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DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING OF INTEGRATED TURBINE-PUMP VOLUTE CASING

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

AJAY VAILORE (1301061014)

ANURAG SINGH CHAUHAN (1301061040)

CHIRAG AHUJA (1301061056)

ADARSH RAJPAL (1301061012)

in partial fulfilment for the award of the degree of

B.TECH.(FULL TIME)

In

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

the degree of B.TECH.(FULL TIME) In MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEHRADUN INSTITUTE OF

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

DEHRADUN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

DEHRADUN

NOVEMBER 2016

DIT UNIVERSITY

DEHRADUN

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report “DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING OF INTEGRATED

TURBINE-PUMP VOLUTE CASINGis the bonafide work of “CHIRAG AHUJA,

ANURAG SINGH CHAUHAN, AJAY VAILORE, ADARSH RAJPALwho carried out

the project work under my supervision.

SIGNATURE PROF. A.K. SHARMA GUIDE

INTERNAL EXAMINER

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I feel much honoured in presenting this dissertation report in such an authenticable form of

I feel much honoured in presenting this dissertation report in such an authenticable form of sheer endurance and continual efforts of inspiring excellence from various coordinating factor of cooperation and sincere efforts drawn from all sources of knowledge. I express my sincere gratitude to PROF. A.K. SHARMA, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPT., DIT UNIVERSITY, and UCoST for funding this project.

I wish to express my profound gratitude to PROF. UMESH WAZIR, HEAD OF DEPARTMENT, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, DIT UNIVERSITY. for his support and providing all the facilities, which would have made it possible for me to complete the dissertation report. The cooperation he gave is greatly appreciated. I extend my thanks to all classmates who have given their full cooperation and valuable suggestion for my dissertation report work.

Place: DEHRADUN

CHIRAG AHUJA

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Many places in India, as we all know, has water crisis. Especially locations with high

Many places in India, as we all know, has water crisis. Especially locations with high altitudes face this problem. The solution to this problem entails the distribution of water to high altitude places with the use of a pump. The pump is usually driven by a motor of the required specification. The pump is then designed accordingly for the required head and discharge. The downside to this method is that it requires continuous supply of electricity, which sometimes may not be available at these remote areas. Electricity is produced in many ways, the major one of them is by dams. The power produced by dams is called hydroelectricity. Turbines are used in this process of producing electricity by the heads available in rivers, it converts the pressure energy available in river into electrical energy. In this project, we are omitting the use of motor. Instead, the pump is driven by a turbine. The pump then supplies water to the rural areas in high altitudes. The turbine and pump are mounted on a single shaft, allowing the turbine to run the pump. This setup is encompassed by a single volute casing. A volute casing is a kind of spiral casing. It is an integral part of a turbine or a pump, which directs the water into or out of the system seamlessly and hence contributing to the increase in the overall efficiency. The ultimate aim of this project is to design and manufacture a volute casing for an integrated turbine-pump system.

CONTENTS

CONTENTS S.N PARTICULARS PAGE NO. CANDIDATES’ DECLARATION AND CERTIFICATE 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 3 ABSTRACT

S.N

PARTICULARS

PAGE NO.

CANDIDATES’ DECLARATION AND CERTIFICATE

2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

3

ABSTRACT

4

CONTENTS

5

LIST OF FIGURES

6

LIST OF NOMENCLATURE

7

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

08

1.1 HYDRO TURBINE

08

1.2 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

11

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

17

2.1 PREVIOUS RESEARCHES ON TURBINES

17

2.2 PREVIOUS RESEARCHES ON PUMPS

19

 

CHAPTER 3

EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS

17

CHAPTER 4

CONCLUSIONS AND RESULTS

25

4.1

CONCLUSION

25

4.2

INNOVATIVENESS/USEFULNESS

25

4.3

MARKET POTENTIAL AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

25

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF FIGURES FIG.NO. PARTICULARS 1 Runner 2 Kaplan turbine 3 Pelton wheel 4 Cut way

FIG.NO.

PARTICULARS

1

Runner

2

Kaplan turbine

3

Pelton wheel

4

Cut way view of centrifugal pump

5

Volute

Diffuser

6

7

Centrifugal pump

8

Velocity diagram

PAGE NO.

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

23

LIST OF NOMECLATURE

LIST OF NOMECLATURE SYMBOLS : DESCRIPTION H : Discharge head Q : Discharge N s :

SYMBOLS

:

DESCRIPTION

H

:

Discharge head

Q

:

Discharge

N s

:

Specific speed

P

:

Shaft power

ƞ

0

:

Overall efficiency

D

1

:

Inlet dia

D

2

:

Outlet dia

CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION This project requires the complete understanding of both turbine and pump as it integrates

This project requires the complete understanding of both turbine and pump as it

integrates these into a working system which pumps up water without any external aid.

HYDRO TURBINE

A hydraulic turbine uses potential energy and kinetic energy of water and converts it

into usable mechanical energy. The mechanical energy made available at the turbine shaft is

used to run an electric power generator which is directly coupled to the turbine shaft. It is well

known from Newton’s Law that to change momentum of fluid, a force is required. Similarly,

when momentum of fluid is changed, a force is generated. This principle is made use in

hydraulic turbine

Classification and Types of Turbines

Turbines can be classified on the basis of power produced by them. A brief classification is

show in the Table 1.2 below.

Classification

Power output

Large

>100 MW

Medium

10-100 MW

Small

1-10 MW

Mini

100 kW-1 MW

Micro

5-100 kW

Pico

< 5 kW

Table 1.2 Power output classification of hydro power scheme

Turbines can be either reaction or impulse types. The turbines type indicates the manner

in which the water causes the turbine runner to rotate. Reaction turbine operates with their

runners fully flooded and develops torque because of the reaction of water pressure against

runner blades. Impulse turbines operate with their runner in air and convert the water’s pressure

energy into kinetic energy of a jet that impinges onto the runner buckets to develop torque.

Reaction turbines:

Reaction turbines are classified as Francis (mixed flow) or axial flow. Axial flow turbines are available with both fixed blades (Propeller) and variable pitch blades (Kaplan). Both axial flow (Propeller & Kaplan) and Francis turbines may be mounted either horizontally or vertically. Additionally, propeller turbines may be slant mounted.

Francis turbine : A Francis turbine is one having a runner with fixed buckets (vanes), usually nine or more, to which the water enters the turbine in a radial direction, with respect to the shaft, and is discharged in an axial direction. Principal components consist of the runner, a water supply case to convey the water to the runner, wicket gates to control the quantity of water and distribute it equally to the runner and a draft tube to convey the water away from the turbines. It exists in large numbers throughout the world. It is applied at head ranges generally from about 15 to 750 meters and in power ranges from about 0.25 to 800 MW per unit. There are also numerous small units at very low heads. A Francis turbine may be operated over a range of flows approximately 40 to 105% of rated discharge. Below 40% rated discharge, there can be an area of operation where vibration and/or power surges occur. The upper limit generally corresponds to the generator rating. The approximate head range for operation is from 65% to 125% of design head. In general, peak efficiencies of Francis turbines, within the capacity range of 25 MW, with modern design tool like CFD (computational fluid dynamics) have enabled to achieve peak efficiency in the range of 93 to 94%.

fluid dynamics) have enabled to achieve peak efficiency in the range of 93 to 94%. Figure

Figure 1 runner

Axial Flow Turbines : Kaplan/propeller turbine : Axial flow turbines are those in

which water flow through the runner is aligned with the axis of rotation. Axial flow hydraulic turbines have been used for net heads up to 75 meters with power output up

to 200 MW. However, they are generally used in head applications below 35 meters.

Tubular turbines (S-type) are used below 30 meters head and 8 MW capacity. Bulb units can be used to about 25 meters head and up to about 100 MW capacity. In SHP Bulb units can be used for low heads if runner diameter is more than 1 meter. Specific

mechanical designs, civil construction, and economic factors must be given full consideration when selecting among these three axial flow turbine arrangements.

A Kaplan/propeller turbine is one having a runner with three, four, five or six blades in

which the water passes through the runner in an axial direction with respect to the shaft.

The pitch of the blades may be fixed or movable. Principal components consist of a water supply case, wicket gates, a runner and a draft tube. Axial flow turbine with movable blades is called Kaplan turbines. Axial flow turbines with fixed blades is called propeller turbine. An axial flow turbine with movable blades but fixed guide vanes (no wicket gates) is called semi Kaplan turbine.

guide vanes (no wicket gates) is called semi Kaplan turbine. Figure 2 kaplan turbine Impulse Turbines

Figure 2 kaplan turbine

Impulse Turbines : Pelton turbine An impulse turbine is one having one or more free jets discharging into an aerated space and impinging on the buckets of a runner. Efficiencies are often 90% and above. In general, an impulse turbine will not be competitive in cost with a reaction turbine in overlapping range. However, certain hydraulic conditions or surge protection requirements may warrant investigation into the suitability of an impulse turbine in the overlapping head range. Single nozzle impulse pelton turbine has a very flat efficiency curve and may be operated down to loads of 20% of rated capacity with good efficiency. For

multi-nozzle units, the range is even broader because the number of operating jets can be varied.

broader because the number of operating jets can be varied. Figure 3 pelton wheel Hydro energy

Figure 3 pelton wheel

Hydro energy can be defined as the process of extracting the potential energy from a flow of water over a height difference (head). The gravitational potential energy associated with the water is converted to mechanical energy that can be used directly or converted again into electrical energy by means of a generator. The power, P that can be generated from the turbine = ƞ

Where ƞ is the efficiency of the turbine system, Q is total volumetric flow or discharge, H is head (the actual height difference between the free surfaces of the reservoirs or channels upstream and downstream of a turbine), ρ is water density, and g is the gravitational constant (9.81 m/s 2 ).

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

Centrifugal pumps are a sub-class of dynamic axisymmetric work absorbing turbomachinery. Centrifugal pumps are used to transport fluids by the conversion of rotational kinetic energy to the hydrodynamic energy of the fluid flow. The rotational energy typically comes from an engine or electric motor. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber (casing), from where it exits.

According to Reti, the first machine that could be characterized as a centrifugal pump was a mud lifting machine which appeared as early as 1475 in a treatise by the Italian Renaissance engineer Francesco di Giorgio Martini. True centrifugal pumps were not developed until the late 17th century, when Denis Papin built one using straight vanes. The curved vane was introduced by British inventor John Appold in 1851.

was introduced by British inventor John Appold in 1851. Figure 4 Cutaway view of centrifugal pump

Figure 4 Cutaway view of centrifugal pump (source: Wikipedia)

Like most pumps, a centrifugal pump converts rotational energy, often from a motor, to energy in a moving fluid. A portion of the energy goes into kinetic energy of the fluid. Fluid enters axially through eye of the casing, is caught up in the impeller blades, and is whirled tangentially and radially outward until it leaves through all circumferential parts of the impeller into the diffuser part of the casing. The fluid gains both velocity and pressure while passing through the impeller. The doughnut-shaped diffuser, or scroll, section of the casing decelerates the flow and further increases the pressure.

TECHNICAL DETAILS

Centrifugal pumps basically consist of a stationary pump casing and an impeller mounted on a rotating shaft. The pump casing provides a pressure boundary for the pump and contains channels to properly direct the suction and discharge flow. The pump casing has suction and discharge penetrations for the main flow path of the pump and normally has small drain and vent fittings to remove gases trapped in the pump casing or to drain the pump casing for maintenance.

The illustration directly below, is a simplified diagram of a typical centrifugal pump that shows the relative locations of the pump suction, impeller, volute, and discharge. The centrifugal pump casing guides the liquid from the suction connection to the center, or eye, of the impeller. The vanes of the rotating impeller impart a radial and rotary motion to the liquid, forcing it to the outer periphery of the pump casing where it is collected in the outer part of the pump casing called the volute. The volute is a region that expands in cross-sectional area as it wraps around the pump casing. The purpose of the volute is to collect the liquid discharged from the periphery of the impeller at high velocity and gradually cause a reduction in fluid velocity by increasing the flow area. This converts the velocity head to static pressure. The fluid is then discharged from the centrifugal pump through the discharge connection.

Types of Pump Casings

There two basic types of pump casings: volutes and diffusers.

Whether we’re talking about volutes or diffusers, what all casings have in common is that they are designed to take energy in the form of velocity and convert it into pressure.

Volutes

Volutes are designed to capture the velocity of liquid as it enters the outermost diameter of an impeller and convert the velocity of the liquid into pressure.

In the picture to the right, the impeller is not located in the center of the volute. This is intentional. The portion of the volute that extends closest to the impeller is called the cutwater.

that extends closest to the impeller is called the cutwater. Figure 5 volute casing Starting from

Figure 5 volute casing

Starting from the cutwater and proceeding in a counter-clockwise fashion, the distance between the volute and the impeller increases gradually. This has the effect of causing pressure to build within the volute as the distance increases. Once the point of greatest separation is reached directly next to the cutwater moving in clockwise direction the pressure is at its greatest, and water is forced out the casing when it encounters the cutwater.

Diffusers

What a cutwater is to a volute, vanes are to a diffuser. While volutes only have one (or sometimes two) points where the edge of the casing approaches the edge of the impeller in order to begin building pressure, diffusers often have many vanes. In the case of the assembly drawing shown the diffuser contains 10 vanes as compared the volute casing which only has one.

Also, while an impeller is placed in the center of a volute, an impeller generally sits directly adjacent to a diffuser and pushes water into the diffuser vanes.

to a diffuser and pushes water into the diffuser vanes. Figure 6 diffuser The basic function

Figure 6 diffuser

The basic function of a diffuser is similar to that of a volute. Diffuser vanes are positioned such that they begin close to the outer edge of the impeller and then gradually extend away from the impeller periphery.

Impellers

Impellers are usually classified in two ways:

Specific Speed (Ns): The relationship between the amount of flow an impeller produces and the amount of head or pressure generated is called specific speed.

Physical Design: Details such as whether an impeller is open or enclosed, whether it is single or double suction, and the way the impeller vanes are designed can all be used to describe and classify impellers.

Specific Speed (Ns)

Specific speed, also referred to as Ns, describes the relationship between how much flow an impeller produces and how much head it generates. When the specific speed of an impeller is calculated, the result is the speed at which a theoretical impeller of the same geometric design, but only 1″ in diameter, would have to operate to produce a flow of 1 gallon per minute and 1 foot of total dynamic head.

VOLUTE CASING FOR PUMPS

The word volute describes a specific type of pump casing that converts energy created by the impeller into pressure. The impeller pushes water into the volute which converts that energy into pressure and directs the flow toward the discharge point. In the picture on the right notice that the impeller is not located in the centre of the volute. This is intentional. The portion of the volute that extends closest to the impeller is called the “cutwater”. It is the point where the flow is forced to exit through the discharge point rather than continuing to swirl around the impeller. The gradually increasing distance between the volute and casing and the direction of rotation of the impeller (noted by the arrow above the volute) combine to force the water around the volute in a counter-clockwise direction in the pump section shown, and once the flow reaches the cutwater it is forced to exit the volute. A volute is a curved funnel increasing in area to the discharge port. It is often used with impeller pumps. As the area of the cross-section increases, the volute reduces the speed of the liquid and increases the pressure of the liquid.

of the liquid and increases the pressure of the liquid. Figure 7 Volute casing Pumps are

Figure 7 Volute casing

Pumps are used in a wide range of industrial and residential applications. Pumping equipment is extremely diverse, varying in type, size, and materials of construction. There have been significant new developments in the area of pumping equipment. They are used to transfer liquids from low-pressure to high pressure in this system, the liquid would move in the opposite

direction because of the pressure difference. Centrifugal pumps are widely used for irrigation, water supply plants, stream power plants, sewage, oil refineries,

Chemical plants, hydraulic power service, food processing factories and mines. Moreover, they are also used extensively in the chemical industry because of their suitability in practically any service and are mostly used in many applications such as water pumping project, domestic water raising, industrial waste water removal, raising water from tube wells to the fields. A centrifugal pump delivers useful energy to the fluid on pumpage largely through velocity changes that occur as this fluid flows through the impeller and the associated fixed passage ways of the pump. It is converting of mechanical energy to hydraulic energy of the handling fluid to get it to a required place or height by the centrifugal force of the impeller blade. The input power of centrifugal pump is the mechanical energy and such as electrical motor of the drive shaft driven by the prime mover or small engine. The output energy is hydraulic energy

of

the fluid being raised or carried.

In

a centrifugal pump, the liquid is forced by atmospheric or other pressure into a set of rotating

vanes. A centrifugal pump consists of a set of rotation vanes enclosed within a housing or

casing that is used to impart energy to a fluid through centrifugal force.

A pump transfer mechanical energy from some external source to the liquid flowing through it

and losses occur in any energy conversion process. The energy transferred is predicted by the

Euler Equation. The energy transfer quantities are losses between fluid power and mechanical power of the impeller or runner. Thus, centrifugal pump may be taken losses of energy. The

kinds of loss of centrifugal pumps can be differentiated in internal losses and external or mechanical losses. The internal loss is hydraulic losses or blade losses by friction, variations

of the effective area or changes of direction losses of quantity at the sealing places between the

impeller and housing at the rotary shaft seals. The external or mechanical loss is sliding surface

losses by bearing friction or seal friction.

CHAPTER-2

LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEW PREVIOUS RESEARCHES IN TURBINES The turbine and its design has been working for

PREVIOUS RESEARCHES IN TURBINES

The turbine and its design has been working for a very long time now. But the amount

of research done on them is very limited. There has been a small amount of research done on

simplified designs, suitable for micro hydro applications. There is very little information on

how aspects of the design such as blade angle, shape, and hub size, etc, affect the performance.

Most of the previous researches and designs of turbines that were made was based on large

capacity turbines usually in Mega Watts (MW) and not much importance was given to the

micro and Pico turbines.

Rao, (1988) has tested a turbine with eight helical blades which produce 5 kW from a head of

5 m. It would be a suitable design for lower heads but it was thought that further simplifications

to the design would be worth testing, particularly using flat rather than helical blades.

A turbine with moulded fibreglass blades, hub, and housing designed to produce 5 kW from a

head of 10 m was tested at M.I.T. This is described by Ho, L.W in “Manufacture and Evaluation

of a Five-Kilowatt Axial-Flow Water Turbine”, Master of Science Thesis, (Massachusetts

Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA02139, USA), 1976.

Susanto, (1983) describes a 200 mm diameter turbine with four cast iron blades, designed to

produce 2.5 kW from a head of 2 m. Its design speed was 1000 RPM, giving a specific speed

of Ns = 665 RPM (kW,m) or 174 RPM (hp,ft) (Susanto gives Ns =236, with no units). However

the turbine had not been tested so the actual performance was not known.

The "Metaz" turbine manufactured in various sizes in Czeckoslovalda, is briefly described by

Nechleba and Kopecky (1986). This turbine is built in a siphon configuration (Figure 2.1 E),

which enables it to be installed on existing weirs and dams. It was designed with an emphasis

on economical mass production and simple operation, with few parts. Most of the parts,

including the blades, are iron castings and only a few parts require machining. The efficiency

indicated is approximately 70% - 80%, with the higher efficiencies occurring as the power (i.e.,

size and head) increases. A turbine with a diameter D = 300 mm and head H = 2.6 m was tested

and the efficiency found to be 76% (including mechanical losses from seals, etc.).

There are a few other simplified propeller turbines that have been manufactured, for example

the French "Hydrolec" described briefly by Monition (1984), and an "8-inch, fixed-blade

propeller turbine, which generates 1-l0 kW under a head of 2-8 m", described briefly by Inversin (1986). This turbine, and the one described by Susanto (1983), has the shaft mounted

in a right angle pipe bend, so that the shaft can be positioned horizontally, and the hub can be

positioned low down near the outlet water level, which allows a higher head before cavitations occurs. In 1991, Faulkner conducted research on the development of a simplified propeller turbine unit to produce power in a low head micro hydroelectric power installation. A prototype hydro turbine was installed on a New Zealand farm. The best efficiency of the turbine was 62% . The design produced 4.3 kW power at 612 RPM from a head of 2.7 m and flow rate of 0.41 m 3 /s. Faulkner also predicted that the overall efficiency of the turbine can also be further improved by about 5 % with the addition of a straight sided cone on the hub. Usually all the researches that was carried out used fresh water to generate the electricity, but Zainuddin et al. (2009) designed and developed a pico-hydro generation system using consuming water to generate electricity. The project was conducted to develop a small scale hydro generation system using consuming water distributed to houses as an alternative electric energy source for residential use. Many researchers have performed simulation and numerical analysis on the turbine to improve the design of the turbine and its various parts. One of the most useful tool for this purpose is

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Due to the complication of the flow and computation cost, the analysis of separate parts is carried out separately. Some of the researches involving numerical analysis are mentioned below. Shukla et al. (2011) conducted a research on the CFD analysis of 3-D flow for francis turbine.

In this research 3-D real flow analysis is conducted for experimentally tested turbine and the

characteristics of prototype turbine were predicted in actual operating regimes. Results of CFD

analysis were very close to experimental results. Khare et al. (2012) performed CFD analysis on the optimisation of conical draft tube of hydraulic turbine. The researcher varied the shape and size of draft tube. The results showed the cross-sectional area of the exit was dependent on the length of the tube and angle of the diffuser. The draft tube performance was analysed by calculating head loss, head recovery coefficients and efficiency of the draft tube from simulation results.

A research carried out by Abubakar et at., was on the modelling and analysis of a very low

head Kaplan turbine runner blades for a specific sit. The net head and rated flow of water was 1.16m and 7.07 m 3 /sec respectively. The static and modal analysis of the Kaplan turbine runner was carried out in ANSYS 14.

In 2006 Simpson and Williams performed a research in which they applied the concept of Computational Fluid Dynamics on the design of pico propeller hydro turbines. The CFD analysis was performed to obtain the overall performance data for the turbine and to assist for the design of new rotor. The research presents the comparison and validation of the CFD results with the field test results. From the CFD results the size of the rotor was optimised and thus improving the overall performance of the turbine by increasing its efficiency.

PREVIOUS RESEARCHES IN PUMPS

In the paper- World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 46 2008design and performance analysis of centrifugal pump is given by Khin Cho Thin, Mya Mya Khaing, and Khin Maung Aye. In this paper, centrifugal pump is analyzed by using a single- stage end suction centrifugal pump. Two main components of a centrifugal pump are the impeller and the casing. The impeller is a rotating component and the casing is a stationary component. In centrifugal pump, water enters axially through the impeller eyes and water exits radially. The pump casing is to guide the liquid to the impeller, converts into pressure the high velocity kinetic energy of the flow from the impeller discharge and leads liquid away of the energy having imparted to the liquid comes from the volute casing. A design of centrifugal pump is carried out and analysed to get the best performance point. The design and performance analysis of centrifugal pump are chosen because it is the most useful mechanical rotodynamic machine in fluid works which widely used in domestic, irrigation, industry, large plants and river water pumping system. Moreover, centrifugal pumps are produced by manufacturing processes in Myanmar. In this paper, the pump is driven by one horse power electric motor and the design is based on Berman Method. The head and flow rate of this pump are 10 m and 0.179m3/s and the motor speed is 2900 rpm. The low specific speed is chosen because the value of specific speed is 100. The number of impeller blade is 9 blades. The performance analysis of centrifugal pump is carried out after designing the dimensions of centrifugal pump. So, shock losses, impeller friction losses, volute friction losses, disk friction losses and recirculation losses of centrifugal pump are also considered in performance analysis of centrifugal pump.

CHAPTER-3

EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS

CHAPTER-3 EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS The project requirement is the integrated assembly of turbine and pump to be

The project requirement is the integrated assembly of turbine and pump to be mounted

on the common shaft. So, it becomes necessary to discuss about the design parameters of both

turbine and pump as pump is driven by turbine and consequently pump performance depends

on turbine performance and design parameters.

These parameters for the turbine and pump volute design are chosen by performing a survey at

the sites. These parameters mainly constitute the discharge and the net head available. In rural

Uttarakhand, there is a huge source for the hydro energy.So, turbine such as micro-hydro

Propeller Turbine find its best application in these areas and thus we chose this turbine. From

the survey it was accounted that this turbine net head range was in the range of 2.5 to 5.5m and

the flow discharge was in the range of 0.15-0.34 m 3 /s.

For pump we chose Multistage Centrifugal Pump- a two stage centrifugal pump in order to

generate a net head range of 50-150m and the flow discharge range of 2-5 lt/s.

Thus, the integrated assembly has a two stage centrifugal 3kw pump driven by a 5kw shaft

output power producing turbine. The volute casing will be integrated for both turbine and

pump.

1.

TURBINE PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS:

 

The turbine used is micro-hydro Propeller turbine. Since, the turbine required for the

integrated assembly of turbine-pump assembly is preoccupied. So, we need to focus

more on performance parameters which are-

 

Sr. No.

Parameter

Value

1.

Power P (KW)

5

2.

N (RPM)

1500

3.

Head H (m)

2.5-5.5 (4.2)

4.

Discharge Q (m³/s)

0.15-0.34 (0.17)

5.

Efficiency (%)

70

2.

PUMP PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS:

The pump used is 2-stage centrifugal pump. Its performance parameters are-

Sr. No.

Parameter

Value

1.

Power P (KW)

3

2.

N (RPM)

1500

3.

Head H (m)

50-150

4.

Discharge Q (lt/s)

2-5

5.

Efficiency (%)

60

3.

PUMP DESIGN PARAMETERS:

 

Before pump design or selection can be got, specifications is needed to be established which express several requirements.

Specific speed is used to classify impellers on the basis of their performance, and proportions regardless of their actual size or the speed at which they operate.

Specific Speed: 3.65 *n*√Q÷H 3/4

Capacity, volute flow rate of a pump is the amount of water pumped per unit time and it is also known traditionally as volume flow rate. The capacity is directly related with the velocity of flow in the suction pipe.

where

Capacity: Q = AV

A and V are area of pipe and volume flow rate.

Water Power and Shaft Power

The power imparted to the water by the pump is called water power. To calculate water power, the flow rate and the pump head must be known. As a result, to provide a certain amount of power to the water a larger amount of power must be provided to the pump shaft. This power is called brake power. The efficiency of the pump determines how much more power is required at the shaft. The water power is determined from the relationship

The shaft power is:

N= ρgHQ

Shaft power = water power/ ηo

Pump efficiency is

Maximum shaft power is:

ηo = ηm × ηv × ηr

Mmax: = α1 ρgHQ/ ηo

α1 is the safety factor in charge condition of the work of pump

Inlet diameter of impeller is:

D1= (1.1~1.15) K 0* √Q/n

The value of K0 is chosen as 4.5.

The outlet diameter of impeller is:

D2= 19.2 (n opt /100) 1/6 *(√2gH)/n

D0 is the eye diameter of impeller.

D0= K0 (Q/n) 1/3

where K0 is the constant parameter which value is chosen as 4.5.

Inlet width of the impeller is:

b1 = R0/2

R0 is the radius of the impeller eye.

Outlet width of the impeller is:

b2 = 0.78(ns opt:/100)1/2(Q/n)1/3

The hydraulic efficiency is:

1- (.42/(log D-.172) 2

where HT and Dy are the pressure head and seal diameter.

The pressure head is:

The seal diameter is:

HT = H/ηr

Dy = D0 + 10

seal diameter. The pressure head is: The seal diameter is: HT = H/ηr Dy = D0

Figure 8 velocity diagram

CALCULATIONS:

Sr. No.

Parameter

Value

1.

N

S (Specific Speed)

17.47

2.

D1(Inlet Dia. Impeller)

66.2

mm

3.

D2(Outlet Dia. Impeller)

336 mm

4.

B1(inlet width impeller)

16.5

mm

5.

B2(outlet width impeller)

4.36

mm

6.

U1(inlet tangential velocity)

5.18

m/s

7.

U2 (outlet tangential velocity)

26.37

m/s

8.

T(thickness)

2 mm

9.

Z

(no. of blades)

6

10.

Vf1(inlet flow velocity)

1.286

m/s

11.

Vf2(outlet flow velocity)

.811 m/s

12.

Ɵ

13.942

13.

Ƞ h (Hydraulic efficiency)

77 %

14.

V

w2 (whirl velocity outlet)

24.44

m/s

15.

ǿ

22.79

CHAPTER-4

CONCLUSIONS AND RESULTS

CHAPTER-4 CONCLUSIONS AND RESULTS CONCLUSIONS  Calculated parameters comply with the specifications of the already

CONCLUSIONS

Calculated parameters comply with the specifications of the already available products

in the market. Hence, the assembly is feasible.

Designed pump would be able to supply water to various remote areas in India,

especially hilly regions.

In this project, we are omitting the use of an electric motor, Electricity being a major

scarcity in these regions.

Since the pump and turbine has an integrated casing, a lot of material is saved, and the

rendered product is cost effective.

INNOVATIVENESS/USEFULNESS

The most basic and vital innovation that we have used is that instead of using a motor to

drive the pump, the centrifugal pump is driven by a turbine of higher output than the required

input of the pump. By decreasing the discharge and increasing the head, we can distribute water

to high altitudes with the existing low head.

This project is very useful as many of the villages do not have adequate electricity supply but

there is availability of water in low heads. This project will be ideal for these kind of locations.

MARKET POTENTIAL AND COMPETETIVE ADVANTAGE

This kind of assembly is not currently available in the markets. We can say the potential

for this project is very high, especially in India, as this projects avoids the use of an electric

motor and is very useful in areas without proper electricity supply.

REFERENCES

REFERENCES 1. Bansal R K (1983), “A Textbook of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines”, 1 s

1. Bansal R K (1983), “A Textbook of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines”, 1 st Edition, Laxmi Publications.

2. Simpson, R., & Williams, A. (2011). Design of propeller turbines for pico hydro. Information on http://www.picohydro.org.uk

3. Ho-Yan, B., 2012. Design of a Low Head Pico Hydro Turbine for Rural Electrification in Cameroon (Doctoral dissertation).

4. Patel, U. R., Patel, D. A., & Maisuria, M. S. (2014). ANALYSE THE EFFECT OF MASS FLOW RATE ON THE EFFICIENCY OF PICO TURBINE & VALIDATE WITH EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics Research, 3(3), 250

5. N. Smith and G. Ranjitkhar, “Nepal Case Study–Part One: Installation and performance of the Pico Power Pack,” Pico Hydro Newsletter, April 2000.

6. P. Maher and N. Smith, “Pico hydro for village power: A practical manual for schemes up to 5 kW in hilly areas,” 2nd ed., Intermediate Technology Publications, May 2001.