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9027187359, 7351266266 A NAME IN CONCEPTS OF PHYSICS

XI &XII (CBSE & ICSE BOARD) IIT-JEE / NEET /AIIMS / JIPMER / uptU

Best of Luck for Board Exams y

ELCTROSTATIC FORCE & FIELD (UNIT - 1)

1. An electrostatic field line cannot be discontinuous why? O x

[CBSE 2005] 0.1 m

0.1 m
2. Define electric field intensity. Write its S.I unit. Write z
Ex = ax, where a = 500 N/C-m , Ey = 0, EZ = 0
the magnitude and direction of electric field intensity
Calculate (i) the flux through the cube, and (ii) the
due to an electric dipole of length 2a at the mid-point
charge inside the cube.
of the line joining the two charges. [CBSE 2005]

8. Two point charges 20 x 106 C and 4 x 106 C are


3. Three point charge of +2 C, 3 C and 3 C are
separated by a distance of 50 cm in air.
kept at the vertices, A, B and C respectively of an (i) Find the point on the line joining the charges, where
equilateral triangle of side 20 cm as shown in the the electric potential is zero. [CBSE BOARD 2008]
figure. What should be the sign and magnitude of the (ii) Also find the electrostatic potential energy of the
charge to be placed at the mid-point (M) of side BC so system.
that the charge at A remains in equilibrium?
[CBSE-2005]
9. A positive point charge (+q) is kept in the vicinity of an
+2 C uncharged conducting plate. Sketch electric field lines
A originating from the point on to the surface of the plate.
Derive the expression for the electric field at the surface
of charged conductor. [CBSE BOARD 2009]
M
B
3 C 20cm
C
3 C 10. Point out right or wrong for the following statements:
[CBSE BOARD 2009]
(a) The mutual forces between two charges do not get
4. The electric field E due to a point charge at any point affected by the presence of other charges.
F (b) The potential, due to a dipole, at any point on its
near it is defined as E lim
q 0 , where q is the test
q axial line, is zero.
charge and F is the force acting on it. What is the
lim 11. Two charges +Q and Q are kept at (x2, 0) and (x1,
physical significance of in this expression? Draw
q 0
0) respectively in the x y plane. Find the magnitude
the electric field lines of a point change Q when (i) Q > and direction of the net electric field at the origin (0, 0)
0 and (ii) Q < 0. [CBSE 2007] [CBSE 2009]

5. Define electric flux. Write its S.I units. A spherical 12. (a) A charge +Q is placed on a large spherical
rubber balloon carries a charge that is uniformly conducting shell of radius R. Another small conducting
distributed over its surface. As the balloon is blown up sphere of radius r carrying charge q is introduced
and increases in size, how does the total electric flux inside the large shell and is placed at its centre. Find
coming out of the surface change ? Give reason. the potential difference between two points, one lying
[CBSE 2007] on the sphere and the other on the shell.
6. Calculate the work done to dissociate the system of (b) How would the charge between the two flow if they
three charges placed on the vertices of a triangle as are connected by a conducting wire? Name the device
shown. Here q = 1.6 1010 C [CBSE 2007] which works on this fact [CBSE BOARD 2009]

13. A spherical conducting shell of inner radius r1 and


outer radius r2 has a charge Q. A point charge q is
placed at the centre of the shell. [CBSE BOARD 2010]

(a) What is the surface charge density on the (i) inner


surface (ii) outer surface of the shell ?
7. The electric field components due to charge inside the (b) Write the expression for the electric field at a point x
cube of side 0.1 m as shown: [CBSE BOARD 2008] > r2 from the centre of the shell ?

QUESTION BANK FOR CLASS XII (CBSE BOARD-2017)

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14. Show that the electric field at the surface of a charged 22. Two small identical electrical dipole AB and CD,
each of dipole moment 'p' are kept at an angle of 120 as
conductor is given by E n , where is the shown in the figure. What is the resultant dipole moment of
0 this combination? If this system is subjected to electric field
surface charge density and n is a unit vector normal directed along + X direction, what will be the
(E)
to the surface in the outward direction
[CBSE BOARD 2010] magnitude and direction of the torque acting on this?
[CBSE 2011]

15. A dipole is present in an electrostatic field of magnitude


106 N/C. If the work done in rotating it, from its
position of stable equilibrium to its position of unstable
equilibrium, equals 2 1023 J, find the magnitude of
the dipole moment of this dipole. [CBSE BOARD 2010]
B

16. Figure shows three point charges +2q, q and + 3q.


Two charges + 2q and q are enclosed within a 23. Two point charges having equal charges separated by
surface S. What is the electric flux due to this 1m distance experience a force of 8 N. What will be the
configuration through the surface S [CBSE 2010]
force experienced by them, if they are held in water, at
the same distance? (Given: Kwater = 80)
[CBSE 2011]

24. State Gauss's law. Use it to deduce the expression for


the electric field due to a uniformly charged thin
spherical shell at points (i) inside and (ii) outside the
shell. [CBSE 2011]
17. In which orientation, a dipole placed in a uniform
electric field is in (i) stable, (ii) unstable equilibrium?
[CBSE 2010] 25. Define electric dipole moment. Write its S.I. unit.[CBSE
2011]

18. (a) Depict the equipotential surfaces for a system of


26. Two point charges 3 C and 3 C are placed at
two identical positive point charges placed a distance
d apart. [CBSE BOARD 2010] points A and B apart. . [CBSE 2011]
(b) Deduce the expression for the potential energy of a
system of two point charges q1 and q2 brought from (i) Draw the equipotential surfaces of the system
(ii) Why do the equipotential surfaces get closer to each
infinity to the points r1 and r2 respectively in the other near the point charges?
presence of external electric field .
27. A hollow metal sphere of radius 10 cm is charged such
19. A proton is placed in a uniform electric field directed that the potential on its surface is 5V. What is the
along the positive x-axis. In which direction will it tend potential at the centre of the sphere? [CBSE 2011]
to move? [CBSE BOARD 2011]
28. A thin straight infinitely long conducting wire having
20. (a) Draw equipotential surfaces due to a point charge charge density is enclosed by a cylindrical surface of
Q > 0. radius r and length l, its axis coinciding with the length
(b) Are these surfaces equidistant from each other? If of the wire. Find the expression for the electric flux
not explain why. [CBSE BOARD 2011] through the surface of the cylinder. [CBSE 2011]

21. A point charge Q is placed at point O as shown in the 29. Why must electrostatic field be normal to the surface at
figure. Is the potential difference VA VB positive, every point of a charged conductor?
negative or zero, if Q is (i) positive (ii) negative? [CBSC 2012]
[CBSE 2011]
30. Draw a plot showing the variation of (i) electric field (E)
and (ii) electric potential (V) with distance r due to a
point charge Q.

QUESTION BANK FOR CLASS XII (CBSE BOARD-2017)

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9027187359, 7351266266 A NAME IN CONCEPTS OF PHYSICS
XI &XII (CBSE & ICSE BOARD) IIT-JEE / NEET /AIIMS / JIPMER / uptU
31. Explain the principle of device that can build up high
voltages of the order of a few million volts. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL, ENERGY & CAPACITORS
Draw a schematic diagram and explain the working of Very Short Answer Type Questions: [01 Mark Each]
this device. [CBSE 2012]
Is there any restriction on the upper limit of the high 1. Name the dielectric whose molecules have (i) non-zero and
voltages set up in this machine? Explain. (ii) Zero dipole moment.
2. Define dielectric constant of a medium. What is the value of
32. (a) Define electric flux. Write its S.I.units. [CBSE 2012] dielectric constant for a metal?
(b) Using Gausss law, prove that the electric field at 3. What happens to the energy stored in a capacitor if, the
point due to a uniformly charged infinite plane sheet is plates of a charged capacitor are moved farther, the battery
independent of the distance from it. remaining connected?
(c) How is the field directed if (i) the sheet is positively
4. Distinguish between polar and non-polar dielectrics.
charged, (ii) negatively charged ?
5. An air capacitor is given a charge of 2mC raising its potential
34. A test charge 'q' is moved without acceleration from A to 200 V . If on inserting a dielectric medium its potential falls
to C along the path from A to B and then B to C in to 50 V, what is the dielectric constant of the medium?
electric field E as shown in the figure (i) Calculate the
potential difference between A and C. (ii) At which 6. In what form is the energy stored in a charged capacitor?
point (of the two) is the electric potential more and
why? [CBSE 2012]
7. On what factors does the capacitance of a parallel plate
capacitor with dielectric depend?

8. On inserting a dielectric between the plates of a capacitor, its


capacitance is found to increase 5 times, what is the relative
permittivity of the dielectric?

9. How does the electric field inside a dielectric decrease when it


is placed in an external electric field?

35. An electric dipole is held in a uniform electric field. CBSE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS)
(i) Show that the net force acting on it is zero.
(ii) The dipole is aligned parallel to the field. Find the 1. Obtain the expression for the capacitance of a parallel
work done in rotating it through the angle of 180. plate capacitor.
[CBSE 2012] Three capacitors of capacitances C1, C2 and C3 are
connected (i) in series, (ii) in parallel. show that the
energy stored in the series combination is the same as
that in the parallel combination. [CBSE 2003]

2. the graph shows the variation of voltage, V across the


plates of two capacitors A and B versuls increase of
charge, Q stored on them. Which of the two
capacitors has higher capacitance? Give reason for
your answer. [CBSE 2004]

3. Find the total energy stored in the capacitors in the


given network. [CBSE 2004]

QUESTION BANK FOR CLASS XII (CBSE BOARD-2017)

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9027187359, 7351266266 A NAME IN CONCEPTS OF PHYSICS
XI &XII (CBSE & ICSE BOARD) IIT-JEE / NEET /AIIMS / JIPMER / uptU
4. A 10 F capacitor is charged by a 30 V d.c. supply and On charging a parallel plate capacitor to a potential V,
then connected across an uncharged 50F capacitor. the spacing between the plates is halved, and a
Calculate dielectric medium of r = 10 is introduced between the
plates, without disconnecting the d.c. source. Explain,
(i)The final potential difference across the combination, using suitable expressions, how the [CBSE 2008]
(ii) the initial and final energies. How will you account (i) capacitance,
for the difference in energy? [CBSE 2004] (ii) electric field and
(iii) energy density of the capacitor change.
5. (a) Why does the electric field inside a dielectric
decreases when it is placed in an external electric field? 12. Three identical capacitor C1,C2 and C3 of capacitance
(b) A parallel plate capacitor with air between the
6mF each are connected to a 12 V battery as shown
plates has a capacitance of 8pF. What will be the
Find [CBSE 2009]
capacitance if the distance between the plates be
reduced by half and the space between them is filled
with a substance of dielectric constant K = 6?
[CBSE-2005 - 06, 2 Marks]

6. A 12pF capacitor is connected to a 50 V battery. How


much electrostatic energy is stored in the capacitor.
[CBSE-2005]
(i) charge on each capacitor
(ii) equivalent capacitance of the network
7. A parallel plate capacitor is to be designed with a (iii) energy stored in the network of capacitors
voltage rating 1kV using a material of dielectric
13. A parallel plate capacitor is charged by a battery. After
constant 3 and dielectric strength about 107 Vm1.
some time the battery is disconnected and a dielectric
For safety we would like the field never to exceed say,
slab of dielectric constant K is inserted between the
10% of the dipole strength. What minimum area of the
plates. How would
plates is required to have a capacitance 50 pF
(i) the capacitance,
[CBSE-2005]
(ii) the electric field between the plates and
(iii) the energy stored in the capacitor, be affected ?
8. Two capacitors of capacitance of 6F and 12F are
Justify your answer. [CBSE 2009]
connected in series with a battery. The voltage across
the 6F capacitor is 2V. Compute the total battery
14. A network of four capacitors each of 12 F capacitance
voltage. [CBSE 2006]
is connected to a 500 V supply as shown in figure.
Determine
9. A parallel plate capacitor, each with plate area A and
(a) Equivalent capacitance of the network and
separation d, is charged to a potential difference V. The
(b) Charge on each capacitor [ CBSE 2010]
battery used to charge it is then disconnected. A
dielectric slab of thickness d and dielectric constant K is
now placed between the plates. When change, if any,
will take place in [CBSE 2007]

(i) Charge on the plates


(ii) Electric field intensity between the plates
(iii) Capacitance of the capacitor
Justify your answer in each case.

10. Explain the underlying principle of working of parallel


plate capacitor. If two similar plates, each of area A 15. A parallel-plate capacitor is charged to a potential
having surface charge densities + and are difference V by a dc source. The capacitor is then
separated by a distance d in air, write expressions for. disconnected from the source. If the distance between
the plates is doubled, state with reason how the
(i) the electric field at points between the two plates. following change: [CBSE 2010]
(ii) the potential difference between the plates.
(iii) the capacitance of the capacitor so formed. (i) Electric field between the plates
[CBSE 2007]
(ii) Capacitance, and
11. Derive an expression for the energy stored in a parallel
(iii) Energy stored in the capacitor
plate capacitor.

QUESTION BANK FOR CLASS XII (CBSE BOARD-2017)

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9027187359, 7351266266 A NAME IN CONCEPTS OF PHYSICS
XI &XII (CBSE & ICSE BOARD) IIT-JEE / NEET /AIIMS / JIPMER / uptU
16. Figure shows two identical capacitors, C1 and C2, 12. Give the colour coding for a carbon resistor of 1 ohm having
5% tolerance?
each of 1 mF capacitance connected to a battery of
13. If the temperature of a metallic conductor increases how does
6V. Initially switch 'S' is closed. After sometime 'S' is let the relaxation time of electrons in conductor change?
open and dielectric slabs of dielectric constant K = 3 14 Write the dimensional formula of mobility of electrons.
are inserted to fill completely the space between the 15. Manganin is used in making standard resistance .give two
plates of the two capacitors. How will the (i) charge reasons.
and (ii) potential difference between the plates 16. How does the drift velocity of electrons in a metallic conductor
of the capacitors be affected after the slabs are change, if the length of the conductor is doubled by stretching
inserted? [CBSE 2011] it, keeping the applied potential difference constant?

1. What is meant by the sensitivity of a potentiometer?


A battery E1 of 4V and variable resistance Rh are
connected in series with the wire AB of the
potentiometer. The length of the wire of the
potentiometer is 1 metre. When a cell E2 of e.m.f. 1.5
17. Net capacitance of three identical capacitors in series is
volt is connected between points A and C, no current
1 F. What will be their net capacitance if connected in flows through E2. Length of AC = 60 cm. [CBSE 2003]
parallel? Find the ratio of energy stored in the two
configurations if they are both connected to the same
source. [CBSC 2011]

18. Deduce the expression for the electrostatic energy


stored in a capacitor of capacitance 'C' and having
charge'Q' [CBSC 2012]
How will the
(i) energy stored and (i) Find the potential difference between the ends A
(ii) the electric field inside the capacitor be affected and B of the potentiometer.
when it is completely filled with a dielectric material of (ii) Would the method work, if the battery E1 is
dielectric constant 'K' ? replaced by a cell of e.m.f. of 1V?
2. Are the paths of electrons straight lines between
successive collisions (with positive ions of the metal) in
CURRENT ELECTRICTY the (i) absence of electric field (ii) presence of electric
field? [CBSE 2003]
Very Short Answer Type Questions: One mark questions (iii) Establish a relation [01
between drift velocity vd of an
Mark Each]
1. Define drift velocity of an electron electron in a conductor of cross-section A, carrying
2. How does the drift velocity of electrons in a metallic current i and concentration n of free electrons per
conductor vary with increase in temperature? unit volume of conductor. Hence obtain the relation
3. A steady current flows in a metallic conductor of non-uniform between current density and drift velocity.
cross-section. Explain which of these quantities is constant 3. The circuit diagram shows the use of a potentiometer
along the conductor: Current, current density, electric field to measure a small emf produced by a thermocouple
and drift speed? connected between X and Y. The cell C, of emf 2V,
4. The potential difference across a given copper wire is
has negligible internal resistance. The potentiometer
increased. What happens to the drift velocity of the charge
carriers? wire PQ is 1.00 m long and has resistance 5. The
5. Explain, how does the resistivity of a conductor depend upon balance point s is found to be 400 mm from P.
(i) number density (n) of free electrons and Calculate the value of emf V, generated by the
(ii) Relaxation time (t) thermocouple. [CBSE 2004]
6. What do you mean by e.m.f. of a cell? Cell emf = 2.00V
7. It is easier to start a car engine on a warm day than on a
chilly day. Why?
8. The wire of a potentiometer should be of uniform area of P
cross-section. Why? Q
9. Name the device used for measuring the internal resistance of 995
a secondary cell. Thermocouple
10. Under what conditions will Terminal potential difference of a X Y
cell be greater than its EMF?
Hot junction Cold junction
11. A wire of resistivity is stretched to twice its length. What will
be its new resistivity?

QUESTION BANK FOR CLASS XII (CBSE BOARD-2017)

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9027187359, 7351266266 A NAME IN CONCEPTS OF PHYSICS
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4. Deduce the condition for balance in a Wheatstone If the galvanometer deflection at the end B is
Bridge. Using the principle of Wheatstone Bridge, (i) More, (ii) less, than that the at the end A, which of
describe the method to determine the specific the two faults, listed above, would be there in the
resistance of a wire in the laboratory. Draw the circuit circuit?
diagram and write the formula used. write any two
important precautions you would observe while
performing the experiment. [CBSE 2003-04]

5. Define the term resistivity and write its S.I. unit, Derive
the expression for the resistivity of a conductor in terms
of number density of free electrons and relaxation time Give reasons in support of your answer in each case.
[CBSE 2005]
11. A number of identical cells, n, each of emf E, internal
6. You are given 'n' resistors, each of resistance 'r'. These
resistance r connected in series are charged by a d.c
are first connected to get minimum possible resistance.
source of emf E. using a resistor R. [CBSE 2008]
In the second case, these are again connected
(i) Draw the circuit arrangement.
differently to get maximum possible resistance.
(ii) Deduce the expressions for (a) the charging current
Compute the ratio between the minimum and
and (b) the potential difference across the
maximum values of resistance so obtained. [CBSE 2006]
combination of the cells.
7. Draw a circuit diagram using a meter bridge and write
the necessary mathematical relation used to determine
12. A potentiometer wire of length 1m is connected to a
the value of an unknown resistance. Why cannot such
driver cell of emf 3 V as shown in the figure . When a
an arrangement be used for measuring very low
cell of 1.5 V emf is used in the secondary circuit, the
resistance? [CBSE 2006]
balance point is found to be 60 cm. On replacing this
cell and using a cell of unknown emf, the balance point
8. Sate Kirchhoffs rules of current distribution in an
shifts to 80 cm. [CBSE 2008]
electrical network. Using these rules determine the
value of the current I1 in the electric circuit given
below. [CBSE 2007]

(i) Calculate unknown emf of the cell.


9. The given figure shows a network of resistances R1, (ii) Explain with reason, whether the circuit works, if
R2, R3 and R4. [CBSE 2007] the driver cell is replaced with a cell of emf 1 V.
(iii) Does the high resistance R, used in the secondary
circuit affect the balance point ? Justify your answer.

13. The figure shows experimental set up of a meter


bridge. When the two unknown resistance x and y are
inserted the null point D is obtained 40 cm from the
end A. when a resistance of 30 is connected in series
with x, the null point shift by 10 cm. find the position of
the null point when 30 resistance is instead of X
Using Kirchhoffs laws, establish the balance condition connected in series with Y determine the value of X
for the network. and Y [CBSE 2009]
X Y
10. For the potentiometer circuit shown in the given figure,
points X and Y represent the two terminals of a
unknown emf E. A student observed that when the
jockey is moved from the end A to the end B of the G
potentiometer wire, the deflection in the galvanometer
A D C
remains in the same direction. [CBSE 2007]
()
What may be the two possible faults in the circuit that
could result in this observation ?

QUESTION BANK FOR CLASS XII (CBSE BOARD-2017)

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9027187359, 7351266266 A NAME IN CONCEPTS OF PHYSICS
XI &XII (CBSE & ICSE BOARD) IIT-JEE / NEET /AIIMS / JIPMER / uptU
14. A wire of 15 W resistance is gradually stretched to (c) Outline the necessary steps to convert a
double its original length. It is then cut into two equal galvanometer of resistance RG into an ammeter of a
parts. These parts are then connected in parallel across given range. [CBSC 2011]
a 3.0 volt battery. Find the current drawn from the 21. A cell of emf E and internal resistance r is connected to
battery. [CBSE 2009] two external resistances R1 and R2 and a perfect
15. Two conducting wires X and Y of same diameter but
ammeter. The current in the circuit is measured in four
different materials are joined in series across a battery.
different situations:
If the number density of electron in X is twice that in Y,
(i) Without any external resistance in the circuit
find the ratio of drift velocity of electrons in the two
(ii) With resistance R1 only
wires. [CBSE 2010]
16. In a meter bridge, the null point is found at a distance (iii) With R1 and R2 in series combination
of l1 cm from A. If now a resistance of X is connected (iv) With R1 and R2 in parallel combination
in parallel with S, the null point occurs at l2 cm. Obtain The currents measured in the four cases are 0.42 A,
a formula for X in terms of l1, l2 and S.[CBSE 2009, 10] 1.05 A, 1.4A and 4.2 A, but not necessarily in that
X order, Identify the currents corresponding to the four
cases mentioned above. [CBSE 2012]
R
S 22. In the figure a long uniform potentiometer wire AB is
having a constant potential gradient along its length.
G The null points for the two primary cells of emf 1 and
A B
2 connected in the manner shown are obtained at a
distance of 120 cm and 300cm. from the end A Find
(i) 1/2 and (ii) position of null point for the cell 1.
17. Write the principle of working of a potentiometer. How is the sensitivity of a potentiometer increased?
[CBSE 2012]
Describe briefly, with the help of a circuit diagram, how
a potentiometer is used to determine the internal
resistance of a given cell. [CBSE 2010,2011]
18. In the meter bridge experiment, balance point was
observed at J with AJ = l. [CBSE 2010]
(i) The values of R and X were doubled and then
interchanged. What would be the new position of
balance point?
(ii) If the galvanometer and battery are interchanged at
the balance positions how will the balance point get 23. Using Kirchhoffs rules determine the value of unknown
affected. resistance R in the circuit so that no current flows
through 4 W resistance. Also find the potential
difference between A and D.

19. In the circuit shown, R1 = 4 , R2 = R3 = 15 , R4


= 30 and E = 10 V. Calculate the equivalent
resistance of the circuit and the current in each resistor. 24. Calculate the value of the resistance R in the circuit
[CBSE 2011]
show in the figure so that the current in the circuit is 0.2
A. What would be the potential difference between
points B and E? [CBSE 2012]

20. (a) State the principle of the working of a moving coil


galvanometer, giving its labelled diagram.
(b) "Increasing the current sensitivity of a galvanometer
may not necessarily increase its voltage sensitivity."
Justify this statement.
QUESTION BANK FOR CLASS XII (CBSE BOARD-2017)

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9027187359, 7351266266 A NAME IN CONCEPTS OF PHYSICS
XI &XII (CBSE & ICSE BOARD) IIT-JEE / NEET /AIIMS / JIPMER / uptU
MAGNETIC EFFECT OF CURRENT 13. What is the angle of dip at a place where horizontal
and vertical components of earths field are equal?
Very Short Answer Type Questions: [01 Mark Each]
Short Answer Type Questions: [02 Marks Each]
1. Magnetic field lines can be entirely confined within the
core of a toroid, but not within a straight solenoid. 14. An electron is projected with a velocity of 105 ms1 at
Why? right angles to a magnetic field of 0.019 G. Calculate
2. A beam of a particles projected along + x- axis, the radius of the circular path described by the
experiences a force due to a magnetic field along the electron, if e = 1.6 1019 C, m = 9.11031 kg.
+y axis. What is the direction of the magnetic field? 15. A small compass needle of magnetic moment 'M' and
moment of inertial 'I' is free to oscillate in a magnetic
field 'B'. It is slightly disturbed from its equilibrium
position and then released. Show that it executes
simple harmonic motion. Hence write the expression
for its time period. [CBSE BOARD 2011]
16. In an atom, an electron is revolving with uniform speed
of 5.0 106 ms1 in a circular orbit of radius 0.5
1010 m around its nucleus. Calculate the magnetic
3. Write the expression for Lorentz magnetic force on a
field produced at the centre of the orbit, Given:
particle of charge 'q' moving with velocity v in a
m0 / 4p = 107 weber/ampere-meter and e = 1.6
magnetic field B . Show that no work is done by this
force on the charged particle. [CBSC 2011] 1019 coulomb. (2002)
17. A thin solenoid of length 20 cm has single layer of 500
4. Two particles A and B of masses m and 2m have turns of fine wire and carries a current of
charges q and 2q respectively. Both these particles 4.0 103 A. Calculate the intensity of the magnetic
moving with velocities v1 and v2 respectively in the field on the axis at the mid-point and at the ends of the
same direction enter the same magnetic field B acting solenoid.
normally to their direction of motion. If the two forces 27. A circular segment of radius R metre subtends an angle
FA and FB acting on then are in the ratio of 1 : 2, find of a radian at its centre. A current of i ampere is flowing
in it in the direction shown. Find the magnitude and
the ratio of their velocities. [CBSE BOARD 2011]
direction of magnetic field at the centre. (2005)

5. What are the ways of producing magnetic field?


6. Give two differences between magnetic lines of force CBSE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS)
and electric lines of force.
1. Where on the earths surface is the value of vertical
7. A charge q moves in a magnetic field B with a velocity
component of the earths magnetic field zero?
v making an angle of 30 with B .What will be the The horizontal component of the earths magnetic field
magnitude of the force acting on the charge? at a given place is 0.4 104 Wb/m2 and angle of dip
8. The speed of a charged particle moving in a magnetic is 30. Calculate the value of
field does not change. Why? (2003)
(i) Vertical component,
9. Write the expression for the force acting on a length (ii) The total intensity of the earths magnetic field.
d of a conductor carrying a current i and placed in a
magnetic field B . 2. In the diagram below is shown a circular loop carrying
current I. show the direction of the magnetic field with
10. Write the definition of magnetic field B . the help of lines of force. [CBSE 2004]
11. A proton is moving in a uniform magnetic field. What
will be the path of the proton, if its initial direction is
(i) parallel to the field
(ii) Perpendicular to the field
(iii) At an angle with the field.
12. Write the formula for the magnetic force acting
between two parallel moving charges, explaining the
3. Explain with the help of diagram the terms
meanings of the symbols used. (UPB 2005)
(i) magnetic declination and
(ii) angle of dip at a given place.

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4. State and explain Biot-Savarts law for the magnetic Figure shows a rectangular current carrying loop
field due to a current element. [CBSE 2004] placed 2 cm away from a long, straight, current-
carrying conductor. What is the direction and
5. Two long parallel straight wires X and Y separated by a magnitude of the net force acting on the loop?
distance of 5 cm in air carry currents of 10A and 5A (CBSE 2005, 2009, 2011)
respectively in opposite directions. Calculate the
magnitude and direction of the force on a 20 cm 11. An electrons is moving along +ve x-axis in the
length of the wire Y. [CBSE 2004] presence of uniform magnetic field along +ve y-axis.
What is the direction of the force acting on it [2007]

12. Distinguish the magnetic properties of Dia, - Para and


Ferro-magnetic substances in terms of
(i) Susceptibility,
(ii) Magnetic permeability and
(iii) Coercivity. Give one example of each of these
materials.
Draw the field lines due to an external magnetic field
near a (i) diamagnetic,
6. Using Biot-Savarts law, deduce an expression for the (ii) Paramagnetic substance
magnetic field on the axis of a circular current loop. [CBSE 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2010].
Draw the magnetic field lines due to circular current
carrying loop. [CBSE 2004] 13. What is the direction of the force acting on a charged
particle q, moving with a velocity v in a uniform
7. A hydrogen ion of mass m and charge q travels with
magnetic field B ? [CBSE-2008]
a speed v in a circle of radius r in a magnetic field of
intensity B. Write the equation in terms of these
14. Define magnetic susceptibility of a material. Name two
quantities only, relating the force on the ion to the
elements one having positive susceptibility and the
required centripetal force. Hence derive an expression
other having negative susceptibility .What does
for its time period. [CBSE 2004]
negative susceptibility signify? [CBSE-2008]

8. State and prove Amperes circuital law. [CBSE 2004]


15. Magnetic field lines can be entirely confined within the
core of a toroid, but not within a straight solenoid.
9. Explain the principle and work in of a cyclotron with
Why? [CBSE 2009]
the help of labelled diagram. A cyclotrons oscillator
frequency is 10 MHz what should be the operating
16. An electron does not suffer any deflection while passing
magnetic field for accelerating protons? If the radius of
through a region of uniform magnetics filed. What is
its Dees is 60cm, what is the kinetic energy of the
the direction of the magnetic field? [CBSE 2009]
proton beam produced by the accelerator? Express
your answer in units of Me V.
17. Write the expression for the magnetic moment ( m )
(e = 1.60 1019 C, m = 1.67 1027 kg, 1MeV=
due to a planar square loop of side l carrying a steady
1.62 1013 J.)
[CBSE 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011] current I in a vector form [CBSE 2010]
In the given figure this loop is placed in a horizontal
10. Depict the magnetic field lines due to two straight, long plane near a long straight conductor carrying a steady
parallel conductors carrying currents I1 and I2 in the current I1 at a distance l as shown. Give reason to
same direction, Hence deduce an expression for the explain that the loop will experience a net force but no
force acting per unit length on one conductor due to torque. Write the expression for this force acting on the
the other. Is this force attractive or repulsive? loop.

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18. A long straight wire of a circular cross-section of radius ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
a carries a steady current I. The current is uniformly
distributed across the cross-section. Apply Amperes Very Short Answer Type Questions: [01 Mark Each]
circuital law to calculate the magnetic field at a point r
in the region for (i) r < a and (ii) r > a. [CBSE 2010] 1. Magnetic flux f in weber in a closed circuit of resistance
10W varies with time t (sec) as = 6t2 5t + 1. Find
19. A beam of a particles projected along + x- axis, magnitude of induced current at t = 0.25s?
experiences a force due to a magnetic field along the
+y axis. What is the direction of the magnetic field? 2. Does the change in magnetic flux induce emf or
[CBSE 2010]
current?
3. Show that Lenz's law is a consequence of the law of
conservation of energy.
4. State a rule to determine the direction of current
induced due to the motion of a conductor in a
perpendicular magnetic field.
5. In the figure, the movable wire is moved to the left,
causing an induced current as shown. What is the
direction of B in the region A?

A
20. Deduce the expression for the magnetic dipole moment
of an electron orbiting around the central nucleus.
[CBSE 2010]
6. As shown in figure, a conducting rod AB moves
parallel to X-axis in a uniform magnetic field, pointing
21. The permeability of magnetic material is 0.9983. Name in the positive Z-direction. The end A of the rod gets
the type of magnetic material it represents. [CBSE 2011] positively charged. Is this statement true? Give reason.
22. A magnetic needle free to rotate in a vertical plane
parallel to the magnetic meridian has its north tip down
at 60 with the horizontal. The horizontal component
of the earth's magnetic field at the place is known to be
0.4 G. Determine the magnitude of the earth's
magnetic field at the place. [CBSE 2011]

23. a) Using Ampere's circuital law, obtain the expression 7. A time-dependent magnetic field is associated with an
for the magnetic field due to a long solenoid at a point electric field. Is this true or false? Justify.
inside the solenoid on its axis. [CBSE 2011]
(b) In what respect is a toroid different from a solenoid?
Draw and compare the pattern of the magnetic field CBSE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS)
lines in the two cases.
(c) How is the magnetic field inside a given solenoid 1. Two circular coils, one of radius r and the other of
made strong? radius R are placed coaxially with their centres
coinciding. For R >>r, obtain an expression for the
mutual inductance of the arrangement. [CBSE 2004]

2. What are eddy currents? Discuss briefly any one


application of eddy current. [CBSE 2004]

3. A circular coil of N turns and radius R, is kept normal


to a magnetic field, given by B = B0 cost. Deduce
and expression for e.m.f. induced in this coil. State the
rule which helps to detect the direction of induced
current. [CBSE 2004]

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4. A bar magnet M is dropped so that it falls vertically (b) Deduce an expression for the mutual inductance of
through the coil C. The graph obtained for voltage two long coaxial solenoids but having different radii
produced across the coil vs. time is shown in figure (b). and different number of turns. [CBSE 2009]
[CBSE 2004] 11. A plot of magnetic flux ( ) versus current (I) is shown
magnet in the figure for two inductors A and B. Which of the
two has larger value of self-inductance? [CBSE 2010]

12. Describe briefly, with the help of a labelled diagram,


the basic elements of an A.C. generator. State its
Coil
v R
C underlying principle. Show diagrammatically how an
alternating emf is generated by a loop of wire rotating
(a) in a magnetic field. Write the expression for the
(i) Explain the shape of the graph. instantaneous value of the emf induced in the rotating
(ii) Why is the negative peak longer than the positive loop. [CBSE 2008, 2010, 2011]
peak?
13. State Faradays law of electromagnetic induction.
5. What is induced emf? Write Faradays law of Figure shows a rectangular conductor PQRS in which
electromagnetic induction. Express it mathematically. the conductor PQ is free to move in a uniform
A conducting rod of length l, with one end pivoted, is magnetic field B perpendicular to the plane of the
rotated with a uniform angular speed in a vertical paper. The field extends from x = 0 to x = b and is
plane, normal to a uniform magnetic field B. Deduce zero for x > b. Assume that only the arm PQ possess
an expression for the emf induced in this rod [2004] resistance r. When the arm PQ is pulled outward from
x = 0 with constant speed v, obtain the expressions for
6. In the figure given below, a bar magnet moving the flux and the induced emf. Sketch the variations of
towards the right or left induces an emf in the coil (1) these quantities with distance 0 x 2b . [CBSE 2010]
and (2). Find given reason, the directions of the
induced currents through the resistors AB and CD
when the magnet is moving (a) towards the right, and
(b) towards the left. [CBSE-2005, 2 Marks]

x=0 x=b x = 2b
7. Define self-inductance and its S.I. unit. Derive an
expression for self- inductance of a long, air-cored 14. A current is induced in coil C1 due to the motion of
solenoid of length, l, radius r, and having N number of current carrying coil C2. [CBSE 2011]
turns. [CBSE 2005] (a) Write any two ways by which a large deflection can
be obtained in the galvanometer G.
8. Define magnetic flux. Give its SI unit. I [CBSE 2006] (b) Suggest an alternative device to demonstrate the
induced current in place of a galvanometer.
9. A 0.5 long metal rod PQ completes the circuit as
shown in the figure.

The area of the circuit is perpendicular to the magnetic


field of flux density 0.15 T. If the resistance of the total
circuit is 3 W, calculate the force needed to move the 15. A bar magnet is moved in the direction indicated by
rod in the direction as indicated with a constant speed the arrow between two coil PQ and CD. Predict the
of 2 ms1 [CBSE BOARD 2006]
directions of induced current in each coil. [CBSE 2012]

10. (a) State Lenzs law. Give one example to illustrate this
law. The Lenzs law is a consequence of the principle
of conservation of energy. Justify this statement.

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ALTERNATING CURRENT the bulb change if an iron rod is inserted in the coil?
Give reasons in support of your answer.
Very Short Answer Type Questions: [01 Mark Each]

1. An electric Lamp is connected in series with a long


solenoid of copper wire and with air core. When the
combination is connected to an a.c. source, the bulb
glows producing the desired illumination. Now if an Ans: decreases
iron rod is inserted inside the solenoid, explain what
will happen and why? 10. A galvanometer connected in an A.C. circuit does not
show any deflection. Why?
2. State the phase relationship between the current
ANS: A galvanometer measures mean value of a.c., which
flowing and the voltage applied in an a.c. circuit for (i)
a pure resistor and (ii) a pure inductor. is zero over a cycle.

3. A 44 mH inductor is connecting to 220 V, 50 Hz ac 11. A capacitor blocks D.C. but allows A.C to pass through
supply. Determine the r.m.s value of current in an a.c. it. Explain. Why?
circuit. ANS: -

4. If the frequency of the a.c. source in a series LCR- 12. Can we use transformer to step up D.C. voltage? If not,
circuit is increased, how does the current in the circuit why?
change? ANS: Magnetic flux linked with Primary coil does not vary
with time so no Induced emf in secondary.
5. (a) Define power factor, State the conditions under
which it is (i) maximum and (ii) minimum.
(b) What is the power dissipated by an ideal inductor in 13. Calculate the r.m.s value of alternating current shown in
ac circuit? the figure.

6. A power transmission line feeds input power at 2300 V


to a step-down transformer with its primary windings
having 4000 turns. What should be the number of
turns in the secondary in order to get output power at ANS: 2A.
230 V? 14. The algebraic sum of potential drop across the various
elements in LCR circuit is not equal to the applied
7. Why does metallic piece become very hot when it is
voltage. Why?
surrounded by coil carrying high frequency alternating
current? ANS: Voltages across different elements of the LCR circuit
Ans: high frequency ac produces changing magnetic flux are not in same phase.
and the large eddy currents produce heat.
15. Fig shows a light bulb (B) and iron cored inductor
8. In the circuit shown below, R represents an electric connected to a DC battery through a switch (S). (i)
bulb. If the frequency of the supply is doubled, how What will one observe when switch (S) is closed? (ii)
should the values of C and L be changed so that glow How will the glow of the bulb change when the battery
in the bulb remains unchanged? is replaced by an ac source of rms voltage equal to the
voltage of DC battery? Justify your answer in each
case.

Ans: - I should decrease and c should increase

9. An air cored coil L and a bulb B are connected in series Ans: - (i) brightness of the bulb increases slowly (ii)
to the mains as shows in the given figure: The bulb brightness remains same
glows with some brightness. How would the glow of

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Short Answer Type Questions: [02 Marks Each] 9. Figure shows an inductor L and a resistance R connected
in parallel to a battery through a switch. The resistance
1. Write some advantage and disadvantages of a.c. over R which of the bulbs lights up earlier, when K is closed?
d.c Will the bulbs be equally bright after same time?
2. Find the time required for a 50 Hz alternating current
to change its value from zero to the r.m.s. value.
3. A coil has an inductance 0.7 henry and is joined in
series with a resistance of 220 W. Find the wattles
component of the current in the circuit, when an
alternating e.m.f. of 220 volt at a frequency of 50 Hz is
supplied to it.
4. An air core coil and an electric bulb are connected in
series across a 220 V, 50 Hz a.c. source. The bulb ANS: - (i) The bulb B2 will light up earlier.
glows with some brightness. How will the glow of the (ii) The bulb B1 will grow more brightly.
bulb be affected on introducing a capacitor in series in
circuit? Justify your answer. 10. Figure shows two electric circuits A and B. Calculate the
ratio of power factor of the circuit B to the Power factor
5. (a) Obtain the expression for the magnetic energy of the circuit A.
stored in a solenoid in terms of magnetic field B, area A
and length of the solenoid. (b) How does this magnetic
energy compare with the electrostatic energy stored in
a capacitor?

6. What are the various energy losses in a transformer?


How can they be reduced?

7. Three students X, Y, and Z performed an experiment for


studying the variation of alternating current with
angular frequency in a series LCR circuit and obtained ANS: - .
the graphs as shown. They all used a.c sources of the 11. An inductor L of reactance XL is connected in series
same r.m.s. value and inductances of the same value. with a bulb B to an A.C. source as shown in the figure.
What can we (qualitatively) conclude about the (i) Briefly explain, how does the brightness of the bulb
capacitance value (ii) resistance values Used by them? change when
In which case will the quality factor be maximum? (a) Number of turns of the inductor is reduced and
What can we conclude about nature of the impedance (b) A capacitor of reactance XC =XL is included in
of the set up at frequency o? series in the same circuit.

ANS: - (a) Bulb will grow more brightly.


Ans: (i) decreases from x to z (ii) decreases from x to z in (b) Brightness of the bulb will become maximum.
case of x quality factor is more, impedance decreases
from x to z 12. Figure (a), (b) and (c) Show three alternating circuits
with equal currents. If frequency of alternating emf be
8. When a circuit element X is connected across an a.c. increased, what will be the effect on currents In the
source, a current of 2A flows through it and this three cases. Explain.
current is in phase with the applied voltage. When
another element Y is connected across the same a.c.
source, the same current flows in the circuit but it leads
the voltage by /2 radians.(i) Name the circuit
elements X and Y. (ii) Find the current that flows in the
circuit when the series combination of X and Y is ANS: - (i) No effect (ii) current will decrease (iii) Current
connected across the same a.c. voltage. will Increase.
Ans: - (i) x is resistor (ii) y is capacitor
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CBSE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS) 12. Given below are two electric circuits A and B Calculate the
ratio of power factor of the circuit B to the power factor of
circuit A. [CBSE 2007]
1. What is choke coil? Why is it preferred to resistance in a.c.
circuit? (CBSE 2003)
In figures (a), (b) and (c) are shown three a.c. circuits with
equal currents. If the frequency of e.m.f. be increased, then
what will be the effect on the currents flowing in them?
Explain with reason.
13. In a series LCR circuit, The voltages across an inductor, a
capacitor and a resistor are 30 V, 30 V and 60 V respectively.
What is the phase difference between the applied voltage and
the current in the circuit? [CBSE 2007]
2. Distinguish between reactance and impedance. When a
series combination of a coil of inductance L and a resistor of 14. Calculate the current drawn by the primary of a transformer
resistance R is connected across A 12V, 50Hz supply, a which steps down 200V to 20 V to operate a device of
current of 0.5 A flows through the circuit. the current differs in resistance 20 W. Assume the efficiency of the transformer to
phase from applied voltage by /3 radian. Calculate the the 80% [CBSE 2007]
value of L and R. (CBSE 2003/06) 15. Explain the term inductive reactance. Show graphically the
variation of inductive reactance with frequency of the applied
3. A town situated 20km away from a power plant generating alternating voltage. [CBSE 2003, 2007, 2011]
power at 440 V, requires 600 kW of electric power at 200 V. 16. Explain the term capacitive reactance. Show graphically the
The resistance of the two wire line carrying power is 0.4 variation of capacitive reactance with frequency of the
per km. The town gets power from the line through a 3000 applied alternating voltage.
220V step down transformer at a substation in the town An a.c. voltage E = E0 sin wt is applied across a pure
(i) Find the line power losses in the form of heat capacitor of capacitance C. Show mathematically that the
(ii) How much power must the plant supply, assuming there current flowing through it leads the applied voltage by a
is negligible power loss due to leakage? [CBSE 2003] phase angle of /2. [CBSE 2003, 2007, 2008]
17. Derive an expression for the impedance of an a.c. circuit
4. In a series RC circuit, R = 30, C = 0.25 mF, V = 100V consisting of an inductor and a resistor. [CBSE 2008]
and = 10,000 radian per second. Find the current in the 18. An inductor 200 mH, capacitor 500 mF, resistor 10 W are
circuit and calculate the voltage across the resistor and the connected in series with a 100 V. variable frequency a.c
capacitor [CBSE 2004] source. Calculate the
Is the algebraic sum of these voltages more than the source (i) Frequency at which the power factor of the circuit is
voltage? If yes, resolve the paradox. unity
(ii) Current amplitude at this frequency
5. Derive the expression of power in LCR circuit. (iii) Q- factor
[CBSE 2004, 2006] 19. The instantaneous current and voltage of an a.c. circuit are
6. A bulb and capacitor are connected in series to an a.c. source given by i = 10 sin 300 t V. What is the power dissipation in
of variable frequency. How will the brightness of the bulb the circuit? [CBSE 2008]
change on increasing the frequency of the a.c source ? Give 20. A coil Q is connected to low voltage bulb B and placed near
reason. [CBSE 2005] another coil P as shown in the figure. Give reasons to explain
the following observations: [CBSE 2010]
7. What do you mean by power factor? On what factors does it (a) The bulb B lights
depend? [CBSE BOARD 2006] (b) Bulb gets dimmer if the coil Q is moved towards left.
B AC Source
8. An alternating voltage of frequency f is applied across a series
LCR circuit. Let fr be the resonance frequency for the circuit.
Will the current in the circuit lag, lead or remain in phase with
the applied voltage when [CBSE BOARD 2006]
(i) f > fr, (ii)f < fr ? Explain your answer in each case.
9. What do you mean by the impedance of LCR - circuit
[CBSE 2007] Q P
10. Distinguish between the terms average value and r.m.s. 21. A series LCR circuit is connected to a source having voltage v
value of an alternating current. The instantaneous current = vm sin t. Derive the expression for the instantaneous
from an a.c source is I = 5 sin (314t) ampere. What are the current I and its phase relationship to the applied voltage.
average and r.m.s. values of the current? [CBSE 2007] Obtain the condition for resonance to occur. Define power
11. Explain with the help of a labelled diagram the underlying factor. State the conditions under which it is
principal and working of a step -up transformer. why cannot (i) maximum and
such a device be used to step-up d.c. voltage ? (ii) Minimum.
[CBSE 2007, 2009, 2011]

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ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES Short Answer Type Questions: [02 Marks Each]

Short Answer Type Questions: [01 Marks Each] 15. Radio waves diffract predominately around building
while light waves, which are also electromagnetic
1. Does the colour of radiation depend on its frequency waves, do not. Why?
or on wavelength? Ans: Frequency
16. What are the characteristics properties of
2. What physical quantity is the same for X-rays of electromagnetic waves?
A 0 17. Mention the pair of space and time varying E and B
wavelength 1 , green light of wavelength 5500A &
radiation of wavelength 21cm? Ans: Speed. fields which would generate a plane EM wave travelling
in the z-direction Ex and By
3. Electromagnetic radiations with wavelength: 18. Why stationary charges & constant currents do not
1. 1 is used to kill germs in water purifiers. produce electromagnetic waves?
2. 2 is used in T.V communication system. Solution: A stationary charge & constant current produce a
constant electric field & constant magnetic field respectively.
Solution: 1) 1 corresponds to ultraviolet spectrum. A constant electric field can't generate a magnetic field
2) 2 corresponds to radio waves. likewise a constant magnetic field cannot generate a electric
field. Hence, EM waves can't be produced.
4. Name EM waves are used in telecommunication.
Ans: Micro-wave 19. If the electric field that constitutes an electromagnetic
wave conservative? Justify your answer.
5. Mention the law, that which asserts that the electric Solution: No, the electric field produced by a time varying
field lines cannot form close loops? Ans: Gausss law magnetic field is non-conservative. So that electric field that
constitutes the EM waves is non-conservative.
6. If the area of the TV telecast is to be doubled then what
20. The radio waves, the infrared, the visible ray are EM
will be the height of the transmitting antenna? Double
radiations. Then how are they different from each
other?
7. The energy of the electromagnetic wave is in the order
Solution: They are different because the way they interact
of 15KV. To which part of the spectrum does it belong?
with matter is different. Interaction depends on the energy of
Ans: X-rays because = 0.825A the EM waves, which in turn depends upon its frequency
8. What happens to the average temperature on the (E=hv).
surface of the earth if there is no atmosphere?
Ans: Increases Short Answer Type Questions: [03 Marks Each]
9. Which of the physical quantity is NOT transported by
the EM waves? Ans: Charge 21. Electromagnetic waves with wavelength
10. What is condition for obtaining displacement current (i) 1 is used to treat muscular strain.
between the plates of the capacitor? (ii) 2 are used by a FM radio station for broadcasting
Ans: By varying potential difference. (iii) 3 are used to detect fracture in bones
11. Why is the quantity 0 dE/dt called the displacement (iv)4 is absorbed by the ozone layer of the
current? atmosphere.
Solution: Due to change in electric field. Identify and name the part of electromagnetic spectrum
12. Using a d.c source, a capacitor has been fully charged. to which these radiations belong. Arrange these
What are the magnitudes of conduction and wavelengths in decreasing order of magnitude.
displacement currents? Solution: (i) rays, (ii) radio waves,
13. What is the ratio of speed of infrared and ultraviolet (iii) X-rays, (iv) UV rays
rays in vacuum? 22. (a) Which of the following, if any, can act as a source
Solution: Same as velocity of light. of electromagnetic waves?
14. An electromagnetic wave consists of oscillating electric (i) A charge moving with a constant velocity.
and magnetic fields. What is the phase relationship (ii) A charge moving in a circular orbit.
between these oscillations? (iii) A charge at rest.
Solution: 90o

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Give reason: (b) Identify the part of the (a) Long distance radio broadcasts use short-wave
electromagnetic spectrum to which waves of frequency bands. Why?
(i) 1020 Hz (ii) 109 Hz belong to microwaves. (b) It is necessary to use satellite for long distance TV
Solution: i) X-rays ii) microwave. transmission. Why?
(c) Optical and radio telescopes are built on the
23. Suppose that the electric field of an electromagnetic ground but X-ray astronomy is possible only from
radiation wave in vacuum is satellites orbiting the earth. Why?
6
E = 3.1N/C cos {(1.8rad/m) y+ (5.4 10 rad/s) t} (d) If the earth did not have an atmosphere, would its
1) What is wavelength, ? average surface temperature be higher or lower than
2) What is frequency, ? what it is now?
3) What is magnitude of the magnetic field of the
wave?
Solution: 1) =2 /k= 3.5m.
6
2) =/2 = 5.4x10 /2 = 0.86MHz.
8
3): B = E /c = 3.1/3x10 = 10nT.
0 0

24. Although in an electromagnetic wave the ratio of the


electric field to the magnetic field is a constant still we
say that the vision of our eye is due to only electric
field.
Solution: The vision of our eye is due to the force
experienced by the moving charge on our retina. The
moving charge experiences force both due to electric &
magnetic fields. F = q E,
E
F = q VB
B
F /F = E/V = C/V.
E B
8.
C/V>10 Therefore moving particle oscillates primarily
due to the electric field.

25. A plane electromagnetic wave travels, in vacuum, along


the y-direction. Write
(i) The ratio of the magnitude,
(ii) The directions of its electric and magnetic field
vectors.
(iii) For an electromagnetic wave traveling along y-
direction, its electric and magnetic field vectors are
along z-axis and x-axis respectively. The direction of
is same as that of direction of wave propagation
and

26. Suppose that the electric field amplitude of an


electromagnetic wave is E0=120 NC-1 and that its
frequency is v=50.0 MHz
(a) Determine, B0,, k and .
(b) Find expressions for E and B.

27. Answer the following questions:

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RAY OPTICS Short Answer Type Questions: [02 Marks Each]

Very Short Answer Type Questions: [01 Mark Each] 24. List some advantages of a reflecting telescope,
especially for high resolution astronomy.
1. Out of speed, frequency and wavelength, name the
parameters which remain same after reflection 25. An object is placed in front of convex mirror of radius
of curvature 20 cm. Its image is formed 8 cm behind
2. Suppose that one half of the reflecting surface of a concave
the mirror. Find the distance of the object from the
mirror is covered with black soot. How will the image of an
mirror.
object placed in front of the mirror be affected?
3. Can we obtain the image of a real object formed by a convex 26. A tank is filled with water to a height of 12.5
mirror on the screen? cm The apparent depth of a needle lying at the
4. Does the apparent depth of a tank of water change bottom of the tank is measured by a
if viewed obliquely? If so, does the appare nt depth microscope to be 9.4 cm. Wh at is the refractive
increase or decrease? index of water? If water is replaced by a liquid
of refractive index 1.63 up to the same height,
5. Define refractive index of a medium.
by what distance would the microscope have to
6. What are the factors on which the normal shift depends? be moved to focus on the needle again?
7. How can a convex lens behave like a diverging lens?
27. The sun is seen a little before it rises and for a short
8. Although the surface of a goggle lens are curved, it does not
while after it sets. Explain, why?
have any power. Explain, why
9. Why do lenses of large aperture suffer from spherical 28. Explain the formation of mirage.
aberration?
10. Does dispersive power of the material of a prism depend on 29. Explaining the critical angle of incidence, establish
the shape, size and angle of the prism? Explain? relationship between the critical angle of incidence and
refractive index of the denser medium, considering the
11. Why is rainbow formed in the sky?
rarer medium to be air of refractive index unity. How
12. An object is seen first in red light and then in violet light can a right angled prism be used to invert the path of a
through a simple microscope. In which case is the magnifying beam of light?
larger?
13. Why is the focal length of an objective in compound
Long Answer Type Questions: [04 Mark Each]
microscope little shorter than the focal length of the eyepiece?
14. You are provided with four lenses of focal length 1 cm, 3cm,
30. Establish mirror formula for a concave mirror. State the
10cm and 100cm. Which two would you prefer for a
sign conventions used.
microscope and which two for a telescope?
31. Define magnification. Derive expressions for the
15. What happens to focal length of a convex lens, when it is
magnification produced by a concave mirror.
immersed in water? 32. Discuss the phenomenon of refraction through a prism.
16. Which of the following does not support the wave nature of Prove the formula: = A ( 1)
light? 33. Draw a labelled ray diagram of a reflecting (Cass grain)
17. What type of a lens is an air bubble inside water? Give telescope and explain its working.
reason also. 34. Figure shows a convex spherical surface with
18. A lens whose radii of curvature are different is forming the centre of curvature C, separating the two
image of an object placed on its axis. If the lens is placed with media of refractive indices n 1 and n 2 , Draw a
its faces reversed, will the position of the image change?
ray diagram showing the formation of the
19. A ray of light is normally incident on one face of an image of a point object O lying on the
equilateral prism. Trace the course of the ray through the principal axis. Derive the relationship between
prism and emerging from it. the object and image distance in terms of
20. What will be the colour of the sky in the absence of refractive indices of the media and the radius
atmosphere? of curvature R of the surface.
22. Why do clouds appear white?
23. Can we increase the range of a telescope by increasing the
diameter of its objective?

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35. Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of image of 4. A right-angle crown glass prism with critical angle 41 is
an object placed between the pole and centre of placed before an object, PQ, in two position as shown
curvature of a concave mirror, Derive the formula in the figure (i) and (ii). Trace the paths of the rays
connecting object distance (u), image distance (v) and from P and Q passing through the prism in the two
focal length (f) for this particular case for the given cases. [CBSE 2005]
concave mirror. State clearly the assumptions and sign
conventions used.

36. Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of image of


an object placed between the optical centre and focus
of a thin convex lens. Write two characteristics of the
image formed. Using this diagram, derive the relation
between object distance u, image distance v and focal
length f of the convex lens. Draw the graph showing
the variation of v with u. 5. A ray of light falls on a mirror normally. What are the
values of angle of incidence and the angle of reflection?
37. Draw a graph to show the variation of the angle of [CBSE 2005]
deviation d with that of the angle of incidence i for a
monochromatic ray of light passing through a glass 6. What is far-sightedness or hypermetropia? What causes
prism of refracting angle A. Hence, deduce the hypermetropia How this defect is corrected? [CBSE 06]
reaction,
sin( A m ) / 2 7. A double convex lens of glass of refractive index 1.6
=
sin A / 2 has its both surfaces of equal radii of curvature of 30
cm each. An object of height 5 cm is placed at a
distance of 12.5 cm from the lens. Calculate the size of
CBSE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS)
the image formed. [CBSE 2007]

1. An object is placed in front of a right angled prism ABC


8. A convex mirror always produces a virtual image of
in two positions (a) and (b) as shown. The prism is
real object independent of the location of the object.
made of crown glass with critical angle of 41. Trace
use mirror equation to prove it. [CBSE 2007]
the path of two rays from P and Q., (i) in (a), normal to
the hypotenuse and (ii) in (b), parallel to the
9. A converging lens of refractive index 1.5 is kept in a
hypotenuse. [CBSE 2003]
liquid medium having the same refractive index. What
would be the focal length of the lens in the medium?
[CBSE 2008]

(a) (b) 10. A ray of light passing through an equilateral triangular


glass prism from air undergoes minimum deviation
2. Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of the when angle of incidence is 3/4th of the angle of prism.
image of an object placed between f and 2f of a thin Calculate the speed of light in the prism.[CBSE 2008,02]
concave lens. Deduce the relation between the object
distance, the image distance and the focal length of the 11. An equi-convex lens, with radii of curvature of
lens under this condition. [CBSE 2003] magnitude 10 cm each, is put over a liquid layer
poured on top of a plane mirror. A small needle, with
3. Draw the graph to show the variation of angle of its tip on the principal axis of the lens, is moved along
deviation d with the variation of angle of incidence i; the axis until its inverted real image coincides with the
for a monochromatic ray of light passing through a needle itself. The distance of the needle, from the lens,
prism of refracting angle A. Deduce the relation is measured to be 15 cm.
between minimum deviation dm, incident angle i and
refractive index of prism m . [CBSE 2003] On removing the liquid layer and repeating the
experiment the distance is measured to be 10 cm.
Am Given that the two values of the distance measured
sin
2 represent the force length values in the two cases,
A calculate the refractive index of the liquid. [CBSE 2008,3]
sin
2

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12. (a) For a ray of light travelling from a denser medium
of refractive index n to a rarer medium of refractive
1
n2
index n2, prove that = sin ic, where ic is the
n1
critical angle of incidence for the media. 20. The far point of a myopic person is 80cm in
(b) Explain with the help of a diagram, how the above front of the eye. What is the power of the lens
principle is used for transmission of video signals using required to enable him to see very distance
optical fibres. [CBSE 2008, 5] objects clearly? In what way does the
corrective lens help the above person? Does
1 1 1 the lens magnify very distance object? Explain .
13. (a) Derive the lens formula , for a concave [CBSE 2009, 3]
f v u
lens, using the necessary ray diagram. 21. (a) (i) Draw a labelled ray diagram to show the
(b) Two lenses of powers 10 D and 5D are placed in formation of image in an astronomical telescope for a
contact. [CBSE 2008, 5] distant object.
(i) Calculate the power of the new lens. (ii) Write three distinct advantages of a reflecting type
(ii) Where should an object be held from the lens, so as telescope over a refracting type telescope.
to obtain a virtual image of magnification 2? (b) A convex lens of focal length 10 cm is placed
coaxially 5 cm away from a concave lens of focal
14. A ray of light passing through an equilateral triangular length 10 cm. If an object is placed 30 cm in front of
glass prism from air undergoes minimum deviation the convex lens, find the position of the final image
when angle of incidence is 3/4 th of the angle of prism. formed by the combined system. [CBSE 2009]
Calculate the speed of light in the prism. [CBSE 2003]
22. (a) Draw the ray diagram showing the geometry of
15. (a) Draw a ray diagram showing the passage of light formation of the image of a point object situated on the
through a glass prism. Hence obtain a relation between principal axis, and on the convex side, of a spherical
the angles of deviation, incidence and emergence and surface of radius of curvature R. Taking the rays as
the angle of prism. incident from a medium of refractive index n1 to
(b) Show that no ray can pass through a prism whose another of refractive index n 2, show that
refracting angle A is greater than twice the critical angle
for the material of the prism. n2 n1 n2 n1
[CBSE 2008, 5]
v u R
16. A glass lens of refractive index 1.5 is placed in a trough where the symbols have their usual meaning.
of liquid .What must be the refractive index of the (b) Use this relation to obtain the (thin) lens maker's
liquid in order to mark the lens disappear? [CBSE 2008] formula. [CBSE 2004, 2008, 2009]

17. (a) Draw the ray diagram for the formation of image of 23. (a) With the help of a suitable ray diagram, derive the
an object by a convex mirror and use it (along with the mirror formula for a concave mirror.
sign convention) to derive the 'mirror formula. (b) The near point of a hypermetropic person is 50 cm
[CBSE 2009, 3] from the eye. What is the power of the lens required to
(b) Use the mirror formula to show that for an object, enable the person to read clearly a book held at 25 cm
kept between the pole and focus of a concave mirror, from the eye? [CBSE 2009]
the image appears to be formed behind the mirror.
24. State the conditions for the phenomenon of total
18. Why are convex mirrors used as side view mirrors in internal reflection? (H.S.S.C.E. 2010; C.B.S.E. 2010)
cars? [CBSE 2009 S]
25. The image obtained with a convex lens is erect
19. Three light rays red (R), green (G) and blue (B) are and its length is four times the le ngth of the
incident on a right angled prism 'abc' at face 'ab'. The object. If the focal length of the lens is 20 cm,
refractive indices of the material of the prism for red, calculate the object and image distances .
green and blue wavelengths are 1.39, 1.44 and 1.47 [CBSE 2010, 3]
respectively. Out of the three which colour ray will
emerge out of face 'ac'? Justify your answer. Trace the 26. A converging lens is kept coaxially in contact with a
path of these rays after passing through face 'ab'. diverging lensboth the lenses being of equal focal
[CBSE 2009, 3] lengths. What is the focal length of the combination?
[CBSE Boa rd 2010]

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27. Draw a ray diagram to show the working of a 34. A ray of light is incident on one face of a glass prism
compound microscope. Deduce an expression for the and emerges out from the other face. Trace the path of
total magnification when the final image is formed at the ray and derive an expression for refractive index of
the near point. the glass prism. [CBSE 2011]
In a compound microscope, an object is placed at a
distance of 1.5 cm from the objective of focal length 35. For the same value of angle of incidence, the angle of
1.25 cm. If the eye piece has a focal length of 5 cm and refraction in three media A, B and C are 15, 25, and ,
the final image is formed at the near point, estimate the 35 respectively. In which medium would the velocity
magnifying power of the microscope. [CBSE 09, 10] of light be minimum? [CBSE 2012]

28. Two convex lenses of focal length 20 cm and 1 36. Define magnifying power of a telescope. Write its
cm constitute a telescope. The telescope is expression. [CBSE 2012]
focussed on a point which is 1 m away from A small telescope has an objective lens of focal length
the objective. Calculate the magnification 150 cm and an eye piece of focal length 5 cm. If this
produced and the length of the tube. If the telescope is used to view a 100 m high tower 3 km
final image is formed at a distance of 25 cm away, find the height of the mail image when it is
from of eyepiece . [CBSE 2011, 3] formed 25 cm away from the eye piece.

29. A convex lens made up of glass of refractive index 1.5 37. An object AB is kept in front of a concave mirror as
is dipped in turn, in (i) a medium of refractive index shown in the figure. [CBSE 2012]
1.65, (ii) a medium of refractive index 1.33. (a) Will it (i) Complete the ray diagram showing the image
behave as a converging or a diverging lens in the two formation of the object.
cases? (b) How will its focal length change in the two (ii) How will the position and intensity of the image be
media? [CBSE 2 011, 3] affected if the lower half of the mirror's reflecting
surface is painted black ?
30. Use the mirror equation to show that (a) an object
placed between f and 2f of a concave mirror produces
a real image beyond 2f. (b) a convex mirror always
produces a virtual image independent of the location of
the object. (c) an object placed between the pole and
focus of a concave mirror produces a virtual and
enlarged image. [CBSE 2011]
38. You are given three lenses L1, L2 and L3 each of focal
31. A compound microscope uses an object lens of focal length 20cm. An object is kept at 40 cm in front of L1,,
length 4 cm and eyepiece lens of focal length 10 cm. A as shown. The final real image is formed at the focus 'I'
n object is placed at 6 cm from the objective lens. of L3. Find the separations between L1, L2 and L3.
Calculate the magnifying power of the compound [CBSE 2012]
microscope. Also calculate the length of the
microscope. [CBSE 2011]

32. A giant refracting telescope at an observatory has an


objective lens of focal length 15 m. If an eyepiece lens 39. Draw a ray diagram of a reflecting type telescope. Sate
of focal length 1.0 cm is used, find the angular two advantages of this telescope over a refracting
magnification of the telescope. If this telescope is used telescope. [CBSE 2008, 2012]
to view the moon, what is the diameter of the image of
the moon formed by the objective lens? The diameter
of the moon is 3.42 106 m and the radius of the
lunar orbit is 3.8 108 m. [CBSE 2011]

33. A beam of light converges at a point P. A concave lens


of focal length 16 cm is placed in the path of this beam
12 cm from P. Draw a ray diagram and find the
location of the point at which the beam would now
converge. [CBSE 2011]

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WAVE OPTICS Deduce the ratio of intensity of maxima and minima in
the interference pattern?
Very Short Answer Type Questions: [01 Mark Each]
7. How is a wave front different from a ray? Draw the
1. What is the Brewster angle for air to glass transition? (g =
geometrical shape of the wave fronts, when
3 ) (i) Light diverges from a point source, and
2. What is the shape of the wave front when light is diverging (ii)Light emerges out of convex lens when a point
from a point source? source is placed at its focus.
3. A light wave enters from air to glass. How will the following
be affected? 8. In a youngs double slit experiment, the position of the
(i) Energy of the wave first fringe coincides with S1 and S2 respectively. What
(ii) Frequency of the wave is the wavelength of light?
4. Draw a diagram to show cylindrical wave front?
9. Draw the diagram showing intensity distribution of light
5. State the conditions that must be satisfied for two light
sources to be coherent?
on the screen for diffraction of light at a single slit. How
is the width of central maxima affected on increasing
6. In youngs double slit experiment. The distance between the
slits is halved, what change in the fringe width will take place? the
7. State the conditions which must be satisfied for two light (i) Wavelength of light used
sources to be coherent. (ii) Width of the slit
8. Two independent light sources cannot act as coherent What happens to the width of the central maxima if the
sources. Why?
whole apparatus is immersed in water and why?
9. No interference pattern is detected when two coherent
sources are infinitely close to one another. Why? 10. What two main changes in diffraction pattern of single
10. If the path difference produced due to interference of light slit will you observe when the monochromatic source
coming out of two slits for yellow colour of light at a point on
of light is replaced by a source of white light?
the screen be 3/2, what will be the colour of the fringe at the
point. Give reason also.
11. Explain with reason, how the resolving power of a
11. What happens to the interference pattern if the phase
difference between the two sources varies continuously? compound microscope will change when (i) frequency
of the incident light on the objective lens is increased.
Short Answer Type Questions: [02 Marks Each] (ii) Focal length of the objective lens is increased, and
(iii) aperture of the objective lens is increased.
1. In Youngs double slit experiment how is the fringe
width change when 12. The critical angle between a given transparent medium
(a) Light of smaller frequency is used and air is denoted by ic, A ray of light in air medium
(b) Distance between the slits is decreased? enters this transparent medium at an angle of incidence
2. Write two points of difference between interference and equal to the polarizing angle(ip). Deduce a relation for
diffraction? the angle of refraction (rp) in terms of ic .
3. Obtain an expression for the ration of intensities at
maxima and minima in an interference pattern.
4. A slit is illuminated by a monochromatic source of light
Long Answer Type Questions:[05 Mark Each]
to give two coherent sources P1 and P2 these give
bright and dark bands on a screen. At a point R, on the 13. Using Huygenss principle deduce the laws of
screen, there is a dark fringe. What relation must exist refraction?
between the lengths P1 R and P2R? 14. (a) Coloured spectrum is seen, when we look through a
muslin cloth. Why?
5. Can white light produce interference? What is the
nature? (b) What changes in diffraction pattern of a single slit
will you observe when the monochromatic source of
6. (a) Derive expression for the fringe width in youngs
light is replaced by a source of white light?
double slit experiment?
15. State Brewster law? Using this law prove that at the
(b) If the two slits in youngs double slit experiment
polarizing angle of incidence, the reflected and
have width ratio 4:1,
transmitted rays are perpendicular to each other?

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16. In a single slit experiment, how the angular width of CBSE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS)
central bright fringe is maximum changed when
(1) The slit width increased 1. (a) Using Huygens principle draw a diagram to show
(2) The distance between the slit and the screen is propagation of a wave front originating from a
increased. monochromatic source. (CBSE 2005)
(3) Light of smaller wavelength is used. (b) Describe diffraction of light due to a single slit.
Explain formation of a pattern of fringes obtained on
17. (a) State Huygens principle for constructing wave the screen and plot showing variation of intensity with
fronts? angle q in single slit diffraction.
(b) Using Huygens principle deduce the laws of
reflection of light? 2. What is meant by a linearly polarised light? Which type
(c) What changes in diffraction pattern of a single slit of waves can be polarised? Briefly explain a method for
will you observe, when the monochromatic source of producing polarised light. Two Polaroids are placed at
light is replaced by a source of white light? 90 to each other and the intensity of transmitted light
is zero. What will be the intensity of transmitted light
when one more polaroid is placed between these two
NUMERICAL QUESTIONS bisecting the angle between them? Take intensity of
unpolarised light as I0. (CBSE 2005-06)
1. In a youngs double slit experiment, the slit are
separated by 0.24 mm. The screen is 1.2m away from
the slits. The fringe width is 0.3 cm calculate the 3. (a) Light, from a sodium lamp, is passed through two
wavelength of light used in the experiment? polaroid sheets, P1 and P2 kept one after the other.
Keeping P1 fixed, P, is rotated so that its 'pass-axis' can
2. Two Sources of Intensity I and 4I are used in an be at different angles, q, with respect to the pass-axis of
interference experiment. Find the intensity at points P1. [CBSE 2008]
where the waves from two sources superimpose with a An experimentalist records the following data for the
phase difference (i) zero (ii) /2 (iii) . intensity of light coming out of P2 as a function of the
angle q.
3. In a two slit experiment with monochromatic light, S.No. 1 2 3 4 5
fringes are obtained on a screen placed at some ( Angle between 0 30 45 60 90
distance D from the slits. If the screen is moved 5 x 10 -2 the pass axis of
m towards the slits, the charge in fringe width is 3 x 105
the the polaroids
m. If the distance between the slit is 10-3 m. calculate I0 3 1 I0
the wavelength of the light used. I (Intensity of I0 I0 0
2 8 2 2 8
light co min g
4. A narrow monochromatic beam of light of intensity I is out of P2 )
incident a glass plate. Another identical glass plate is
[I0 = Intensity of beam falling on P1]
kept close to the first one and parallel to it. Each plate
One of these observations is not in agreement with the
reflects 25% of the incident light and transmits the
expected theoretical variation of I. Identify this
reaming. Calculate the ratio of minimum and observation and write the correct expression.
maximum intensity in the interference pattern formed (b) Define Brewster angle and write the expression for
by the two beams obtained after reflection from each it in terms of the refractive index of the medium.
plate.
4. What is is plane polarised light? Two polaroids are
placed at 90 to each other and the transmitted
intensity is zero. What happens when one more
Polaroid is placed between these two, bisecting the
angle between them? How will the intensity of
transmitted light vary on further rotating the third
Polaroid?
(b) If a light beam shows no intensity variation when
transmitted through a Polaroid which is rotated, does it
mean that the light is un-polarised? Explain briefly.
(CBSE 2008)

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5. State the essential condition for diffraction of light to orientations will the transmitted intensity be (i)
take place. Use Huygens principle to explain minimum and (ii) maximum?
diffraction of light due to a narrow single slit and the
formation of a pattern of fringes obtained on the 10. The diagram, given below, shows the refraction of a
screen. Sketch the pattern of fringes formed due to plane wave front, incident on the surface PP
diffraction at a single slit showing variation of intensity separating two media, (1) and (2). Which of the two
with angle q. (CBSE 2007) OR media is the rarer one? [CBSE 2009]
What are coherent sources of light? Why are coherent
sources required to obtain sustained interference
pattern?

6. How is a wave front defined? Using Huygens


construction draw a figure showing the propagation of
a plane wave refracting at a plane surface separating
two media. Hence verify Snells law of refraction.(2006)

7. In a Young's double slit experiment, the two slits are


kept 2 mm apart and the screen is positioned 140 cm
away from the plane of the slits. The slits are
illuminated with light of wavelength 600 nm. Find the
11. How would the angular separation of interference
distance of the third bright fringe, from the central
fringes in Youngs double slit experiment change when
maximum, in the interference pattern obtained on the
the distance between the slits and screen is halved?
screen. [CBSE 2009]
If the wavelength of the incident light were changed to
480 nm, find out the shift in the position of third bright 13. In youngs double slit experiment, the two slits 0.15
fringe from the central maximum. [CBSE 2008] mm apart are illuminated by monochromatic light of
wavelength 450 nm. The screen is 1.0 m away from
8. In Youngs double slit experiment, monochromatic light the slits.
of wavelength 630 nm illuminates the pair of slits and (a) Find the distance of the second (i) bright fringe (ii)
produces an interference pattern in which two dark fringe from the central maximum.
consecutive bright fringes are separated by 8.1 mm. (b) How will the fringe pattern charge if the screen is
Another source of monochromatic light produces the moved away from the slits ? [CBSE 2010]
interference pattern in which the two consecutive bright
fringes are separated by 7.2 mm,. Find the wavelength 14. State Huygens' principle of diffraction of light. [2011]
of light from the second source. [CBSE 2009]
What is the effect to on the interference fringes if the 15. State the importance of coherent sources in the
monochromatic source is replaced by a source of white phenomenon of interference. In Young's double slit
light? experiment to produce interference pattern obtain the
conditions for constructive and destructive interference.
9. In a single slit diffraction experiment when a tiny Hence deduce the expression for the fringe width. How
circular obstacle is placed in the path of light from a does the fringe width get affected, if the entire
distant source, a bright spot is seen at the centre of the experimental apparatus of Young's is immersed in
shadow of the obstacle. Explain why [CBSE 2009] water? [CBSE 2011]
State two points of difference between the interference 16. Using Huygens' geometrical construction of wave
patterns obtained in Youngs double slit experiment fronts, show how a plane wave gets reflected by a
and the diffraction pattern due to a single slit. reflecting surface. Hence verify laws of reflection.
[CBSE 2011]
12. How does an unpolarised light get polarised when
passed through a Polaroid? [CBSE 2010] 17. (a) Define a wave front. Use Huygens principle to
Two Polaroids are set in crossed positions. A third show diagrammatically the propagation of a plane
Polaroid is placed between the two making an angle q wave front from the instant t1 = 0 to a later time t2.
with the pass axis of the first Polaroid. Write the [CBSE 2011]
expression for the intensity of light transmitted from the (b) State briefly two features which can distinguish the
second Polaroid. Write the expression for the intensity characteristic features of an interference pattern from
of light transmitted from the second Polaroid. In what those observed in the diffraction pattern due to a single
slit.

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18. (a) Why are coherent sources necessary to produce a DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATION
sustained interference pattern ?
(b) In Youngs double slit experiment using mono- Very Short Answer Type Questions: [01 Mark Each]
chromatic light of wavelength l,the intensity of light at
a point on the screen where path difference is l, is K 1. Electrons are emitted from a photosensitive surface when it is
units. Find out the intensity of light at a point where illuminated by green light but electron emission does not take
place by yellow light. Will the electrons be emitted when the
2 surface is illuminated by: (i) red light, and (ii) blue light?
path difference is . [CBSE 2012]
3 2. Why alkali metals are most suitable for photoelectric
emission?
19. (a) In Young's double slit experiment, derive the 3. Are matter waves electromagnetic? Write de-Broglie wave
condition for (i) constructive interference and (ii) equation.
destructive interference at a point on the screen. 4. What is the significance of negative energy of electron in an
(b) A beam of light consisting of two wavelengths, 800 orbit?
nm and 600 is used to obtain the interference fringes in 5. Can a hydrogen atom absorb a photon whose energy
a Young's double slit experiment on a screen placed exceeds its binding energy?
1.4 m away. If the two slits are separated by 0.28mm, 6. What is the shortest wavelength present in the Paschen series
calculate the least distance from the central bright of spectral lines?
maximum where the bright fringes of the two 7. The ground state energy of hydrogen atom is 13.6 eV. What
wavelengths coincide. [CBSE 2012] are the kinetic and potential energies of
OR the electron in this state ?
(a) How does an unpolarized light incident on a 8. Show that the speed of an electron in the innermost orbit of
Polaroid get polarized? H-atom is 1/137 times the speed of light in vacuum.
Describe briefly, with the help of a necessary diagram, 9. Determine the speed of the electron in n = 3 orbit of He +
the polarization of light by reflection from a transparent ion.
medium.
(b) Two Polaroids 'A' and 'B' are kept in crossed Short Answer Type Questions: [02 Marks Each]
position. How should a third Polaroid 'C' be placed
between them so that intensity of polarized light 10. What is meant by work function of a metal ? How does
transmitted by Polaroid B reduces to 1/8th of the the value of work function influence the kinetic energy
intensity of unpolarized light incident on A? of electrons liberated during photoelectric emission ?

20. Which of the following waves can be polarized (i) Heat 11. Define the terms 'threshold frequency' and 'stopping
(ii) Sound waves? Give reason to support your answer. potential' for photoelectric effect. Show graphically how
[CBSE - 2013] the stopping potential, for a given metal, varies with
frequency of the incident radiations. Mark threshold
21. (a) In what way is diffraction from each slit related to frequency on this graph.
the interference pattern in a double slit experiment?
(b) Two wavelengths of sodium light 590 nm and 596 12. Explain laws of photoelectric emission on the basis of
nm are used, in turn to study the diffraction taking Einstein's photoelectric equation.
place at a single slit of aperture 2 x 10 4 m. The
distance between the slit and the screen is 1.5 m. 13. Work functions of three elements A, B and C are as
Calculate the separation between the positions of the given below:
first maxima of the diffraction pattern obtained in the A: 5.0 EV, B: 3.8 eV, C: 2.8 eV.
two cases. [CBSE 2013] A radiation of wavelength 4125 is made to be
incident on each of these elements. By appropriate
calculations show in which case photoelectrons will not
be emitted.

14. A monochromatic beam of electromagnetic waves is


incident on the cathode of a photocell. Depict
graphically, how the following varies with change in
frequency of incident radiation: (at constant intensity)
(i) Number of electrons emitted
(ii) Kinetic energy of electrons emitted
(iii) The stopping potential.

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15. A source of light of frequency v > v0 is placed at 2 m 6. Mention the significance of Davisson-Germer
from the cathode of a photocell. The stopping potential experiment. An a-particle and a proton are accelerated
is found to be V0. If the distance of the light source is from rest through the same potential difference V. Find
the ratio of de-Broglie wavelengths associated with
halved, state with reason what changes occur in
them. [CBSE 2005]
(i) Stopping potential
(ii) Photoelectric current, and 7. de Broglie wavelength associated with an electron
(iii) Maximum velocity of photoelectrons emitted. accelerated through a potential difference V is l. What
will be its wavelength when the accelerating potential is
16. Define the term: with reference to Photoelectric effect. increased to 4 V? [CBSE 2006]
(a) (i) Work function,
(ii) Threshold frequency and 8. A hydrogen atom initially in the ground level absorbs a
photon; which excites it to the n = 4 level. Determine
(iii) Stopping potential,
the wavelength and frequency of photon. [CBSE 2006]
(b) Calculate the maximum kinetic energy of electrons
9. Ultraviolet radiations of different frequencies u1 and u2
emitted from a photosensitive surface of work function
3.2 eV, for the incident radiation of wavelength 300 are incident on two photosensitive materials having
nm. work functions W1 and W2 (W1 > W2) respectively.
The kinetic energy of the emitted electrons is same in
both the cases. Which one of the two radiations will be
CBSE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS)
of higher frequency ? [CBSE 2007]

1. Write any two applications of X-rays. [CBSE 2003]


10. Draw a schematic diagram of the experimental
arrangement used by. Davisson and Germer to
2. Why are de-Broglie waves associated with a moving
establish the wave nature of electrons. Explain briefly
football not visible ? The wavelength l, of a photon and
how the de-Broglie wave relation experimentally
the de-Broglie wavelength, of an electron have the
verified in case of electrons. [CBSE 2003, 2007]
same value. Show that the energy of the photon is
2 mc 11. Two lines A and B, in the plot given below
times the kinetic energy of the electron, where
h show the variation of de Broglie wavelength, l
m, c and h have their usual meanings. [CBSE 2003] versus V , where V is the accelerating
potential difference, for two particles c arrying
3. Red light, however bright it is, cannot produce the the same charge. Which one of two represents
emission electrons from a clean zinc surface. But even a particle of smaller mass? [CBSE 2008]
weak ultraviolet radiation can do so. Why? [CBSE 2004]
X-rays of wavelength l fall on photosensitive surface,
emitting electrons. Assuming that the work function of
the surface can be neglected, prove that the de-Broglie
h
wavelength of electrons emitted will be .
2mc
[CBSE 2004]

4. Define the term 'work function' of a metal. The 12. The following graph shows the variation of stopping
threshold frequency of a metal is f0. When the light of potential V0 with the frequency u of the incident
frequency 2f0 is incident on the metal plate, the radiation for two photosensitive metals X and Y
maximum velocity of electrons emitted is v1. When the
frequency of the incident radiation is increased to 5f 0,
the maximum velocity of electrons emitted is v2. Find
the ratio of v1 to v2. [CBSE 2004]

5. Ultraviolet light is incident on two photosensitive


materials having work function W1 and W2 (W1 >
W2). In which case will the kinetic energy of the (i) Which of the metals has larger threshold wavelength
emitted electrons be greater? Why? [CBSE 2005] ? Give reason. [CBSE 2008]

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(ii) Explain, giving reason, which metal gives out although number of nucleons is conserved, yet energy is released.
electrons, having larger kinetic energy, for the same How? Explain.
wavelength of the incident radiation. (b) Show that nuclear density in a given nucleus is independent of
(iii) If the distance between the light source and metal mass number A
X is halved, how will the kinetic energy of electrons
emitted from it change ? Give reason. 23. Using Bohrs postulates, obtain the expression for the
total energy of the electron in the stationary states of
13. The ground state energy of hydrogen atom is 13.6 eV. the hydrogen atom. Hence draw the energy level
(i)What is the kinetic energy of an electron in the 2nd diagram showing how the line spectra corresponding to
excited state? Balmer series occur due to transition between energy
(ii)If the electron jumps to the ground state from the levels. [CBSE 2013]
2nd excited state, calculate the wavelength of the
spectral line emitted. [CBSE 2008]

14. The stopping potential in an experiment on NUCLIE, NUCLEAR FORCE


photoelectric effect is 1.5 V. What is the maximum
Very Short Answer Type Questions: [01 Mark Each]
kinetic energy of the photoelectrons emitted?
[CBSE 2009] 1. What do you mean by Q v alue of a nuclear
reaction? ( P .S .E .B . 2 0 0 0 )
15. Define ionisation energy. What is its value for a 2. How is half-life of a radioactive substance related
hydrogen atom? [CBSE 2010] to its average life? ( P .S . E.B . 2 0 0 1 )
3. Arrange radioactive radiations in the order o f
16. Write Einsteins photoelectric equation. State clearly increasing penetrating power. (CBSE 2006)
any two salient features observe in photoelectric effect, 4. Name two elementary particles which h ave almost
which can be explained on the basis of the above infinite life time ( H .C .S . E . 2 0 0 4 )
equation. [CBSE 2010]
5. What is the relation between decay constant and
half-life of a radioactive element?
17 Deduce the expression for the magnetic dipole moment
6. What fraction of t ritium will remain after 25 years?
of an electron orbiting around the central nucleus.
Given its half-life is 12.5 years. ( C .B .S . E . 2 0 0 1 )
[CBSE 2010]
7. The half life of a radioactive element A is same as
18. Define the term stopping potential in relation to mean life time of another radioactive element B.
photoelectric effect. [CBSE 2011] Initially, both have same number of atoms. B
decays faster than A. Why? ( P .S . E.B . 2 0 0 1 )

19. (a) Using de Broglies hypothesis, explain with the help 8. Compare the radii of two nuclei with mass numbers
of a suitable diagram, Bohrs second postulate of 1 and 27 respectively. ( C .B .S . E . 2 0 0 0 )
quantization of energy levels in a hydrogen atom. 9. What is the order of nuclear density? ( P .S . E .B . 2 0 0 0 )
(b) The ground state energy of hydrogen atom is 13.6 10. What holds nucleons together in a nucleus?
eV. What are the kinetic and potential energies of the ( H .B .S . E . 2 0 0 1 )
electron in this state? [CBSE 2011] 11. Select the pairs of isobars and isotones from the
following nuclei :
20. A proton and an electron have same kinetic energy. 14 13 14 16
6C , 7N , 7N , 8O ( H .B .S .E . 2 0 0 0 )
Which one has greater de-Broglie wavelength and
12. Select the pairs of isotopes and isotones from the
why? [CBSE 2012]
following nuclei:
13 14 30 31
21. Define the terms (i) cut-off voltage and (ii) threshold 6 C , 7 N , 15 P , 15 P ( H .B .S . E. 2 0 0 0 )

frequency in relation to the phenomenon of 13. Which one of 3 X 7 and 3 Y 4 are likely to be more
photoelectric effect.
stable? Give reason . ( C .B .S . E. 2 0 0 0 )
Using Einsteins photoelectric equations shows how the
14. Define atomic mass unit. Write its energy
cut-off voltage and threshold frequency for a given
photosensitive material can be determined with the equivalent.
help of a suitable plot/graph. [CBSE - 2006, 2012] 15. Define nuclear fission.
16. What is the ratio of kWh to MeV?
22. (a) In a typical nuclear reaction, [CBSE 2013] 17. What is meant by mass defect of a nucleus?
2
1 H H He n 3.27MeV ,
2
1
3
2
1
0 18. Write symbolically the decays process of 1532 P.

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Short Answer Type Questions: [02 Marks Each] 8. The sequence of decay of radioactive nu cleus
is
19. Explain one similarity and one dissimilarity D

D 1 D 2
D 3
D4
between nuclear fission and fusion.
(P.S.E.B. 2005) If nucleon number and atomic number of D 2
20. What are thermal neutrons? Why are neutrons are 176 and 71 respectively, what are their
considered as ideal particles for nuclear values for D and D 4 ? (C.B.S.E. 2005, 2006)
fission? (C.B.S. E. 2002)
9. (a) Draw the energy level diagram showing the
21. What do you understand by binding energy per
nucleon?
emission of particles followed by rays by a
60
Co nucleus. (CBSE BOARD 2005 SET -1)
27
22. Write any two characteristic properties of nuclear force.
(b) Plot the distribution of kinetic energy of

[CBSE Out side Delhi board 2011 SET -1]
particles and state why the energy spectrum is
24. A radioactive isotope has a half -life of T years. continuous.
How long will it take the activity to reduce to
(a) 3.125%, (b) 1% of its original value? 11
10. A radioactive sample contains 2.2 mg of pure 6 C
which has half-life period of 1224 second. Calculate
CBSE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS)
(i) the number of atoms present initially.
(ii) the activity when 5 g of the sample will be left .
1. When a deuteron of mass 2.0141 u and negligible (CBSE BOARD 2005 SET -1)
kinetic energy is absorbed by a lithium Li nucleus
6
3
11. Explain the concept of nuclear forces. Discuss
of mass 6.0155 u, the compound nucleus disintegrates their characteristic properties. Which
spontaneously into two alpha particles, each of mass properties distinguish them from electrostatic
4.0026 u. Calculate the energy in joules carried by forces? (C.B.S.E. 2006, 2008, P.S. E.B 2001)
each (1u = 1.66 1027 kg) (CBSE 2004)
12. State and explain the laws of radioactive
2. Heavy water is often used as a moderator in thermal disintegration. Hence define disintegration
nuclear reactors. Give reason. (CBSE 2004) constant and half -life period. Establish relation
between them. (C.B.S. E. 2006, P.S.E. B. 2005,
3. Draw the graph showing the variation of binding C.B.S.E.2004, H.P.B.S. E. 2004, H.B.S. E. 2001)
energy per nucleon with mass number. Give the reason
for the decrease of binding energy per nucleon for 13. Draw the graph to show variation of binding energy
nuclei with high mass numbers. (CBSE 2004) per nucleon with mass number of different atomic
40
nuclei. Calculate binding energy/nucleon of 20 Ca
4. Name the reaction which takes place when a slow nucleus. Given :
235
neutron beam strikes 92 U nuclei. Write the nuclear
40
reaction involved. (CBSE BOARD 2003, 2005) mas of 20 Ca = 39.962589 u
mass of proton = 1.007825 u
5. Define decay constant (C.B.S. E.2006) mass of neutron = 1.008665 u
6. Define the terms half-life period and decay constant of
and 1 u = 931 Me V/c2 (CBSE BOARD 2007)
a radioactive substance. Write their S.I. units. Establish
the relationship between the two. (CBSE 2004, 2006)
14. Calculate the amount of energy released during the
7. A neutron is absorbed by a
6
Li nucleus with the -decay of
238
92
U 234
90
Th He
4
2
3
238
subsequent emission of an alpha particle. Given: atomic mass of 92
U = 238.05079 u, atomic
(i) Write the corresponding nuclear reaction. 234
(ii) Calculate the energy released, in MeV, in this
mass of 90
Th = 234.04363 u, atomic mass 42 He =
reaction. (CBSE BOARD 2006) 4.00260 u,
[Given : mass
6
3 Li = 6.015126 u; mass (neutron) = 1amu = 931.5 MeV/c2 .Is this decay spontaneous?
1.0086654 u mass (alpha particle) = 0.0026044 u and Given reason (CBSE BOARD 2007)

mass (triton) = 3.0100000 u. Take 1 u = 931 MeV/c 2]

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15. A nucleus
23
23 The mass number and atomic number of A are 180
10 Ne undergoes decay and becomes 11
and 72 respectively. What are these numbers for A4?
Na. Calculate the maximum kinetic energy of electron
(CBSE BOARD 2006, 2007, 2009)
emitted assuming that the daughter nucleus and anti-
neutrino carry negligible kinetic energy
22. Define the activity of a radionuclide. Write its S.I. unit.
mass of 10
23
Ne 22.994466 u Give a plot of the activity of a radioactive species
versus time. (CBSE BOARD 2009)
mass of 11 Na 22.989770 u
23
(CBSE 2008)
How long will be radioactive isotope whose half-life is
1u 931.5 MeV / c 2
T years, take for its activity to reduce to 1/8 th of its
initial value ?
16. If the nucleons of a nucleus are separated far apart from
23. Draw a plot a potential energy of a pair of nucleons as
each other, the sum of masses of all these nucleons is
a function of their separation. Write two important
larger than the mass of the nucleus. Where does this
conclusions which you can draw regarding the nature
mass difference come from?
of nuclear forces. (CBSE BOARD 2007, 2010, 2012)
Calculate the energy released if 238U nucleus emits an
a-particle. Given: (CBSE BOARD 2007)
24. (a) Write symbolically the b decay process of
32
238 P.
Atomic mas of U = 238.0508 u 15
(b) Derive an expression for the average life of a
Atomic mass of 234Th = 234.04363 u radionuclide. Give its relationship with the half-life
Atomic mass of alpha-particle = 4.00260 u (CBSE BOARD 2010)
and 1u = 931 MeV/c2
25. How is the size of nucleus experimentally determined?
17. A neutron is absorbed by a
6
Li nucleus with the Write the relation between the radius and mass number
3
of the nucleus. Show that the density of nucleus is
subsequent emission of an alpha particle. independent of its mass number. (CBSE BOARD 2011)
(i) Write the corresponding nuclear reaction.
(ii) Calculate the energy released, in MeV, in this 26. State the law of radioactive decay. Plot a graph
reaction. (CBSE BOARD 2006, 2007)
showing the number (N) of undecayed nuclei as s
6
[Given: mass 3 Li = 6.015126 u; mass (neutron) = function of time (t) for a given radioactive sample
1.0086654 u mass (alpha particle) = 0.0026044 u and having half life T1/2. (CBSC 2011)

mass (triton) = 3.0100000 u. Take i u = 931 MeV/c2] Depict in the plot the number of undecayed nuclei at
(i) t = 3 T1/2 and (ii) t = 4 T1/2.
18. What do you understand by isotopes, isobars 27. What is the effect on neutron to proton ratio in
and isotones? Explain with illustrations. a nucleus when (i) an electron, (ii) a positron
(C.B.S. E. 2008) is emitted? (C.B .S.E. 2003, 2006, 201 1)

19. A nucleus
23
10 Ne undergoes decay and becomes 28. A nucleus undergoes decay. How does its

23 (i) mass number


11 Na. Calculate the maximum kinetic energy of
(ii) atomic number change? (CBSE BOARD 2006, 2011)
electrons emitted assuming that the daughter nucleus
and anti-neutrino carry negligible kinetic energy
29. How is the radius of a nucleus related to its mass
number?
mass of 10
23
Ne 22.994466 u
30. (a) Derive the law of radioactive decay, (CBSE 2011)
mass of 11 Na 22.989770 u
23
(CBSE BOARD 2008)
N = N0 e lt
1u 931.5 MeV / c 2
(b) Explain, giving necessary reactions, how energy is
released during (i) fission and (ii) fusion.
20. Two nuclei have mass umbers in the ratio 1:2. What is
the ratio of their nuclear densities (CBSE BOARD 2009)

21. A radioactive nucleus A undergoes a series of decays


according to the following scheme:

A A1 A2 A3 A4

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SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Long Answer Type Questions: [05 Marks Each]

Short Answer Type Questions: [02 Marks Each] 12. With the help of a circuit diagram explain the working
of a transistor as an oscillator.
1. How is a p-type semiconductor formed? Name the
majority carriers in it. Draw the energy band diagram 13. Explain briefly with the help of a circuit diagram how
of a p-type semiconductor. V-I characteristics of a p-n junction diode are obtained
in: (i) forward bias & (ii) reverse bias.
2. How is an n-type semiconductor formed? Name the
majority carriers in it. Draw the energy band diagram 14. Explain the function of base region of a transistor. Why
of a n-type semiconductor. this region is made thin and lightly doped? Draw a
circuit diagram to study the input and the output
3. With the help of a diagram, show the biasing of a light characteristics of n-p-n transistor in a common emitter
emitting diode (LED). Give its two advantages over (CE) configuration. Show these characteristics
conventional incandescent lamps. graphically. Explain how current amplification factor of
the transistor is calculated using output characteristics.
4. Draw a circuit diagram to show how a photodiode is
biased. Draw its characteristic curves for two different 15. Draw the energy bands of p-type and n-type
illumination intensities. semiconductors. Explain with a circuit diagram the
working of a full wave rectifier.
5. Give the logic symbol for an AND gate. Draw the
output wave form for input wave forms for this gate. 16. Explain with the help of a circuit diagram the use of an
n-p-n transistor as an amplifier in common emitter
Short Answer Type Questions: [03 Marks Each] configuration. Draw the input and output wave forms
of the signal. Write the expression for its voltage gain.
6. What is rectification? How can a diode valve be used
as half wave rectifier and full wave rectifier? 17. What is an n-p-n transistor? How does it differ from p-
n-p transistor? Give their symbols. Explain transistor
7. Explain how the depletion layer and the barrier action.
potential are formed in a p-n junction diode.
18. Explain the working of transistor as a switch. Draw
8. Draw a circuit diagram for use of NPN transistor as an transfer characteristic curve by showing
amplifier in common emitter configuration. 1) Cut-off region
The input resistance 1000 of a transistor is On 2) Active region and
changing its base current by10A, the collector current 3) Saturation region.
increases by 2 mA. If a load resistance of 5K is used
in the circuit, calculate
(i) the current gain &
(ii) voltage gain of the amplifier

9. The output of an AND gate is connected to both the


inputs of a NAND gate. Draw the logic circuit of this
combination of gates and write its truth table.

10. What is a Zener diode? How it is symbolically


represented? With the help of a circuit diagram, explain
the use of Zener diode as a voltage stabilizer.

11. With the help of a suitable diagram, explain the


formation of depletion region in a p-n junction. How
does its width change when the junction is:

(i) forward biased? &


(ii) reverse biased?

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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Long Answer Type Questions: [05 Marks Each]

19. Define the term modulation index for an AM wave. What


Short Answer Type Questions: [02 Marks Each]
would be the modulation index for an AM wave for which the
1. Draw a block diagram of communication system.
maximum amplitude is a and the minimum amplitude is b
2. Distinguish between point to point and broadcast
communication modes. Give one example of each. 20. A TV tower has a height h. Derive an expression for
maximum distance up to which the signal can be received
3. Explain the following terms. from the earth.
a) Ground waves b) Space waves and c) sky waves.
21. What is meant by the term modulation? Explain with the help
of a block diagram, how the process of modulation is carried
4. What does the term LOS communication mean? Name
out in AM broadcasts?
the types of waves that are used for this
communication. Give typical examples, with the help 22. What is meant by production of a modulated carrier wave?
of a suitable figure, of communication systems that use Describe briefly the essential steps with block diagram
space wave mode propagation. production.

5. Write the function of 1) Transducer and 2) repeater in 23. What is meant by detection of a modulated carrier wave?
the context of communication system. Describe briefly the essential steps with block diagram
6. What is modulation? Explain the need of modulating a detection.
low frequency information signal. 24. A schematic arrangement for transmitting a message signal
(20 Hz to 20 kHz) is given below:
7. We do not choose to transmit an audio signal by just
directly converting it to an E.M wave of the same
frequency. Give two reasons for the same.
8. Explain briefly with the help of diagrams the terms
(i) amplitude modulation and
(ii) Frequency modulation.
Which of these (i) gives better quality transmission?
(ii) Has a larger coverage
9. Why is short wave bands used for long distance
Give two drawbacks from which this arrangement suffers.
transmission of signals? Describe briefly with the help of a block diagram the
10. Optical and radio telescope are built on the ground but alternative arrangement for the transmission and reception of
x-ray astronomy is possible only from satellite? the message signal.
11. Draw a block diagram for a transmitter and a receiver
of AM wave. 25. Ground receiver station is receiving a signal at (i) 5MH and (ii
12. Why is delta modulation a convenient method of 100MHz transmitted from a round transmitter at a height of
digital modulation? 300 m, located at a distance of 100 km from the receiver
13. Where the two wire transmission line, Coaxial cable, station. Identify whether the signal is coming via space wave
Optical fibre are employed. or sky wave propagation or satellite transponder. Radius of
earth = 6.4 x 106 m N max of the Iso sphere = 1012 m3
14. Differentiate between (i) PAM and (II) PPM .
15. An audio signal of 1 kHz is used to modulate a carrier
26. An AM wave is represented by the expression:
of 500 kHz. Determine v = 5(1+0.6cos 6280t) sin 221 X 104t volts
(i) Sideband frequency (ii) Bandwidth required. (i) What are the maximum and minimum amplitudes of the
AM wave?
16. The antenna current of an AM transmitter is 8A when (ii) What frequency components are contained in the
only carrier is sent but it increases to 8.93A when the modulated wave?
carrier is sinusoid ally modulated. Find the percentage
modulation index.
17. Frequencies higher than 10MHz are found not to be
reflected by the ionosphere on a particular day at a
place. Calculate the maximum electron density of the
ionosphere.
18. You are given three semiconductors A, B, C with
respective band gaps of 3eV, 2eV and 1eV for use in a
photo detector to detect = 1400nm. Select the
suitable semiconductor. Give reasons.

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