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The Carnegie Corporation's Adolescent Literacy Development in Out-of-School Time

Practitioner's Handbook provides three categories of struggling adolescent readers and
describes the skills and knowledge they need extra support with in after-school literacy
programs. Which population of struggling readers are you serving? Do you have a
range? How does this inform the academic programming that you offer them?

Struggling readers "Basic" readers Readers who struggle

with reading across

Characteristics Characteristics Characteristics

Have not mastered basic Are reasonably able to struggle with the demands
processing despite being decode words of specialized or
in 4th grade or above May struggle to read disciplinary texts
Are challenged by basic fluently
vocabulary May not have broad,
Do not perform well with deep vocabularies
long passages
Read slowly, with poor

Need to learn (best when Need to:

specific instruction is targeted Need to learn how to define technical terms and
to individual student needs) set purposes for reading relate them to use in
monitor their everyday language
word knowledge comprehension comprehend ideas in a
(decoding) apply strategies when text by linking them with
vocabulary knowledge making sense of or contrasting them to
background knowledge problematic texts one's own ideas about a
linguistic/textual background knowledge phenomenon
knowledge development learn how people in the
strategy use disciplines generate ideas
inference-making understand what counts
as warrant or evidence for
a claim
understand the various
means of communicating
that knowledge