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ELECTROMAGNETISM

What have you observed?

S
S N

Fig. 10.1

What is the role of electricity in Did the needle deflect?


such situations?
Let's do a simple experiment. What happened when you stopped
the electric current?

What happens to the deflection


Place a pivoted magnetic needle on a
when the current is reversed?
table. Hold a straight copper wire just
above the magnetic needle and parallel
to it. Pass electric current from a battery What is the reason for the deflection
through the wire for a short time. of the magnetic needle?

Physical Sciences 123


Haven't you understood that a adjust the rheostat to increase the
magnetic field is formed around a current in the circuit. (Remember that
straight conductor carrying current? more than 2A current is to be passed
to get better results).
Can this magnetic field be depicted?
Did any change occur in the
Let's do an experiment
distribution of the iron filings?
Make a hole on a smooth cardboard What was the change observed?
and support it horizontally on two
What is the inference you have arrived
wooden plugs. Insert a straight copper
at from this experiment? Record in the
wire perpendicular to the board
science diary.
through the hole and connect its ends
to a battery. _
+
A

Is it possible to find out the direction


of the magnetic field around a straight
P conductor? Do an activity.
Remove the iron filings of the previous
K experiment and place a magnetic
needle on the card board. Now pass
Fig. 10.2 electric current through the conductor.
Scatter fine iron filings on the Note down the direction of current.
cardboard. Tap the card gently. What
do you see? Observe the distribution Does the direction of the magnetic
of iron filings. needle change when current is
passed?
Is the distribution of iron filings
uniform in all the circles?
Mark on the paper the position of the
north pole of the magnetic needle. Shift
What difference did you notice as
it so that now the south pole of the
the circles widen away from the
magnetic needle is at the marked point.
wire?
Mark again the position of the north
pole and continue the activity.
What is the conclusion that you
have arrived at from this? Direction of electric current
Electric current flows from the positive
Draw in your science diary the pattern terminal of a battery to the negative
formed by the iron filings. terminal.

What is the shape of the pattern Keep the magnetic needle at various
you got? Which is their centre? points on the cardboard and repeat the
experiment.
Repeat the experiment scattering again
iron filings on the cardboard. Now Remove the magnetic needle and draw

124 Physical Sciences


a curve joining the successive points Imagine that you are grasping the
you have marked. current carrying conductor in your right
hand such that the thumb indicates the
What is the shape of the curves
direction of the current, then the direction
obtained?
in which the ends of other fingers point
indicates the direction of the magnetic
field. This is the right hand rule.
The direction of the magnetic line of force
at a point in a magnetic field is the You have now understood what the
direction of motion of a free isolated north direction of the magnetic field formed
pole placed at that point. The direction of around a straight conductor carrying
line of force is the direction of the magnetic current will be.
field at that point.
What is the direction of the magnetic
We have seen that a field when a current is passed through
magnetic field can be a circular coil?
depicted by lines of force
F
with directions marked.
Repeat the experiment by
reversing the current.
C
Compare the directions of
the current and the
magnetic field, in each case.
Is there any relationship
Fig. 10.4
between the direction of the Fig. 10.3 Pass a copper wire through two holes
current and that of the
in a cardboard and bend it in the form
resulting magnetic field?
of a circle as shown in the figure.
Note your findings in the science diary.
Connect it to the terminals of a battery
This relationship can be found out by through a switch.
using the thumb and other fingers of
Scatter iron filings on the cardboard,
your right hand.
around the coil. Switch on the current
Hold the conductor in the right hand and gently tap the cardboard
in such a way that the thumb indicates
What peculiarity do you observe in
the direction of the current. Note the
the distribution of the iron filings
direction in which the fingers curl. Is
when compared to that around the
there any similarity between this
straight conductor?
direction and the direction of the curve
obtained by the successive position of
the north pole of the compass needle How are the iron filings distributed?
placed in the magnetic field? What conclusion do you arrive at
from this?

Physical Sciences 125


What happens if the number of
turns of the coil is increased?
Keep two semi cylindrical PVC pipes
one above and the other below a
cardboard. Draw parallel lines on the
C cardboard along the edges of the
B cylinder. Make holes in the cardboard
A along this line at intervals of 0.5 cm.

Fig. 10.5 K

As in the above figure, mark points A


and C on the cardboard outside the
circular coil and B inside. All the points
should be in a straight line. Keep a
Fig. 10.6
magnetic needle on each of these points
and switch on the current. What do you A long insulated conducting wire
observe? wound in the form of a helix is a solenoid.
Is the direction of the north pole of the Make a solenoid as in fig. 10.6 by
magnetic needle at A, B and C the winding the wire through the holes.
same? Remove the pipes. The solenoid for
Draw a line on the cardboard through doing the experiment is ready.
B perpendicular to the line ABC. Keep Connect the ends of the solenoid to a
magnetic needles on various points on circuit containing a rheostat, a switch
this line and repeat this experiment. Is and a battery. Switch on the circuit.
there any variation in the direction of
the magnetic needle? If so, how are Move a magnetic compass box both
they? inside and outside the solenoid and
mark the points indicated by the north
What conclusion do you arrive at pole of the needle.
from this? Record it. Join these points and draw the
magnetic lines of force with the
Make two turns of the same wire in direction marked.
circles not touching each other and
What is the direction of the
repeat the experiment.
magnetic field inside the solenoid?
What is the direction of the
magnetic field formed around each
What is the polarity of the magnetic
coil?
pole formed at each free end of the
solenoid?
And inside the coils?

126 Physical Sciences


current flows
Which is the end of the solenoid into the coil
current flows out of
where the north pole of the the coil
magnetic needle is attracted?

current in the anti


If so, what will be the polarity at this clockwise direction
end of the solenoid?

And at the other end of the


at this end of the solenoid is
solenoid? the north pole of it.

From which terminal of the battery current flows out of


to which does the current flow the coil current flows into the
through the solenoid? coil

Try to find the direction of the current current in clockwise


at the end of the solenoid connected to direction
the positive terminal of the battery.
Compare this with the direction of
at this end of the
motion of the hands of a clock. Fig. 10.7(b) solenoid is the south pole
of it
If it is clockwise, what is the
An easy way to find out the magnetic polarity at
polarity formed at this end? the ends of a solenoid depending on the direction
of current in it.
And if it is anti clockwise?

Repeat the experiment by reversing the


current through the solenoid in the
Current in anti Current in clockwise
circuit. clockwise direction direction
What are the changes observed in Fig. 10.8
the magnetic polarity formed at the The figures below show the magnetic
free ends of the solenoid? field of a bar magnet and that of a
solenoid carrying current.
What is the conclusion you arrive at
regarding the magnetic polarity at the
ends of the solenoid and the direction
of the current through the solenoid at
these ends? Compare it with fig. 10.8

Fig. 10.9
Compare them. What conclusion do
you arrive at?

Physical Sciences 127


We have found that a solenoid carrying magnetic field formed around a
current behaves like a bar magnet. solenoid.
Let's now look into the methods for
We have already learned that when a
enhancing the strength of such a
solenoid is used like this, it functions
magnet.
like an electromagnet.
Make a solenoid by winding 25 turns
If so, what are the methods to
of insulated copper wire on a small
enhance the strength of an electro
piece of PVC pipe. Keep a magnetic
magnet?
compass needle at one of the free ends
of this solenoid. Observe the
deflection of the magnetic needle by Increase the area of cross section of
passing current through the solenoid. the iron core.
Record your findings. Along with Anees, you too must have
understood by now that electro
magnets are used in cranes. These are
Repeat the experiment by increasing
capable of lifting several tons of iron
the number of turns.
and steel and that their strength can be
Record your observations. enhanced through various methods.
When did the magnetic needle You have learnt how to make electro
deflect more? magnets. What are the situations in
which electromagnets are used?
Repeat the experiment by inserting
Electric bell
pieces of iron binding wires/soft
iron core into the solenoid.
What change do you observe in the Examine the parts of an electric bell
deflection of the magnetic needle? shown in the figure. Discuss how it
works when it is switched on.
What happens if you increase the Make an electric bell and exhibit it.
number of iron binding wires in the
solenoid? iron strip a strip with
spring action
hammer screw
Compare the findings.

Repeat the experiment by varying the


current in the solenoid.
switch
What is the change that takes place
in the deflection of the magnetic
needle?

From these experiments, we have coil of wire


gong iron core
found out the factors that influence the
Fig. 10.10
128 Physical Sciences