 0(x)
changes from positive to negative. This
local maximum is
1/3

3
f (2) = 2 (8 2) = 6 2 7.6.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Concavity

Definition
The graph of a function f is
i. concave upward on an interval I if it
lies above all its tangent lines on I .
ii. concave downward on an interval I if it
lies below all its tangent lines on I .

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Concave upward

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Concave downward

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Concavity cont...

The second derivative is used to determine

where the graph of a function is concave
upward or concave downward.
Concavity Test
i. If f 00(x) > 0 for all x in the interval I ,
then the graph of f is concave upward on
I.
ii. If f 00(x) < 0 for all x in I then the graph
of f is concave downward.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Concavity cont...

Next we define an inflection point as a point

where a curve changes its direction of
concavity.
Definition
A point P on a curve is called a point of
inflection if f is continuous at P and the
graph of f changes from concave upward to
concave downward or from concave downward
to concave upward.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Example 26

If f (x) = x 3 + x 2 5x 5, determine
intervals on which the graph of f is concave
upward and intervals on which the graph is
concave downward.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 26

f 0(x) = 3x 2 + 2x 5 and
f 00(x) = 6x + 2 = 2(3x + 1).
f 00(x) > 0 if 3x + 1 > 0, i.e., x > 1/3.
Therefore the graph is concave upward on
the interval (1/3, ).
f 00(x) < 0 if 3x + 1 < 0, i.e., x < 1/3.
Therefore the graph is concave downward on
the interval (, 1/3).

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 26 cont...

Hence the point

(1/3, f (1/3)) = (1/3, 88/27), at
which the concavity changes from downward
to upward is a point of inflection.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Maximum and minimum values cont...

The second derivative test

Suppose a function f is differentiable on an
open interval containing c and further suppose
that f 0(c) = 0.
i. If f 00(c) > 0, then f (c) is a local
minimum.
ii. If f 00(c) < 0, then f (c) is a local
maximum.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Maximum and minimum values cont...

I Notice that the second derivative test

gives no information when f 00(c) = 0 and
when f 00(c) does not exist.
I In such cases, the first derivative test is
used.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Example 27

If f (x) = 12 + 2x 2 x 4, find the local

maximum and minimum of f by the second
derivative test.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 27

f 0(x) = 4x 4x 3 = 4x(1 x 2) and

f 00(x) = 4 12x 2 = 4(1 3x 2).
f 0(x) = 0 when 4x(1 x 2) = 0, i.e., x = 0, 1
and 1, so these are critical numbers
Now
f 00(0) = 4 > 0
f 00(1) = 8 < 0
f 00(1) = 8 < 0.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 27 cont...

Hence there is a local minimum at 0 and

local maxima at 1 and 1
The minimum value is
f (0) = 12 + 2(0)2 (2)4 = 12 and the
maximum value is f (1) = f (1) =
12 + 2(1)2 (1)4 = 12 + 2 1 = 13.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Maxima and minima problem

1. The cost C of running a car on a trip is

1000
given by C = 4z 2 + where v is the
v
average speed in kmh1. Find the value
of v for which the cost is the minimum
and find this minimum value.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Maxima and minima problem

1. Differentiating we have
1000
C 0(v ) = 8v 2 .
v
dC
To minimise C we set = 0.
dv
1000
So 8v 2 = 0 giving
v
8v 1000 = 0 v 3 = 125, i.e., v = 5.
3

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Maxima and minima problem
cont..

1. To verify that this is a minimum,

2000v
C 00(v ) = 8 + , so C 00
(5) = 24
v4
which is positive.
Hence the minimum value is
1000
C (5) = 4(5)2 + = 100 + 200 = 300.
5

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Functions of several variables

Functions of two variables

A function of two variables is a rule that as-
signs a real number f (x, y ) to each ordered
pair of real numbers (x, y ) in the domain of
the function.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Functions of several variables cont...

I We write f : D R2 R to indicate
that f maps points in two dimensions to
real numbers.
I Examples of functions of two variables
include f (x, y ) = xy 2 + y and
g (x, y ) = x 2 e y .

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Functions of several variables cont..

Functions of three variables

A function of three variables is a rule that as-
signs a real number f (x, y , z) to each ordered
triple of real numbers (x, y , z) in its domain.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Functions of several variables cont...

I We write f : D R3 R to indicate
that f maps points in three dimensions to
real numbers.
I Examples of functions of three variables
include f (x, y , z) = x 2y sin z and
g (x, y , z) = 3yz 3 e x .

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Functions of several variables cont...

I In the similar manner we can define

functions of four, five or more variables.
I Functions of two or more variables are
called multivariable functions.
I Here our interest is on functions of two or
three variables.
I However most of our results can be easily
extended to higher dimensions.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Example 28

a. Given that f (x, y ) = x 2y 2 3xy , find

f (1, 2).
b. Find the domain of
ln(x 3) y + 2
f (x, y ) = .
x2 4

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 28

a. f (1, 2) = 12(2)2 3(1)(2) = 4 6 = 2.

b. The denominator can not be equal to
zero so x can not be 2.
A logarithmic function is defined for
positive numbers only, so x > 3.
Also we can not find square root of a
negative number, so y 2.
Hence the domain is
D = {(x, y ) R2|x > 3 and y 2}.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Partial Derivatives

Definition
Let f (x, y ) be a multivariable function,
i. The partial derivative of f (x, y ) with
respect to x is given by
f f (x + h, y ) f (x, y )
(x, y ) = lim
x h0 h
if this limit exists.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Partial Derivatives cont...

Definition
Let f (x, y ) be a multivariable function,
ii. The partial derivative of f (x, y ) with
respect to y is defined by
f f (x, y + h) f (x, y )
(x, y ) = lim
y h0 h
if this limit exists.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Partial derivatives; Notation

If z = f (x, y ), then
f z
1. is also written as , zx , fx , f1(x, y ),
x x
and Dx [f (x, y )].
f z
2. is also written as , zy , fy , f2(x, y ),
y y
and Dy [f (x, y )].

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Example 29

If f (x, y ) = x 2y 2, find
f
a. (x, y ).
x
f
b. (x, y ).
y

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 29

a.
f f (x + h, y ) f (x, y )
(x, y ) = lim
x h0 h
(x + h) y x 2y 2
2 2
= lim
h0 h
x 2y 2 + 2xhy 2 + h2y 2 x 2y 2
= lim
h0 h
2 2 2
2xhy + h y
= lim
h0 h
= lim 2xy + hy 2 = 2xy 2.
2
h0
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 29 cont...

b.
f f (x, y + h) f (x, y )
(x, y ) = lim
y h0 h
x 2(y + h)2 x 2y 2
= lim
h0 h
x y + 2hx 2y + x 2h2 x 2y 2
2 2
= lim
h0 h
2 2 2
2hx y + x h
= lim
h0 h
= lim 2x 2y + x 2h = 2x 2y .
h0
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Example 30

If f (x, y ) = x 2y 2, find
f
a. (3, 2).
x
f
b. (3, 2).
y

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 30

f
a. By Example 29 (a), (x, y ) = 2xy 2.
x
f
Hence (3, 2) = 2(3)22 = 24.
x
f
b. By Example 29 (b), (x, y ) = 2x 2y .
y
f
Hence (3, 2) = 2(3)22 = 36.
y

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Partial derivatives cont...

I Let f be a function of two variables x and

f
y . Basically when finding , we hold y
x
constant and take the derivative with
respect to x.
f
I We do similarly for .
y
I If f is a function of three variables x, y
f
and z, to find , we hold both y and z
x
constant and take the derivative with
respect to x.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Example 31

f  
a. If f (x, y ) = x ln(y cos x), find ,1 .
x 3
b. Find fx and fy given that
f (x, y ) = x 2 + x ln y .
c. Find fx , fy and fz given that
f (x, y , z) = x 2y 4z 3.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 31

a.
f
(x, y )
x  
1
= ln(y cos x) + x (y sin x)
y cos x
= ln(y cos x) x tan x.
So
f
( , 1) = ln cos /2 /3( 3)
x 3
= ln 1/2 / 3 = (ln 2 + / 3.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 31 cont..

x
b. fx = 2x + ln y and fy = .
y
c.
fx = 2xy 4z 3
fy = 4x 2y 3z 3
fz = 3x 2y 4z 2.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Second order partial derivatives

Let f (x, y ) be a function of two variables.

The following are second order partial
derivatives;
f 2f
1. fxx = fx = = 2.
x x x x
f 2f
2. fyy = fy = = 2
y y y y

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Second order partial derivatives cont...

Let f (x, y ) be a function of two variables.

The following are second order partial
derivatives;
f 2f
3. fxy = fx = =
y y x y x
f 2f
4. fyx = fy = =
x x y xy
This also extends to more variables and
higher derivatives.
FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION
DERIVATIVE - Example 32

If f (x, y ) = x 2 + x ln y find all the second

order partial derivatives.

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Solution to Example 32

fx = 2x + ln y
x
fy =
y
fxx = 2
x
fyy = 2
y
fxy = 1/y
fyx = 1/y .

FRANCISCO CHAMERA LUANAR-BUNDA DIFFERENTIATION

DERIVATIVE - Second order Partial Derivatives cont...

Note in Example 32 that fxy = fyx . We have

the following theorem;
Theorem
If fxy and fyx are continuous in the domain of
f , then they are equal.