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in Pavement Design

W.N. Houston*

Arizona State University

Tempe, AZ 85287-5306, USA

czapata@asu.edu

witczak@asu.edu

sandy.houston@asu.edu

** Fugro Consultants LP

8613 Cross Park

Austin, TX 78754, USA

DAndrei@fugro.com

flexible and rigid pavements. External factors such as precipitation, temperature, freeze-thaw

cycles, and depth to water table play a key role in defining the bounds of the impact the

environment can have on the pavement performance. As part of the new US Mechanistic-

Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) being developed under the overall project

sponsored by the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP project 1-37A),

a climatic modelling tool called the Enhanced Integrated Climatic Model (EICM) was

implemented to incorporate the changes in temperature and moisture of unbound materials

into the design process. Currently a new independent review project (NCHRP 1-40) is

reviewing this model to correct errors and to develop further enhancements to produce a final

methodology ready for approval/disapproval vote by AASHTO in 2006. This paper reflects

the methodology used for the MEPDG and present the models incorporated by Arizona State

University into the EICM, the input needed and the outputs generated by the program. A

discussion on how EICM determines the temperature and moisture distribution within the

pavement system is also presented.

KEYWORDS: Pavement Design, Environmental Effects, Climatic Model, Design Guide.

668 RMPD 8/2007. Water in Pavements

1. Introduction

flexible and rigid pavements. External factors such as precipitation, temperature,

freeze-thaw cycles, and depth to water table play a key role in defining the bounds

of the impact the environment can have on the pavement performance. Internal

factors such as the susceptibility of the pavement materials to moisture and freeze-

thaw damage; drainage of paving layers, and infiltration potential of the pavement,

define the extent to which the pavement will react to the applied external

environmental conditions.

In a pavement structure, moisture and temperature are the two environmentally

driven variables that can significantly affect the pavement layer and subgrade

properties and, hence, its load carrying capacity. Some of the effects of environment

on pavement materials include:

Modulus values can vary from 13,800 to 20,700 MPa (2 to 3 million psi) or

more during cold winter months to about 690 MPa (100,000 psi) or less during hot

summer months.

Temperature and moisture gradients particularly in the top Portland cement

concrete (PCC) layer can significantly affect stresses and deflections and

consequently pavement damage and distresses.

At freezing temperatures, water in soil freezes and its resilient modulus can

rise to values 20 to 120 times higher than the value of the modulus before freezing.

All other conditions being equal, the higher the moisture content the lower the

modulus of unbound materials; however, moisture has two separate effects: First, it

can affect the state of stress, through suction or pore water pressure. Second, it can

affect the structure of the soil through destruction of the cementation between soil

particles (Lekarp et al., 2000).

Excessive moisture can lead to stripping in asphalt mixtures or can have long-

term effects on the structural integrity of cement bound materials.

Freeze-thaw effects are experienced in the underlying layers but eventually

lead to distresses in the pavement surface.

A new US Mechanistic-Empirical Design Guide for Pavements (MEPDG) was

developed under the sponsorship of the National Cooperative Highway Research

Program (NCHRP). All the distresses considered in the MEPDG are affected by the

environmental factors to some degree. Therefore, diurnal and seasonal fluctuations

in the moisture and temperature profiles in the pavement structure brought about by

changes in ground water table, precipitation/infiltration, freeze-thaw cycles, and

other external factors are modelled in a very comprehensive manner by a climatic

model called the Enhanced Integrated Climatic Model (EICM).

Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 669

The scope of this paper is to present the models implemented into the EICM, the

input needed and the outputs generated by the program. A discussion on how EICM

determines the temperature and moisture distribution within the pavement system is

also presented.

This paper reflects the methodology at the time NCHRP 1-37A was completed

and provided to the sponsors. It should be recognized that further independent

review is currently being undertaken and it is anticipated that several further changes

in the methodology herein described are expected.

The EICM is a one-dimensional coupled heat and moisture flow program that

simulates changes in the behavior and characteristics of pavement and subgrade

materials in conjunction with climatic conditions over several years of operation.

The original version of the EICM, referred to as the Integrated Climatic Model, was

developed for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) at Texas A&M

University, Texas Transportation Institute in 1989 (Lytton et al., 1990). This version

coupled an infiltration and drainage model (ID model) to a climatic-materials-

structural model (CMS model) (Dempsey et al., 1985) and a frost-heave and thaw

settlement model (CRREL model) (Guymon et al., 1986), to develop an integrated

environmental predictive methodology. The original version was then modified and

released in 1997 by Larson and Dempsey as ICM version 2.0 (Larson and Dempsey,

1997). Additional modifications in the moisture prediction model were performed in

1999 by Arizona State University, leading to ICM version 2.1. Further

improvements were made at Arizona State University as part of the MEPDG

development to further improve the moisture prediction capability of ICM version

2.1, leading to the version referred to as EICM. In developing the EICM, data from

the Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) Seasonal Monitoring Program

(SMP) test sections were used (Witczak et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2000c, 2000d).

The EICM software has been made an integral part of the MEPDG procedure.

The user inputs to the EICM are entered through interfaces provided as part of the

MEPDG software and EICM processes these inputs and feeds the processed outputs

to the three major components of the Guide materials, structural responses, and

performance prediction.

The EICM model can be applied to either asphalt concrete (AC) or Portland

cement concrete (PCC) pavements. The EICM records the user supplied resilient

modulus, MR, of all unbound layer materials at an initial or reference condition.

Generally, this will be at or near the optimum water content and maximum dry

density. Subsequently, the EICM computes and predicts the following information

throughout the entire pavement profile:

670 RMPD 8/2007. Water in Pavements

reference condition, as the subgrade and unbound materials reach equilibrium

moisture condition. Also evaluates the seasonal changes in moisture contents.

Evaluates the effect of changes in soil moisture content with respect to the

reference condition on the user entered resilient modulus, MR.

Estimates a set of adjustment factors for unbound material layers that account

for the effects of moisture content changes, freezing, thawing, and recovery from

thawing. This factor, denoted Fenv, varies with position within the pavement

structure and with time throughout the analysis period. The Fenv factor is a

coefficient that is multiplied by the MRopt to obtain MR as a function of position and

time.

Makes use of time-varying MR values in the computation of critical pavement

response parameters and damage at various points within the pavement system.

Evaluates changes in temperature as a function of time for all asphalt bound

layers.

For rigid pavements, the following additional information is generated:

Temperature profiles in the PCC and underlying layers used for thermal

gradients in PCC; and joint and crack openings and closings.

Effective linear temperature gradient used to model slab curvature and thermal

stresses.

Probability distribution of effective linear temperature gradients.

Freezing index and the number of freeze-thaw cycles for the selected location.

Mean monthly relative humidity values used in the estimation of moisture

warping of the PCC slabs.

hierarchical (level) system. This approach is based on the philosophy that the level

of engineering effort exerted in the pavement design process should be consistent

with the relative importance, size, and cost of the design project. Level 1 is the most

current implementable procedure available, normally involving comprehensive

laboratory or field tests. In contrast, Level 3 requires the designer to estimate the

most appropriate design input value of the material property based on experience

with little or no testing. Inputs at Level 2 are estimated through correlations with

other material properties that are measured in the laboratory or field.

The inputs required by the climatic model fall under the following broad

categories: General initialisation information; weather-related information; ground

water related information; drainage and surface properties; and pavement structure

and materials.

Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 671

The specific inputs required under each of the mentioned categories and the

recommended procedures to obtain them at the various hierarchical input levels are

summarized below. The data presented covers both new and rehabilitation design.

base/subgrade construction completion date for new pavement design; existing

pavement construction date for rehabilitation design; pavement construction date;

traffic opening date; and the type of design (new or rehab and AC or PCC).

parameters on an hourly basis over the entire design life for the project being

designed: Air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, percentage sunshine, and

relative humidity.

The air temperature is required by the heat balance equation in the EICM to

define the frozen/thawing periods within the analysis time frame, and to determine

the number of freeze-thaw cycles. Precipitation is needed to compute infiltration for

rehabilitated pavements and aging processes. Wind speed is required in the

computations of the convention heat transfer coefficient at the pavement surface.

The percentage sunshine is needed for the calculations of heat balance at the surface

of the pavement and particularly the net long-wave radiation. Last, the relative

humidity is used in computing the drying shrinkage of JPCP and CRCP and also in

determining the crack spacing and initial crack width in CRCP.

The weather-related information is primarily obtained from weather stations

located near the project site. The software accompanying the Design Guide has an

available database from nearly 800 weather stations throughout the United States.

The climatic database can be tapped into by simply specifying the latitude,

longitude, and elevation of the project site. Once the co-ordinates and elevation are

specified, the Design Guide software will highlight the six closest weather stations

to the site from which the user may select any number of stations deemed to be most

representative of the local climatic conditions. After the appropriate number of

representative weather stations is chosen, interpolation of climatic data from these

stations is done and the interpolated data is made available for storage as a virtual

weather station.

672 RMPD 8/2007. Water in Pavements

The groundwater table depth is intended to be either the best estimate of the

annual average depth or the seasonal average depth. At input Level 1, it could be

determined from profile characterization borings prior to design. At input Level 3,

an estimate of the annual average value or the seasonal averages can be provided. A

potential source to obtain Level 3 estimates is the county soil reports produced by

the National Resources Conservation Service (Schoeneberger et al., 1998).

drainage path length, and pavement cross slope.

The net infiltration potential of the pavement over its design life is a qualitative

parameter. The infiltration can assume four values none, minor (10 percent of the

precipitation enters the pavement), moderate (50 percent of the precipitation enters

the pavement), and extreme (100 percent of the precipitation enters the pavement).

Based on this input, the EICM determines the amount of water available on top of

the first unbound layer.

The drainage path length is the distance measured along the resultant of the cross

and longitudinal slopes of the pavement. It is measured from highest point in the

pavement cross-section to the point where drainage occurs. This input is used in the

EICMs infiltration and drainage model to compute the time required to drain an

unbound base or subbase layer from an initially wet condition. This parameter is

computed by DRIP, a microcomputer program apart from the EICM. Finally, the

cross slope is the slope of the pavement surface perpendicular to the direction of

traffic. This input is used in computing the time required to drain a pavement base or

subbase layer from an initially wet condition.

The layer thickness of each material in the pavement structure should correspond

to layers that are more or less homogeneous. EICM internally subdivides these

layers for more accurate calculations of moisture and temperature profiles.

Several bound material properties are required for the design of flexible and rigid

pavements, and AC or PCC overlays. Those that control the heat flow through the

pavement system and thereby influence the temperature and moisture regimes within

Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 673

it are the surface shortwave absorptivity, the thermal conductivity, K, and the heat or

thermal capacity, Q. The surface long-wave absorptivity is not required, as the

model makes use of the percent sunshine to calculate cloud cover, which is tightly

related to the albedo.

The surface short wave absorptivity directly correlates with the amount of

available solar energy that is absorbed by the pavement surface. Lighter and more

reflective surfaces tend to have lower short wave absorptivity and vice versa. At

Level 1, it is recommended that this parameter be estimated through laboratory

testing. At Level 3, default values can be assumed for various pavement materials:

Weathered asphalt (gray) 0.80 0.90

Fresh asphalt (black) 0.90 0.98

Aged PCC layer 0.70 0.90

Thermal conductivity, K, is the quantity of heat that flows normally across a

surface of unit area per unit of time and per unit of temperature gradient; while the

heat or thermal capacity is the actual amount of heat energy Q necessary to change

the temperature of a unit mass by one degree. Direct measurements of both

parameters are recommended under input Level 1 (ASTM E1952 and ASTM

D2766, respectively). For Level 3, it is recommended to use design values based

upon agency historical data or from typical values shown in Table 1.

Heat Capacity, Q 0.22 to 0.40 Btu/(lb)(oF) 0.2 to 0.28 Btu/(lb)(oF)

3.5.3.1. Mass-volume relationships

The parameters needed in this category are the maximum dry density (d max),

specific gravity (Gs), and the optimum gravimetric moisture content (wopt) of the

compacted unbound material in question. From these three inputs, all other mass-

volume parameters can be computed. At Level 1, it is required that the d max, wopt,

and Gs be carefully measured in the laboratory in accordance with standard

protocols for each unbound layer: AASHTO T180 for base layers and AASHTO

T99 for other layers; and AASHTO T100. If the user chooses not to measure d max,

wopt, and Gs, then it is suggested that Level 2 inputs be adopted. At input Level 2, the

user enters the effective grain size corresponding to 60 percent passing by weight,

D60, the percent passing the U.S. No. 200 sieve, P200, and the plasticity index, PI.

674 RMPD 8/2007. Water in Pavements

From these parameters, the EICM will compute dmax wopt, and Gs using the

following correlations (Witczak et al., 2000d):

P200 * PI

WPI = [1]

100

To compute Gs:

To compute wopt:

If WPI > 0:

wopt = 1.3 (WPI)0.73 + 11 [3]

If WPI = 0

To compute d max:

G s water

d max comp = [9]

wopt G s

1+

S opt

Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 675

d max = d max comp [10]

Level 3 inputs are not applicable for this category.

Equilibrium gravimetric moisture content is a required input for rehabilitation

design. However, it is not required for new pavement design. It is recommended that

this parameter be estimated from direct testing of bulk samples retrieved from the

site or through other appropriate means.

Saturated hydraulic conductivity, ksat, is required to determine the transient

moisture profiles in compacted unbound materials and to compute their drainage

characteristics. At Level 1, a direct measurement using a permeability test

(AASHTO T215) is recommended. At Level 2, the following correlations are

available:

If 0 WPI < 1:

60 60

k sat = 10

(cm/s) [12]

Equation [12] is valid for D60 < 0.75 mm. If D60 > 0.75 mm, set D60 = 0.75 mm.

If WPI 1:

0.0004 ( P PI )2 0.0929 ( P PI ) 6.56

200 200

k sat = 10

(cm/s) [13]

To determine the dry thermal conductivity (K), a direct measurement is

recommended at Level 1 (ASTM E1952). At Level 3, recommended values for each

soil type are available. They are presented in Table 2.

To obtain the dry heat capacity (Q), a direct measurement is recommended at

Level 1 (ASTM D2766). At Level 3, the user selects design values based upon

676 RMPD 8/2007. Water in Pavements

agency historical data. Typical values range from 0.71 to 0.84 kJ/(kg K) (0.17 to

0.20 Btu/lbmoF).

Soil type

W/(m K) Btu/(ft hroF) W/(m K) Btu/(ft hroF)

The soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) is defined as the variation of water

storage capacity within the macro- and micro-pores of a soil, with respect to suction

(Fredlund et al., 1995). This relationship is generally plotted as the variation of the

water content (gravimetric, volumetric, or degree of saturation) with soil suction.

Several studies have been conducted on comparing the different equations available

to represent the SWCC (Leong and Rahardjo 1996, Zapata 1999). Those studies

have generally shown that the equations proposed by Fredlund and Xing (1994)

showed good agreement with an extended database.

At Level 1, direct measurement of suction (h) in kPa, and volumetric water

content (w) pairs of values are required. Based on a non-linear regression analysis,

the user needs to compute the SWCC model parameters af, bf, cf, and hr using the

Equations [14] and [15], proposed by Fredlund and Xing (1994), and the (h, w)

pairs of values:

Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 677

sat [14]

w = C( h ) cf

bf

h

ln EXP( 1 ) +

af

h

ln1 +

C (h) = 1 hr [15]

1 106

ln1 +

h

r

where sat = Saturated volumetric water content or porosity, which is computed by:

wopt d max

opt = [16]

water

opt

S opt = [17]

d max

1

water G s

opt

sat = [18]

S opt

For Level 2, the EICM will compute the SWCC model parameters af, bf, cf, and

hr by using the following correlations with WPI and D60 (Zapata, 1999; Zapata et al.,

1999). WPI and D60 parameters have been previously defined:

If WPI > 0

bf

= 2.313(WPI ) 0.14 + 5 [20]

cf

hr

= 32.44e0.0186(WPI ) [22]

af

678 RMPD 8/2007. Water in Pavements

If WPI = 0

b f = 7.5 [24]

hr 1

= [26]

af D60 + 9.7e 4

The SWCC will then be established internally using Equation [14] and [15] as

shown for Level 1. Equations [16], [17] and [18] are used to compute sat based on

direct measurements of dmax, wopt, and Gs.

For Level 3, the EICM will compute the SWCC model parameters af, bf, cf, and

hr by using correlations with WPI and D60, as shown for Level 2. However, direct

measurements of dmax, wopt, and Gs are not required and such parameters are

estimated by EICM based on Equations [1] to [11]. Figure 1 summarizes the results

obtained for both groups of soils.

1.2

WPI = % Passing #200 * PI/100

1.0

Degree of Saturation

0.8

WPI = 0.1

0.6 3

5 10 15

20 30 40 WPI = 50

0.4

D60=0.1 mm

0.2 D60=1 mm

0.0

1E-1 1E+0 1E+1 1E+2 1E+3 1E+4 1E+5 1E+6

Matric Suction (kPa)

Figure 1. Predicted SWCC based on D60 and WPI

uncompacted/natural unbound materials when compared to the properties of the

Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 679

overlying compacted materials. Therefore, Level 1 inputs are generally not required

for in-situ materials. It is recommended that only PI, P200, P4, and D60 be measured

for the in-situ layers (where P4 is the percent passing the U.S. No. 4 sieve; all other

parameters have been defined previously).

MEPDG, several factors influencing the modulus need to be considered: Stress state,

moisture/density variations, and freeze/thaw effects.

Although the stress sensitivity is only considered if Level 1 inputs are used in the

MEPDG, the impact of temporal variations in moisture and temperature on MR are

fully considered at all levels through the composite environmental adjustment factor,

Fenv. The EICM deals with all environmental factors and provides soil moisture,

suction, and temperature as a function of time, at any location in the unbound layers

from which Fenv can be determined. The resilient modulus MR at any time or position

is then expressed as follows:

The factor Fenv is an adjustment factor and MRopt is the resilient modulus at

optimum conditions and at any state of stress. It is obvious in Equation [27] that the

variation of the modulus with stress and the variation of the modulus with

environmental factors (moisture, density, and freeze/thaw conditions) are assumed

independent. Although this is not necessarily the case, recent studies support the use

of this assumption in predicting resilient modulus without significant loss in

accuracy of prediction. The adjustment factor Fenv, being solely a function of the

environmental factors, can then be computed by the EICM, without actually

knowing MRopt.

The development of predictive equations and techniques that address the

influence of changes in moisture and freeze/thaw cycles on the resilient modulus of

unbound materials is described in the following two subsections.

summarizing existing models that incorporated the variation of resilient modulus

with moisture (Witczak et al., 2000a). Using these published models from the

literature (Li and Selig, 1994; Drumm et al., 1997; Rada and Witczak, 1981; Santha,

1980), it was possible to select a model that would analytically predict changes in

modulus due to changes in moisture. This model is presented in Equation [28].

680 RMPD 8/2007. Water in Pavements

MR ba

log =a+ [28]

M Ropt b

1 + EXP ln ( )

+ k m S S opt

a

maximum of log(MR/MRopt); km = regression parameter; and (S Sopt) = variation in

degree of saturation expressed in decimal.

Based on the available literature data, maximum modulus ratios of 2.5 for fine-

grained materials and 2 for coarse-grained materials were adopted. The values of a,

b, and km for coarse-grained and fine-grained materials are given in Table 3. Fine-

grained soils label refer to those with passing U.S. No. 200 sieve greater than 50%

Coarse-grained Fine-grained

Parameter Comments

materials materials

b 0.3 0.4

of 2 and 2.5, respectively

To study the behavior of unbound materials under freezing/thawing conditions, a

significant number of sources were consulted and salient values of moduli, MR, and

ratios of moduli were extracted (Witczak et al., 2000). The objective of the search

was to obtain absolute values of moduli for frozen material, termed MRfrz, and the

ratio of MR just after thawing, termed MRmin, to the MR of natural, unfrozen material,

termed MRunfrz. The ratio is used as a reduction factor, termed RF. Because some of

the data from the literature produced RF values based on MRunfrz as a reference and

some were based on MRopt as a reference, it was decided to adopt the conservative

interpretation of using the smaller of MRunfrz and MRopt as a reference as shown in

Equation [29].

The average values reported in the literature for MRfrz were found to be 20,685

MPa ( 3*106 psi) for coarse-grained materials; 13,790 MPa ( 2*106 psi) for fine-

grained silt and silty sands; and 6,895 MPa ( 1*106 psi) for clays.

Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 681

For thawed materials, the degree of MR degradation upon thawing was found to

correlate with frost-susceptibility, or the ability of the soil to sustain ice lens

formation under favourable conditions. Frost-susceptibility in turn can be estimated

from the percent passing the U.S. No. 200 sieve, P200, and the Plasticity Index, PI. In

Tables 4 and 5, the RF values recommended in the MEPDG are given for coarse-

grained and fine-grained materials as a function of P200 and PI.

Recovering materials experience a rise in modulus with time, from MRmin to

MRunfrz, that can be tracked using a recovery ratio (RR) that ranges from 0 to 1:

RR = 0 for the immediately after thawing condition, when excess water

makes the suction go to zero, MRrecov = MRmin.

RR = 1 when the suction is equal to the suction dictated by the depth to the

ground water table i.e. equilibrium is achieved, MRrecov = MRunfrz.

t

RR = [30]

TR

where RR = recovery ratio; t = number of hours elapsed since thawing started; and

TR = recovery period (number of hours required for the material to recover from the

thawed condition to the normal, unfrozen condition).

The recovery period, TR, is noted as a function of the material type/properties, as

follows: TR = 90 days for sands/gravels with WPI < 0.1; 120 days for silts/clays with

0.1 < WPI < 10; and 150 days for clays with WPI > 10.

Distribution

P200 (%) PI < 12% PI =12% - 35% PI > 35%

of Coarse Fraction*

<6 0.85 - -

Mostly Gravel (P4 < 50%) 6 12 0.65 0.70 0.75

> 12 0.60 0.65 0.70

<6 0.75 - -

Mostly Sand (P4 > 50%) 6 12 0.60 0.65 0.70

> 12 0.50 0.55 0.60

sand.

682 RMPD 8/2007. Water in Pavements

To obtain the composite moduli for layers in which two or more states of the

material coexist and/or the resilient modulus varies with depth and time, the

environmental adjustment factor, Fenv is calculated. The resilient modulus MR at any

time or position is determined as a product of the composite environmental

adjustment factor, Fenv, and the resilient modulus at optimum conditions MRopt.

The environmental adjustment factor, Fenv is a composite factor, which could in

general represent a weighted average of the factors appropriate for various possible

conditions:

Frozen: frozen material FF (factor for frozen materials)

Recovering: thawed material that is recovering to its state before freezing

occurred FR (factor for recovering materials)

Unfrozen/fully recovered/normal: for materials that were never frozen or are

fully recovered FU (factor for unfrozen material)

The Fenv factors are calculated for all three cases, at two levelsat each nodal

point and for each layer.

In the EICM the pavement structure is characterized by an array of nodes at

which the values of moisture, suction, and temperature are calculated at any time t.

The value of FF, the adjustment factor for frozen materials, is computed at each node

at which a freezing temperature occurs using the following procedure:

MRopt is either a direct user input or can be estimated from other engineering

properties such as CBR, R-value, structural layer coefficients (ai), Penetration Index,

or from gradation parameters. The estimation of MRopt is out of the scope of this

paper.

Assign values for the Frozen Resilient Modulus, MR frz : If WPI = 0; use MR frz =

17,238 MPa (2.5 x 106 psi); if WPI > 0; use MR frz = 6,895 (1 x 106 psi).

Compute the frozen adjustment factor, FF (Witczak et al. 2000c):

Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 683

M R frz

FF = [31]

M R opt_est

The adjustment factor for recovering materials, FR, is computed at each node at

which freezing temperatures do not occur and the recovery ratio RR is < 1. The

procedure to estimate FR is as follows:

Compute Recovery Ratio, RR as per Equation [30].

Compute Sopt as per Equation [17] for Level 1 or Equation [8] for Level 2.

Compute Sequil from the SWCC equation in terms of degree of saturation

(Fredlund and Xing, 1994):

1 [32]

S equil = C( h ) cf

bf

ln EXP( 1 ) + h

af

h

ln1 +

C ( h) = 1 hr [33]

1 106

ln1 +

hr

where: h = yGWT * water , in kPa; yGWT = groundwater table depth; af (kPa), bf, cf, and

hr (kPa) are fitting parameters defined earlier.

Compute Requil as (Witczak et al., 2000a):

M Re quil ba

log Requil = log =a+ [34]

b

M Ropt

( )

1 + EXP ln + k m S equil S opt

a

where: a, b, and km are constants defined in Table 3.

Compute the RF value from Tables 4 and 5.

Compute the factor for recovering material, FR (Witczak et al., 2000c):

If (Sequil Sopt) < 0: FR = RF + Requi l * RR RR * RF

If (Sequil Sopt) > 0: FR = Requil (RF + RR RR * RF)

To estimate the adjustment factor for unfrozen or fully recovered materials, FU,

the following equation is used (Witczak et al., 2000a):

684 RMPD 8/2007. Water in Pavements

MR ba

log FU = log =a+ [35]

b

M Ropt

(

1 + EXP ln + k m S S opt

a

)

where: a, b, and km are constants from Table 3, and S is the estimated degree of

saturation at any node.

For a given layer (base, subbase, subgrade), frozen, thawed, and never frozen

materials can coexist within a single layer, and hence a composite adjustment factor

that can handle all possible cases is needed. The calculation of a composite

adjustment factor is useful even when the material in a layer is all at the same state

(unfrozen or recovering). This is because the adjustment factors vary from node to

node (with moisture or suction) and an equivalent factor for the whole layer is

needed.

To obtain an equivalent modulus, an elastic spring series analogy was

considered. Using the analogy, the elements of a column (corresponding to Hour 1,

for example) of a node/time matrix, are considered as elastic moduli of a series of

springs (one spring per node). If the stress applied to this model is , then the

displacement in one spring at a given node and time increment can be computed.

To get the average displacement, average, over the whole analysis period (2 weeks

or 1 month), Equation [36] is used:

1

t total n hnode

average =

t total

t =1

node =1 M Rnode ,t

[36]

hnode = length of the spring assigned to the node being considered; MRnode,t = modulus

for the node; and ttotal = total number of t time increments (EICM uses 1 hour) over

which the composite modulus is calculated (number of columns in the matrix).

Then the composite (equivalent) modulus can be obtained by finding a

composite modulus, MRcomp, which produces the same average over the total layer

thickness for the same applied . Equating average for the composite model to average

from Equation [36] and cancelling which appears on both sides:

htotal 1

t total n

hnode

=

M Rcomp t total

[37]

t =1 node =1 M Rnode ,t

Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 685

Because the resilient modulus at any node/time can be expressed as the product

of an adjustment factor times the resilient modulus at optimum, Equation [37] can be

replaced with Equation [38]. A composite adjustment factor, Fenv, for the considered

sub-layer (sub-matrix) can be obtained from:

htotal 1

t total n hnode

=

Fenv M Ropt t total

t =1

node =1 Fnode ,t M Ropt

htotal t total

Fenv = [38]

ttotal n hnode

t =1 node =1 Fnode ,t

where: Fenv = composite adjustment factor for the considered sublayer, and Fnode,t =

adjustment factor at a given node and time increment (which could be FF, FR, or FU,

depending on the state of the material).

The procedure should be applied for the entire design period (e.g. 20 years

divided into months or 2-week periods) since the adjustment factors vary from node

to node, even within a layer (or sublayer) in which all material is at the same state

(frozen, unfrozen, or recovering).

materials. On the other hand, temperature affects both the bound (asphalt and

cement) and unbound layers significantly. At very cold temperatures, the asphalt

stiffness is close to that of PCC, whereas at very warm temperatures, its stiffness is

closer to an unbound material.

The durability of PCC materials is affected greatly by the freeze-thaw

environment it operates under. Temperature and moisture related curling and

warping phenomena play a significant role in defining the PCC pavement fatigue

behaviour. Temperature and moisture also play a role in the opening and closing of

joints in JPCP and cracks in CRCP, which affect performance.

In unbound materials, cooler temperatures result in frost formation and a

subsequent increase in modulus. On the other hand, warmer temperatures cause

thawing, resulting in increased moisture contents and a subsequent decrease in

modulus values. During the thawing process, the resilient modulus of unbound

materials may go well below the optimum value (0.5 to 0.85 times MRopt).

The CMS and CRREL models in the EICM are primarily responsible for most

the temperature calculations. The CMS model was originally developed at the

University of Illinois (Dempsey et al., 1985). It is a one-dimensional, forward finite

686 RMPD 8/2007. Water in Pavements

distribution in the pavement system. The model considers radiation, convection,

conduction, and the effect of latent heat. It does not consider transpiration,

condensation, evaporation, or sublimation. These latter effects are neglected because

of the uncertainty in their calculations and because their omission does not create

significant errors in the heat balance at the surface of the pavement. Heat fluxes

caused by precipitation and moisture infiltration are also neglected.

For pavement layers (AC or PCC), the EICM assumes that the user input heat

capacity and thermal conductivity do not vary over time. However, for unbound

layers (base courses and soils), as the moisture and frost contents change with time,

so do the heat capacity and thermal conductivity. The user input dry heat capacity

and dry thermal conductivity, which along with the water and ice content predicted

by the EICM, are used to calculate the wet heat capacity and wet thermal

conductivity. In this manner the heat/temperature calculations of the EICM are

coupled with the EICMs moisture predictions.

Once the thermal properties that define the heat flow through the pavement and

unbound layers have been established and the boundary conditions have been

identified, it is necessary to determine the amount of heat inflow/outflow at the

pavement surface. The two processes by which heat is added or subtracted from the

pavement surface are convection and radiation.

The second model used in the MEPDG is the CRREL model (Guymon et al.,

1986). It is a one-dimensional coupled heat and moisture flow in the subgrade soil at

temperatures that are above, below and at the freezing temperature of water. The

model predicts the depth of frost and thaw penetration. It also estimates the vertical

heave due to frost formation and vertical settlement when the soil thaws. The

CRREL model uses the temperature profiles through the asphalt layers established

by the CMS model to compute changes in the soil temperature profile, and thus frost

penetration and thaw settlement.

conditions at the surface. While it is easy to measure the air temperatures, there is

not a direct correspondence between the air temperatures and pavement surface

temperatures. To estimate the pavement temperature, the energy balance at the

surface used in the CMS model is described by Equation [39] (Scott, 1964; Berg,

1968):

Qi Qr + Qa Qe Qc Qh Q g = 0 [39]

Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 687

Qa = incoming long wave radiation; Qe = outgoing long wave radiation;

Qc = convective heat transfer; Qh = effects of transpiration, condensation,

evaporation, and sublimation; and Qg = energy absorbed by the ground.

The net all-wave length radiation at the surface is Qn.

Qn = Qs Ql [40]

where: Qs = net short wave radiation; and Ql = net long wave radiation.

Qs = Qi Qr [41]

Ql = Qa Qe [42]

S

Qs = a s R * A + B c [43]

100

R* = extraterrestrial radiation incident on a horizontal surface at the outer

atmosphere, which is a function of the latitude of the site; A, B = constants that

account for diffuse scattering and adsorption by the atmosphere; Sc = percentage of

sunshine which accounts for the influence of cloud cover.

In Equation [42], Qa, the long wave incoming radiation, and Qe, the outgoing

long wave radiation, are given by Equations [44] and [45]:

(

Qa = Q z 1 NW

100

) [44]

Qe = Q (1 NW

x ) [45]

100

(

Ql = (Q z Q x ) 1 NW

100

) [46]

where: Qz is the incoming long wave radiation given by Equation [47]; and

(

1 NW

100

)

represents the cloud cover correction:

Q z = sb Tair G J p [47]

10

where: N = cloud base factor (0.9 to 0.80 for cloud heights of 305 m to 1,830 m

(1000 ft to 6000 ft) (Geiger, 1959); W = 100-Sc (average cloud cover during day or

night); Tair = air temperature in oR; sb = Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 5.67 x 10-8

688 RMPD 8/2007. Water in Pavements

W/(m2 K4) (0.172 x 10-8 Btu/(hr ft2 oR4)); G = 0.77; J = 0.28; = 0.074; p = vapor

pressure of the air (1 to 10mm Hg); and Qx = outgoing long wave radiation without a

correction for cloud cover.

Q x = sb Ts4 [48]

color, texture and temperature (A typical value is 0.93); and Ts = surface temperature

in oR.

The rate of heat transfer by convection, Qc, is given by:

Qc = H ( Tair Ts ) [49]

with Tair and Ts expressed in oF; and H = convection heat transfer coefficient.

The convection heat transfer coefficient, H, can be expressed as follows

(Dempsey et al., 1985; Vehrencamp, 1953):

surface and air temperature, in oK; and U = average daily wind speed in m/s.

The maximum value of the heat transfer coefficient is partly controlled by the

stability criteria established for the finite difference approach in computations within

the EICM. The suggested maximum value is 17 W/(m2K) (3.0 Btu/(hr ft2 oF)). The

effects of transportation, condensation, evaporation and sublimation (Qh) have been

neglected in the formation because they are either too small to be significant or the

effects cancel each other out in the energy balance.

The above calculations determine the surface temperature and thus control the

temperature throughout the underlying materials. The depth of frost is established by

comparing the computed temperatures with the freezing temperatures of the soil.

The depth of frost penetration has been identified as the position of the 30oF

isotherm.

After the amount of heat inflow/outflow due to convection and radiation at the

pavement surface is determined, this amount of heat is added/subtracted from the

quantity of heat at the upper boundary. The EICM iterates a single time step,

calculating a new temperature profile for the pavement system. This updated

temperature profile is used for convection and radiation calculations at the next time

step.

Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 689

For the purpose of the MEPDG, a base unit of one month is used for incremental

damage computations. In situations where the pavement is exposed to freezing and

thawing cycles, the base unit of 1 month is changed to 15 days duration to account

for rapid changes in the pavement material properties during frost/thaw period. The

EICM provides 0.1 hours (6 minutes) temperature over the analysis period. This

temperature for a given month (or 15-days) can be represented by a normal

distribution with a certain mean value () and the standard deviation (), N(,).

While the EICM calculates temperature on a relatively small time step of 0.1

hours, temperatures are output to the MEPDG summary files in two formats for

flexible pavement analysis. One of them is used for rutting and fatigue analysis

while the other is used for thermal fracture.

The EICM generates five quintile temperature values for each interval and at

each selected depths (i.e. for rutting and fatigue, temperature values are required at

the surface of the pavement structure and at mid-depth of all asphalt bound sub-

layers). Since the first sub-layer for the asphalt is always 1.27 cm (0.5 in), the

temperatures are provided at 0.64 cm (0.25 in) from the surface. No temperature

information is generated for any other type of layer, as it is not required for the

analysis. The surface temperature and the temperature at 0.64 cm (0.25 in) are used

to estimate the fatigue at the surface (top down cracking).

Thermal fracture analysis requires hourly temperature data. Temperature values

are required at the surface, at 1.27 cm (0.5 in), and at every 2.54 cm (1 in) within the

asphalt layer. This defines the temperature-depth relationship within the asphalt

layer. In addition to developing a temperature-depth profile for thermal fracture

module to predict cracking, temperatures at the surface and at 1.27 cm (0.5 in) are

used for estimating tensile strains.

For rigid pavement design, the main temperature data of interest is the

temperature profile through the PCC layer. EICM is configured to produce hourly

temperature profiles for a minimum of one full year. For most sites, EICM climatic

database provides 5 years of hourly data. The data are used in the prediction of

faulting and fatigue cracking in JPCP and punchouts in CRCP.

In the JPCP design module of the MEPDG software, the output from EICM is

further processed to obtain monthly distributions of hourly temperature gradients

through PCC. In this process the nonlinear temperature distribution is first converted

to equivalent linear temperature gradient based on stress equivalence. The

equivalent linear temperature gradient is the linear temperature gradient that would

690 RMPD 8/2007. Water in Pavements

produce the same curling stress as that produced by the actual nonlinear temperature

profile.

In addition, parameters such as number of freeze-thaw cycles, mean annual

precipitation, and mean annual freezing index are also computed from the

temperature information for use in the various JPCP and CRCP structural distress

models. Other uses of temperature data include the JPCP joint opening/closing

model and the CRCP crack width model.

Once the EICM generates the aforementioned information, the following outputs

are generated for use by other components of the MEPDG software, as explained in

this paper:

Composite environmental adjustment factors, Fenv, are computed for every

sublayer at each node. These Fenv factors are sent forward to the structural analysis

modules where they are multiplied by MRopt to obtain MR as function of position and

time.

Temperatures at the surface and at the midpoint of each asphalt bound sublayer

are subjected to statistical characterization for every analysis period. The mean,

standard deviation, and quintile points are sent forward for use in the fatigue and

permanent deformation prediction models.

Values of hourly temperature at the surface and at a set depth increment within

the bound layers for use in the thermal cracking model.

An average value of moisture content for each sublayer is reported for use in

the permanent deformation model for the unbound materials.

Temperature profile in the PCC hourly values are generated for use in the

cracking and faulting models for jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) and the

punchout model for continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP).

Number of freeze thaw cycles and freezing index are computed for use in JPCP

performance prediction.

Relative humidity values for each month are generated for use in the JPCP and

CRCP modeling of moisture gradients through the slab.

Any agency interested in adopting the design procedure described in this paper

should prepare a practical implementation plan. The plan should include training of

staff, acquiring of needed equipment, acquiring of needed computer hardware, and

calibration/validation to local conditions.

Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 691

and paradigm shift from existing empirical design procedures (e.g. AASHTO 1993),

both in design approach and in complexity. The use of mechanistic principles to

both structurally and climatically (temperature and moisture) model the

pavement/subgrade structure requires much more comprehensive input data to run

such a model (including axle load distributions, improved material characterization,

construction factors, and hourly climatic data. Thus, a significant effort will be

required to evaluate and tailor the procedure to the highway agency. This will make

the new design procedure far more capable of producing more reliable and cost-

effective designs, even for design conditions that deviate significantly from

previously experienced (e.g. much heavier traffic).

It is important to notice that the flexible pavement design procedures have been

calibrated using design inputs and performance data largely from the national LTPP

database, which includes sections located throughout significant parts of North

America. Whatever bias included in this calibration data is naturally incorporated

into the distress prediction models and; therefore, the national calibration may not be

entirely adequate for specific regions of the country or for other country; and a more

local or regional calibration may be needed.

The following is the recommended calibration/validation effort required to

implement the MEPDG:

Review all input data.

Conduct sensitivity analysis.

Conduct comparative studies.

Conduct validation/calibration studies.

Modify input defaults and calibration coefficients as needed.

This study was funded by the National Cooperation Highway Research Program

(NCHRP) under the Project 1-37A: Development of the 2002 Guide for the Design

of New and Rehabilitated Pavement Structures.

The findings, conclusions or recommendations either inferred or specifically

expressed in this document do not necessarily indicate acceptance by the National

Academy of Sciences, the Federal Highway Administration, or by the Association

for State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO).

8. Bibliography

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692 RMPD 8/2007. Water in Pavements

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the Climatic Effects on Pavement, Report No. FHWA-RD-90-033, 1990, Federal

Highway Administration, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A andM University

McLean, VA.

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for Granular Material, Transportation Research Record 810, TRB, National Research

Council, Washington, D.C., 1981, p. 23-33.

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Equations, Transportation Research Record 1462, TRB, National Research Council,

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Environmental Effects in Pavement Design 693

Lincoln, NE., 1998.

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Report (Seasonal 1), 2000a, Tempe, AZ.

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Development of New and Rehabilitated Pavement Structures, NCHRP 1-37 A, Inter Team

Technical Report (Seasonal 2), 2000b, Tempe, AZ.

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Accepted: 13 October 2006

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