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439 просмотров30 стр.Question Bank FOR XII CBSE Board 2017, GOOD LUCK FOR ALL BOARD STUDENTS

Feb 25, 2017

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Question Bank FOR XII CBSE Board 2017, GOOD LUCK FOR ALL BOARD STUDENTS

© All Rights Reserved

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Question Bank FOR XII CBSE Board 2017, GOOD LUCK FOR ALL BOARD STUDENTS

© All Rights Reserved

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XI &XII (CBSE & ICSE BOARD) IIT-JEE / NEET /AIIMS / JIPMER / uptU

0.1 m

2. Define electric field intensity. Write its S.I unit. Write z

Ex = ax, where a = 500 N/C-m , Ey = 0, EZ = 0

the magnitude and direction of electric field intensity

Calculate (i) the flux through the cube, and (ii) the

due to an electric dipole of length 2a at the mid-point

charge inside the cube.

of the line joining the two charges. [CBSE 2005]

3. Three point charge of +2 C, 3 C and 3 C are

separated by a distance of 50 cm in air.

kept at the vertices, A, B and C respectively of an (i) Find the point on the line joining the charges, where

equilateral triangle of side 20 cm as shown in the the electric potential is zero. [CBSE BOARD 2008]

figure. What should be the sign and magnitude of the (ii) Also find the electrostatic potential energy of the

charge to be placed at the mid-point (M) of side BC so system.

that the charge at A remains in equilibrium?

[CBSE-2005]

9. A positive point charge (+q) is kept in the vicinity of an

+2 C uncharged conducting plate. Sketch electric field lines

A originating from the point on to the surface of the plate.

Derive the expression for the electric field at the surface

of charged conductor. [CBSE BOARD 2009]

M

B

3 C 20cm

C

3 C 10. Point out right or wrong for the following statements:

[CBSE BOARD 2009]

(a) The mutual forces between two charges do not get

4. The electric field E due to a point charge at any point affected by the presence of other charges.

F (b) The potential, due to a dipole, at any point on its

near it is defined as E lim

q 0 , where q is the test

q axial line, is zero.

charge and F is the force acting on it. What is the

lim 11. Two charges +Q and Q are kept at (x2, 0) and (x1,

physical significance of in this expression? Draw

q 0

0) respectively in the x y plane. Find the magnitude

the electric field lines of a point change Q when (i) Q > and direction of the net electric field at the origin (0, 0)

0 and (ii) Q < 0. [CBSE 2007] [CBSE 2009]

5. Define electric flux. Write its S.I units. A spherical 12. (a) A charge +Q is placed on a large spherical

rubber balloon carries a charge that is uniformly conducting shell of radius R. Another small conducting

distributed over its surface. As the balloon is blown up sphere of radius r carrying charge q is introduced

and increases in size, how does the total electric flux inside the large shell and is placed at its centre. Find

coming out of the surface change ? Give reason. the potential difference between two points, one lying

[CBSE 2007] on the sphere and the other on the shell.

6. Calculate the work done to dissociate the system of (b) How would the charge between the two flow if they

three charges placed on the vertices of a triangle as are connected by a conducting wire? Name the device

shown. Here q = 1.6 1010 C [CBSE 2007] which works on this fact [CBSE BOARD 2009]

outer radius r2 has a charge Q. A point charge q is

placed at the centre of the shell. [CBSE BOARD 2010]

surface (ii) outer surface of the shell ?

7. The electric field components due to charge inside the (b) Write the expression for the electric field at a point x

cube of side 0.1 m as shown: [CBSE BOARD 2008] > r2 from the centre of the shell ?

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14. Show that the electric field at the surface of a charged 22. Two small identical electrical dipole AB and CD,

each of dipole moment 'p' are kept at an angle of 120 as

conductor is given by E n , where is the shown in the figure. What is the resultant dipole moment of

0 this combination? If this system is subjected to electric field

surface charge density and n is a unit vector normal directed along + X direction, what will be the

(E)

to the surface in the outward direction

[CBSE BOARD 2010] magnitude and direction of the torque acting on this?

[CBSE 2011]

106 N/C. If the work done in rotating it, from its

position of stable equilibrium to its position of unstable

equilibrium, equals 2 1023 J, find the magnitude of

the dipole moment of this dipole. [CBSE BOARD 2010]

B

Two charges + 2q and q are enclosed within a 23. Two point charges having equal charges separated by

surface S. What is the electric flux due to this 1m distance experience a force of 8 N. What will be the

configuration through the surface S [CBSE 2010]

force experienced by them, if they are held in water, at

the same distance? (Given: Kwater = 80)

[CBSE 2011]

the electric field due to a uniformly charged thin

spherical shell at points (i) inside and (ii) outside the

shell. [CBSE 2011]

17. In which orientation, a dipole placed in a uniform

electric field is in (i) stable, (ii) unstable equilibrium?

[CBSE 2010] 25. Define electric dipole moment. Write its S.I. unit.[CBSE

2011]

26. Two point charges 3 C and 3 C are placed at

two identical positive point charges placed a distance

d apart. [CBSE BOARD 2010] points A and B apart. . [CBSE 2011]

(b) Deduce the expression for the potential energy of a

system of two point charges q1 and q2 brought from (i) Draw the equipotential surfaces of the system

(ii) Why do the equipotential surfaces get closer to each

infinity to the points r1 and r2 respectively in the other near the point charges?

presence of external electric field .

27. A hollow metal sphere of radius 10 cm is charged such

19. A proton is placed in a uniform electric field directed that the potential on its surface is 5V. What is the

along the positive x-axis. In which direction will it tend potential at the centre of the sphere? [CBSE 2011]

to move? [CBSE BOARD 2011]

28. A thin straight infinitely long conducting wire having

20. (a) Draw equipotential surfaces due to a point charge charge density is enclosed by a cylindrical surface of

Q > 0. radius r and length l, its axis coinciding with the length

(b) Are these surfaces equidistant from each other? If of the wire. Find the expression for the electric flux

not explain why. [CBSE BOARD 2011] through the surface of the cylinder. [CBSE 2011]

21. A point charge Q is placed at point O as shown in the 29. Why must electrostatic field be normal to the surface at

figure. Is the potential difference VA VB positive, every point of a charged conductor?

negative or zero, if Q is (i) positive (ii) negative? [CBSC 2012]

[CBSE 2011]

30. Draw a plot showing the variation of (i) electric field (E)

and (ii) electric potential (V) with distance r due to a

point charge Q.

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31. Explain the principle of device that can build up high

voltages of the order of a few million volts. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL, ENERGY & CAPACITORS

Draw a schematic diagram and explain the working of Very Short Answer Type Questions: [01 Mark Each]

this device. [CBSE 2012]

Is there any restriction on the upper limit of the high 1. Name the dielectric whose molecules have (i) non-zero and

voltages set up in this machine? Explain. (ii) Zero dipole moment.

2. Define dielectric constant of a medium. What is the value of

32. (a) Define electric flux. Write its S.I.units. [CBSE 2012] dielectric constant for a metal?

(b) Using Gausss law, prove that the electric field at 3. What happens to the energy stored in a capacitor if, the

point due to a uniformly charged infinite plane sheet is plates of a charged capacitor are moved farther, the battery

independent of the distance from it. remaining connected?

(c) How is the field directed if (i) the sheet is positively

4. Distinguish between polar and non-polar dielectrics.

charged, (ii) negatively charged ?

5. An air capacitor is given a charge of 2mC raising its potential

34. A test charge 'q' is moved without acceleration from A to 200 V . If on inserting a dielectric medium its potential falls

to C along the path from A to B and then B to C in to 50 V, what is the dielectric constant of the medium?

electric field E as shown in the figure (i) Calculate the

potential difference between A and C. (ii) At which 6. In what form is the energy stored in a charged capacitor?

point (of the two) is the electric potential more and

why? [CBSE 2012]

7. On what factors does the capacitance of a parallel plate

capacitor with dielectric depend?

capacitance is found to increase 5 times, what is the relative

permittivity of the dielectric?

is placed in an external electric field?

35. An electric dipole is held in a uniform electric field. CBSE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS)

(i) Show that the net force acting on it is zero.

(ii) The dipole is aligned parallel to the field. Find the 1. Obtain the expression for the capacitance of a parallel

work done in rotating it through the angle of 180. plate capacitor.

[CBSE 2012] Three capacitors of capacitances C1, C2 and C3 are

connected (i) in series, (ii) in parallel. show that the

energy stored in the series combination is the same as

that in the parallel combination. [CBSE 2003]

plates of two capacitors A and B versuls increase of

charge, Q stored on them. Which of the two

capacitors has higher capacitance? Give reason for

your answer. [CBSE 2004]

given network. [CBSE 2004]

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4. A 10 F capacitor is charged by a 30 V d.c. supply and On charging a parallel plate capacitor to a potential V,

then connected across an uncharged 50F capacitor. the spacing between the plates is halved, and a

Calculate dielectric medium of r = 10 is introduced between the

plates, without disconnecting the d.c. source. Explain,

(i)The final potential difference across the combination, using suitable expressions, how the [CBSE 2008]

(ii) the initial and final energies. How will you account (i) capacitance,

for the difference in energy? [CBSE 2004] (ii) electric field and

(iii) energy density of the capacitor change.

5. (a) Why does the electric field inside a dielectric

decreases when it is placed in an external electric field? 12. Three identical capacitor C1,C2 and C3 of capacitance

(b) A parallel plate capacitor with air between the

6mF each are connected to a 12 V battery as shown

plates has a capacitance of 8pF. What will be the

Find [CBSE 2009]

capacitance if the distance between the plates be

reduced by half and the space between them is filled

with a substance of dielectric constant K = 6?

[CBSE-2005 - 06, 2 Marks]

much electrostatic energy is stored in the capacitor.

[CBSE-2005]

(i) charge on each capacitor

(ii) equivalent capacitance of the network

7. A parallel plate capacitor is to be designed with a (iii) energy stored in the network of capacitors

voltage rating 1kV using a material of dielectric

13. A parallel plate capacitor is charged by a battery. After

constant 3 and dielectric strength about 107 Vm1.

some time the battery is disconnected and a dielectric

For safety we would like the field never to exceed say,

slab of dielectric constant K is inserted between the

10% of the dipole strength. What minimum area of the

plates. How would

plates is required to have a capacitance 50 pF

(i) the capacitance,

[CBSE-2005]

(ii) the electric field between the plates and

(iii) the energy stored in the capacitor, be affected ?

8. Two capacitors of capacitance of 6F and 12F are

Justify your answer. [CBSE 2009]

connected in series with a battery. The voltage across

the 6F capacitor is 2V. Compute the total battery

14. A network of four capacitors each of 12 F capacitance

voltage. [CBSE 2006]

is connected to a 500 V supply as shown in figure.

Determine

9. A parallel plate capacitor, each with plate area A and

(a) Equivalent capacitance of the network and

separation d, is charged to a potential difference V. The

(b) Charge on each capacitor [ CBSE 2010]

battery used to charge it is then disconnected. A

dielectric slab of thickness d and dielectric constant K is

now placed between the plates. When change, if any,

will take place in [CBSE 2007]

(ii) Electric field intensity between the plates

(iii) Capacitance of the capacitor

Justify your answer in each case.

plate capacitor. If two similar plates, each of area A 15. A parallel-plate capacitor is charged to a potential

having surface charge densities + and are difference V by a dc source. The capacitor is then

separated by a distance d in air, write expressions for. disconnected from the source. If the distance between

the plates is doubled, state with reason how the

(i) the electric field at points between the two plates. following change: [CBSE 2010]

(ii) the potential difference between the plates.

(iii) the capacitance of the capacitor so formed. (i) Electric field between the plates

[CBSE 2007]

(ii) Capacitance, and

11. Derive an expression for the energy stored in a parallel

(iii) Energy stored in the capacitor

plate capacitor.

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16. Figure shows two identical capacitors, C1 and C2, 12. Give the colour coding for a carbon resistor of 1 ohm having

5% tolerance?

each of 1 mF capacitance connected to a battery of

13. If the temperature of a metallic conductor increases how does

6V. Initially switch 'S' is closed. After sometime 'S' is let the relaxation time of electrons in conductor change?

open and dielectric slabs of dielectric constant K = 3 14 Write the dimensional formula of mobility of electrons.

are inserted to fill completely the space between the 15. Manganin is used in making standard resistance .give two

plates of the two capacitors. How will the (i) charge reasons.

and (ii) potential difference between the plates 16. How does the drift velocity of electrons in a metallic conductor

of the capacitors be affected after the slabs are change, if the length of the conductor is doubled by stretching

inserted? [CBSE 2011] it, keeping the applied potential difference constant?

A battery E1 of 4V and variable resistance Rh are

connected in series with the wire AB of the

potentiometer. The length of the wire of the

potentiometer is 1 metre. When a cell E2 of e.m.f. 1.5

17. Net capacitance of three identical capacitors in series is

volt is connected between points A and C, no current

1 F. What will be their net capacitance if connected in flows through E2. Length of AC = 60 cm. [CBSE 2003]

parallel? Find the ratio of energy stored in the two

configurations if they are both connected to the same

source. [CBSC 2011]

stored in a capacitor of capacitance 'C' and having

charge'Q' [CBSC 2012]

How will the

(i) energy stored and (i) Find the potential difference between the ends A

(ii) the electric field inside the capacitor be affected and B of the potentiometer.

when it is completely filled with a dielectric material of (ii) Would the method work, if the battery E1 is

dielectric constant 'K' ? replaced by a cell of e.m.f. of 1V?

2. Are the paths of electrons straight lines between

successive collisions (with positive ions of the metal) in

CURRENT ELECTRICTY the (i) absence of electric field (ii) presence of electric

field? [CBSE 2003]

Very Short Answer Type Questions: One mark questions (iii) Establish a relation [01

between drift velocity vd of an

Mark Each]

1. Define drift velocity of an electron electron in a conductor of cross-section A, carrying

2. How does the drift velocity of electrons in a metallic current i and concentration n of free electrons per

conductor vary with increase in temperature? unit volume of conductor. Hence obtain the relation

3. A steady current flows in a metallic conductor of non-uniform between current density and drift velocity.

cross-section. Explain which of these quantities is constant 3. The circuit diagram shows the use of a potentiometer

along the conductor: Current, current density, electric field to measure a small emf produced by a thermocouple

and drift speed? connected between X and Y. The cell C, of emf 2V,

4. The potential difference across a given copper wire is

has negligible internal resistance. The potentiometer

increased. What happens to the drift velocity of the charge

carriers? wire PQ is 1.00 m long and has resistance 5. The

5. Explain, how does the resistivity of a conductor depend upon balance point s is found to be 400 mm from P.

(i) number density (n) of free electrons and Calculate the value of emf V, generated by the

(ii) Relaxation time (t) thermocouple. [CBSE 2004]

6. What do you mean by e.m.f. of a cell? Cell emf = 2.00V

7. It is easier to start a car engine on a warm day than on a

chilly day. Why?

8. The wire of a potentiometer should be of uniform area of P

cross-section. Why? Q

9. Name the device used for measuring the internal resistance of 995

a secondary cell. Thermocouple

10. Under what conditions will Terminal potential difference of a X Y

cell be greater than its EMF?

Hot junction Cold junction

11. A wire of resistivity is stretched to twice its length. What will

be its new resistivity?

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4. Deduce the condition for balance in a Wheatstone If the galvanometer deflection at the end B is

Bridge. Using the principle of Wheatstone Bridge, (i) More, (ii) less, than that the at the end A, which of

describe the method to determine the specific the two faults, listed above, would be there in the

resistance of a wire in the laboratory. Draw the circuit circuit?

diagram and write the formula used. write any two

important precautions you would observe while

performing the experiment. [CBSE 2003-04]

5. Define the term resistivity and write its S.I. unit, Derive

the expression for the resistivity of a conductor in terms

of number density of free electrons and relaxation time Give reasons in support of your answer in each case.

[CBSE 2005]

11. A number of identical cells, n, each of emf E, internal

6. You are given 'n' resistors, each of resistance 'r'. These

resistance r connected in series are charged by a d.c

are first connected to get minimum possible resistance.

source of emf E. using a resistor R. [CBSE 2008]

In the second case, these are again connected

(i) Draw the circuit arrangement.

differently to get maximum possible resistance.

(ii) Deduce the expressions for (a) the charging current

Compute the ratio between the minimum and

and (b) the potential difference across the

maximum values of resistance so obtained. [CBSE 2006]

combination of the cells.

7. Draw a circuit diagram using a meter bridge and write

the necessary mathematical relation used to determine

12. A potentiometer wire of length 1m is connected to a

the value of an unknown resistance. Why cannot such

driver cell of emf 3 V as shown in the figure . When a

an arrangement be used for measuring very low

cell of 1.5 V emf is used in the secondary circuit, the

resistance? [CBSE 2006]

balance point is found to be 60 cm. On replacing this

cell and using a cell of unknown emf, the balance point

8. Sate Kirchhoffs rules of current distribution in an

shifts to 80 cm. [CBSE 2008]

electrical network. Using these rules determine the

value of the current I1 in the electric circuit given

below. [CBSE 2007]

9. The given figure shows a network of resistances R1, (ii) Explain with reason, whether the circuit works, if

R2, R3 and R4. [CBSE 2007] the driver cell is replaced with a cell of emf 1 V.

(iii) Does the high resistance R, used in the secondary

circuit affect the balance point ? Justify your answer.

bridge. When the two unknown resistance x and y are

inserted the null point D is obtained 40 cm from the

end A. when a resistance of 30 is connected in series

with x, the null point shift by 10 cm. find the position of

the null point when 30 resistance is instead of X

Using Kirchhoffs laws, establish the balance condition connected in series with Y determine the value of X

for the network. and Y [CBSE 2009]

X Y

10. For the potentiometer circuit shown in the given figure,

points X and Y represent the two terminals of a

unknown emf E. A student observed that when the

jockey is moved from the end A to the end B of the G

potentiometer wire, the deflection in the galvanometer

A D C

remains in the same direction. [CBSE 2007]

()

What may be the two possible faults in the circuit that

could result in this observation ?

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14. A wire of 15 W resistance is gradually stretched to (c) Outline the necessary steps to convert a

double its original length. It is then cut into two equal galvanometer of resistance RG into an ammeter of a

parts. These parts are then connected in parallel across given range. [CBSC 2011]

a 3.0 volt battery. Find the current drawn from the 21. A cell of emf E and internal resistance r is connected to

battery. [CBSE 2009] two external resistances R1 and R2 and a perfect

15. Two conducting wires X and Y of same diameter but

ammeter. The current in the circuit is measured in four

different materials are joined in series across a battery.

different situations:

If the number density of electron in X is twice that in Y,

(i) Without any external resistance in the circuit

find the ratio of drift velocity of electrons in the two

(ii) With resistance R1 only

wires. [CBSE 2010]

16. In a meter bridge, the null point is found at a distance (iii) With R1 and R2 in series combination

of l1 cm from A. If now a resistance of X is connected (iv) With R1 and R2 in parallel combination

in parallel with S, the null point occurs at l2 cm. Obtain The currents measured in the four cases are 0.42 A,

a formula for X in terms of l1, l2 and S.[CBSE 2009, 10] 1.05 A, 1.4A and 4.2 A, but not necessarily in that

X order, Identify the currents corresponding to the four

cases mentioned above. [CBSE 2012]

R

S 22. In the figure a long uniform potentiometer wire AB is

having a constant potential gradient along its length.

G The null points for the two primary cells of emf 1 and

A B

2 connected in the manner shown are obtained at a

distance of 120 cm and 300cm. from the end A Find

(i) 1/2 and (ii) position of null point for the cell 1.

17. Write the principle of working of a potentiometer. How is the sensitivity of a potentiometer increased?

[CBSE 2012]

Describe briefly, with the help of a circuit diagram, how

a potentiometer is used to determine the internal

resistance of a given cell. [CBSE 2010,2011]

18. In the meter bridge experiment, balance point was

observed at J with AJ = l. [CBSE 2010]

(i) The values of R and X were doubled and then

interchanged. What would be the new position of

balance point?

(ii) If the galvanometer and battery are interchanged at

the balance positions how will the balance point get 23. Using Kirchhoffs rules determine the value of unknown

affected. resistance R in the circuit so that no current flows

through 4 W resistance. Also find the potential

difference between A and D.

= 30 and E = 10 V. Calculate the equivalent

resistance of the circuit and the current in each resistor. 24. Calculate the value of the resistance R in the circuit

[CBSE 2011]

show in the figure so that the current in the circuit is 0.2

A. What would be the potential difference between

points B and E? [CBSE 2012]

galvanometer, giving its labelled diagram.

(b) "Increasing the current sensitivity of a galvanometer

may not necessarily increase its voltage sensitivity."

Justify this statement.

QUESTION BANK FOR CLASS XII (CBSE BOARD-2017)

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MAGNETIC EFFECT OF CURRENT 13. What is the angle of dip at a place where horizontal

and vertical components of earths field are equal?

Very Short Answer Type Questions: [01 Mark Each]

Short Answer Type Questions: [02 Marks Each]

1. Magnetic field lines can be entirely confined within the

core of a toroid, but not within a straight solenoid. 14. An electron is projected with a velocity of 105 ms1 at

Why? right angles to a magnetic field of 0.019 G. Calculate

2. A beam of a particles projected along + x- axis, the radius of the circular path described by the

experiences a force due to a magnetic field along the electron, if e = 1.6 1019 C, m = 9.11031 kg.

+y axis. What is the direction of the magnetic field? 15. A small compass needle of magnetic moment 'M' and

moment of inertial 'I' is free to oscillate in a magnetic

field 'B'. It is slightly disturbed from its equilibrium

position and then released. Show that it executes

simple harmonic motion. Hence write the expression

for its time period. [CBSE BOARD 2011]

16. In an atom, an electron is revolving with uniform speed

of 5.0 106 ms1 in a circular orbit of radius 0.5

1010 m around its nucleus. Calculate the magnetic

3. Write the expression for Lorentz magnetic force on a

field produced at the centre of the orbit, Given:

particle of charge 'q' moving with velocity v in a

m0 / 4p = 107 weber/ampere-meter and e = 1.6

magnetic field B . Show that no work is done by this

force on the charged particle. [CBSC 2011] 1019 coulomb. (2002)

17. A thin solenoid of length 20 cm has single layer of 500

4. Two particles A and B of masses m and 2m have turns of fine wire and carries a current of

charges q and 2q respectively. Both these particles 4.0 103 A. Calculate the intensity of the magnetic

moving with velocities v1 and v2 respectively in the field on the axis at the mid-point and at the ends of the

same direction enter the same magnetic field B acting solenoid.

normally to their direction of motion. If the two forces 27. A circular segment of radius R metre subtends an angle

FA and FB acting on then are in the ratio of 1 : 2, find of a radian at its centre. A current of i ampere is flowing

in it in the direction shown. Find the magnitude and

the ratio of their velocities. [CBSE BOARD 2011]

direction of magnetic field at the centre. (2005)

6. Give two differences between magnetic lines of force CBSE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS)

and electric lines of force.

1. Where on the earths surface is the value of vertical

7. A charge q moves in a magnetic field B with a velocity

component of the earths magnetic field zero?

v making an angle of 30 with B .What will be the The horizontal component of the earths magnetic field

magnitude of the force acting on the charge? at a given place is 0.4 104 Wb/m2 and angle of dip

8. The speed of a charged particle moving in a magnetic is 30. Calculate the value of

field does not change. Why? (2003)

(i) Vertical component,

9. Write the expression for the force acting on a length (ii) The total intensity of the earths magnetic field.

d of a conductor carrying a current i and placed in a

magnetic field B . 2. In the diagram below is shown a circular loop carrying

current I. show the direction of the magnetic field with

10. Write the definition of magnetic field B . the help of lines of force. [CBSE 2004]

11. A proton is moving in a uniform magnetic field. What

will be the path of the proton, if its initial direction is

(i) parallel to the field

(ii) Perpendicular to the field

(iii) At an angle with the field.

12. Write the formula for the magnetic force acting

between two parallel moving charges, explaining the

3. Explain with the help of diagram the terms

meanings of the symbols used. (UPB 2005)

(i) magnetic declination and

(ii) angle of dip at a given place.

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4. State and explain Biot-Savarts law for the magnetic Figure shows a rectangular current carrying loop

field due to a current element. [CBSE 2004] placed 2 cm away from a long, straight, current-

carrying conductor. What is the direction and

5. Two long parallel straight wires X and Y separated by a magnitude of the net force acting on the loop?

distance of 5 cm in air carry currents of 10A and 5A (CBSE 2005, 2009, 2011)

respectively in opposite directions. Calculate the

magnitude and direction of the force on a 20 cm 11. An electrons is moving along +ve x-axis in the

length of the wire Y. [CBSE 2004] presence of uniform magnetic field along +ve y-axis.

What is the direction of the force acting on it [2007]

Ferro-magnetic substances in terms of

(i) Susceptibility,

(ii) Magnetic permeability and

(iii) Coercivity. Give one example of each of these

materials.

Draw the field lines due to an external magnetic field

near a (i) diamagnetic,

6. Using Biot-Savarts law, deduce an expression for the (ii) Paramagnetic substance

magnetic field on the axis of a circular current loop. [CBSE 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2010].

Draw the magnetic field lines due to circular current

carrying loop. [CBSE 2004] 13. What is the direction of the force acting on a charged

particle q, moving with a velocity v in a uniform

7. A hydrogen ion of mass m and charge q travels with

magnetic field B ? [CBSE-2008]

a speed v in a circle of radius r in a magnetic field of

intensity B. Write the equation in terms of these

14. Define magnetic susceptibility of a material. Name two

quantities only, relating the force on the ion to the

elements one having positive susceptibility and the

required centripetal force. Hence derive an expression

other having negative susceptibility .What does

for its time period. [CBSE 2004]

negative susceptibility signify? [CBSE-2008]

15. Magnetic field lines can be entirely confined within the

core of a toroid, but not within a straight solenoid.

9. Explain the principle and work in of a cyclotron with

Why? [CBSE 2009]

the help of labelled diagram. A cyclotrons oscillator

frequency is 10 MHz what should be the operating

16. An electron does not suffer any deflection while passing

magnetic field for accelerating protons? If the radius of

through a region of uniform magnetics filed. What is

its Dees is 60cm, what is the kinetic energy of the

the direction of the magnetic field? [CBSE 2009]

proton beam produced by the accelerator? Express

your answer in units of Me V.

17. Write the expression for the magnetic moment ( m )

(e = 1.60 1019 C, m = 1.67 1027 kg, 1MeV=

due to a planar square loop of side l carrying a steady

1.62 1013 J.)

[CBSE 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011] current I in a vector form [CBSE 2010]

In the given figure this loop is placed in a horizontal

10. Depict the magnetic field lines due to two straight, long plane near a long straight conductor carrying a steady

parallel conductors carrying currents I1 and I2 in the current I1 at a distance l as shown. Give reason to

same direction, Hence deduce an expression for the explain that the loop will experience a net force but no

force acting per unit length on one conductor due to torque. Write the expression for this force acting on the

the other. Is this force attractive or repulsive? loop.

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18. A long straight wire of a circular cross-section of radius ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

a carries a steady current I. The current is uniformly

distributed across the cross-section. Apply Amperes Very Short Answer Type Questions: [01 Mark Each]

circuital law to calculate the magnetic field at a point r

in the region for (i) r < a and (ii) r > a. [CBSE 2010] 1. Magnetic flux f in weber in a closed circuit of resistance

10W varies with time t (sec) as = 6t2 5t + 1. Find

19. A beam of a particles projected along + x- axis, magnitude of induced current at t = 0.25s?

experiences a force due to a magnetic field along the

+y axis. What is the direction of the magnetic field? 2. Does the change in magnetic flux induce emf or

[CBSE 2010]

current?

3. Show that Lenz's law is a consequence of the law of

conservation of energy.

4. State a rule to determine the direction of current

induced due to the motion of a conductor in a

perpendicular magnetic field.

5. In the figure, the movable wire is moved to the left,

causing an induced current as shown. What is the

direction of B in the region A?

A

20. Deduce the expression for the magnetic dipole moment

of an electron orbiting around the central nucleus.

[CBSE 2010]

6. As shown in figure, a conducting rod AB moves

parallel to X-axis in a uniform magnetic field, pointing

21. The permeability of magnetic material is 0.9983. Name in the positive Z-direction. The end A of the rod gets

the type of magnetic material it represents. [CBSE 2011] positively charged. Is this statement true? Give reason.

22. A magnetic needle free to rotate in a vertical plane

parallel to the magnetic meridian has its north tip down

at 60 with the horizontal. The horizontal component

of the earth's magnetic field at the place is known to be

0.4 G. Determine the magnitude of the earth's

magnetic field at the place. [CBSE 2011]

23. a) Using Ampere's circuital law, obtain the expression 7. A time-dependent magnetic field is associated with an

for the magnetic field due to a long solenoid at a point electric field. Is this true or false? Justify.

inside the solenoid on its axis. [CBSE 2011]

(b) In what respect is a toroid different from a solenoid?

Draw and compare the pattern of the magnetic field CBSE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS)

lines in the two cases.

(c) How is the magnetic field inside a given solenoid 1. Two circular coils, one of radius r and the other of

made strong? radius R are placed coaxially with their centres

coinciding. For R >>r, obtain an expression for the

mutual inductance of the arrangement. [CBSE 2004]

application of eddy current. [CBSE 2004]

to a magnetic field, given by B = B0 cost. Deduce

and expression for e.m.f. induced in this coil. State the

rule which helps to detect the direction of induced

current. [CBSE 2004]

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4. A bar magnet M is dropped so that it falls vertically (b) Deduce an expression for the mutual inductance of

through the coil C. The graph obtained for voltage two long coaxial solenoids but having different radii

produced across the coil vs. time is shown in figure (b). and different number of turns. [CBSE 2009]

[CBSE 2004] 11. A plot of magnetic flux ( ) versus current (I) is shown

magnet in the figure for two inductors A and B. Which of the

two has larger value of self-inductance? [CBSE 2010]

the basic elements of an A.C. generator. State its

Coil

v R

C underlying principle. Show diagrammatically how an

alternating emf is generated by a loop of wire rotating

(a) in a magnetic field. Write the expression for the

(i) Explain the shape of the graph. instantaneous value of the emf induced in the rotating

(ii) Why is the negative peak longer than the positive loop. [CBSE 2008, 2010, 2011]

peak?

13. State Faradays law of electromagnetic induction.

5. What is induced emf? Write Faradays law of Figure shows a rectangular conductor PQRS in which

electromagnetic induction. Express it mathematically. the conductor PQ is free to move in a uniform

A conducting rod of length l, with one end pivoted, is magnetic field B perpendicular to the plane of the

rotated with a uniform angular speed in a vertical paper. The field extends from x = 0 to x = b and is

plane, normal to a uniform magnetic field B. Deduce zero for x > b. Assume that only the arm PQ possess

an expression for the emf induced in this rod [2004] resistance r. When the arm PQ is pulled outward from

x = 0 with constant speed v, obtain the expressions for

6. In the figure given below, a bar magnet moving the flux and the induced emf. Sketch the variations of

towards the right or left induces an emf in the coil (1) these quantities with distance 0 x 2b . [CBSE 2010]

and (2). Find given reason, the directions of the

induced currents through the resistors AB and CD

when the magnet is moving (a) towards the right, and

(b) towards the left. [CBSE-2005, 2 Marks]

x=0 x=b x = 2b

7. Define self-inductance and its S.I. unit. Derive an

expression for self- inductance of a long, air-cored 14. A current is induced in coil C1 due to the motion of

solenoid of length, l, radius r, and having N number of current carrying coil C2. [CBSE 2011]

turns. [CBSE 2005] (a) Write any two ways by which a large deflection can

be obtained in the galvanometer G.

8. Define magnetic flux. Give its SI unit. I [CBSE 2006] (b) Suggest an alternative device to demonstrate the

induced current in place of a galvanometer.

9. A 0.5 long metal rod PQ completes the circuit as

shown in the figure.

field of flux density 0.15 T. If the resistance of the total

circuit is 3 W, calculate the force needed to move the 15. A bar magnet is moved in the direction indicated by

rod in the direction as indicated with a constant speed the arrow between two coil PQ and CD. Predict the

of 2 ms1 [CBSE BOARD 2006]

directions of induced current in each coil. [CBSE 2012]

10. (a) State Lenzs law. Give one example to illustrate this

law. The Lenzs law is a consequence of the principle

of conservation of energy. Justify this statement.

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ALTERNATING CURRENT the bulb change if an iron rod is inserted in the coil?

Give reasons in support of your answer.

Very Short Answer Type Questions: [01 Mark Each]

solenoid of copper wire and with air core. When the

combination is connected to an a.c. source, the bulb

glows producing the desired illumination. Now if an Ans: decreases

iron rod is inserted inside the solenoid, explain what

will happen and why? 10. A galvanometer connected in an A.C. circuit does not

show any deflection. Why?

2. State the phase relationship between the current

ANS: A galvanometer measures mean value of a.c., which

flowing and the voltage applied in an a.c. circuit for (i)

a pure resistor and (ii) a pure inductor. is zero over a cycle.

3. A 44 mH inductor is connecting to 220 V, 50 Hz ac 11. A capacitor blocks D.C. but allows A.C to pass through

supply. Determine the r.m.s value of current in an a.c. it. Explain. Why?

circuit. ANS: -

4. If the frequency of the a.c. source in a series LCR- 12. Can we use transformer to step up D.C. voltage? If not,

circuit is increased, how does the current in the circuit why?

change? ANS: Magnetic flux linked with Primary coil does not vary

with time so no Induced emf in secondary.

5. (a) Define power factor, State the conditions under

which it is (i) maximum and (ii) minimum.

(b) What is the power dissipated by an ideal inductor in 13. Calculate the r.m.s value of alternating current shown in

ac circuit? the figure.

to a step-down transformer with its primary windings

having 4000 turns. What should be the number of

turns in the secondary in order to get output power at ANS: 2A.

230 V? 14. The algebraic sum of potential drop across the various

elements in LCR circuit is not equal to the applied

7. Why does metallic piece become very hot when it is

voltage. Why?

surrounded by coil carrying high frequency alternating

current? ANS: Voltages across different elements of the LCR circuit

Ans: high frequency ac produces changing magnetic flux are not in same phase.

and the large eddy currents produce heat.

15. Fig shows a light bulb (B) and iron cored inductor

8. In the circuit shown below, R represents an electric connected to a DC battery through a switch (S). (i)

bulb. If the frequency of the supply is doubled, how What will one observe when switch (S) is closed? (ii)

should the values of C and L be changed so that glow How will the glow of the bulb change when the battery

in the bulb remains unchanged? is replaced by an ac source of rms voltage equal to the

voltage of DC battery? Justify your answer in each

case.

9. An air cored coil L and a bulb B are connected in series Ans: - (i) brightness of the bulb increases slowly (ii)

to the mains as shows in the given figure: The bulb brightness remains same

glows with some brightness. How would the glow of

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Short Answer Type Questions: [02 Marks Each] 9. Figure shows an inductor L and a resistance R connected

in parallel to a battery through a switch. The resistance

1. Write some advantage and disadvantages of a.c. over R which of the bulbs lights up earlier, when K is closed?

d.c Will the bulbs be equally bright after same time?

2. Find the time required for a 50 Hz alternating current

to change its value from zero to the r.m.s. value.

3. A coil has an inductance 0.7 henry and is joined in

series with a resistance of 220 W. Find the wattles

component of the current in the circuit, when an

alternating e.m.f. of 220 volt at a frequency of 50 Hz is

supplied to it.

4. An air core coil and an electric bulb are connected in

series across a 220 V, 50 Hz a.c. source. The bulb ANS: - (i) The bulb B2 will light up earlier.

glows with some brightness. How will the glow of the (ii) The bulb B1 will grow more brightly.

bulb be affected on introducing a capacitor in series in

circuit? Justify your answer. 10. Figure shows two electric circuits A and B. Calculate the

ratio of power factor of the circuit B to the Power factor

5. (a) Obtain the expression for the magnetic energy of the circuit A.

stored in a solenoid in terms of magnetic field B, area A

and length of the solenoid. (b) How does this magnetic

energy compare with the electrostatic energy stored in

a capacitor?

How can they be reduced?

studying the variation of alternating current with

angular frequency in a series LCR circuit and obtained ANS: - .

the graphs as shown. They all used a.c sources of the 11. An inductor L of reactance XL is connected in series

same r.m.s. value and inductances of the same value. with a bulb B to an A.C. source as shown in the figure.

What can we (qualitatively) conclude about the (i) Briefly explain, how does the brightness of the bulb

capacitance value (ii) resistance values Used by them? change when

In which case will the quality factor be maximum? (a) Number of turns of the inductor is reduced and

What can we conclude about nature of the impedance (b) A capacitor of reactance XC =XL is included in

of the set up at frequency o? series in the same circuit.

Ans: (i) decreases from x to z (ii) decreases from x to z in (b) Brightness of the bulb will become maximum.

case of x quality factor is more, impedance decreases

from x to z 12. Figure (a), (b) and (c) Show three alternating circuits

with equal currents. If frequency of alternating emf be

8. When a circuit element X is connected across an a.c. increased, what will be the effect on currents In the

source, a current of 2A flows through it and this three cases. Explain.

current is in phase with the applied voltage. When

another element Y is connected across the same a.c.

source, the same current flows in the circuit but it leads

the voltage by /2 radians.(i) Name the circuit

elements X and Y. (ii) Find the current that flows in the

circuit when the series combination of X and Y is ANS: - (i) No effect (ii) current will decrease (iii) Current

connected across the same a.c. voltage. will Increase.

Ans: - (i) x is resistor (ii) y is capacitor

QUESTION BANK FOR CLASS XII (CBSE BOARD-2017)

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CBSE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS) 12. Given below are two electric circuits A and B Calculate the

ratio of power factor of the circuit B to the power factor of

circuit A. [CBSE 2007]

1. What is choke coil? Why is it preferred to resistance in a.c.

circuit? (CBSE 2003)

In figures (a), (b) and (c) are shown three a.c. circuits with

equal currents. If the frequency of e.m.f. be increased, then

what will be the effect on the currents flowing in them?

Explain with reason.

13. In a series LCR circuit, The voltages across an inductor, a

capacitor and a resistor are 30 V, 30 V and 60 V respectively.

What is the phase difference between the applied voltage and

the current in the circuit? [CBSE 2007]

2. Distinguish between reactance and impedance. When a

series combination of a coil of inductance L and a resistor of 14. Calculate the current drawn by the primary of a transformer

resistance R is connected across A 12V, 50Hz supply, a which steps down 200V to 20 V to operate a device of

current of 0.5 A flows through the circuit. the current differs in resistance 20 W. Assume the efficiency of the transformer to

phase from applied voltage by /3 radian. Calculate the the 80% [CBSE 2007]

value of L and R. (CBSE 2003/06) 15. Explain the term inductive reactance. Show graphically the

variation of inductive reactance with frequency of the applied

3. A town situated 20km away from a power plant generating alternating voltage. [CBSE 2003, 2007, 2011]

power at 440 V, requires 600 kW of electric power at 200 V. 16. Explain the term capacitive reactance. Show graphically the

The resistance of the two wire line carrying power is 0.4 variation of capacitive reactance with frequency of the

per km. The town gets power from the line through a 3000 applied alternating voltage.

220V step down transformer at a substation in the town An a.c. voltage E = E0 sin wt is applied across a pure

(i) Find the line power losses in the form of heat capacitor of capacitance C. Show mathematically that the

(ii) How much power must the plant supply, assuming there current flowing through it leads the applied voltage by a

is negligible power loss due to leakage? [CBSE 2003] phase angle of /2. [CBSE 2003, 2007, 2008]

17. Derive an expression for the impedance of an a.c. circuit

4. In a series RC circuit, R = 30, C = 0.25 mF, V = 100V consisting of an inductor and a resistor. [CBSE 2008]

and = 10,000 radian per second. Find the current in the 18. An inductor 200 mH, capacitor 500 mF, resistor 10 W are

circuit and calculate the voltage across the resistor and the connected in series with a 100 V. variable frequency a.c

capacitor [CBSE 2004] source. Calculate the

Is the algebraic sum of these voltages more than the source (i) Frequency at which the power factor of the circuit is

voltage? If yes, resolve the paradox. unity

(ii) Current amplitude at this frequency

5. Derive the expression of power in LCR circuit. (iii) Q- factor

[CBSE 2004, 2006] 19. The instantaneous current and voltage of an a.c. circuit are

6. A bulb and capacitor are connected in series to an a.c. source given by i = 10 sin 300 t V. What is the power dissipation in

of variable frequency. How will the brightness of the bulb the circuit? [CBSE 2008]

change on increasing the frequency of the a.c source ? Give 20. A coil Q is connected to low voltage bulb B and placed near

reason. [CBSE 2005] another coil P as shown in the figure. Give reasons to explain

the following observations: [CBSE 2010]

7. What do you mean by power factor? On what factors does it (a) The bulb B lights

depend? [CBSE BOARD 2006] (b) Bulb gets dimmer if the coil Q is moved towards left.

B AC Source

8. An alternating voltage of frequency f is applied across a series

LCR circuit. Let fr be the resonance frequency for the circuit.

Will the current in the circuit lag, lead or remain in phase with

the applied voltage when [CBSE BOARD 2006]

(i) f > fr, (ii)f < fr ? Explain your answer in each case.

9. What do you mean by the impedance of LCR - circuit

[CBSE 2007] Q P

10. Distinguish between the terms average value and r.m.s. 21. A series LCR circuit is connected to a source having voltage v

value of an alternating current. The instantaneous current = vm sin t. Derive the expression for the instantaneous

from an a.c source is I = 5 sin (314t) ampere. What are the current I and its phase relationship to the applied voltage.

average and r.m.s. values of the current? [CBSE 2007] Obtain the condition for resonance to occur. Define power

11. Explain with the help of a labelled diagram the underlying factor. State the conditions under which it is

principal and working of a step -up transformer. why cannot (i) maximum and

such a device be used to step-up d.c. voltage ? (ii) Minimum.

[CBSE 2007, 2009, 2011]

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ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES Short Answer Type Questions: [02 Marks Each]

Short Answer Type Questions: [01 Marks Each] 15. Radio waves diffract predominately around building

while light waves, which are also electromagnetic

1. Does the colour of radiation depend on its frequency waves, do not. Why?

or on wavelength? Ans: Frequency

16. What are the characteristics properties of

2. What physical quantity is the same for X-rays of electromagnetic waves?

A 0 17. Mention the pair of space and time varying E and B

wavelength 1 , green light of wavelength 5500A &

radiation of wavelength 21cm? Ans: Speed. fields which would generate a plane EM wave travelling

in the z-direction Ex and By

3. Electromagnetic radiations with wavelength: 18. Why stationary charges & constant currents do not

1. 1 is used to kill germs in water purifiers. produce electromagnetic waves?

2. 2 is used in T.V communication system. Solution: A stationary charge & constant current produce a

constant electric field & constant magnetic field respectively.

Solution: 1) 1 corresponds to ultraviolet spectrum. A constant electric field can't generate a magnetic field

2) 2 corresponds to radio waves. likewise a constant magnetic field cannot generate a electric

field. Hence, EM waves can't be produced.

4. Name EM waves are used in telecommunication.

Ans: Micro-wave 19. If the electric field that constitutes an electromagnetic

wave conservative? Justify your answer.

5. Mention the law, that which asserts that the electric Solution: No, the electric field produced by a time varying

field lines cannot form close loops? Ans: Gausss law magnetic field is non-conservative. So that electric field that

constitutes the EM waves is non-conservative.

6. If the area of the TV telecast is to be doubled then what

20. The radio waves, the infrared, the visible ray are EM

will be the height of the transmitting antenna? Double

radiations. Then how are they different from each

other?

7. The energy of the electromagnetic wave is in the order

Solution: They are different because the way they interact

of 15KV. To which part of the spectrum does it belong?

with matter is different. Interaction depends on the energy of

Ans: X-rays because = 0.825A the EM waves, which in turn depends upon its frequency

8. What happens to the average temperature on the (E=hv).

surface of the earth if there is no atmosphere?

Ans: Increases Short Answer Type Questions: [03 Marks Each]

9. Which of the physical quantity is NOT transported by

the EM waves? Ans: Charge 21. Electromagnetic waves with wavelength

10. What is condition for obtaining displacement current (i) 1 is used to treat muscular strain.

between the plates of the capacitor? (ii) 2 are used by a FM radio station for broadcasting

Ans: By varying potential difference. (iii) 3 are used to detect fracture in bones

11. Why is the quantity 0 dE/dt called the displacement (iv)4 is absorbed by the ozone layer of the

current? atmosphere.

Solution: Due to change in electric field. Identify and name the part of electromagnetic spectrum

12. Using a d.c source, a capacitor has been fully charged. to which these radiations belong. Arrange these

What are the magnitudes of conduction and wavelengths in decreasing order of magnitude.

displacement currents? Solution: (i) rays, (ii) radio waves,

13. What is the ratio of speed of infrared and ultraviolet (iii) X-rays, (iv) UV rays

rays in vacuum? 22. (a) Which of the following, if any, can act as a source

Solution: Same as velocity of light. of electromagnetic waves?

14. An electromagnetic wave consists of oscillating electric (i) A charge moving with a constant velocity.

and magnetic fields. What is the phase relationship (ii) A charge moving in a circular orbit.

between these oscillations? (iii) A charge at rest.

Solution: 90o

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Give reason: (b) Identify the part of the (a) Long distance radio broadcasts use short-wave

electromagnetic spectrum to which waves of frequency bands. Why?

(i) 1020 Hz (ii) 109 Hz belong to microwaves. (b) It is necessary to use satellite for long distance TV

Solution: i) X-rays ii) microwave. transmission. Why?

(c) Optical and radio telescopes are built on the

23. Suppose that the electric field of an electromagnetic ground but X-ray astronomy is possible only from

radiation wave in vacuum is satellites orbiting the earth. Why?

6

E = 3.1N/C cos {(1.8rad/m) y+ (5.4 10 rad/s) t} (d) If the earth did not have an atmosphere, would its

1) What is wavelength, ? average surface temperature be higher or lower than

2) What is frequency, ? what it is now?

3) What is magnitude of the magnetic field of the

wave?

Solution: 1) =2 /k= 3.5m.

6

2) =/2 = 5.4x10 /2 = 0.86MHz.

8

3): B = E /c = 3.1/3x10 = 10nT.

0 0

electric field to the magnetic field is a constant still we

say that the vision of our eye is due to only electric

field.

Solution: The vision of our eye is due to the force

experienced by the moving charge on our retina. The

moving charge experiences force both due to electric &

magnetic fields. F = q E,

E

F = q VB

B

F /F = E/V = C/V.

E B

8.

C/V>10 Therefore moving particle oscillates primarily

due to the electric field.

the y-direction. Write

(i) The ratio of the magnitude,

(ii) The directions of its electric and magnetic field

vectors.

(iii) For an electromagnetic wave traveling along y-

direction, its electric and magnetic field vectors are

along z-axis and x-axis respectively. The direction of

is same as that of direction of wave propagation

and

electromagnetic wave is E0=120 NC-1 and that its

frequency is v=50.0 MHz

(a) Determine, B0,, k and .

(b) Find expressions for E and B.

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RAY OPTICS Short Answer Type Questions: [02 Marks Each]

Very Short Answer Type Questions: [01 Mark Each] 24. List some advantages of a reflecting telescope,

especially for high resolution astronomy.

1. Out of speed, frequency and wavelength, name the

parameters which remain same after reflection 25. An object is placed in front of convex mirror of radius

of curvature 20 cm. Its image is formed 8 cm behind

2. Suppose that one half of the reflecting surface of a concave

the mirror. Find the distance of the object from the

mirror is covered with black soot. How will the image of an

mirror.

object placed in front of the mirror be affected?

3. Can we obtain the image of a real object formed by a convex 26. A tank is filled with water to a height of 12.5

mirror on the screen? cm The apparent depth of a needle lying at the

4. Does the apparent depth of a tank of water change bottom of the tank is measured by a

if viewed obliquely? If so, does the appare nt depth microscope to be 9.4 cm. Wh at is the refractive

increase or decrease? index of water? If water is replaced by a liquid

of refractive index 1.63 up to the same height,

5. Define refractive index of a medium.

by what distance would the microscope have to

6. What are the factors on which the normal shift depends? be moved to focus on the needle again?

7. How can a convex lens behave like a diverging lens?

27. The sun is seen a little before it rises and for a short

8. Although the surface of a goggle lens are curved, it does not

while after it sets. Explain, why?

have any power. Explain, why

9. Why do lenses of large aperture suffer from spherical 28. Explain the formation of mirage.

aberration?

10. Does dispersive power of the material of a prism depend on 29. Explaining the critical angle of incidence, establish

the shape, size and angle of the prism? Explain? relationship between the critical angle of incidence and

refractive index of the denser medium, considering the

11. Why is rainbow formed in the sky?

rarer medium to be air of refractive index unity. How

12. An object is seen first in red light and then in violet light can a right angled prism be used to invert the path of a

through a simple microscope. In which case is the magnifying beam of light?

larger?

13. Why is the focal length of an objective in compound

Long Answer Type Questions: [04 Mark Each]

microscope little shorter than the focal length of the eyepiece?

14. You are provided with four lenses of focal length 1 cm, 3cm,

30. Establish mirror formula for a concave mirror. State the

10cm and 100cm. Which two would you prefer for a

sign conventions used.

microscope and which two for a telescope?

31. Define magnification. Derive expressions for the

15. What happens to focal length of a convex lens, when it is

magnification produced by a concave mirror.

immersed in water? 32. Discuss the phenomenon of refraction through a prism.

16. Which of the following does not support the wave nature of Prove the formula: = A ( 1)

light? 33. Draw a labelled ray diagram of a reflecting (Cass grain)

17. What type of a lens is an air bubble inside water? Give telescope and explain its working.

reason also. 34. Figure shows a convex spherical surface with

18. A lens whose radii of curvature are different is forming the centre of curvature C, separating the two

image of an object placed on its axis. If the lens is placed with media of refractive indices n 1 and n 2 , Draw a

its faces reversed, will the position of the image change?

ray diagram showing the formation of the

19. A ray of light is normally incident on one face of an image of a point object O lying on the

equilateral prism. Trace the course of the ray through the principal axis. Derive the relationship between

prism and emerging from it. the object and image distance in terms of

20. What will be the colour of the sky in the absence of refractive indices of the media and the radius

atmosphere? of curvature R of the surface.

22. Why do clouds appear white?

23. Can we increase the range of a telescope by increasing the

diameter of its objective?

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35. Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of image of 4. A right-angle crown glass prism with critical angle 41 is

an object placed between the pole and centre of placed before an object, PQ, in two position as shown

curvature of a concave mirror, Derive the formula in the figure (i) and (ii). Trace the paths of the rays

connecting object distance (u), image distance (v) and from P and Q passing through the prism in the two

focal length (f) for this particular case for the given cases. [CBSE 2005]

concave mirror. State clearly the assumptions and sign

conventions used.

an object placed between the optical centre and focus

of a thin convex lens. Write two characteristics of the

image formed. Using this diagram, derive the relation

between object distance u, image distance v and focal

length f of the convex lens. Draw the graph showing

the variation of v with u. 5. A ray of light falls on a mirror normally. What are the

values of angle of incidence and the angle of reflection?

37. Draw a graph to show the variation of the angle of [CBSE 2005]

deviation d with that of the angle of incidence i for a

monochromatic ray of light passing through a glass 6. What is far-sightedness or hypermetropia? What causes

prism of refracting angle A. Hence, deduce the hypermetropia How this defect is corrected? [CBSE 06]

reaction,

sin( A m ) / 2 7. A double convex lens of glass of refractive index 1.6

=

sin A / 2 has its both surfaces of equal radii of curvature of 30

cm each. An object of height 5 cm is placed at a

distance of 12.5 cm from the lens. Calculate the size of

CBSE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS)

the image formed. [CBSE 2007]

8. A convex mirror always produces a virtual image of

in two positions (a) and (b) as shown. The prism is

real object independent of the location of the object.

made of crown glass with critical angle of 41. Trace

use mirror equation to prove it. [CBSE 2007]

the path of two rays from P and Q., (i) in (a), normal to

the hypotenuse and (ii) in (b), parallel to the

9. A converging lens of refractive index 1.5 is kept in a

hypotenuse. [CBSE 2003]

liquid medium having the same refractive index. What

would be the focal length of the lens in the medium?

[CBSE 2008]

glass prism from air undergoes minimum deviation

2. Draw a ray diagram to show the formation of the when angle of incidence is 3/4th of the angle of prism.

image of an object placed between f and 2f of a thin Calculate the speed of light in the prism.[CBSE 2008,02]

concave lens. Deduce the relation between the object

distance, the image distance and the focal length of the 11. An equi-convex lens, with radii of curvature of

lens under this condition. [CBSE 2003] magnitude 10 cm each, is put over a liquid layer

poured on top of a plane mirror. A small needle, with

3. Draw the graph to show the variation of angle of its tip on the principal axis of the lens, is moved along

deviation d with the variation of angle of incidence i; the axis until its inverted real image coincides with the

for a monochromatic ray of light passing through a needle itself. The distance of the needle, from the lens,

prism of refracting angle A. Deduce the relation is measured to be 15 cm.

between minimum deviation dm, incident angle i and

refractive index of prism m . [CBSE 2003] On removing the liquid layer and repeating the

experiment the distance is measured to be 10 cm.

Am Given that the two values of the distance measured

sin

2 represent the force length values in the two cases,

A calculate the refractive index of the liquid. [CBSE 2008,3]

sin

2

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12. (a) For a ray of light travelling from a denser medium

of refractive index n to a rarer medium of refractive

1

n2

index n2, prove that = sin ic, where ic is the

n1

critical angle of incidence for the media. 20. The far point of a myopic person is 80cm in

(b) Explain with the help of a diagram, how the above front of the eye. What is the power of the lens

principle is used for transmission of video signals using required to enable him to see very distance

optical fibres. [CBSE 2008, 5] objects clearly? In what way does the

corrective lens help the above person? Does

1 1 1 the lens magnify very distance object? Explain .

13. (a) Derive the lens formula , for a concave [CBSE 2009, 3]

f v u

lens, using the necessary ray diagram. 21. (a) (i) Draw a labelled ray diagram to show the

(b) Two lenses of powers 10 D and 5D are placed in formation of image in an astronomical telescope for a

contact. [CBSE 2008, 5] distant object.

(i) Calculate the power of the new lens. (ii) Write three distinct advantages of a reflecting type

(ii) Where should an object be held from the lens, so as telescope over a refracting type telescope.

to obtain a virtual image of magnification 2? (b) A convex lens of focal length 10 cm is placed

coaxially 5 cm away from a concave lens of focal

14. A ray of light passing through an equilateral triangular length 10 cm. If an object is placed 30 cm in front of

glass prism from air undergoes minimum deviation the convex lens, find the position of the final image

when angle of incidence is 3/4 th of the angle of prism. formed by the combined system. [CBSE 2009]

Calculate the speed of light in the prism. [CBSE 2003]

22. (a) Draw the ray diagram showing the geometry of

15. (a) Draw a ray diagram showing the passage of light formation of the image of a point object situated on the

through a glass prism. Hence obtain a relation between principal axis, and on the convex side, of a spherical

the angles of deviation, incidence and emergence and surface of radius of curvature R. Taking the rays as

the angle of prism. incident from a medium of refractive index n1 to

(b) Show that no ray can pass through a prism whose another of refractive index n 2, show that

refracting angle A is greater than twice the critical angle

for the material of the prism. n2 n1 n2 n1

[CBSE 2008, 5]

v u R

16. A glass lens of refractive index 1.5 is placed in a trough where the symbols have their usual meaning.

of liquid .What must be the refractive index of the (b) Use this relation to obtain the (thin) lens maker's

liquid in order to mark the lens disappear? [CBSE 2008] formula. [CBSE 2004, 2008, 2009]

17. (a) Draw the ray diagram for the formation of image of 23. (a) With the help of a suitable ray diagram, derive the

an object by a convex mirror and use it (along with the mirror formula for a concave mirror.

sign convention) to derive the 'mirror formula. (b) The near point of a hypermetropic person is 50 cm

[CBSE 2009, 3] from the eye. What is the power of the lens required to

(b) Use the mirror formula to show that for an object, enable the person to read clearly a book held at 25 cm

kept between the pole and focus of a concave mirror, from the eye? [CBSE 2009]

the image appears to be formed behind the mirror.

24. State the conditions for the phenomenon of total

18. Why are convex mirrors used as side view mirrors in internal reflection? (H.S.S.C.E. 2010; C.B.S.E. 2010)

cars? [CBSE 2009 S]

25. The image obtained with a convex lens is erect

19. Three light rays red (R), green (G) and blue (B) are and its length is four times the le ngth of the

incident on a right angled prism 'abc' at face 'ab'. The object. If the focal length of the lens is 20 cm,

refractive indices of the material of the prism for red, calculate the object and image distances .

green and blue wavelengths are 1.39, 1.44 and 1.47 [CBSE 2010, 3]

respectively. Out of the three which colour ray will

emerge out of face 'ac'? Justify your answer. Trace the 26. A converging lens is kept coaxially in contact with a

path of these rays after passing through face 'ab'. diverging lensboth the lenses being of equal focal

[CBSE 2009, 3] lengths. What is the focal length of the combination?

[CBSE Boa rd 2010]

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27. Draw a ray diagram to show the working of a 34. A ray of light is incident on one face of a glass prism

compound microscope. Deduce an expression for the and emerges out from the other face. Trace the path of

total magnification when the final image is formed at the ray and derive an expression for refractive index of

the near point. the glass prism. [CBSE 2011]

In a compound microscope, an object is placed at a

distance of 1.5 cm from the objective of focal length 35. For the same value of angle of incidence, the angle of

1.25 cm. If the eye piece has a focal length of 5 cm and refraction in three media A, B and C are 15, 25, and ,

the final image is formed at the near point, estimate the 35 respectively. In which medium would the velocity

magnifying power of the microscope. [CBSE 09, 10] of light be minimum? [CBSE 2012]

28. Two convex lenses of focal length 20 cm and 1 36. Define magnifying power of a telescope. Write its

cm constitute a telescope. The telescope is expression. [CBSE 2012]

focussed on a point which is 1 m away from A small telescope has an objective lens of focal length

the objective. Calculate the magnification 150 cm and an eye piece of focal length 5 cm. If this

produced and the length of the tube. If the telescope is used to view a 100 m high tower 3 km

final image is formed at a distance of 25 cm away, find the height of the mail image when it is

from of eyepiece . [CBSE 2011, 3] formed 25 cm away from the eye piece.

29. A convex lens made up of glass of refractive index 1.5 37. An object AB is kept in front of a concave mirror as

is dipped in turn, in (i) a medium of refractive index shown in the figure. [CBSE 2012]

1.65, (ii) a medium of refractive index 1.33. (a) Will it (i) Complete the ray diagram showing the image

behave as a converging or a diverging lens in the two formation of the object.

cases? (b) How will its focal length change in the two (ii) How will the position and intensity of the image be

media? [CBSE 2 011, 3] affected if the lower half of the mirror's reflecting

surface is painted black ?

30. Use the mirror equation to show that (a) an object

placed between f and 2f of a concave mirror produces

a real image beyond 2f. (b) a convex mirror always

produces a virtual image independent of the location of

the object. (c) an object placed between the pole and

focus of a concave mirror produces a virtual and

enlarged image. [CBSE 2011]

38. You are given three lenses L1, L2 and L3 each of focal

31. A compound microscope uses an object lens of focal length 20cm. An object is kept at 40 cm in front of L1,,

length 4 cm and eyepiece lens of focal length 10 cm. A as shown. The final real image is formed at the focus 'I'

n object is placed at 6 cm from the objective lens. of L3. Find the separations between L1, L2 and L3.

Calculate the magnifying power of the compound [CBSE 2012]

microscope. Also calculate the length of the

microscope. [CBSE 2011]

objective lens of focal length 15 m. If an eyepiece lens 39. Draw a ray diagram of a reflecting type telescope. Sate

of focal length 1.0 cm is used, find the angular two advantages of this telescope over a refracting

magnification of the telescope. If this telescope is used telescope. [CBSE 2008, 2012]

to view the moon, what is the diameter of the image of

the moon formed by the objective lens? The diameter

of the moon is 3.42 106 m and the radius of the

lunar orbit is 3.8 108 m. [CBSE 2011]

of focal length 16 cm is placed in the path of this beam

12 cm from P. Draw a ray diagram and find the

location of the point at which the beam would now

converge. [CBSE 2011]

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WAVE OPTICS Deduce the ratio of intensity of maxima and minima in

the interference pattern?

Very Short Answer Type Questions: [01 Mark Each]

7. How is a wave front different from a ray? Draw the

1. What is the Brewster angle for air to glass transition? (g =

geometrical shape of the wave fronts, when

3 ) (i) Light diverges from a point source, and

2. What is the shape of the wave front when light is diverging (ii)Light emerges out of convex lens when a point

from a point source? source is placed at its focus.

3. A light wave enters from air to glass. How will the following

be affected? 8. In a youngs double slit experiment, the position of the

(i) Energy of the wave first fringe coincides with S1 and S2 respectively. What

(ii) Frequency of the wave is the wavelength of light?

4. Draw a diagram to show cylindrical wave front?

9. Draw the diagram showing intensity distribution of light

5. State the conditions that must be satisfied for two light

sources to be coherent?

on the screen for diffraction of light at a single slit. How

is the width of central maxima affected on increasing

6. In youngs double slit experiment. The distance between the

slits is halved, what change in the fringe width will take place? the

7. State the conditions which must be satisfied for two light (i) Wavelength of light used

sources to be coherent. (ii) Width of the slit

8. Two independent light sources cannot act as coherent What happens to the width of the central maxima if the

sources. Why?

whole apparatus is immersed in water and why?

9. No interference pattern is detected when two coherent

sources are infinitely close to one another. Why? 10. What two main changes in diffraction pattern of single

10. If the path difference produced due to interference of light slit will you observe when the monochromatic source

coming out of two slits for yellow colour of light at a point on

of light is replaced by a source of white light?

the screen be 3/2, what will be the colour of the fringe at the

point. Give reason also.

11. Explain with reason, how the resolving power of a

11. What happens to the interference pattern if the phase

difference between the two sources varies continuously? compound microscope will change when (i) frequency

of the incident light on the objective lens is increased.

Short Answer Type Questions: [02 Marks Each] (ii) Focal length of the objective lens is increased, and

(iii) aperture of the objective lens is increased.

1. In Youngs double slit experiment how is the fringe

width change when 12. The critical angle between a given transparent medium

(a) Light of smaller frequency is used and air is denoted by ic, A ray of light in air medium

(b) Distance between the slits is decreased? enters this transparent medium at an angle of incidence

2. Write two points of difference between interference and equal to the polarizing angle(ip). Deduce a relation for

diffraction? the angle of refraction (rp) in terms of ic .

3. Obtain an expression for the ration of intensities at

maxima and minima in an interference pattern.

4. A slit is illuminated by a monochromatic source of light

Long Answer Type Questions:[05 Mark Each]

to give two coherent sources P1 and P2 these give

bright and dark bands on a screen. At a point R, on the 13. Using Huygenss principle deduce the laws of

screen, there is a dark fringe. What relation must exist refraction?

between the lengths P1 R and P2R? 14. (a) Coloured spectrum is seen, when we look through a

muslin cloth. Why?

5. Can white light produce interference? What is the

nature? (b) What changes in diffraction pattern of a single slit

will you observe when the monochromatic source of

6. (a) Derive expression for the fringe width in youngs

light is replaced by a source of white light?

double slit experiment?

15. State Brewster law? Using this law prove that at the

(b) If the two slits in youngs double slit experiment

polarizing angle of incidence, the reflected and

have width ratio 4:1,

transmitted rays are perpendicular to each other?

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16. In a single slit experiment, how the angular width of CBSE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS)

central bright fringe is maximum changed when

(1) The slit width increased 1. (a) Using Huygens principle draw a diagram to show

(2) The distance between the slit and the screen is propagation of a wave front originating from a

increased. monochromatic source. (CBSE 2005)

(3) Light of smaller wavelength is used. (b) Describe diffraction of light due to a single slit.

Explain formation of a pattern of fringes obtained on

17. (a) State Huygens principle for constructing wave the screen and plot showing variation of intensity with

fronts? angle q in single slit diffraction.

(b) Using Huygens principle deduce the laws of

reflection of light? 2. What is meant by a linearly polarised light? Which type

(c) What changes in diffraction pattern of a single slit of waves can be polarised? Briefly explain a method for

will you observe, when the monochromatic source of producing polarised light. Two Polaroids are placed at

light is replaced by a source of white light? 90 to each other and the intensity of transmitted light

is zero. What will be the intensity of transmitted light

when one more polaroid is placed between these two

NUMERICAL QUESTIONS bisecting the angle between them? Take intensity of

unpolarised light as I0. (CBSE 2005-06)

1. In a youngs double slit experiment, the slit are

separated by 0.24 mm. The screen is 1.2m away from

the slits. The fringe width is 0.3 cm calculate the 3. (a) Light, from a sodium lamp, is passed through two

wavelength of light used in the experiment? polaroid sheets, P1 and P2 kept one after the other.

Keeping P1 fixed, P, is rotated so that its 'pass-axis' can

2. Two Sources of Intensity I and 4I are used in an be at different angles, q, with respect to the pass-axis of

interference experiment. Find the intensity at points P1. [CBSE 2008]

where the waves from two sources superimpose with a An experimentalist records the following data for the

phase difference (i) zero (ii) /2 (iii) . intensity of light coming out of P2 as a function of the

angle q.

3. In a two slit experiment with monochromatic light, S.No. 1 2 3 4 5

fringes are obtained on a screen placed at some ( Angle between 0 30 45 60 90

distance D from the slits. If the screen is moved 5 x 10 -2 the pass axis of

m towards the slits, the charge in fringe width is 3 x 105

the the polaroids

m. If the distance between the slit is 10-3 m. calculate I0 3 1 I0

the wavelength of the light used. I (Intensity of I0 I0 0

2 8 2 2 8

light co min g

4. A narrow monochromatic beam of light of intensity I is out of P2 )

incident a glass plate. Another identical glass plate is

[I0 = Intensity of beam falling on P1]

kept close to the first one and parallel to it. Each plate

One of these observations is not in agreement with the

reflects 25% of the incident light and transmits the

expected theoretical variation of I. Identify this

reaming. Calculate the ratio of minimum and observation and write the correct expression.

maximum intensity in the interference pattern formed (b) Define Brewster angle and write the expression for

by the two beams obtained after reflection from each it in terms of the refractive index of the medium.

plate.

4. What is is plane polarised light? Two polaroids are

placed at 90 to each other and the transmitted

intensity is zero. What happens when one more

Polaroid is placed between these two, bisecting the

angle between them? How will the intensity of

transmitted light vary on further rotating the third

Polaroid?

(b) If a light beam shows no intensity variation when

transmitted through a Polaroid which is rotated, does it

mean that the light is un-polarised? Explain briefly.

(CBSE 2008)

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5. State the essential condition for diffraction of light to orientations will the transmitted intensity be (i)

take place. Use Huygens principle to explain minimum and (ii) maximum?

diffraction of light due to a narrow single slit and the

formation of a pattern of fringes obtained on the 10. The diagram, given below, shows the refraction of a

screen. Sketch the pattern of fringes formed due to plane wave front, incident on the surface PP

diffraction at a single slit showing variation of intensity separating two media, (1) and (2). Which of the two

with angle q. (CBSE 2007) OR media is the rarer one? [CBSE 2009]

What are coherent sources of light? Why are coherent

sources required to obtain sustained interference

pattern?

construction draw a figure showing the propagation of

a plane wave refracting at a plane surface separating

two media. Hence verify Snells law of refraction.(2006)

kept 2 mm apart and the screen is positioned 140 cm

away from the plane of the slits. The slits are

illuminated with light of wavelength 600 nm. Find the

11. How would the angular separation of interference

distance of the third bright fringe, from the central

fringes in Youngs double slit experiment change when

maximum, in the interference pattern obtained on the

the distance between the slits and screen is halved?

screen. [CBSE 2009]

If the wavelength of the incident light were changed to

480 nm, find out the shift in the position of third bright 13. In youngs double slit experiment, the two slits 0.15

fringe from the central maximum. [CBSE 2008] mm apart are illuminated by monochromatic light of

wavelength 450 nm. The screen is 1.0 m away from

8. In Youngs double slit experiment, monochromatic light the slits.

of wavelength 630 nm illuminates the pair of slits and (a) Find the distance of the second (i) bright fringe (ii)

produces an interference pattern in which two dark fringe from the central maximum.

consecutive bright fringes are separated by 8.1 mm. (b) How will the fringe pattern charge if the screen is

Another source of monochromatic light produces the moved away from the slits ? [CBSE 2010]

interference pattern in which the two consecutive bright

fringes are separated by 7.2 mm,. Find the wavelength 14. State Huygens' principle of diffraction of light. [2011]

of light from the second source. [CBSE 2009]

What is the effect to on the interference fringes if the 15. State the importance of coherent sources in the

monochromatic source is replaced by a source of white phenomenon of interference. In Young's double slit

light? experiment to produce interference pattern obtain the

conditions for constructive and destructive interference.

9. In a single slit diffraction experiment when a tiny Hence deduce the expression for the fringe width. How

circular obstacle is placed in the path of light from a does the fringe width get affected, if the entire

distant source, a bright spot is seen at the centre of the experimental apparatus of Young's is immersed in

shadow of the obstacle. Explain why [CBSE 2009] water? [CBSE 2011]

State two points of difference between the interference 16. Using Huygens' geometrical construction of wave

patterns obtained in Youngs double slit experiment fronts, show how a plane wave gets reflected by a

and the diffraction pattern due to a single slit. reflecting surface. Hence verify laws of reflection.

[CBSE 2011]

12. How does an unpolarised light get polarised when

passed through a Polaroid? [CBSE 2010] 17. (a) Define a wave front. Use Huygens principle to

Two Polaroids are set in crossed positions. A third show diagrammatically the propagation of a plane

Polaroid is placed between the two making an angle q wave front from the instant t1 = 0 to a later time t2.

with the pass axis of the first Polaroid. Write the [CBSE 2011]

expression for the intensity of light transmitted from the (b) State briefly two features which can distinguish the

second Polaroid. Write the expression for the intensity characteristic features of an interference pattern from

of light transmitted from the second Polaroid. In what those observed in the diffraction pattern due to a single

slit.

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18. (a) Why are coherent sources necessary to produce a DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATION

sustained interference pattern ?

(b) In Youngs double slit experiment using mono- Very Short Answer Type Questions: [01 Mark Each]

chromatic light of wavelength l,the intensity of light at

a point on the screen where path difference is l, is K 1. Electrons are emitted from a photosensitive surface when it is

units. Find out the intensity of light at a point where illuminated by green light but electron emission does not take

place by yellow light. Will the electrons be emitted when the

2 surface is illuminated by: (i) red light, and (ii) blue light?

path difference is . [CBSE 2012]

3 2. Why alkali metals are most suitable for photoelectric

emission?

19. (a) In Young's double slit experiment, derive the 3. Are matter waves electromagnetic? Write de-Broglie wave

condition for (i) constructive interference and (ii) equation.

destructive interference at a point on the screen. 4. What is the significance of negative energy of electron in an

(b) A beam of light consisting of two wavelengths, 800 orbit?

nm and 600 is used to obtain the interference fringes in 5. Can a hydrogen atom absorb a photon whose energy

a Young's double slit experiment on a screen placed exceeds its binding energy?

1.4 m away. If the two slits are separated by 0.28mm, 6. What is the shortest wavelength present in the Paschen series

calculate the least distance from the central bright of spectral lines?

maximum where the bright fringes of the two 7. The ground state energy of hydrogen atom is 13.6 eV. What

wavelengths coincide. [CBSE 2012] are the kinetic and potential energies of

OR the electron in this state ?

(a) How does an unpolarized light incident on a 8. Show that the speed of an electron in the innermost orbit of

Polaroid get polarized? H-atom is 1/137 times the speed of light in vacuum.

Describe briefly, with the help of a necessary diagram, 9. Determine the speed of the electron in n = 3 orbit of He +

the polarization of light by reflection from a transparent ion.

medium.

(b) Two Polaroids 'A' and 'B' are kept in crossed Short Answer Type Questions: [02 Marks Each]

position. How should a third Polaroid 'C' be placed

between them so that intensity of polarized light 10. What is meant by work function of a metal ? How does

transmitted by Polaroid B reduces to 1/8th of the the value of work function influence the kinetic energy

intensity of unpolarized light incident on A? of electrons liberated during photoelectric emission ?

20. Which of the following waves can be polarized (i) Heat 11. Define the terms 'threshold frequency' and 'stopping

(ii) Sound waves? Give reason to support your answer. potential' for photoelectric effect. Show graphically how

[CBSE - 2013] the stopping potential, for a given metal, varies with

frequency of the incident radiations. Mark threshold

21. (a) In what way is diffraction from each slit related to frequency on this graph.

the interference pattern in a double slit experiment?

(b) Two wavelengths of sodium light 590 nm and 596 12. Explain laws of photoelectric emission on the basis of

nm are used, in turn to study the diffraction taking Einstein's photoelectric equation.

place at a single slit of aperture 2 x 10 4 m. The

distance between the slit and the screen is 1.5 m. 13. Work functions of three elements A, B and C are as

Calculate the separation between the positions of the given below:

first maxima of the diffraction pattern obtained in the A: 5.0 EV, B: 3.8 eV, C: 2.8 eV.

two cases. [CBSE 2013] A radiation of wavelength 4125 is made to be

incident on each of these elements. By appropriate

calculations show in which case photoelectrons will not

be emitted.

incident on the cathode of a photocell. Depict

graphically, how the following varies with change in

frequency of incident radiation: (at constant intensity)

(i) Number of electrons emitted

(ii) Kinetic energy of electrons emitted

(iii) The stopping potential.

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15. A source of light of frequency v > v0 is placed at 2 m 6. Mention the significance of Davisson-Germer

from the cathode of a photocell. The stopping potential experiment. An a-particle and a proton are accelerated

is found to be V0. If the distance of the light source is from rest through the same potential difference V. Find

the ratio of de-Broglie wavelengths associated with

halved, state with reason what changes occur in

them. [CBSE 2005]

(i) Stopping potential

(ii) Photoelectric current, and 7. de Broglie wavelength associated with an electron

(iii) Maximum velocity of photoelectrons emitted. accelerated through a potential difference V is l. What

will be its wavelength when the accelerating potential is

16. Define the term: with reference to Photoelectric effect. increased to 4 V? [CBSE 2006]

(a) (i) Work function,

(ii) Threshold frequency and 8. A hydrogen atom initially in the ground level absorbs a

photon; which excites it to the n = 4 level. Determine

(iii) Stopping potential,

the wavelength and frequency of photon. [CBSE 2006]

(b) Calculate the maximum kinetic energy of electrons

9. Ultraviolet radiations of different frequencies u1 and u2

emitted from a photosensitive surface of work function

3.2 eV, for the incident radiation of wavelength 300 are incident on two photosensitive materials having

nm. work functions W1 and W2 (W1 > W2) respectively.

The kinetic energy of the emitted electrons is same in

both the cases. Which one of the two radiations will be

CBSE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS)

of higher frequency ? [CBSE 2007]

10. Draw a schematic diagram of the experimental

arrangement used by. Davisson and Germer to

2. Why are de-Broglie waves associated with a moving

establish the wave nature of electrons. Explain briefly

football not visible ? The wavelength l, of a photon and

how the de-Broglie wave relation experimentally

the de-Broglie wavelength, of an electron have the

verified in case of electrons. [CBSE 2003, 2007]

same value. Show that the energy of the photon is

2 mc 11. Two lines A and B, in the plot given below

times the kinetic energy of the electron, where

h show the variation of de Broglie wavelength, l

m, c and h have their usual meanings. [CBSE 2003] versus V , where V is the accelerating

potential difference, for two particles c arrying

3. Red light, however bright it is, cannot produce the the same charge. Which one of two represents

emission electrons from a clean zinc surface. But even a particle of smaller mass? [CBSE 2008]

weak ultraviolet radiation can do so. Why? [CBSE 2004]

X-rays of wavelength l fall on photosensitive surface,

emitting electrons. Assuming that the work function of

the surface can be neglected, prove that the de-Broglie

h

wavelength of electrons emitted will be .

2mc

[CBSE 2004]

4. Define the term 'work function' of a metal. The 12. The following graph shows the variation of stopping

threshold frequency of a metal is f0. When the light of potential V0 with the frequency u of the incident

frequency 2f0 is incident on the metal plate, the radiation for two photosensitive metals X and Y

maximum velocity of electrons emitted is v1. When the

frequency of the incident radiation is increased to 5f 0,

the maximum velocity of electrons emitted is v2. Find

the ratio of v1 to v2. [CBSE 2004]

materials having work function W1 and W2 (W1 >

W2). In which case will the kinetic energy of the (i) Which of the metals has larger threshold wavelength

emitted electrons be greater? Why? [CBSE 2005] ? Give reason. [CBSE 2008]

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(ii) Explain, giving reason, which metal gives out although number of nucleons is conserved, yet energy is released.

electrons, having larger kinetic energy, for the same How? Explain.

wavelength of the incident radiation. (b) Show that nuclear density in a given nucleus is independent of

(iii) If the distance between the light source and metal mass number A

X is halved, how will the kinetic energy of electrons

emitted from it change ? Give reason. 23. Using Bohrs postulates, obtain the expression for the

total energy of the electron in the stationary states of

13. The ground state energy of hydrogen atom is 13.6 eV. the hydrogen atom. Hence draw the energy level

(i)What is the kinetic energy of an electron in the 2nd diagram showing how the line spectra corresponding to

excited state? Balmer series occur due to transition between energy

(ii)If the electron jumps to the ground state from the levels. [CBSE 2013]

2nd excited state, calculate the wavelength of the

spectral line emitted. [CBSE 2008]

photoelectric effect is 1.5 V. What is the maximum

Very Short Answer Type Questions: [01 Mark Each]

kinetic energy of the photoelectrons emitted?

[CBSE 2009] 1. What do you mean by Q v alue of a nuclear

reaction? ( P .S .E .B . 2 0 0 0 )

15. Define ionisation energy. What is its value for a 2. How is half-life of a radioactive substance related

hydrogen atom? [CBSE 2010] to its average life? ( P .S . E.B . 2 0 0 1 )

3. Arrange radioactive radiations in the order o f

16. Write Einsteins photoelectric equation. State clearly increasing penetrating power. (CBSE 2006)

any two salient features observe in photoelectric effect, 4. Name two elementary particles which h ave almost

which can be explained on the basis of the above infinite life time ( H .C .S . E . 2 0 0 4 )

equation. [CBSE 2010]

5. What is the relation between decay constant and

half-life of a radioactive element?

17 Deduce the expression for the magnetic dipole moment

6. What fraction of t ritium will remain after 25 years?

of an electron orbiting around the central nucleus.

Given its half-life is 12.5 years. ( C .B .S . E . 2 0 0 1 )

[CBSE 2010]

7. The half life of a radioactive element A is same as

18. Define the term stopping potential in relation to mean life time of another radioactive element B.

photoelectric effect. [CBSE 2011] Initially, both have same number of atoms. B

decays faster than A. Why? ( P .S . E.B . 2 0 0 1 )

19. (a) Using de Broglies hypothesis, explain with the help 8. Compare the radii of two nuclei with mass numbers

of a suitable diagram, Bohrs second postulate of 1 and 27 respectively. ( C .B .S . E . 2 0 0 0 )

quantization of energy levels in a hydrogen atom. 9. What is the order of nuclear density? ( P .S . E .B . 2 0 0 0 )

(b) The ground state energy of hydrogen atom is 13.6 10. What holds nucleons together in a nucleus?

eV. What are the kinetic and potential energies of the ( H .B .S . E . 2 0 0 1 )

electron in this state? [CBSE 2011] 11. Select the pairs of isobars and isotones from the

following nuclei :

20. A proton and an electron have same kinetic energy. 14 13 14 16

6C , 7N , 7N , 8O ( H .B .S .E . 2 0 0 0 )

Which one has greater de-Broglie wavelength and

12. Select the pairs of isotopes and isotones from the

why? [CBSE 2012]

following nuclei:

13 14 30 31

21. Define the terms (i) cut-off voltage and (ii) threshold 6 C , 7 N , 15 P , 15 P ( H .B .S . E. 2 0 0 0 )

frequency in relation to the phenomenon of 13. Which one of 3 X 7 and 3 Y 4 are likely to be more

photoelectric effect.

stable? Give reason . ( C .B .S . E. 2 0 0 0 )

Using Einsteins photoelectric equations shows how the

14. Define atomic mass unit. Write its energy

cut-off voltage and threshold frequency for a given

photosensitive material can be determined with the equivalent.

help of a suitable plot/graph. [CBSE - 2006, 2012] 15. Define nuclear fission.

16. What is the ratio of kWh to MeV?

22. (a) In a typical nuclear reaction, [CBSE 2013] 17. What is meant by mass defect of a nucleus?

2

1 H H He n 3.27MeV ,

2

1

3

2

1

0 18. Write symbolically the decays process of 1532 P.

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Short Answer Type Questions: [02 Marks Each] 8. The sequence of decay of radioactive nu cleus

is

19. Explain one similarity and one dissimilarity D

D 1 D 2

D 3

D4

between nuclear fission and fusion.

(P.S.E.B. 2005) If nucleon number and atomic number of D 2

20. What are thermal neutrons? Why are neutrons are 176 and 71 respectively, what are their

considered as ideal particles for nuclear values for D and D 4 ? (C.B.S.E. 2005, 2006)

fission? (C.B.S. E. 2002)

9. (a) Draw the energy level diagram showing the

21. What do you understand by binding energy per

nucleon?

emission of particles followed by rays by a

60

Co nucleus. (CBSE BOARD 2005 SET -1)

27

22. Write any two characteristic properties of nuclear force.

(b) Plot the distribution of kinetic energy of

[CBSE Out side Delhi board 2011 SET -1]

particles and state why the energy spectrum is

24. A radioactive isotope has a half -life of T years. continuous.

How long will it take the activity to reduce to

(a) 3.125%, (b) 1% of its original value? 11

10. A radioactive sample contains 2.2 mg of pure 6 C

which has half-life period of 1224 second. Calculate

CBSE PROBLEMS (LAST 10 YEARS)

(i) the number of atoms present initially.

(ii) the activity when 5 g of the sample will be left .

1. When a deuteron of mass 2.0141 u and negligible (CBSE BOARD 2005 SET -1)

kinetic energy is absorbed by a lithium Li nucleus

6

3

11. Explain the concept of nuclear forces. Discuss

of mass 6.0155 u, the compound nucleus disintegrates their characteristic properties. Which

spontaneously into two alpha particles, each of mass properties distinguish them from electrostatic

4.0026 u. Calculate the energy in joules carried by forces? (C.B.S.E. 2006, 2008, P.S. E.B 2001)

each (1u = 1.66 1027 kg) (CBSE 2004)

12. State and explain the laws of radioactive

2. Heavy water is often used as a moderator in thermal disintegration. Hence define disintegration

nuclear reactors. Give reason. (CBSE 2004) constant and half -life period. Establish relation

between them. (C.B.S. E. 2006, P.S.E. B. 2005,

3. Draw the graph showing the variation of binding C.B.S.E.2004, H.P.B.S. E. 2004, H.B.S. E. 2001)

energy per nucleon with mass number. Give the reason

for the decrease of binding energy per nucleon for 13. Draw the graph to show variation of binding energy

nuclei with high mass numbers. (CBSE 2004) per nucleon with mass number of different atomic

40

nuclei. Calculate binding energy/nucleon of 20 Ca

4. Name the reaction which takes place when a slow nucleus. Given :

235

neutron beam strikes 92 U nuclei. Write the nuclear

40

reaction involved. (CBSE BOARD 2003, 2005) mas of 20 Ca = 39.962589 u

mass of proton = 1.007825 u

5. Define decay constant (C.B.S. E.2006) mass of neutron = 1.008665 u

6. Define the terms half-life period and decay constant of

and 1 u = 931 Me V/c2 (CBSE BOARD 2007)

a radioactive substance. Write their S.I. units. Establish

the relationship between the two. (CBSE 2004, 2006)

14. Calculate the amount of energy released during the

7. A neutron is absorbed by a

6

Li nucleus with the -decay of

238

92

U 234

90

Th He

4

2

3

238

subsequent emission of an alpha particle. Given: atomic mass of 92

U = 238.05079 u, atomic

(i) Write the corresponding nuclear reaction. 234

(ii) Calculate the energy released, in MeV, in this

mass of 90

Th = 234.04363 u, atomic mass 42 He =

reaction. (CBSE BOARD 2006) 4.00260 u,

[Given : mass

6

3 Li = 6.015126 u; mass (neutron) = 1amu = 931.5 MeV/c2 .Is this decay spontaneous?

1.0086654 u mass (alpha particle) = 0.0026044 u and Given reason (CBSE BOARD 2007)

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15. A nucleus

23

23 The mass number and atomic number of A are 180

10 Ne undergoes decay and becomes 11

and 72 respectively. What are these numbers for A4?

Na. Calculate the maximum kinetic energy of electron

(CBSE BOARD 2006, 2007, 2009)

emitted assuming that the daughter nucleus and anti-

neutrino carry negligible kinetic energy

22. Define the activity of a radionuclide. Write its S.I. unit.

mass of 10

23

Ne 22.994466 u Give a plot of the activity of a radioactive species

versus time. (CBSE BOARD 2009)

mass of 11 Na 22.989770 u

23

(CBSE 2008)

How long will be radioactive isotope whose half-life is

1u 931.5 MeV / c 2

T years, take for its activity to reduce to 1/8 th of its

initial value ?

16. If the nucleons of a nucleus are separated far apart from

23. Draw a plot a potential energy of a pair of nucleons as

each other, the sum of masses of all these nucleons is

a function of their separation. Write two important

larger than the mass of the nucleus. Where does this

conclusions which you can draw regarding the nature

mass difference come from?

of nuclear forces. (CBSE BOARD 2007, 2010, 2012)

Calculate the energy released if 238U nucleus emits an

a-particle. Given: (CBSE BOARD 2007)

24. (a) Write symbolically the b decay process of

32

238 P.

Atomic mas of U = 238.0508 u 15

(b) Derive an expression for the average life of a

Atomic mass of 234Th = 234.04363 u radionuclide. Give its relationship with the half-life

Atomic mass of alpha-particle = 4.00260 u (CBSE BOARD 2010)

and 1u = 931 MeV/c2

25. How is the size of nucleus experimentally determined?

17. A neutron is absorbed by a

6

Li nucleus with the Write the relation between the radius and mass number

3

of the nucleus. Show that the density of nucleus is

subsequent emission of an alpha particle. independent of its mass number. (CBSE BOARD 2011)

(i) Write the corresponding nuclear reaction.

(ii) Calculate the energy released, in MeV, in this 26. State the law of radioactive decay. Plot a graph

reaction. (CBSE BOARD 2006, 2007)

showing the number (N) of undecayed nuclei as s

6

[Given: mass 3 Li = 6.015126 u; mass (neutron) = function of time (t) for a given radioactive sample

1.0086654 u mass (alpha particle) = 0.0026044 u and having half life T1/2. (CBSC 2011)

mass (triton) = 3.0100000 u. Take i u = 931 MeV/c2] Depict in the plot the number of undecayed nuclei at

(i) t = 3 T1/2 and (ii) t = 4 T1/2.

18. What do you understand by isotopes, isobars 27. What is the effect on neutron to proton ratio in

and isotones? Explain with illustrations. a nucleus when (i) an electron, (ii) a positron

(C.B.S. E. 2008) is emitted? (C.B .S.E. 2003, 2006, 201 1)

19. A nucleus

23

10 Ne undergoes decay and becomes 28. A nucleus undergoes decay. How does its

11 Na. Calculate the maximum kinetic energy of

(ii) atomic number change? (CBSE BOARD 2006, 2011)

electrons emitted assuming that the daughter nucleus

and anti-neutrino carry negligible kinetic energy

29. How is the radius of a nucleus related to its mass

number?

mass of 10

23

Ne 22.994466 u

30. (a) Derive the law of radioactive decay, (CBSE 2011)

mass of 11 Na 22.989770 u

23

(CBSE BOARD 2008)

N = N0 e lt

1u 931.5 MeV / c 2

(b) Explain, giving necessary reactions, how energy is

released during (i) fission and (ii) fusion.

20. Two nuclei have mass umbers in the ratio 1:2. What is

the ratio of their nuclear densities (CBSE BOARD 2009)

according to the following scheme:

A A1 A2 A3 A4

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SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Long Answer Type Questions: [05 Marks Each]

Short Answer Type Questions: [02 Marks Each] 12. With the help of a circuit diagram explain the working

of a transistor as an oscillator.

1. How is a p-type semiconductor formed? Name the

majority carriers in it. Draw the energy band diagram 13. Explain briefly with the help of a circuit diagram how

of a p-type semiconductor. V-I characteristics of a p-n junction diode are obtained

in: (i) forward bias & (ii) reverse bias.

2. How is an n-type semiconductor formed? Name the

majority carriers in it. Draw the energy band diagram 14. Explain the function of base region of a transistor. Why

of a n-type semiconductor. this region is made thin and lightly doped? Draw a

circuit diagram to study the input and the output

3. With the help of a diagram, show the biasing of a light characteristics of n-p-n transistor in a common emitter

emitting diode (LED). Give its two advantages over (CE) configuration. Show these characteristics

conventional incandescent lamps. graphically. Explain how current amplification factor of

the transistor is calculated using output characteristics.

4. Draw a circuit diagram to show how a photodiode is

biased. Draw its characteristic curves for two different 15. Draw the energy bands of p-type and n-type

illumination intensities. semiconductors. Explain with a circuit diagram the

working of a full wave rectifier.

5. Give the logic symbol for an AND gate. Draw the

output wave form for input wave forms for this gate. 16. Explain with the help of a circuit diagram the use of an

n-p-n transistor as an amplifier in common emitter

Short Answer Type Questions: [03 Marks Each] configuration. Draw the input and output wave forms

of the signal. Write the expression for its voltage gain.

6. What is rectification? How can a diode valve be used

as half wave rectifier and full wave rectifier? 17. What is an n-p-n transistor? How does it differ from p-

n-p transistor? Give their symbols. Explain transistor

7. Explain how the depletion layer and the barrier action.

potential are formed in a p-n junction diode.

18. Explain the working of transistor as a switch. Draw

8. Draw a circuit diagram for use of NPN transistor as an transfer characteristic curve by showing

amplifier in common emitter configuration. 1) Cut-off region

The input resistance 1000 of a transistor is On 2) Active region and

changing its base current by10A, the collector current 3) Saturation region.

increases by 2 mA. If a load resistance of 5K is used

in the circuit, calculate

(i) the current gain &

(ii) voltage gain of the amplifier

inputs of a NAND gate. Draw the logic circuit of this

combination of gates and write its truth table.

represented? With the help of a circuit diagram, explain

the use of Zener diode as a voltage stabilizer.

formation of depletion region in a p-n junction. How

does its width change when the junction is:

(ii) reverse biased?

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COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Long Answer Type Questions: [05 Marks Each]

Short Answer Type Questions: [02 Marks Each]

would be the modulation index for an AM wave for which the

1. Draw a block diagram of communication system.

maximum amplitude is a and the minimum amplitude is b

2. Distinguish between point to point and broadcast

communication modes. Give one example of each. 20. A TV tower has a height h. Derive an expression for

maximum distance up to which the signal can be received

3. Explain the following terms. from the earth.

a) Ground waves b) Space waves and c) sky waves.

21. What is meant by the term modulation? Explain with the help

of a block diagram, how the process of modulation is carried

4. What does the term LOS communication mean? Name

out in AM broadcasts?

the types of waves that are used for this

communication. Give typical examples, with the help 22. What is meant by production of a modulated carrier wave?

of a suitable figure, of communication systems that use Describe briefly the essential steps with block diagram

space wave mode propagation. production.

5. Write the function of 1) Transducer and 2) repeater in 23. What is meant by detection of a modulated carrier wave?

the context of communication system. Describe briefly the essential steps with block diagram

6. What is modulation? Explain the need of modulating a detection.

low frequency information signal. 24. A schematic arrangement for transmitting a message signal

(20 Hz to 20 kHz) is given below:

7. We do not choose to transmit an audio signal by just

directly converting it to an E.M wave of the same

frequency. Give two reasons for the same.

8. Explain briefly with the help of diagrams the terms

(i) amplitude modulation and

(ii) Frequency modulation.

Which of these (i) gives better quality transmission?

(ii) Has a larger coverage

9. Why is short wave bands used for long distance

Give two drawbacks from which this arrangement suffers.

transmission of signals? Describe briefly with the help of a block diagram the

10. Optical and radio telescope are built on the ground but alternative arrangement for the transmission and reception of

x-ray astronomy is possible only from satellite? the message signal.

11. Draw a block diagram for a transmitter and a receiver

of AM wave. 25. Ground receiver station is receiving a signal at (i) 5MH and (ii

12. Why is delta modulation a convenient method of 100MHz transmitted from a round transmitter at a height of

digital modulation? 300 m, located at a distance of 100 km from the receiver

13. Where the two wire transmission line, Coaxial cable, station. Identify whether the signal is coming via space wave

Optical fibre are employed. or sky wave propagation or satellite transponder. Radius of

earth = 6.4 x 106 m N max of the Iso sphere = 1012 m3

14. Differentiate between (i) PAM and (II) PPM .

15. An audio signal of 1 kHz is used to modulate a carrier

26. An AM wave is represented by the expression:

of 500 kHz. Determine v = 5(1+0.6cos 6280t) sin 221 X 104t volts

(i) Sideband frequency (ii) Bandwidth required. (i) What are the maximum and minimum amplitudes of the

AM wave?

16. The antenna current of an AM transmitter is 8A when (ii) What frequency components are contained in the

only carrier is sent but it increases to 8.93A when the modulated wave?

carrier is sinusoid ally modulated. Find the percentage

modulation index.

17. Frequencies higher than 10MHz are found not to be

reflected by the ionosphere on a particular day at a

place. Calculate the maximum electron density of the

ionosphere.

18. You are given three semiconductors A, B, C with

respective band gaps of 3eV, 2eV and 1eV for use in a

photo detector to detect = 1400nm. Select the

suitable semiconductor. Give reasons.

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