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Different Lining



Shaft Sinking

Dr. P. S. Paul

Temporary Lining Method

Temporary Lining Method

Temporary support of sides

Temporary support of sides

Temporary support of sides

When one round of shots fired and debris removed, support of sides are necessary

Done by system of steel curbs or skeleton ring with close

lining of wooden backing deals or steel plates

Mild steel curbs of 4-5 inch deep, 1 inch thick and 6-8 ft long segments with overlap and joined by bolts or fish plates

Each curb is suspended from the one above by 6-8 s-shaped

steel hooks or hangers

Every third or fourth ring must be additionally supported on plugs placed into holes horizontally drilled into the strata

Wooden backing deals about 5-6 ft long are placed close

together behind the curbs and each deal is provided with its

own wooden wedge to tighten the structure

Temporary support of sides

In all steel arrangements, curbs are channel sections and are butt jointed by fish plates and four steel pegs

Curbs are supported by hangers and are backed by

steel plates provided with a hook enabling them to be suspended behind the curbs

Very quick to install and can be reused many times

Temporary supports are removed, section by section,

as the permanent lining is built up.

Permanent lining of shafts

Types of shaft lining

Brick walling dry shafts

Concrete blocks -

Monolithic concrete Most commonly used

cast iron tubbing heavily watered shaft

Function of shaft lining

To prevent deformation

To prevent decrepitating due to influence of atmospheres

Thickness of lining

Stresses to be resisted

Nature and strength of material used for lining

Permanent lining of shafts

Stresses on shaft lining

Compressive in nature from outside to inside of shaft

Depends on

Dia of shaft

Depth of shaft

Nature of strata

Presence of water

Tensional stress may be developed locally due to presence of faults, cavities, or other weaknesses

Permanent lining of shafts Brick walling

Suitable for compact and fairly dry strata, where stresses are not high

14 inch walling is adequate

Often 9 inch walling is sufficient

Lime mortar or cement mortar is used

Walling Curb

Each length of brick work is built up from a walling curb laid on a specially prepared bed of strong ground

The curb may be of cast iron or concrete

Cast iron curb is a L shaped ring, 10-18 inch wide and ¾

to 1 ½ inch thick, divided into number of segments

Ends of


adjacent segments

have vertical flanges, for bolting

Curb bed must be specially prepared, smooth and level

Curb should be truly circular and horizontal

Its centre should coincide with the shaft centre

Cast iron walling curb

Cast iron walling curb

Concrete walling curb

In this case, the ground is cut back about 2 ft in wedge form so as to key the concrete curb into the strata

To form the curb, to retain the wet or plastic concrete in

position, shuttering is placed

Shuttering (S) are steel sheets, curved to suit the circumference of the shaft and having angle irons A riveted to them to enable adjacent segments to be securely bolted together

Concrete walling curb

At the shaft bottom, each segment of the first shuttering ring

rests on a sleeper

The complete ring, when bolted up, must be carefully leveled and centered

Small debris of 6 inch height is placed behind the ring, followed by a layer of sand covered with brattice cloth

One or more rings of bricks may be laid so that they may be

removed later to enable the length of the walling to be keyed into the above

Concrete walling curb

Concrete is now placed behind the shuttering ring

Is well rammed to fill all cavities next to the strata and prevent formation of air pockets in finished concrete

The second ring of shuttering is then placed, centered,

leveled and filled up same way

Temporary lining is removed as concreting proceeds

Concrete walling curb

Advantages of concrete curb

They are self supporting and underpinning is not required

They can be applied in any ground

Less liable to damage from blasting when sinking is in progress

Very strong

Long length of walling can be carried on a single curb

Monolithic concrete lining

Monolith is a pillar or column consisting of single stone

Monolithic concrete lining is one built up with a single

mass of concrete instead of with concrete blocks

Monolithic concrete lining


Can be constructed rapidly and at low cost

Higher Compressive strength (3000-5000 psi) compared to brick lining (800-1500 psi)

The concrete extends right back to solid strata, filling up all cavities and irregularities and this adds to the rigidity and strength of the lining

It presents a smooth surface to ventilating current

Suitable for water bearing strata owing to its capacity

to settle under water , its freedom from joints and its ability to withstand pressure when injecting liquid cement behind to seal off feeders

It can be rendered immensely stronger by steel

reinforcement, where necessary

Erection of concrete walling

A round of shots, below the length to be lined, is fired and the broken rock roughly leveled and left in position in readiness for resumption of sinking

ring is then truly centered, leveled on

First shuttering

sleepers or wooden blocks

A base is prepared for the concrete behind the ring

When the length of shaft to be lined has been sunk and

temporarily supported, a concrete curb is built up and shuttering rings are added progressively to retain the plastic cement

Water Ring Garland

Water Ring Garland
Monolithic Concrete Lining Method

Monolithic Concrete Lining Method

Monolithic Concrete Lining Method

Tubbing Method

Tubbing Method German Tubbing Plate

German Tubbing Plate

Special Methods


Shaft Sinking

Dr. P. S. Paul

Pilling Method

Pilling Method
Wooden Piles are 2-5 m long, 50-70 mm thick & 150-200mm wide. Wooden piles are

Wooden Piles are 2-5 m long, 50-70 mm thick & 150-200mm wide. Wooden piles are shod with iron at

bottom so as to pierce the ground. The piles are driven down by heavy mallets, and are placed edge to edge

so as to form a complete circular lining. They are held in place by circular rings or curbs, placed at an

interval of 0.8-1 m. After putting the first set of piles, another set of piles is then driven but before this the ground enclosed is dug out, to the extent that the first set of piles is about 0.6 m in the ground

Caisson Method

Caisson Method Force drop shaft method

Force drop shaft method

Freezing Method

Statement of Problems Unstable or friable strata with heavy inrush of water or sand connected with inflow of water and essentially involves the

formation of a large block of frozen ground in the water-bearing



Drilling holes of 150mm dia. at 2.2 to 3m intervals around the


Holes should be vertical.

Holes should be lined with special tubes.

Special small tubes are inserted to enable the cold brine (CaCl 2 ) solution to be circulated.

Circulation of brine is continued till a wall of ice of sufficient size is formed.

Sinking and lining is carried out in the normal way after the formation of ice wall.

Cementation Method

Statement of Problems