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Layer 1 devices function

In older network all devices were connected


with shared LAN where bandwidth was also
shared. Carrier Sense Multiple Access /
Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) was used to
determine when device can transmit data. If
multiple host try to send data, collision occur
and all hosts have to back off and wait
retransmission of data. This concept forces
hosts to work in Half Duplex Mode (Listen or
Talk at a time)
Transparent Bridging
1980s enterprises were facing problem of slow
communication due to layer 1 functionality and
collision. To solve this problem, they introduced
Ethernet Bridging(Transparent Bridging or
Learning Bridging)
Works on Layer 2
Transparent bridging concept was first
developed at Digital Equipment
Corporation(digital or DEC) in 1980 and
submitted to IEEE and this concept
incorporated in IEEE 8021.1 standard.
Transparent most used in Ethernet / IEEE802.3
In transparent bridge, each port has separate
LAN segment
Frame forwarding is based MAC address
contained in each frame.
Frame will not be forwarded until bridge know
the MAC address of Destination.
Bridge creates table to hold the MAC address
with interface numbers to forward the frame
only on target host.
Layer 2 switches works on concept of
Transparent. Switch are multiport transparent
bridge.
0000.3333.3333

0000.1111.1111

Port 1 Port 2

0000.2222.2222

0000.4444.4444

Forwarding Table
0000.1111.1111= Port 1
0000.2222.2222= Port 1
0000.3333.3333= Port 2
0000.4444.4444= Port 2

Frame will broadcast to all ports, there is one broadcast domain and two
collision domains
0000.3333.3333

0000.1111.1111
Port 3
Port 1
Port 4
Port 2

0000.2222.2222

0000.4444.4444

Forwarding Table
0000.1111.1111= Port 1
0000.2222.2222= Port 2
0000.3333.3333= Port 3
0000.4444.4444= Port 4

Frame will broadcast to all ports, there is one broadcast domain and four (4)
collision domains
0000.3333.3333
VLAN 2
0000.1111.1111 Port 3
Port 1
Port 4
Port 2
0000.2222.2222
0000.4444.4444

VLAN 3 0000.7777.7777
0000.5555.5555 Port 7
Port 5
Port 8
Port 6
0000.6666.6666
0000.8888.8888

Forwarding Table
There are Two(2) Broadcast domains 1st 0000.1111.1111= Port 1 Vlan 2
for vlan 2 and 2nd for vlan 3. Frame of vlan 0000.2222.2222= Port 2 Vlan 2
2 will broadcast on port (1-4) and fame of 0000.3333.3333= Port 3 Vlan 2
vlan 3 will broadcast on port (5-8). There 0000.4444.4444= Port 4 Vlan 2
are 8 collision domains 0000.5555.5555= Port 5 Vlan 3
0000.6666.6666= Port 6 Vlan 3
0000.7777.7777= Port 7 Vlan 3
0000.8888.8888= Port 8 Vlan 3
How layer-2 devices works
S.IP=192.168.0.1
D.IP=192.168.0.2
S-Mac=0000.1111.1111 0000.5555.5555
D-Mac=ffff.ffff.ffff
192.168.0.5
CAM Table
0000.1111.1111 1=
192.168.0.1 0000.1111.1111 Hub
Hub 1 2= 3
0000.4444.4444
0000.6666.6666
0000.2222.2222 Collision 192.168.0.6
192.168.0.2 Domain Layer 2 device
Broadcast Domain

2 4
0000.3333.3333 Hub
192.168.0.3 Hub

S.IP=192.168.0.2
0000.4444.4444 D.IP=192.168.0.1 0000.7777.7777 0000.8888.8888
192.168.0.4 S.MAC=0000.4444.4444 192.168.0.7
D.MAC=0000.1111.1111 192.168.0.8
Layer 2 switching
In 1980s enterprises were facing problem of slow
communication due to layer 1 functionality and
collision. To solve this problem, they introduced
Ethernet Bridging(Transparent Bridging or
Learning Bridging).
In 1990s, Application Specific Integrated Circuit
(ASIC) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays
(FPGAs) was introduced in Integrated Circuit
technologies that replaced Complex Instruction
Set Computing (CISC) and Reduced Instruction
Set Computing (RISC).
These technologies reduced packet handling
time in bridge to tens of microsecond and now
bridge could handle more ports with any
disturbance. It is Ethernet Switching.
The Earliest method in layer 2 data packet
forwarding was referred as Store and forward
to distinguish from cut through method of
early 1990s
Benefits of layer 2 switching
Separate collision domain of each switch
interface. Because transmission is base on
MAC address.
Host connection can be operated in Full
Duplex mode (Listen and talk same time)
because there is no connection on media
where host is connected
Bandwidth is no longer shared. There is
dedicated bandwidth for each interface.
Error are not propagated. Each frame received
on switch is checked for errors. Good frames
are regenerated when they are forwarded or
transmitted. This is known as Store and
Forward method where data is received,
stored for inspection and then forwarded.
We can limit broadcast traffic
Intelligent filtering and forwarding is possible.