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3D Laser Scanning and Virtual Reconstructions,

their integration as research and educational tools


for representing the past. Case study: the Virtual
Roman Baths of Edeta

Vito Porcelli, Fernando Cotino Villa, Josep Blasco i Senabre, Vicent Escriv Torres, Julian
Esteban Chapapra

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Abstract:
In the last few years 3D laser scanning techniques have been used more frequently as a means for
recording archaeological evidence. By contrast, 3D reconstructions, more often than not, serve purely
educational purposes, and their efficiency for scientific analysis is disregarded. A combination of the two
approaches supports the likely transition of the virtual reproductions; extending them to the interest of
varied categories of users. This paper puts an emphasis on the process of reconstructing the Roman Baths
of Edeta, Llria. It shows the capabilities of the 3D Laser scanning approach of using accurate digital
data derived from the real evidence and the restoration of the different locations and shapes of the feature
during the past. Additionally, 3D virtual reconstruction is used to further analyse the site and, eventually,
be used to extend the general publics knowledge of its cultural heritage through highly realistic images.

Keywords:
3D Laser Scanning, 3D Modelling, Edeta, Point Cloud, Roman Baths, Llria

1. Introduction this technology as well as other significant digital


information of the site, has likely turned realistic
Computer Graphics has completely converted 3D virtual models of Roman buildings into useful
the traditional archaeological recording system. data. In fact, the visualisations might be appreciated
Currently, Digital Archaeology would be the not just by amateurs of history or inexpert users,
best term to refer to it (Earl et al 2012). Whether but also by scientists involved in the analysis of the
the information concerns spatial data or physical archaeological evidence.
remains, drawings or pictures of the sites, they are
archived and processed as digital information. Virtual development of raw geometry,
traditionally recorded using photogrammetry, CAD
Thanks to the scholars involved in the process drawings or even 3D Laser Scanning, has never
of preservation and conservation of the site, the been performed without criticism by experts (Lock
archaeological data derived from the Roman Baths 2003). However, visual representations as drawings
of Edeta have been recorded following this digital or paintings of ancient buildings have often been
methodology. The work has culminated with the produced to support the conservation of cultural
introduction of realistic virtual restoration of heritage. Examples of them might be seen in several
the edifices, principally focusing on educational old publications, even though most of them were
purposes. produced for public dissemination. The 3D virtual
model of the Roman Baths of Edeta, together with all
The hypothetical restoration has been the recent virtual reconstructions of archaeological
generated taking advantage of accurate spatial data sites, should be considered as a transition from
captured through 3D Laser Scanning. The use of those 2D sheets to a modern approach for recording,
Corresponding author: porcelli.v@gmail.com measuring and visualising information in a 3D

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CAA2012 Proceedings of the 40th Conference in Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, 3DLaserScanningandVirtualReconstructions,theirintegrationasresearchandeducationaltoolsforrepresentingthepast.Casestudy:theVirtualRomanBathsofEdeta
Southampton, United Kingdom, 26-30 March 2012 Vito Porcelli et al.

Figure 2. Photograph. Current northern view of the


Figure 1. Photograph. Current view of the Roman Baths Hypocaustum of the Caldarium. Photograph coming
of Edeta. The cella of the temple (on the left) and the from the archive of the project.
Basilica Thermarum are shown. Photograph coming
from the archive of the project. Figure 3. Image. View in SCENE of the point cloud of the Figure 4. Orthophoto. Plan of the Caldarium produced
full structure revealed during the actual excavation significant finds recorded with 3D Laser Scanning. The with photogrammetry. Data coming from the archive of
virtual world. campaign. The next step for work at this site, regards shown green sphere is a common point used for matching the project.
the minor female baths, which will be excavated and the others captured point clouds.
2. Edeta, the Iberian and Roman Village analysed in the coming years (Escriv Torres and resolution meshes from 3D Laser Scanning.
Vidal Ferrs 1995:238-239). virtual 3D model of the Roman Baths, along with
Llria is a small village of 20.000 inhabitants other devices designed to test augmented reality of With regard to the 3D Laser Scanning of the
lying on the river Turias plain, approximately 25km The male Roman baths consist of stairs off the archaeological remains. site, the point clouds have been captured using the
northwest of Valencia (Spain). of the public street for access into the Basilica 3D Laser Scanner FARO FOCUS 3D. It is compact
Thermarum. This building was composed of two 3. Data Acquisition and light, capturing up to 976.000 points/sec and
On the nearby hill, next to the village Tossal floors with a portico surrounding a central atrium reaching a distance up to 120m. Though these
de Sant Miquel, the Iberian settlement (Pre-Roman) and a small Taberna on the northern side (Fig. 1). The data used for the project has been values are dependent on the features of the objects
continued to develop and expand from the VIII On the eastern side a central door allowed access acquired during the last years utilising different captured, the area and the atmospheric conditions.
century BC. until the II BC. In the course of the I into the other rooms, in the following sequence: methods which reflect the new technologies and The point clouds were concentrated on the zone
century BC. the new Iberian village was founded on Apodyterium changing room, Frigidarium cold methodologies in archaeology, computer science of the male Roman Bath and the external Temple,
the river Turias plain and took the name of Edeta, pool, Destrictarium or Unctorium cold room, and topography. along with some adjacent buildings. In addition, a
already conveying Roman influences. Afterwards, Laconicum dry sweating room and finally, the significant amount of archaeological finds in 3D has
in the Augustan Age, it was converted into a Caldarium hot room. This latter room was arranged The 3D reconstruction of the Roman Baths been digitally stored, recognising amongst them:
Municipium under the Latin Rights (Ius Latinum). with a labrum basin containing cold water, in the has certainly been the main purpose of the entire capitals, portions of columns, cornices and stones
During the rest of the Roman Empire, the village was apse and opposite to it an Alveus long warmed project. However, given other subsequent aims, from the collapsed naves of the buildings (Fig. 3).
expanded until it covered more than 20.000m. This pool, next to high windows positioned at the shortest such as the future production of rendered images
extension included the central area of the oracular northern wall. Between the Apodyterium and the and virtual animations, the model could not be The 3D meshes are extremely useful for
sanctuary and the baths (Escriv Torres and Vidal Caldarium, on the northern side, there was the composed of a large amount of polygons, rather it producing a 3D virtual reconstruction. They
Ferrs 1995:238). In the late phase of the empire Praefurnium, the central structure for the heating needed to be particularly light to remain easy to precisely represent geometric information of the
this important area began to be neglected. The system of the rooms. The level of conservation is handle in the future. archaeological features and often have helped with
ground was reoccupied during the Visigothic Age, excellent, above all, zones of the hypocausts, in the complete restoration of small objects. Many
whereupon a monastery was built and consequently particular the one beneath the Caldarium (Fig. 2). To make a distinction between the two 3D studies have focused on these kinds of projects and
abandoned from the second half of the VII century objects, the one generated from 3D Laser Scanning have ended with high resolution results, therefore
AD onwards. In the last few years, thanks to a desire to and the other modelled with low resolution polygons large optimisation of the meshes is not needed
improve and preserve the facilities in the urban area in 3dsMAX, this paper introduces the term of (Patay Horvath 2011). These meshes might also
The first excavation campaigns began in the last of Llria, a project of restoration and consolidation 3D mesh. This term is a standard one, generally represent large sites and used as base-plan for
century, during the 70s, discovering the sanctuary of the Roman buildings has been carried out. As applied to both types of object, signifying a simple restoring hypothetic upper shapes. Nevertheless,
with the lateral Aedicula and part of the Hospitium. a result, the area has been thoroughly analysed, 3D cube as well as a 3D model generated by means in order to easily handle them, particularly in this
Subsequently, the excavations restarted in the 90s recorded and is currently being converted into of point clouds and often, consisting of millions of case, they have to be optimised. This process still
and in 1994 the male and female baths were found. a museum. The attractive room dedicated to the faces. In this case, to avoid misunderstandings, the takes much more time than starting the model from
The male baths were extensively excavated, with the visitors will include videos, panels and an interactive term 3D mesh will be cited exclusively for the high scratch, as, for instance, using simple 2D extruded

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CAA2012 Proceedings of the 40th Conference in Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, 3DLaserScanningandVirtualReconstructions,theirintegrationasresearchandeducationaltoolsforrepresentingthepast.Casestudy:theVirtualRomanBathsofEdeta
Southampton, United Kingdom, 26-30 March 2012 Vito Porcelli et al.

polygons. And, furthermore a capitals. Another example is the restoration of the


significant reduction of the resolution frame surrounding the monumental gate accessing
implies, in any case, loss of spatial the baths.
information. Hence, this paper will
describe alternative uses of them, The recreated shapes of the perimeter walls
explained in detail in the following are undoubtedly correct, as they have been extruded
paragraphs. from the plans derived from 3D scans. However, the
height of the restored walls mainly depends on the
The 3D Laser Scanning has kind of stones employed in the past, on the Roman
been contemporary with the 3D techniques applied, which kept transforming during
reconstruction of the site. Hence, the centuries and also, on similar and contemporary
the data collected has not been buildings.
entirely used to elaborate the solids Figure 5. Image. View of the reconstructed Basilica Thermarum in Figure 6. Photograph. The internal view of the Caldarium
in 3D. In association, general photos, wireframe. Hypothetic relocation of the 3D meshes of a cornice and its One of the main issues have obviously of the Forum Baths in Pompeii. The Caldarium of the
photogrammetry and CAD plans textured view in MeshLab. concerned the height of the structures, whether Forum Baths. Pompeii Interactive. Accessed November
recorded during previous excavation they had to follow, the example of the Forum Baths 20, 2011. Available from. http.//www.pompeii.co.uk/
campaigns have supported the 3D reconstruction coming from other paralleled archaeological sites, in Pompeii still well conserved insitu and of the CDROM/FBATH/FRAMES/F9-11.HTM.
process, occupying a secondary position. The CAD In particular, Pompeii, Perga and Herculaneum. same age. Its barrel vault of the Caldarium, clearly
plans were drawn from the digital orthophotos. Furthermore, academic publications concerning the shows width and height of the building having equal
The original low-range aerial photos were acquired Roman architecture have been consulted, with the measures. In fact, the barrel vault is of the height
and ortho-rectified using common points identified intent of knowing and understanding it as much as of the building (Fig. 6). The first hypothesis made
with coloured pins placed on the terrain. Apart from possible. Among them, the analysis and research for the Caldarium of the Baths of Edeta is shown
their use for mapping and matching the photos, the conducted by Peter Connolly, Stefano Giuntoli and in figure 7 and followed this rule. Alternatively,
pins were placed in order to record their real spatial Maurizio Martinelli (Connolly 1994, Giuntoli and restoring its barrel vault in accordance with the
position in the global coordinate system using a Martinelli 1989). classic architectural proportions transmitted by
Total Station. In this case, the Universal Transverse Vitruvius, suggesting a proportion of 1/3 (Vitruvius
Mercator coordinate system. (Fig. 4). Therefore, 4. Methodology of the Digital Pollio 1761: V). Finally, this latter proportion has
in the few zones where 3D Laser Scanning was not Reconstructions been adopted for all the principal buildings, given
yet used, the 3D objects have been modelled from that the contemporary Roman baths in Perga Figure 7. Rendered Image. Southern view of the first
the polylines manually drawn in CAD system from 4.1 Spatial interpretation (Turkey) shows the same typology of stones of Edeta reconstructive hypothesis of the Caldarium in 3dsMAX,
the orthophotos. Those produced in the described and respect Vitruvius proportion rules. These have showing the passage from wireframe to textured 3D
manner still conserve signs of human error, The 3D reconstruction of the Roman Baths of been useful for restoring the temple nearby too model. In this reconstruction the height of the barrel vault
completely removed by means of the digital process Lliria has been mainly achieved thanks to the experts (Vitruvius Pollio 1761: IV). matches the height of the lateral walls.
performed by the 3D Laser Scanner. Nevertheless, involved in the project. They helped understanding
the high resolution orthophotos remain useful to the archaeological remains preserved in the area The comparisons with surviving details
identify characteristics of the field or to quickly and respecting the limits set by the interpretation of conserved in others sites or with the measurements
measure distances on the plan in CAD or in a scaled the ancient architecture. cited by Vitruvius have been essential. They have
printed version. regarded several 3D objects in the scene, such as,
The 3D scans of the archaeological remains the arrangement of the beams on the first floor in
As detailed, the visual imagery including have been relocated in the virtual reconstruction, the Basilica Thermarum, the dimension and the
orthophotos and standard photos, supply a visual to make hypothesis of their likely ancient position shape of the storage shelves in the Apodyterium
aid in the 3D reconstruction. For this reason, and to support rebuilding the collapsed structures. or for example, other details as the labrum in the
several other pictures have been captured in the For instance, the size of some stones discovered Caldarium (Fig. 8), or the wooden benches located
archaeological site to support the project. They allow in the Hypocaustum of the Caldarium, useful to inside of it.
volumetric analysis of the building, recognising reconstruct the barrel vault. The ancient cornices
some existent features on the ground and on the supporting the beams of the first floor in the Basilica The existence of some others elements instead,
walls. They are also helpful to elaborate textures Thermarum, retrieving both the dimensions of the is confirmed looking at the remains conserved Figure 8. Photograph. View of a Labrum conserved
subsequently applied on the 3D model. beams and the distance among them (one cubitus), insitu, such as the parapets among the columns or in Herculaneum. Ercolano Scavi Archeologici.
suggesting a bipedalis floor (Fig. 5). Additionally, the boiler system of the warmed pool. However, Universit degli Studi di Napoli. Accessed November
Finally, to support the 3D reconstructions, other the height of its columns, composing and matching when the archaeological information have been 19, 2011. Available from. http.//www.ercolano.unina.it/
archives have been obtained. Such as, photographs together their 3D meshes with their bases and not enough to reconstruct these elements or when fotoErcolano/tdf_27.jpg

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Southampton, United Kingdom, 26-30 March 2012 Vito Porcelli et al.

others descriptions coming from ancient epigraphic


data have been difficult to be found, the 3D solids
have been mainly modelled following the drawings
and the illustrations included in the Connellys
(1994) and Giuntolis (1989) publications.

4.2 The software

The virtual reconstruction of the Roman


Baths of Llria, has been carried out by means
of different software, specifically dedicated to Figure 11. Rendered Image. Passage from high to low
3D data management. Every task has generally polygon 3D model in 3dsMAX. On the left the 3D mesh of
its appropriate software. Currently, most of the the base of a column located in the Basilica Thermarum
Figure 9. Image. View of a general point cloud Figure 10. Image. Point cloud of the Basilica Thermarum.
Software-houses are expanding their adaptability, recorded with 3D Laser Scanning. On the centre and on
showing the Caldarium, the Praefurnium and part of Drawing of the polylines in CAD.
with the objective of using only one application the right, the wireframe and the textured restored 3D
to cover different fields of the Computer Graphics the Laconicum (on the right). The shown point cloud composed of few vertexes, enhanced by textures and model.
and to compete against their business rivals. For contained approximately 53,500,000 of points. easily renderable.
instance, using only one platform to manage data
from 3D Laser Scanning, modelling in low polygons spheres have been used to mark the common points The quickest and easiest way applied to take
and modify raster 2D images at the same time. within the point clouds. After performing this task advantage of the 3D meshes and at the same time
in the program SCENE, the point clouds have been to minimise the polygon count have principally
However, for this project, every step has been imported into MeshLab., The point clouds have been been two. Firstly, by means of the projection of
processed with specific software, which better and cleaned from unnecessary noise, then optimised and 2D orthophotos raster images of the point clouds
quicker could process the digital information. With joined, creating a general point cloud representing in REALWORKS, in order to better recognise the
concern to the 3D Laser Scanning, the management the archaeological site of Llria (Fig. 9). The general contour lines of plans and subsequently, importing
and the matching of the point clouds have been point cloud has been georeferenced using the UTM them into a CAD system to draw polylines
performed in SCENE, software released by FARO. coordinates of three known points recorded during (Alshawabkeh 2005: 44).
Whilst, MeshLab has been used for generating and the scanning process. They have been converted into
optimising the 3D meshes as well as geo-referencing a 3D mesh, digitally stored and ready for further Secondly, and especially for others details
them. To produce the 3D virtual reconstruction, 3ds utilisations. challenging to be projected, directly importing the
MAX 2009 has been the main software employed, point cloud as DXF format in DraftSight (Fig. 10). Figure 12. Rendered Image. Southern view of the
with occasional utilisation of DraftSight for CAD In addition to the 3D Laser Scanning of the The polylines have been subsequently extruded reconstructed Caldarium. Visual comparison of the
data and REALWORKS by TRIMBLE, especially, site, as above written, the project has also concerned in 3ds MAX to recreate the main volumes. The structures visualised as wireframe and textured 3D
prior the modelling process, to retrieve information the creation of a digital database of specific remains. usefulness of the point cloud is represented with its models associated with the 3D mesh of the site.
from the point clouds. Eventually, the open-source Hence, about 660 significant finds have been three- points extended three-dimensionally and showing
software GIMP has been utilised to manage the 2D dimensionally captured and transformed into 3D already the location of the features in the 3D space
raster images. meshes, approaching in the same described manner, (Alvaro 2009: 7).
though turning upside down the objects to capture
4.3 3D modelling their back-faces (Fig. 3). There were a large number of small 3D meshes
which had an extremely high spatial resolution,
The capability of 3D Laser Scanning to The future purpose of the virtual reconstruction composing approximately 350,000 polygons each.
support reconstructing the buildings is practically implies the elaboration of a 3D model, with a polygon This indicates that an approach similar to the 3D
shown in the modelling process. Recovering spatial count sustainable for the rendering engine (Mental scans of the general area could be more effective.
information from the 3D meshes and comparing Ray), with an attempt to not exceed 1,000,000 A good example would be extruding the most
them with the 3D reconstruction, to make sure polygons. The utilisation of the high resolution appropriate lines that match the profiles of the 3D
the hypothesis respects approximately the original point clouds could have increased this value. On the meshes of the cornices or the capitals of the columns
evidence. other hand, in the case the point clouds were fairly and rotating or extruding them by 360 degrees
reduced to respect the parameters, difficultly, they (Kampel and Sablatnig 2003) (Fig. 11). Figure 13. Rendered Image. Northern view of the
In order to record the entire site, 43 point could still show the original shape in some detail, reconstructed Basilica Thermarum. Visual comparison of
clouds have been captured, setting 4mm as an producing loss of data. In any case, many perimeter A final comparison of the 3D mesh of the the structures visualised as wireframe and textured 3D
average distance among the points. Small polystyrene walls might be represented with squared shapes entire site with the final reconstructed 3D model has models associated with the 3D mesh of the site.

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Southampton, United Kingdom, 26-30 March 2012 Vito Porcelli et al.

simulations. They are also directly adapted for the been tested in the whole reconstruction process.
rendering engine and others virtual atmospheric Recovering measurements for restoring the ancient
conditions, such as: lights, reflections and structures, making assumptions about the original
refractions. Furthermore, some of the maps have location of the remains and finally, comparing the
been elaborated with the intent of reconstructing general data to make sure the reconstruction fits the
colours still preserved insitu; for instance, those real archaeological evidence.
of the columns or the virtual restoration of the
paintings still conserved on the walls of the Basilica
Thermarum (Figs 14 and 15).

5. Visualisations of the Virtual Roman


Baths

Figure 15. Image. Texture applied on the 3D model of The rendered images have not been produced
the Basilica Thermarum. Hypothesis restored from the as specific final products to be shown in the museum
archaeological evidence. yet, since the project is still on-going. The final
been performed, considering the possible existing purpose is a public display using a transparent touch
discrepancies. Since the solids representing the 3D screen device. This will allow a virtual navigation in
mesh have been intensely minimised and given the the archaeological site as currently is, together with
employment of orthophotos to create some of them the possibility of generating 3D buildings on the top Figure 16. Rendered Image. Virtual Reconstruction
too. This has been carried out superimposing the 3D of it, by means of the virtual reconstruction modelled produced with Mental Ray in 3ds MAX. Southern internal
data in 3ds MAX, observing carefully the differences and described in this paper. These elements will view of the Caldarium.
among the surfaces and adjusting the 3D solids Figure 14. Photograph. Current view of the remaining be supported with textual explanations of the area
when required (Figs 12 and 13). walls conserved in the Basilica Thermarum. Detail of the visited.
paintings. Photograph coming from the archive of the
The aesthetic enhancements of the Roman project. These will be located in the visitors hall, in
baths and the holy area, especially the furniture front of high window glasses displaying the real
and some decorations, have been modelled been utilised to recover information about colours archaeological remains. The opening date of the
with minor scientific techniques. Nevertheless, and patterns of surfaces, subsequently creating museum is scheduled for March 2013.
always attempting to respect the known Roman textures applied on the virtual Roman buildings.
measurements and looking for information through The rendering process has been mainly
the cited publications upon Roman architectural 4.4 The mapping process arranged for testing the materials applied on the 3D
styles. model as well as testing the geometry. Several images
Normally, textures occupy an important role have been calculated throughout the modelling step Figure 17. Rendered Image. Virtual Reconstruction
The photographs have helped with numerous for generating 3D virtual models. In the video-game in Mental Ray, setting up illumination, exposure produced with Mental Ray in 3ds MAX. Southern external
aspects of the virtual reconstructions. In the industry, they often replace the presence of solids in and other effects according to the type of images view of the male Roman Baths and of the holy area.
modelling process, they have been necessary as the scene to accelerate the rendering process. desired (Fig. 16, 17, 18).
aid to understand better the volumes and the
features still preserved in the site. The 3D meshes, In this reconstruction, the aim has mainly The virtual reconstruction is dynamic, just
sometimes store useless details of solids, which can been the scientific elaboration of 3D buildings, like our interpretation of the past, thus it will
be appreciated only acquiring real pictures for the highlighting the likely architecture more than its always be ready for updating with new ideas or
specific purpose. An example is the Hypocaustum likely ancient colours. As a result, the materials and new information discovered. These could consist
of the Caldarium and the Laconicum, where their included textures have been secondary in this of virtual images associated to brochures of the
interpreting the 3D scans of the complex system of simulation, even because, they mostly depend on museum, videos, and future real time rendering for
conducts and arcs has been extremely complicated. the type of final rendering. Generally, they are also extensive interactivity.
strictly related to the software used for producing
Such as described, the pictures of others the virtual images. 6. Analysing the Results
archaeological sites have supported for replicating Figure 18. Rendered Image. Virtual Reconstruction
objects partially disappeared in Llria (Fig. 8). Therefore, the materials have been procedurals In this project, 3D Laser Scanning easily produced with Mental Ray in 3ds MAX. North-eastern
for most of the structures, which are prearranged shows its importance as a tool for recording spatial external view of the male Roman Baths and of the holy
Eventually, some high quality photos have by the software in terms of textures and physical archaeological information. Its efficiency has area.

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Southampton, United Kingdom, 26-30 March 2012 Vito Porcelli et al.

are comparable to each other. This technique has been opened on the southern wall (Fig. 18), matching
been successful in identifying zones or details left the size of the barrel vault and extending the shape
out during the reconstruction. of a previous hypothesis. Following a similar idea,
trapezoidal windows have been adapted to the
The parts in the virtual reconstruction that rendered environment of the Laconicum and the
represent missing data are based on the epigraphic apse of the Caldarium (Fig. 16). However, even if
data and contemporary structures. This data was the illumination system has somewhat influenced
acquired by architects and archaeologists with shapes and sizes of some details, it has occupied a
specific skill sets. An accurate model was then secondary position in the reconstruction process.
reconstructed with principal ideas focussed upon
an interactive virtual model which will be available 7. Conclusion and Outlook
to the general public. An example is shown in
Figure 19. Rendered Image. Virtual Reconstruction Figure 20. Rendered Image. Virtual Reconstruction
Figures 19 and 20, where the 3D meshes and the Recently, the utilisation of 3D Laser
produced with Mental Ray in 3ds MAX. Entrance to the produced with Mental Ray in 3ds MAX. The Basilica
3D objects have been superimposed onto original scanners for archaeological survey has increased,
Roman Baths. Hypothetic relocation of an element of the Thermarum and the Taberna. Hypothetic relocation of
data in rendered images. This will assist in testing converting these devices into fundamental tools
ancient frame, captured with 3D Laser Scanning. On the the base of a column, captured with 3D Laser Scanning.
the hypothetical locations of the finds and also to in the field. The digital storage of accurate 3D
right, its textured view in MeshLab. On the top, its textured view in MeshLab.
arrange a likely way of visiting the museum. spatial information allows infinite further scientific
The point clouds are extremely accurate, meshes. Millions of points can then be controlled analysis and application. 3D virtual reconstructions
depending on the 3D Laser Scanner and its settings. and reduced to only a handful of data if needed, The discussions among experts to achieve a and simulations of the past shall still be developed,
However, this precision implies negative aspects as minimising the surfaces which are then present in correct restoration have significantly slowed down as they veil immeasurable potentialities for visually
well. Dust is quite often captured by the scanning a 3D model. This can reduce rendering time, size the modelling process, but this is essential to create supporting the researchers and educating the public.
equipment, causing anomalies in the architecture of of files and increase performance on interactive an accurate reconstruction and to set appropriate The capability of 3D Laser scanning in archaeology
certain objects. The archaeological site was not an software equipment. measurements. Originally, the average height of and its ability to add more scientific appearances to
excellent working area as excavation was still under the male Roman Bath was estimated to be 7.5m, 3D reconstructed ancient environments has been
way, causing dirt and dust to be scattered into the The use of 3D laser scanning in this project has but eventually it was decided a more accurate exhaustively tested throughout this project.
air, and on surrounding surfaces. Furthermore, been important in the virtual reconstruction of the measurement of 12.5m. This is due to several reasons.
atmospheric conditions, such as wind and rain, hypocaustum. The shapes of the remaining arches These reasons include rendered images with the With regards to the Roman Buildings of Edeta,
could be held responsible for disturbing the process. and their location have been utilised for restoring introduced daylight system, and most importantly, the area is still under research, implying difficulties
All these conditions can bring the production of those that have collapsed. Virtual reconstructions measurements from similar foundations in Perga. for a correct virtual restoration of the structures,
noise in the point clouds, meaning more time in the of the arches are then included over the tops of the both in terms of new finds discovered and new
laboratory creating more refined 3D meshes. marks shown in the orthophoto, thus complementing The daylight system has been arranged at assumptions made. Furthermore, there are still some
and completing the laser scanned model (Fig. 12). the pre-set time 12:00pm, while a Physical Sky areas which need to be excavated in the future, such
Traditional Total Stations can become tedious has been used as a shader, with CIE Clear Sky as as the female baths. This might bring new ideas and
when there are numerous points which need to be An interesting discovery in terms of a virtual sky model to assist the calculation of the transform the proportions of the actual 3D model as
recorded. 3D laser scanners can obtain these points visualisation has been the restoration of the small brightness in the scene. The closed perimeter of the well. As a consequence, the virtual reconstruction is
with a fraction of the time and effort. The only issue archaeological remains, such as the Tuscan order Basilica Thermarum with only one door accessing a dynamic object, always ready to be reviewed and
with the use of a scanner in this project concerns the capitals of the columns located in the Basilica the outside Palestra demonstrates that the diffusion improved with new features.
co-ordinate system of the general point cloud, as Thermarum. This operation has been hard to of light inside of it had to be significantly low. This
the scanner utilised does not provide an integrated achieve with a small recorded capital showing is due to the fact that the opened arches of the first To conclude, the Comunitat Valenciana is
Total Station. This problem was overcome by a poorly conserved Corinthian order, due to the floor had to be located at about 5.50m, above the rich in traditions, history and art. The promotion
transforming the point clouds or 3D meshes using intricate pattern of the decorated acanthus leaves. upper pediment sustained by the columns. The of the knowledge of the village of Llria and the
three points previously geo-referenced with the The restoration of the surviving cornices has been next high walls of the Apodyterium on the east and dissemination of its worldwide cultural heritage
Trimble VX Spatial Station. This enables the ability treated in the same manner, by extruding the the northern rooms located on the first floor of the by means of new graphic technologies is truly
to georeference 3D points with a minimum standard sections of their longitudinal curves previously Basilica had to further reduce the contribution of appreciable. The restoration of archaeological
deviation of 10mm at 150m. recovered from the 3D meshes. light in the ground floor. An example is shown in remain using virtual technologies is still one of the
Figure 20. most effective ways for the public to understand
The software currently in use permits an All the digital information has been correctly the past. Digital reconstructions elaborated by the
intense optimisation of the shapes but requires georeferenced, positioning the real coordinate point According to the rendered images the global scientific community with an analytical approach,
time, and can result in a loss of a small amount of 30s 706458.96 4389550.93 100 UTM at the 0 0 0 illumination of the other structures had to be affected, elevates the quality of the virtual immersion into the
data. This loss of data has encouraged the use of UCS in 3ds MAX and processing on a one to one especially at floor level. In the Apodytherium, a past. Researchers are allowed to make infinite and
polylines that match the sections and plans of 3D scale. Both 3D meshes and the 3D reconstructions semicircular window with a diameter of 7.70m has invasiveness modifications of the virtual structures.

142 143
CAA2012 Proceedings of the 40th Conference in Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology,
Southampton, United Kingdom, 26-30 March 2012

Bevan and M. Lake London: University College London


Acknowledgments
Press.
This project has been financed and supported
by the Generalitat Valenciana Conselleria de Escriv Torres, V., and X. Vidal Ferrs. 1995. La partida
Turisme, Cultura i Esport. We are grateful to all de Mura (Llria, Valencia). Un conjunto monumental de
members of the Department of Architecture working poca Flavia. In Saguntum: Papeles del Laboratorio de
on the project, especially to Elisa Moliner Cantos, Arqueologa de Valencia (P.L.A.V.) 29, edited by names,
Ivn Garca Miana and Patricia Calvo Corts. 231-239. Valencia: Universitat de Valencia.

Fieldwork and laboratory analysis have been Giuntoli, S., and M. Martinelli. 1989. Arte e Historia de
conducted by the Museu Arqueolgic de Llria Pompeya. Florence: Bonechi.
MALL, particularly by the archaeologists Carmen
Martnez Camps and Xavier Vidal Ferrs. A special Kampel, M., and R. Sablatnig. 2011. Profile based
thanks to Carles Jordi Grau Gimnez, who has Pottery Reconstruction. In IEEE/CVPR Workshop
collaborated with the interpretation of the plans of on Applications of Computer Vision in Archaeology.
the Roman Bath. Madison (USA), 2003. Accessed October 23, 2011. http://
www.caa.tuwien.ac.at/cvl/people/sab/papers/ACVA03.
The Graphic Department of Global Geomtica pdf
has provided and elaborated the digital data. The
photogrammetry and the 3D Laser Scanning have Lock, G. 2003. Using computers in archaeology: towards
been produced thanks to the assistance of Rafael virtual pasts. London: Routledge.
Tortosa Garca, scar Aparicio Gonzlez, Luis
Gimeno Martnez, David Martnez Imedio, Andrea Patay-Horvth, A. 2011. The complete Virtual 3D
Vilaplana Sells and Josep Gimeno Marzal. Reconstruction of the East Pediment of the Temple of Zeus at
Olympia. In International Archives of Photogrammetry,
Finally, we acknowledge Tom Brughmans, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Nicholas Martin Burrell and Elizabeth Richley for XXXVIII. Accessed February 16, 2012. http://www.isprs.
their collaboration in the editing process. org/proceedings/XXXVIII/5-W16/pdf/patay.pdf

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