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MEC 3825: Control Systems

Lecture Notes 3-6

Dr. Mohamed Okasha


Department of Mechanical Engineering
Room : E1-5-2.8
Email: mokasha@iium.edu.my

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Course road map
1. Modeling
Laplace transform
Transfer function
Models for systems
Mechanical
electrical
Electromechanical
Linearization
2. Analysis
Time response
Frequency response
Stability
3. Design
Root locus
PID

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Summary
Laplace transform (Important math tool!)
Definition
Laplace transform table
Properties of Laplace transform
Solution to ODEs via Laplace transform
Exercises
Read Chapter 2.
Solve problems.

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Mechanical System - Translational Elements

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Mechanical System
Example: find the transfer function for the following system

Solution: Choose positive direction, then apply Newtons second law

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Mechanical System

[Sum of impedances]X(s) = [Sum of applied forces]


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Mechanical System

[Sum of impedances]X(s) = [Sum of applied forces]

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Mechanical System
Example: find the transfer function for the following system

Solution: Choose positive direction, then apply Newtons second law

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Mechanical System

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Mechanical System

Mistake

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Mechanical System

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Mechanical System

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Mechanical System

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Mechanical System

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Mechanical System

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Mechanical System

Mistake

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Mechanical System
Examples: find the transfer function for the following system

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Mechanical System - Rotational Elements

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Mechanical System
Example: find the transfer function for the following system

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Mechanical System

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Mechanical System

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Mechanical System

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Mechanical System

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Mechanical System

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Mechanical System
Examples: find the transfer function for the following system

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Mechanical System
Transfer Functions for Systems with Gears
The distance traveled along each gears circumference is the same.

Thus, the torques are directly proportional to the ratio of the number
of teeth.
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Mechanical System
Transfer Functions for Systems with Gears

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Mechanical System
Transfer Functions for Systems with Gears

Rotational mechanical impedances can be reflected through gear trains by


multiplying the mechanical impedance by the ratio

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Mechanical System
Example:

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Mechanical System

A gear train is used to implement large gear ratios by cascading smaller


gear ratios

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Mechanical System
Example:

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Mechanical System
Examples:

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Electrical System
Mesh analysis = Kirchhoffs voltage law
Nodal analysis = Kirchhoffs current law

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Electrical System

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Electrical System

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Electrical System
Simple Circuits via Mesh Analysis

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Electrical System
Example: find the transfer function for the following system

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Electrical System
Complex Circuits via Mesh Analysis

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Electrical System
Example: find the transfer function for the following system

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Electrical System

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Electrical System

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Electrical System
Example: find the transfer function for the following system

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Electrical System
Simple Circuits via Nodal Analysis

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Electrical System
Complex Circuits via Nodal Analysis

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Electrical System
Complex Circuits via Nodal Analysis

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Electrical System
Operational Amplifiers

Inverting Operational Amplifier

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Electrical System

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Electrical System
Noninverting Operational Amplifier

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Electrical System

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Electromechanical System
A motor is an electromechanical component that yields a displacement
output for a voltage input

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Electromechanical System

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Electromechanical System

Other constants can be obtained through a dynamometer test of the motor, where
a dynamometer measures the torque and speed of a motor under the condition of a
constant applied voltage

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Electromechanical System

A dynamometer test
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Electromechanical System

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Electromechanical System

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Electromechanical System

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Electric Circuit Analogs
Series Analog

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Electric Circuit Analogs

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Electric Circuit Analogs
Parallel Analog

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Electric Circuit Analogs

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Nonlinearities

A linear system possesses two properties: superposition and homogeneity.


The property of superposition means that the output response of a system to the sum
of inputs is the sum of the responses to the individual inputs.
The property of homogeneity describes the response of the system to a multiplication
of the input by a scalar.

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Nonlinearities

Figure shows some examples of physical nonlinearities.


An electronic amplifier is linear over a specific range but exhibits the nonlinearity
called saturation at high input voltages.
A motor that does not respond at very low input voltages due to frictional forces
exhibits a nonlinearity called dead zone.
Gears that do not fit tightly exhibit a nonlinearity called backlash: The input
moves over a small range without the output responding.

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Linearization
A designer can often make a linear approximation to a nonlinear system.
Linear approximations simplify the analysis and design of a system and are used as
long as the results yield a good approximation to reality.

The Taylor series

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Linearization

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Linearization

The linearized differential equation

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Case Studies
Antenna Control: Transfer Functions

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Case Studies
Antenna Control: Transfer Functions

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Case Studies
Antenna Control: Transfer Functions

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Case Studies
Antenna Control: Transfer Functions

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Case Studies
Transfer Function of a Human Leg

Free-body diagram of leg model

Cylinder model of a human leg

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Summary & Exercises
Modeling
Modeling is an important task!
Mathematical model
Transfer function
Modeling of Mechanical and electrical systems
Next, Modeling in Time Domain
Exercises
Solve problems on Italeem - TBD

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