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Exp 2 - Pipe Flow Characteristic_S17

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ME495Thermo Fluids Laboratory gas in steel pipes, and the flow of heated air through

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ metal ducts of rectangular cross-section in a forced-air

furnace system. Industrial applications range from the

PIPE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS flow of liquid plastics in a manufacturing plant, to the

AND PRESSURE TRANSDUCER flow of yogurt in a food-processing plant. Because the

purpose of a piping system is to transport a desired

CALIBRATION quantity of fluid, it is important to understand the

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ various methods of measuring the flow rate.

PREPARED BY: GROUP LEADERS NAME

In order to work with a fluid system, and certainly to

LAB PARTNERS: NAME

design a fluid system that will deliver a prescribed flow,

NAME

it is necessary to understand certain fundamental

NAME

aspects of the fluid flow. For this, one should be able to

TIME/DATE OF EXPERIMENT: TIME , DATE

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

answer questions like: Are compressibility effects

important? Is the flow laminar or turbulent? Is the

OBJECTIVE The objectives of this experiment are

viscosity of the fluid important or not? Is the flow

to: a) observe the characteristics of flow in a pipe, b)

steady or varying with time? What are the primary

evaluate the flow rate in a pipe using velocity and

forces of importance? For internal flows in pipes or

pressure difference measurements, and c) perform

ducts, the dominant forces are usually due to viscosity

the calibration of a pressure transducer. Upon

and pressure. The velocity profile within the pipe is an

completing this experiment, you should have learned (i)

important factor since the viscous forces depend upon

how to measure the flow rate and average velocity in a

the shear rate and hence on the velocity gradient at the

pipe using a Pitot tube and an orifice flow meter, and

wall of a pipe. Being able to answer the above questions

(ii) how to classify the general characteristics of a pipe

and to understand their implications on the flow

flow.

through a pipe is crucial in being able to successfully

design and operate a pipe flow system.

Nomenclature

a = speed of sound, m/s In this lab you will study the flow of air in a 4-inch

A = area, m2 diameter pipe. Two concomitant methods will be used

C = discharge coefficient, dimensionless to measure flow: a special type of Pitot tube, a Kiel

d = pipe diameter, m probe and an orifice meter. The Pitot tube will allow

d0 = orifice diameter, m you to determine the shape of the velocity profile at the

E = velocity approach factor, dimensionless exit of the pipe while the orifice plate will allow you to

f = Darcy friction factor, dimensionless determine the flow rate and average velocity in the pipe.

K0 = flow coefficient, dimensionless THEORY

k = ratio of specific heats (cp/cv), dimensionless

L = length of pipe, m Compressible vs. Incompressible

M = Mach number, dimensionless

p = pressure, Pa Flow in a pipe (internal flow) can be classified as

p0 = stagnation pressure, Pa incompressible or compressible. An incompressible

p1, p2 = pressure at two axial locations along a flow is one in which density variations are negligible.

pipe, Pa Most liquid flows are considered incompressible since

Q = volumetric flow rate, m3/s it takes a tremendous amount of applied pressure to

R = specific gas constant, Jkg/K increase the fluid density by a measurable amount. For

Re = Reynolds number, dimensionless instance, it takes about 3200 psi (over 200 atm) of

T = temperature, K applied pressure to change the density of water by 1%.

V = local velocity, m/s Gases, on the other hand, are very compressible. The

V = average velocity, m/s ideal gas law,

Y = adiabatic expansion factor, dimensionless

= ratio of orifice diameter to pipe diameter, p RT

dimensionless

p = pressure drop across an orifice meter, Pa shows that the density of a gas is directly proportional

= dynamic viscosity, Pas to its pressure. For practical purposes, the behavior of

= air density, kg/m3 flowing gas is different from gas in a closed system. A

guideline used to decide if compressibility plays a

significant role in the flow of a gas is the value of the

INTRODUCTION The flow of a fluid (liquid or Mach number,

gas) through pipes or ducts is a common part of many

engineering systems. Household applications include

the flow of water in copper pipes, the flow of natural M V / a

Rev. January 2017 ME495 - Pipe Flow Characteristics Page 2

where V is the speed of the object relative to the wall and more energy is dissipated through friction.

medium, and a is the speed of sound for an ideal gas. Furthermore, in a turbulent flow, the pipe roughness

If M 0.3 , then the gas density varies by less than 5% affects the energy dissipation whereas roughness

typically does not affect a laminar flow in this way.

and the flow can be considered incompressible.

Steady vs. Unsteady

Laminar vs. Turbulent

A steady flow is one that does not vary in time. If an

The second major classification for an internal flow

observer observes any arbitrary point in a flow field and

concerns the smoothness of the flow. A laminar flow

notes that the velocity at that point does not vary over

is one in which the flow tends to stay in separate,

time (except for small, random fluctuations), then the

smooth layers. That is, a given fluid particle will tend

flow is called steady. On the other hand, if the

to stay at a single radial position in a circular pipe and

velocity does vary over time the flow is unsteady.

not mix with adjacent layers of fluid. Turbulent flows,

Whether or not a flow is steady or unsteady has

on the other hand, are characterized by significant

implications on the type of flow measurement system

mixing of flow between various layers of a fluid. The

one might select or design. If the flow is unsteady, care

Reynolds number, as defined below, is used to specify

must be taken to ensure the flow measurement system

whether or not a pipe flow is laminar or turbulent:

responds quickly to changes in the flow rate such that

the measurements are accurate.

Vd

Re

Velocity and Flow Rate Measurement

Pitot Tube. A common method of measuring the

It is generally accepted that flow in a pipe is laminar if velocity of a fluid is to use a Pitot tube (see Fig. 1a).

the Reynolds number is less than 2,300, in transition When directed into an incoming flow, a Pitot tube will

from laminar to turbulent if 2,300 < Re < 4,000, and measure the stagnation (total) pressure of the flow. If

turbulent if Re > 4,000. These numbers, though widely the flow is incompressible and inviscid, Bernoullis

accepted, are guidelines based upon experimental equation can be applied as follows to determine the

observations and should not be considered absolute. local flow speed [1]:

For instance, in a well-controlled flow experiment,

laminar pipe flow has been observed at Reynolds

numbers well in excess of 2,300 (up to values on the 2 ( p0 p )

V (1)

order of 100,000).

There are many significant differences between laminar A Kiel probe will be used in the lab to make

and turbulent pipe flows. At a similar flow rate, in a measurements of the stagnation pressure (see Fig. 1b).

turbulent flow the velocity gradient near the pipe wall A Kiel probe is less sensitive to errors in misalignment

is steeper than in a laminar flow, with the result that a with the flow direction due to the shroud surrounding

turbulent flow exerts a larger shear stress on the pipe the pressure port.

(a) (b)

Figure 1: (a) Pitot tube inserted in a pipe with associated static pressure tap; (b) Kiel probe showing

the shroud around the pressure port.

Due to the no-slip condition, the fluid in contact with will have zero speed. Thus a significant increase in the

a boundary has the same speed as the boundary. Since flow velocity will occur between the wall and the

the pipe is stationary, the air in contact with the pipe centerline of the pipe where the flow velocity is

2

Rev. January 2017 ME495 - Pipe Flow Characteristics Page 3

measurements made with a Pitot tube, it is necessary

to measure the flow speed at several radial locations at can be computed by approximating the integral in Eq.

a given pipe cross-section. Recall that volumetric flow 2 with a sum:

rate is defined as

N

Q V dA V A (2)

Q V A

i 1

i i (3)

If stagnation pressure measurements are made at the

radial locations shown in Figure 2, then the flow rate of the N slices of pipe cross-sectional area,

respectively.

Orifice Plate Flow Meter. Restriction flow meters such the pressure drop across the orifice, and is the fluid

as the Venturi tube, flow nozzle, and orifice plate are density. The flow coefficient is further defined as

commonly used to measure flow rate. These devices

restrict the flow and thereby cause a pressure drop to

K0 CE (6)

occur. The measured pressure drop can then be related

to the flow rate using Eqn 5. A diagram of an orifice

meter is shown in Fig. 3. where

E (7)

mass to a control volume surrounding the orifice meter,

and including empirical coefficients to account for (1 4 )

viscous and compressibility effects, the following

relation for volumetric flow rate results [3, 4, 5]: and

d0

(8)

2( p ) d

Q K 0 AY (5)

Here, is the ratio of orifice to pipe diameter, C is

Here K 0 is an empirical flow coefficient, A is the area an empirical discharge coefficient that is a function of

the Reynolds number and , and E is the velocity

of the orifice, Y is an empirical adiabatic expansion

factor and accounts for compressibility effects, p is approach factor. Values of the flow coefficient and

adiabatic expansion factor are tabulated in Reference 4

(an excerpt of it is available in the lab).

3

Rev. January 2017 ME495 - Pipe Flow Characteristics Page 4

Figure 3: Orifice plate flow meter shown with various possible pressure tap arrangements.

of the experimental apparatus is shown in Figure 4.

Table 1 shows the list of the apparatus components. The 1 4 acrylic pipe

setup consists of a 4-inch acrylic pipe, a Kiel probe, a

Dwyer micromanometer (for calibration of the pressure 2 Kiel probe

transducer), a differential pressure transducer, and an

orifice plate flow meter. 3 Dwyer micromanometer

Flow through the pipe is controlled by a butterfly valve. 4 Validyne differential pressure transducers

The micromanometer provides a highly accurate

differential pressure measurement, and is used as the 5 Tape measure

laboratory standard in calibrating the pressure

transducer. Expect the output of the differential 6 Calipers

pressure transducers calibration to be highly linear.

7 Ruler with centimeter scale

Transducers of this type are quite versatile and are

relatively accurate over a reasonably large range of

8 Duct tape

input pressures. Instructions for operation of the

pressure transducer are provided in the Appendix A of 9 Various sizes of orifice plates

this document. ASME data on fluid meters for use with

the orifice meter will be supplied in the lab.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

4

Rev. January 2017 ME495 - Pipe Flow Characteristics Page 5

Consult with your teammates if there are any 6. Compute the maximum velocity and the average

atmospheric measurements that you should take before velocity in the pipe.

beginning the experiment.

7. Compare and contrast each method of computing

1. Prior to starting measurements, review and the flow rate and average velocity, and comment on

understand the definitions of gage pressure, vacuum the strengths and weaknesses of each.

pressure, absolute pressure and differential pressure.

8. Characterize the flow in the pipe as fully developed,

2. Familiarize with the experimental apparatus and laminar or turbulent, compressible or

objectives. Devise a plan for taking data. Be sure to incompressible, steady or unsteady. Cite at least two

consider the elements of a data acquisition plan as observations or calculations that justify your

described in Ch. 1 of your textbook by Figliola and answer.

Beasley.

9. Compare the volumetric flow computed from

3. Collect data for the pressure transducer calibration integration of the exit velocity profile with that

using the Kiel probe and the micromanometer. The determined using the orifice plate.

calibration should relate voltage to pressure at 4 to 6

values of pressure, capturing any hysteresis effects 10. Comment on how does the presence of the orifice

that may be present. meter affects the velocity profile shape and why?

What were the Reynolds number and Mach number

4. Before beginning your measurements, ask the lab for flow in the pipe?

instructor for an orifice plate. Insert the orifice plate

into the pipe and seal the opening with duct tape.

5. Ensure that the control handle on the fan generating Note: Use SI units throughout your report.

the air flow through the pipe is set appropriately.

Now you are ready to perform the flow

measurements using the orifice meter or the Kiel REFERENCES

probe. Fox, R. W., and McDonald, A. T., Introduction to

Fluid Mechanics, 4th ed., John Wiley & Sons, New

6. Measure the pressure drop across the orifice plate. York, 1992, Chapter 6-3.3.

7. Measure the velocity profile at the exit plane of the Figliola, R.S., and Beasley, D. E., Theory and Design

acrylic pipe. Consider where the largest velocity for Mechanical Measurements, 2nd ed., John Wiley &

gradients will be located when planning your Sons, New York, 1995, Chapter 10.4.

measurement increments.

Fox, R. W., and McDonald, A. T., Introduction to

Are there any atmospheric measurements you should Fluid Mechanics, 4th ed., John Wiley & Sons, New

take at the conclusion of your experiment? York, 1992, Chapter 10.

ASME Research Committee, Fluid Meters, 5th ed.,

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS and DISCUSSION The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New

1. Provide the pressure transducer calibration York, 1959.

equation.

Figliola, R.S., and Beasley, D. E., Theory and Design

2. Comment on the uncertainty of the calibration for Mechanical Measurements, 2nd ed., John Wiley &

equation and on the possible sources of error that Sons, New York, 1995, Chapter 10.5.

affected the calibration process. Fox, R. W., and McDonald, A. T., Introduction to

3. Determine volumetric flow rate and average Fluid Mechanics, 4th ed., John Wiley & Sons, New

velocity using the pressure drop across the orifice York, 1992, Chapter 8.

plate and the provided ASME data on flow meters. Munson, B.R., Young, D.F., and Okiishi, T.H.,

4. Plot the horizontal and vertical velocity profile, at Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, 3rd ed., John Wiley

the exit of the pipe. & Sons, New York, 1998.

numerically integrating the velocity profile.

5

Rev. January 2017 ME495 - Pipe Flow Characteristics Page 6

APPENDIX

1. Be sure the pressure transducers are properly wired to the back of the demodulator before turning the power

on.

C1: Green wire

C2: White wire

OUT: + Output signal (Transducer not wired to this terminal)

COM: - Output signal (Transducer not wired to this terminal)

2. Be sure the power strip on the demodulator cart is plugged in and the power is on.

3. Press the power button on the front of the demodulator to turn it on.

4. Use the channel selector to select the appropriate channel (as indicated on the screw terminal on the back of

the demodulator).

5. When pressures are measured, be sure the pressure transducer is in a vertical position.

6. Use the ZERO adjustment on the demodulator to zero the voltage reading when both ports on the transducer

are at the same pressure. (The easiest way to be sure both ports are at the same pressure is to attach a short

piece of Tygon tubing between the ports.)

7. Only use the SPAN adjustment on the demodulator when the transducer is being calibrated.

8. The maximum pressure the DP45-16 pressure transducer will measure is 1.4 inH20 (differential).

10. Therefore, at 1.4 inH20 differential pressure, the voltage output should be 10.0 Vdc.

11. The output terminals on the back of the demodulator should output the same dc voltage as indicated on the

LCD display on the front of the demodulator. (Note: the OUT and COM terminals on the far lower left of

the screw panel will output the voltage of which ever channel is selected).

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