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GREAT BRITAIN

TEXTS FOR READING


AND DISCUSSION

FORMS

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Russky Yazyk ~ I rrt'"" Drofa


Publishers ~ ..", Publishers
Moscow
1997

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1997

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ISBN 5710710628 ()
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ISBN 5710710628 ( ) , 1997


ISBN 5200024536 ( )
CONTENTS

Part 1

THE UNITED KINGDOM


OF GREAT BRITAIN
AND NORTHERN IRELAND

The History of Britain 11

Location 16

England 19

Scotland 20

Wales 22

Northern Ireland 23

The Weather 24

System of Government 28
5
Parliament 31

The Press in Great Britain 37

Television in Great Britain 41

Part 2

LONDON AND ITS PLACES


OF INTEREST
The British Museum 60

Covent Garden 65

The Museum of Transport 67

The Royal Academy 71

The Channel Tunnel 74

The Thames 76

Part 3

EDUCATION IN GREAT
BRITAIN
Education in Great Britain (continued) 89

Oxbridge 95

6
Part 4

THE BRITISH PEOPLE


The English Language 102

Holidays and Festivals 106

The Weekend 115

Holidays in Britain 120

"An Englishman's Home is His Castle" 124

Meals 129

Pubs in Britain 135

Sport in Britain 138

Traditions and Customs 143

Key to Exercises 150



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10
Part 1

OF GREAT BRITAIN

The History of Britain

wo thousand years ago the Celts,


who had been arriving f r o m Europe, mixed
with the peoples who were already in Brit-
ain Isles. The Roman province of Britannia
covered most of the territory of present-
day England and W a l e s . The Romans im-
posed their own way of living, culture, and
language. But inspite of their long occupa-
tion of Britain, there isn't much they left
behind. Even most of temples, roads and cit-
ies were later destroyed. But such place-
names like Chester, Lancaster, Gloucester
remind us of the Romans.
The Romans influenced mainly the towns.
In the country (where most people l i v e d )
Celtic speech dominated. The farming meth-

11
ods remained there unchanged. We can't
speak about Roman's occupation as a large-
scale settlement.
Later (during the 5th century) two tribes
(the A n g l e s and the Saxons) settled in Brit-
ain. They settled on a v e r y vast t e r r i t o r y .
Only in the west of the country K i n g A r t h u r
and his army halted the tribes. But in the
6th century the way of life of these tribes
predominated in England. The Celtic Brit-
ons' culture and language survived in South-
w e s t Scotland, Wales and Cornwall.
If the Romans had great influence on
towns, the Anglo-Saxons influenced the coun-
tryside. There new methods of farming were
introduced and a number of villages were
founded.
The Anglo-Saxons were pagans, when they
arrived in Britain. Christianity came f r o m
R o m e in 597.
In the 8th century Britain was invaded
by the Vikings, who came f r o m Scandina-
via. They settled in the N o r t h and W e s t of
Scotland and in some regions of Ireland.
Later they were defeated by K i n g A l f r e d .
Normans invaded Britain in the 11th cen-
tury (1066). But this invasion wasn't a large-

12
scale one. Still this invasion influenced the
life of Britain greatly.
At that time a feudal system was imposed.
L o r d s and barons w e r e French-speaking
Normans. The peasants were the English-
speaking Saxons.
Barons w e r e responsible to the k i n g ,
lords to a baron. Under them were peas-
ants. That was the beginning of the En-
glish class system. The Anglo-Norman king-
dom was the most powerful political force
at that time.
In this period the Germanic language
(Middle English) dominated in England. As
Northern and Central W a l e s was never set-
tled by Saxons and Normans, the W e l s h lan-
guage and culture dominated there.
In the 13th century Parliament included
elected representatives f r o m urban and ru-
ral areas.
During the 16th century the power of
the English monarch increased. The Tudor
dynasty (14851603) established a system
of government which strongly depended on
the monarch. Parliament was split into t w o
Houses. The House of Lords consisted of
the a r i s t o c r a c y and the leaders of t h e

13
Church. The House of Commons consisted
of representatives from the towns.
During the 17th century Parliament es-
tablished its supremacy over the monarchy in
Britain. The conflict between the monarchy
and Parliament led to the Civil W a r s , which
ended with the victory of Parliament. The
leader of the parliamentary army was Oliver
Cromwell. But after his death his system of
government became unpopular. The son of the
executed king was asked to take the throne.
In the 18th century the Scottish Parlia-
ment joined with the English and the W e l s h
Parliaments.
In that century the increased trade led to
the Industrial Revolution. People from rural
areas moved to towns. The population of Lon-
don was close to a million at that time.
In the 19th century Britain controlled the
biggest Empire in the world. The Empire
was made up of Ireland, Canada, Australia,
India and large parts of A f r i c a . These coun-
tries had internal self-government, but rec-
ognized the authority of the British gov-
ernment. Britain was the greatest economic
power. The British spread their culture and
civilization around the world.

14
The beginning of the 20th century can't
be called stable. W o m e n struggled for their
rights. The situation in Ulster wasn't sta-
ble. At the beginning of this century the
working class became stronger. In Parlia-
ment, the Labour party replaced the Liber-
als. Trade unions o r g a n i z e d themselves.
Until 1980s the Trades Union Congress was
the most powerful political force outside the
institutions of government.

EXERCISES
I. Answer the questions.
1. What reminds people of the Romans?
2. How did the Anglo-Saxons effect the coun-
tryside?
3. Who invaded Britain in the 8th century?
4. When was a feudal system imposed?
5. When was Parliament split into two Hous-
es?
6. Who was the leader of the parliamentary
army in the Civil Wars?
7. In what century was the Britain the great-
est economic power?
II. Explain the meaning of the following
words and expressions.
1. a large-scale settlement
2. to halt the tribes

15
3. pagan
4. to be responsible to the king
5. internal self-government
III. Fill in the gaps.*
1. The Roman province of Britannia covered
the territory of present-day . . . and . . . .
2. During the 5th century the tribes of . . .
settled in Britain.
3. In the . . . century Britain was invaded by
the V i k i n g s .
4. Lords were responsible to . . . .
5. T h e . . . dynasty established a system of
g o v e r n m e n t , which depended o n the . . . .
6. The conflict between the monarchy and Par-
liament led t o . . . .
7. In the . . . century the increased trade led
to . . . .
8. T h e beginning of the 20th century can't be
called . . . .
9. The British empire was made up of . . . .
10. T h e . . . party replaced the Liberals.

Location

Britain forms the greater part of the Brit-


ish Isles, which lie off the north-west coast
of mainland Europe. Great Britain is sepa-
rated f r o m the Continent by the English

16
Channel. "Great B r i t a i n " is a geographical
expression but " T h e United K i n g d o m " is a
political expression. The full name is the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and North-
ern Ireland. Great Britain comprises En-
gland, W a l e s and Scotland.
Great Britain is in fact the biggest of the
group of islands which lies between the N o r t h
Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The total area is
242,534 sq. km. Britain is just under 1,000 km
long from the south coast of England to the
extreme north of Scotland, and just under
500 km across in the widest part.
The population of the United K i n g d o m is
57 million people. The British Isles today
are shared by two separate and independent
states. The smaller of these is the Republic
of Ireland, with its capital in Dublin. The
larger, with London as its capital, is the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and North-
ern Ireland. This long title is the result of
a complicated history. The island of Great
Britain contains three "nations" which were
separated at earlier stages of their history:
England, Scotland and W a l e s . W a l e s had
become part of the English administrative
system by the 16th century. Scotland was

18
not completely united with England until
1707. The United K i n g d o m is a name which
was introduced in 1801 when Great Britain
became united with Ireland.

England

The largest and most densely populated


part of the United K i n g d o m is England. The
population of England is 47, 837 million peo-
ple. England is washed by the N o r t h Sea,
the Irish Sea, the English Channel and the
Strait of Dover. The name " E n g l a n d " is de-
rived f r o m the A n g l e s . Roman rule lasted
f o r over 300 years from A. D. 43. The last
invasion of England took place in 1066 when
Duke W i l l i a m of Normandy defeated the
English at the Battle of Hastings. At that
time the English language was v e r y much
transformed.
The capital of England is London, which
is the largest city in Britain. It is situated
on the R i v e r Thames (the most important
one). There are many rivers in England, the
longest is the Severn. England is mostly a
lowland country. Upland regions are in the

19
north and the south-west. Northern England,
Midland and South England each part is
different but v e r y picturesque.
The English like to spend their holiday
in Lake District, which is in the N o r t h e r n
England.
The main industries in England are the
wool industry (with its centre in Leeds and
Bradford), heavy machinery, shipbuilding, the
cotton industry (the centre is Manchester).

Scotland

Scotland is the most northern part of the


island of Great Britain. Its population is
over 5 million people. Scotland was inhab-
ited mainly by the Picts.
In the 6th century, the Scots f r o m Ire-
land (or Scotia) settled in what is now A r -
g y l l , g i v i n g their name to the present-day
Scotland. During the 9th century, the vari-
ous parts of Scotland united in defence
against the Vikings. The powerful monar-
chy which existed in England threatened
Scottish independence throughout the M i d -
dle A g e s . In 1603 James VI of Scotland be-

20
came also James I of England when Queen
Elizabeth I of England died without chil-
dren. In 1651 Scotland was united with En-
gland, although Scotland kept its own par-
liament. In 1707, both countries, realizing
the benefits of closer political and econom-
ic union, agreed on a single parliament f o r
Great Britain.
The Cheviot Hills mark the boundary be-
tween England and Scotland. The greater
part of Scotland is surrounded by sea. Scot-
land includes the Hebrides off the west coast
and the Orkney and Shetland Islands off the
north coast. It is bounded by the N o r t h Sea
on the east.
Scotland is divided into three parts: the
Highlands, the Lowlands and the Southern
Uplands. The Highlands are among the old-
est mountains in the world. There are a lot
of valleys and lakes in this region, the best
known lake is Loch Ness.
Most of the population of Scotland is con-
centrated in the Lowlands. The biggest city
is Glasgow. It is an industrial city and an
important port in the U n i t e d K i n g d o m .
Shipbuilding is the leading industry. But
other industries such as iron and steel,

21
e n g i n e e r i n g and coal-mining are h i g h l y
developed too. The capital of Scotland is
Edinburgh. It is the cultural centre of Scot-
land.

Wales

In 1301 after defeating the native princ-


es of W a l e s , K i n g Edward I of England
named his son Prince of W a l e s . Since then
the eldest son of the K i n g or Queen of En-
gland has traditionally been given this ti-
tle. In 1536 Wales was brought into the
English system of national and local gov-
ernment by A c t of Union.
Most of Britain was inhabited by Celts
until the 4th century. W e l s h and English
are both official languages in W a l e s now.
The population of W a l e s is over 3 mil-
lion people. About 7 5 % of the people of
W a l e s live in urban districts.
W a l e s is a highland country of old, hard
rocks. N o r t h Wales is a country of moun-
tains and deep valleys. South Wales is a land
of high hills. The capital of Wales is Cardiff
(an industrial city and a p o r t ) . Cardiff is an
administrative and educational centre. Such

22
industries as coal-mining, steel production,
electronics, electrical engineering are de-
veloped in this part of the country.
The W e l s h are fond of folk music, sing-
ing and poetry. W e l s h literature is one of
the oldest in Europe.

Northern Ireland
A number of kingdoms had emerged in
Ireland before the Christian era. Ireland
didn't escape the invasion of the V i k i n g s ,
who dominated the country during the 10th
c e n t u r y . I n 1169 H e n r y I I o f E n g l a n d
launched an invasion of Ireland. He had been
granted its overlordship by the English Pope
A d r i a n IV who wanted to bring the Irish
church into full obedience to R o m e .
The English Civil W a r s (16421651) led
to uprisings in Ireland which were crushed
by Cromwell. During the 18th century var-
ious efforts were made by British Govern-
ment to achieve stability. In 1800 an A c t of
Union between Great Britain and Ireland
was signed.
The " I r i s h question" continued as one of
the major problems of British politics dur-

23
ing the 19th century. In 1985 the A n g l o -
Irish Agreement was signed in Belfast, the
capital of Northern Ireland.
The population of Northern Ireland is about
1. 5 million people. It occupies one sixth of
the territory of the United Kingdom. 5 3 % of
the population live in urban areas. The larg-
est industry is agriculture. The main indus-
trial centre and a large port is Belfast.

The Weather

Britain is as far north as Canada's Hud-


son Bay or Siberia. Edinburgh is 56 degrees
north of the equator, the same latitude as
Moscow, yet its climate is generally mild and
temperature rarely exceeds 32C or fall be-
low 10C. T h a t ' s because of the Gulf-stream
w h i c h b r i n g s w a r m water and air across the
Atlantic f r o m the Gulf of Mexico. As a re-
sult snow falls occasionally and doesn't re-
main f o r long (except in the Scottish moun-
tains). Rainfall is well distributed through-
out the year.
The wind brings rain f r o m the A t l a n t i c
to the hills of the west. This means that the

24
western parts of Britain are wetter than the
eastern, which are sheltered.
London is much drier than the continen-
tal cities (e. g. H a m b u r g ) . Its weather may
be unpredictable, but not too wet.

EXERCISES
I. Answer the questions.
1. When did Scotland and Wales start being
governed from London?
2. Prince Charles is Prince of Wales. Where
does this title come from?
3. What are the main industries in England?
4. What regions is Scotland divided into?
5. When was an Act of Union between Great
Britain and Ireland signed?
6. What are the Welsh fond of?
7. Why is Britain warmer than other coun-
tries on the same latitude?
8. How can you explain that London is drier
than continental cities?
9. Why is the south of Great Britain better
suited to farming than the west or the
north?
II. Explain the difference between these ex-
pressions:
Great Britain, the United Kingdom, the
Republic of Ireland, the British Isles.

26
III. Fill in the gaps*
1. "Great Britain" is a . . . expression.
2. Great Britain is a group of islands which
lies between . . . and . . . .
3. The total area of Great Britain is . . . .
4. The capital of the Republic of Ireland
is . . . .
5. The name of the United Kingdom was in-
troduced in . . . .
6. Roman rule in England lasted for over
.. . years.
7. . . . is an administrative and educational
centre of Wales.
8. . . . mark the boundary between England
and Scotland.
9. . . . dominated Ireland during the 10th cen-
tury.
10. In 1985 the Anglo-Irish Agreement was
signed i n . . . .
IV. Choose the right answer.
1. The longest river is . . .
a) the Thames.
b) the Severn.
c) the Avon.
2. England is separated from Scotland by . . .
a) the Pennines.
b) the Southern Uplands.
c) the Cheviot Hills.

27
System of Government

Britain is a parliamentary democracy with


a constitutional monarch Queen Eliza-
beth II as a head of State.
Today the Queen is not only head of State
but also an important symbol of national
unity. The royal title in Britain is:
"Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God
of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland and of H e r other Realms
and Territories Queen, Head of the Common-
wealth, Defender of the F a i t h . " In law the
Queen is head of the executive, an integral
part of the legislature, head of the judiciary,
the Commander-in-chief of all the armed
forces of the Crown and the Supreme Gov-
ernor of the established Church of England.
The Queen and the royal family continue
to take part in many traditional ceremonies.
They visit different parts of Britain; they
are involved in the work of many charities.
In practice the monarch has no actual
power: they say, the monarch reigns but
doesn't rule. Queen's power is limited by
the Parliament. Parliament is the supreme
l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y in B r i t a i n and the

28
P r i m e Minister is the virtual ruler of the
country.
Parliament comprises the House of Com-
mons, the House of Lords and the Queen in
her constitutional role. The Queen summons,
prorogues and dissolves Parliament. She opens
each session with a speech. It is her duty to
make appointments to all important state
offices. The Queen must see all Cabinet doc-
uments. She has the power to conclude trea-
ties, to declare war and make peace.
The Commons has 651 elected Members
of Parliament ( M P s ) .
The Lords is made up of 1,185 heredi-
tary and life peers, and the two archbishops
and the 24 most senior bishops of the estab-
lished Church of England. The centre of
parliamentary power is the House of Com-
mons. The leader of the party that obtains a
majority in the House of Commons is the
P r i m e Minister. The party which has ma-
j o r i t y of the seats in the House of Com-
mons is called the Government, and the oth-
er is the Opposition. The Government may
hold office f o r f i v e years.
A l l the affairs of the State are conduc-
ted in the name of the Queen, but really

29
the P r i m e Minister is responsible f o r every
measure submitted to Parliament. As a head
of the Government the P r i m e Minister ap-
points about 100 ministers, of whom about
20 are in the Cabinet (the senior group which
takes major policy decisions). Ministers are
responsible for government decisions and
individually responsible f o r their own de-
partments.
The Opposition has a duty to challenge
government policies and to present an al-
ternative programme.

EXERCISES
I. Answer the questions.
1. Is Britain a monarchy?
2. Who is the Commander-in-chief of all the
armed forces of the Crown?
3. What are the duties of the Queen?
4. Who rules the country?
5. What is the supreme legislative authority
in Britain?
6. How is the Government formed?
II. Explain the meaning of the following
words and expressions.
1. The head of State
2. The power is limited
3. The leader of the party
30
4. Majority of the seats
5. To hold office for five years
6. To be responsible for
7. To present an alternative programme
III. True or false?*
1. Britain is a parliamentary monarchy.
2. The Prime Minister is head of State.
3. The Queen only takes part in traditional cer-
emonies.
4. Queen's power is limited by the Parlia-
ment.
5. The Parliament is the supreme legislative
authority.
6. The Lords are elected members of Parlia-
ment.
7. The centre of parliamentary power is the
House of Commons.
8. All affairs of the State are conducted in the
name of the Queen.
9. The Prime Minister declares war and makes
peace.
10. Ministers are responsible for their own de-
partments.

Parliament

The British Parliament works in a large


building called the Palace of Westminster
31
(The Houses of Parliament). It contains of-
fices, committee rooms, restaurants, libraries
and even some places of residence. It also con-
tains two large rooms. One is where the House
of Lords meets, the other is where the House
of Commons meets. The British Parliament
is divided into two Houses and its members
belong to one or other of them. (Only mem-
bers of Commons are known as M P s Mem-
bers of Parliament.) The Commons is more
important of the two Houses.
The person who chairs and controls dis-
cussion in the House of Commons is the
Speaker. He (or she) decides which MP is
going to speak next and makes sure that
the rules of procedure are followed. In fact,
the Speaker is, officially, the second impor-
tant "commoner" in the K i n g d o m after the
P r i m e Minister. In 1992 f o r the first time a
woman was appointed Speaker, so nowadays
MPs address her "Madam Speaker".
Traditionally, MPs were not supposed to
be professional politicians. They were sup-
posed to be ordinary people, bringing their
experience into Parliament. They were not
even paid until the beginning of this cen-
tury. They were supposed to be doing a

32
public service. But that meant that only rich
people could be M P s .
Politics in Britain in the last f o r t y years
has become professional. Most M P s are full-
time politicians and do another job (if at
all) only part-time.
Traditionally the House doesn't sit in the
morning. It starts its business at 2.30 p. m.
(only on Friday it starts in the m o r n i n g ) .
M P s ' mornings are devoted to committee
work, research, preparing speeches. W e e k -
ends are not free for M P s .
The House of Commons is made up of
650 elected members. M P s sit on two sides
of the hall, one side f o r the g o v e r n i n g
party and the other for the opposition. The
first two rows of seats are occupied by the
leading members of both parties ( f r o n t -
benches).
Each session lasts for 160175 days. A
proposed law (a bill) has to go through three
stages (readings) to become an A c t of Par-
liament. If the majority of M P s v o t e f o r
the bill, it is sent to the House of Lords.
W h e n the Lords agree it is taken to the
Queen for Royal assent.
Unlike MPs, members of the House of Lords

34
("peers") are not elected. T h e y are holders of
an inherited aristocratic title. The House of
L o r d s i s t h e r e f o r e a relic o f e a r l i e r t i m e s . T h e
H o u s e o f L o r d s has m o r e t h a n 1,000 m e m -
b e r s , but o n l y about 250 t a k e a n a c t i v e p a r t i n
the work of the House. The House of Lords
has l i t t l e real p o w e r n o w a d a y s . T h e p o w e r t o
r e f u s e a p r o p o s a l f o r a l a w ( w h i c h has b e e n
agreed by the Commons) is limited.
The modern House of Lords is a f o r u m
f o r public discussions. The division of
P a r l i a m e n t i n t o t w o Houses dates back as
700 years. T o d a y the elected House of Com-
m o n s has real p o l i t i c a l p o w e r , a l t h o u g h m e m -
bers of the House of Lords occupy impor-
tant posts.

EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.


1. W h a t is the official name of the Houses of
Parliament?
2. W h o is the second important person in the
K i n g d o m after the P r i m e Minister?
3. W h e n was a woman appointed Speaker f o r
the first time?
4. W h o has more real power: the House of
Lords or the House of Commons?

35
5. H o w are the f i r s t t w o rows of seats in the
House of Commons called?
6. H o w many readings has the bill to pass?
II. Explain the meaning of the following
words and expressions.
1. MPs
2. T h e Speaker
3. frontbenches
4. R o y a l assent
5. Full-time politicians
6. A relic of earlier times
III. Complete the sentences.*
1. T h e British P a r l i a m e n t works in a l a r g e
building, called . . . .
2. The British Parliament is divided into
two . . . .
3. The Speaker makes sure that the rules . . . .
4 . I n . . . a woman was appointed . . .
5. T h e House of Commons is made up of . . .
members.
6. W h e n the L o r d s a g r e e the b i l l is taken
to . . . f o r . . . .
7. T h e House of Lords has more than . . .
members.
8. Members of the House of Lords are holders
of . . . .
9. T h e division of P a r l i a m e n t into t w o Houses
dates back as . . . .
10. Today the . . . has real political power.

36
The Press in Great Britain

In Britain newspapers differ greatly from


each other in the type of news they report
and the way they report it.
On the one hand, there are "quality" news-
papers: The Times, The Financial Times,
The Guardian, The Daily Telegraph. These
papers report major national and interna-
tional news stories, with the world of poli-
tics and business and with the arts and sport.
On the other hand, there are "populars"
or "tabloids", so called because of their small
s i z e . P o p u l a r papers (The Daily Mail,
The Daily Express, The Daily Mirror,
The Sun, The Daily Star) pay much atten-
t i o n to sensational news, e x t r a o r d i n a r y
events, catastrophes, accidents, private lives
of royalty and nobility, of people of art, of
music and movie stars.
Popular papers use many photographs and
cartoons. It is often said that the popular
press aims to entertain its readers rather
than i n f o r m them. The tabloid press is
far more popular than the quality press. The
a v e r a g e d a i l y circulation f o r The Daily
Mirror i s a l m o s t 3 , 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 w h i l e f o r

37
The Times it is 450,000. The most popular
quality paper is The Daily Telegraph with
a circulation of around 1,100,000 per day,
compared with The Sun's circulation of over
4,170,000. It is estimated that t w o out of
every three adults regularly read a national
daily newspaper.
In addition to 12 national daily newspa-
pers there are 9 national papers which are
published on Sundays. Most of the Sundays
papers contain more reading material than
the daily papers, and several of them include
colour supplements separate colour maga-
zines which have special supplements w i t h
articles on music, T V , sports and a lot of
advertisements of consumer goods. Read-
ing a Sunday paper, like having a big Sun-
day lunch, is an important tradition in many
British families.
N e a r l y every area in Britain has one or
more local newspapers in England alone
there are around 90 daily papers and o v e r
850 which are published once or twice a week.
Local newspapers report local news and ad-
vertise local business and events.
Newspapers in Britain are privately owned
and the editors of the papers are usually

38
allowed considerable freedom of expression.
T h e offices of most papers are situated in
Fleet Street in the City of London, which is
the centre of British journalism. British
p a p e r s a r e b o u g h t and r e a d n o t o n l y i n t h e
U n i t e d K i n g d o m , but also i n m a n y o t h e r
countries.

EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.


1. H o w do newspapers differ from each other?
2. W h a t newspapers present important politi-
cal news?
3. W h a t news do " p o p u l a r s " pay attention to?
4. Is the " q u a l i t y " press more popular than
the " t a b l o i d " press?
5. W h i c h newspapers include colour supple-
ments?
6. W h a t information do local newspapers pub-
lish?
7. A r e B r i t i s h newspapers p r i v a t e l y owned?
8. W h e r e are the offices of most papers situ-
ated?
II. Choose the right answer.*
1. The "quality" papers try to entertain rather
than i n f o r m . . .
a) true.
b) false.

39
2. M o s t colour supplements are published on
Sundays and are . . .
a) bought w i t h Sunday papers.
b) bought separately from the Sunday papers.
3. The most popular "quality" newspaper is . . .
a) The Times.
b) The Daily Telegraph.
4. Newspapers in Britain are owned by . . .
a) the Government.
b) individuals and publishing companies.
III. Fill in the gaps*
1. British newspapers are v e r y much different
from each other in the way they . . . news.
2. There are . . ., which pay attention to sen-
sational news and extraordinary events.
3. T h e popular press aims to . . . its readers.
4. T h e r e are 9 national papers, which are pub-
lished on . . . .
5. R e a d i n g a Sunday newspaper is an impor-
tant . . . i n many British f a m i l i e s .
6. Local newspapers are published . . . or
. . . a week.
7. T h e centre of British journalism is . . . .
IV. Find the words and expressions that mean:
1. A newspaper which is published every day
2. A serious newspaper
3. A newspaper, which usually entertains its
readers
4. A special colour magazine which is published
on Sundays

40
5. A newspaper which reports local news
V. Match the two halves.*
1. to report . . .
2. pay attention . . .
3. entertains its readers rather . . .
4. newspapers are . . .
5. the editors are allowed . . .

a) to extraordinary events.
b) p r i v a t e l y owned.
c) news.
d) considerable freedom of expression.
e) than i n f o r m them.

Television in Great Britain

Television is the most popular entertain-


ment in British home life today. In Lon-
don people have four TV channels: BBC I,
BBC I I , ITV=Independent Television (Chan-
nel I I I ) and Channel I V .
The BBC is known for its objectivity in
news reporting. The BBC is financed by pay-
ments which are made by all people who have
TV-sets. People have to pay the licence fee.
In 1932 the BBC W o r l d Service was set
up with a licence to broadcast first to Em-

41
pire and then to other parts of the w o r l d .
There is no advertising on any BBC pro-
gramme.
I T V started in 1954. Commercial televi-
sion gets its money f r o m advertising. The
programmes on this channel are financed
by different companies, which do not have
anything to do with the content of these
programmes.
I T V news programmes are not made by
individual television companies. Indepen-
dent Television News is owned jointly by
all of them. So it has been protected f r o m
commercial influence.
There are different types of TV programmes
in Great Britain. BBC and I T V start early in
the morning. One can watch news programmes,
all kinds of chat shows, quiz shows, soap op-
eras, different children's programmes, dra-
mas, comedies and different programmes of
entertainment on these channels.
News is broadcast at regular intervals and
there are panel discussions of current events.
Broadcasts for schools are produced on f i v e
days of the week during school hours. In
the afternoon and early evening TV stations
show special programmes f o r children.

42
Operas, music concerts and shows are pre-
sented at various time. A large part of TV
t i m e is occupied by serials.
B r i t a i n has t w o channels ( B B C I I and
Channel I V ) f o r presenting p r o g r a m m e s o n
serious topics, which are watched w i t h g r e a t
interest by a lot of people. These channels
start working on early weekday mornings.
B u t t h e y t r a n s l a t e m o s t l y all kinds of edu-
cation programmes.
W e e k e n d afternoons are devoted to sport.
Sport events are usually broadcast in the
evening.
These are the main channels in Great
B r i t a i n . Only about a f i f t h of households
receive satellite or cable.

EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.


1. Can you describe some characteristics, which
g i v e the BBC its special position in Britain?
2. W h a t is the difference between BBC and
ITV?
3. W h a t programmes are v e r y popular in Great
Britain?
4. W h e n was the BBC W o r l d Service set up?
5. W h i c h channels don't have advertising?

43
II. Fill in the gaps.*
1. Television is the most popular . . . in Great
Britain.
2. In London there are . . . channels.
3. People have t o pay . . . .
4. BBC is famous f o r its . . . .
5. Commercial television gets its money
from . . . .
6. I T V started in . . . .
7. W e e k e n d afternoons are devoted to . . . .
III. True or false?*
1. BBC is a commercial television.
2. A l l T V channels have advertising.
3. Channel IV is famous f o r its o b j e c t i v i t y .
4. Independent Television N e w s is owned by a
p r i v a t e company.
5. TV stations show d i f f e r e n t programmes f o r
children.
6. English people are not fond of soap operas.
7. M o s t people in Britain receive satellite.
Part 2

LONDON AND ITS PLACES


OF INTEREST

ondon is the capital of G r e a t


Britain, its political, economic and commer-
cial centre. It is the chief port of Great Brit-
ain. It is one of the greatest cities of the world.
Its population is about 9 million people.
The o r i g i n of the city may be dated as
the beginning of the 1st century A. D., when
a tribe of the Celtic family settled near the
Thames. The Roman town, L O N D I N I U M ,
g r e w up on the t w o hillocks near St. P a u l ' s
Cathedral and Cornhill, not far f r o m the
T o w e r of London. The English are v e r y
proud of the long history of their capital.
The city became extremely prosperous dur-
ing the 16th century. Then in 1665 and
1666 two catastrophes occurred: the first

45
was epidemic of plague which killed 100,000
citizens, and the second was the Great Fire
which destroyed the whole of the City, includ-
ing St.Paul's Cathedral. London is a real mu-
seum of architecture. Most of the finest build-
ings date from the second half of the 17th
century. At the beginning of the 19th centu-
ry England was at the height of her power.
During Queen Victoria's long reign (1837
1901) the construction of the Underground
began. A n d the first line between Padding-
ton and Farringdon was opened.
At the same time the City became exclu-
sively a commercial centre. The City is one
part of London. Traditionally London is di-
vided into: the City, the W e s t End, W e s t -
minster and the East End.
The City is the heart of London, its f i -
nancial and business centre. The City was de-
scribed as a "busy emporium for trade and
traders" as early as Roman times. The City
has within its square mile such famous insti-
tutions as the Bank of England, the Stock
Exchange, the Royal Courts of Justice and
Guildhall. The City has its own L o r d Major
and Corporation as well as its own police
force. Few people live in this part of Lon-
don but over a million come here to work.

48
There's a lot of famous ancient buildings
within the City. The most striking of them is
St.Paul's Cathedral, Sir Christopher W r e n ' s
masterpiece. It was built between 1675 and
1710 to replace the 13th-century cathedral
which had been destroyed by the Great F i r e .
The City of Westminster is one of the
most famous historic areas in London as it
contains both the seat of Government and
the crowning place of kings and queens.
Westminster was the first important inhab-
ited area outside the City.
The Houses of Parliament and Westmin-
ster Abbey face each other across Parliament
Square. Westminster Abbey is a beautiful
Gothic building. In the 11th century Edward
the Confessor founded a great Norman A b -
bey. But nothing is left of this church.
Henry I I I wanted a brighter and bigger build-
ing. Master Henry, John of Gloucester and
Robert of Beverly succeeded in the work of
constructing Westminster Abbey. The work
went on until the 18th century when Nicho-
las Hawksmoor altered the facade and added
the towers. Almost all the monarchs since
W i l l i a m the Conqueror have been crowned
in Westminster and many are buried there.

50
There are memorials of many statesmen,
scientists and writers in Westminster. West-
minster Abbey is not a Cathedral. It is a
" R o y a l Peculiar", royal property. It is de-
pendent directly on the monarch.
The Houses of Parliament the seat of
British Parliament, which is officially known
as the Palace of Westminster.
The f i r s t building was constructed as
early as the 11th century (the magnificent
Westminster Hall was built between 1097
1099 by W i l l i a m R u f u s ) . Most of the old
palace was destroyed in a f i r e in 1834. The
present Houses of Parliament were complet-
ed in 1865. The Houses of Parliament com-
prise the House of Lords and the House of
Commons. The division of Parliament into
t w o Houses goes back as 700 years.
The W e s t End is the centre of London.
There are historical palaces, museums, beau-
tiful parks, large department stores, hotels,
restaurants, theatres and concert halls in
this part of London. One of the most beau-
tiful palaces is Buckingham Palace, the of-
ficial residence of the Queen. The Palace
takes its name f r o m Buckingham House
which was built in 1703 as the home of the

51
Duke of Buckingham and then bought by
George I I I in 1762. Today the Queen lives
at the Palace for only part of the year and
when she is in her residence the Royal Stan-
dard is flown. A l t h o u g h the main palace is
not open to the public items f r o m the R o y a l
Collection can be seen at the Queen's Gal-
lery.
The oldest of all the royal residences in
London is the Tower of London.
The Tower today bears the official t i t l e
of " H e r Majesty's Palace and fortress of the
Tower of London".
Founded by W i l l i a m the Conqueror in
1078 the fortress was enlarged several times.
N o w it is a museum, which houses the na-

52
tional collection of armour and the Crown
Jewels. For many centuries the Tower has
been a fortress, the Royal residence, the Royal
M i n t , the first Royal Observatory. But it is
perhaps most famous for being a prison.

53
The Yeomen of the Guard (Beefeaters)
were originally formed to be a body-guard
for H e n r y V I I . They still wear the Tudor
uniform chosen by the K i n g and now g i v e
guided tours of the Tower.
The ravens whose forefathers used to live
in the Tower still live there. The Y e o m e n
Raven Master is responsible for feeding and
caring f o r the ravens at the Tower. There
is a legend that if the ravens disappear the
Tower will fall.
The broad Mall leads f r o m Buckingham
Palace to Trafalgar Square. Trafalgar Square,
named to commemorate Nelson's great naval
victory of 1805, is dominated by the Nelson's
Column. On its pedestal there are four bronze
reliefs cast from captured French cannon, rep-
resenting scenes from the battles of St. Vin-
cent, the Nile, Copenhagen and Trafalgar. The
bronze lions at the corners of the pedestals
are the work of Landseer.
From Trafalgar Square it is only a short
way to Piccadilly Circus. In the centre of
Piccadilly Circus is a bronze fountain. It
was designed by Sir A l f r e d Gilbert in 1893.
Downing Street, 10 is the official resi-
dence of the P r i m e Minister.

54
London is v e r y rich in art galleries. The
National Gallery is one of the most impor-
tant picture galleries in the world. The Tate
Gallery is the right and necessary comple-
ment to the National Gallery as it contains
modern and contemporary works particu-
larly by English and French masters.
Cultural life of London would be impos-
sible without the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal
Festival Hall, the National Theatre and a great
number of museums: the British Museum,

56
the Victoria and A l b e r t Museum, the Geo-
logical Museum, the Museum of Mankind,
Natural H i s t o r y Museum and others.
If you go to the east of the City, y o u ' l l
find yourself in the East End. This is an
industrial part of London. The P o r t of Lon-
don is also in the East End.
A great amount of space in London is
devoted to parks and gardens. Most of them
used to be private gardens or hunting for-
ests of kings and queens. Later they were
transformed into their present design. To-
day nothing could be more relaxing and
peaceful than a walk in a beautiful park.

EXERCISES
I. Answer the questions.
1. W h a t is the population of London?
2. W h a t parts does London consist of?
3. W h a t part of London can be called its centre?
4. W h a t masterpieces of architecture in Lon-
don do you know?
5. W h o is the architect of St. Paul's Cathedral?
6. W h a t is the historical value of the T o w e r
of London?
7. W h a t is the residence of the Queen?
8. W h a t does a legend about the ravens in the
T o w e r say?

57
9. W h a t events does T r a f a l g a r Square com-
memorate?
10. W h a t gallery has a vast collection of mod-
ern and contemporary works by English and
French masters?
II. Choose the right answer*
1. London became e x t r e m e l y prosperous dur-
ing . . .
a ) the reign o f K i n g A l f r e d .
b) the 16th century.
c) the 19th century.
2. T h e construction of London U n d e r g r o u n d
began . . .
a) in the 18th century.
b) in the 20th century.
c) during Queen V i c t o r i a ' s reign.
3. T h e heart of London is . . .
a) Westminster.
b ) the W e s t End.
c) the City.
4. W e s t m i n s t e r ' s construction was completed
in . . .
a) the 10th century.
b) the 13th century.
c) the 18th century.
5. T h e official residence of the Queen is . . .
a) K e n s i n g t o n Palace.
b) Buckingham Palace.
c) the T o w e r of London.

58
6. T h e oldest royal residence is ...
a) Buckingham Palace.
b) the T o w e r of London.
c) Westminster Abbey.
7. T h e ravens in the T o w e r of London are tak-
en care of because ...
a) they are v e r y old.
b) they are v e r y rare.
c) of a legend.
III. Match the two halves.*
1. T h e c i t y became e x t r e m e l y . . .
2. T h e Great F i r e . . .
3. In the 19th century England was at . . .
4. A l m o s t all the monarchs h a v e been
crowned . . .
5. T h e seat of the British P a r l i a m e n t is . . .
6. W h e n the Queen is in residence . . .
7. T h e T o w e r of London used to be . . .
8. T h e M a l l leads to .. .
9. D o w n i n g Street, 10 is the residence of .. .

a) the height of her power.


b) the Houses of Parliament.
c) the R o y a l Standard is f l o w n .
d) T r a f a l g a r Square.
e) the P r i m e Minister.
f) prosperous in the 16th century.
g) destroyed the whole of the City.
h) in W e s t m i n s t e r .
i) the first R o y a l Observatory.

59
IV. Complete the sentences.*
1. T h e C i t y of W e s t m i n s t e r contains both . . .
and . . . .
2. The early building of Westminster was
built . . . .
3. A l m o s t all the monarchs have been . . . i n
W e s t m i n s t e r and many are . . . t h e r e .
4. The residence of the P r i m e M i n i s t e r
is . . . .

The British Museum

The British Museum is the largest and


richest of its kind in the world. This Muse-
um comprises the National Museum of A r -
chaeology and Ethnography, and the Nation-
al Library. It was built in the middle of the
last century. The Museum is situated in
London (in Bloomsbury district).
On one of the houses in Bloomsbury there
is a plaque, which tells people that f o r near-
ly 50 years this was the home of Sir Hans
Sloane, the benefactor of the British Mu-
seum.
Sir Hans Sloane was an Irishman. He ar-
rived in London nearly 300 years ago w i t h
800 species of plants collected in W e s t In-

60
dia. His particular specialities were natural
history specimens and books. A l l his long
life Sir Hans Sloane remained a collector.
In his will he offered his vast collection to
the people of Britain. Later on the Govern-
ment bought his collection. Two important
libraries were added to the collection of
natural history specimens and books.
At first, his collections were on view to
the public in a large house not far f r o m the
present museum.
The present building was built in 1852.
By law a copy of every book, periodical or
newspaper published in Britain must be pre-

61
served in the British Museum. A l l printed
matter is kept in a separate building in
another part of London.
The British Museum is closely connected
with the name of an Italian, Anthony Panizzi.
Being a lawyer, he occupied the position of
principal librarian at the British Museum.
He also designed the plans for the construc-
tion of the famous circular Reading Room at
the British Museum. Visitors to the Museum
who want to enter the Reading Room, must
have a ticket of admission. Only people over
the age of 21, engaged in serious study and
who can't obtain the books they require else-
where, can use the Reading R o o m .
The Reading Room has an unusual shape.
It is a perfect circle. The superintendent and
his assistants sit in the centre of the room
and issue and collect books. The catalogues
are kept behind them. A n y person who comes
into the Reading R o o m is greatly impressed
by the efficiency of the staff there. Y o u just
ask f o r a book and in a moment it is placed
in front of you. Today there're millions of
volumes in the library. Only a highly quali-
fied specialist can cope with the work in
this library.

62
The British Museum contains books and
manuscripts: Greek, R o m a n , B r i t i s h and
oriental antiquities. It has a department of
ethnography. This collection is so vast that
only a v e r y small percentage is on show to
the public. There is also a department of
prints and drawings. There are departments
devoted to maps, coins, medals and philate-
ly. Those who come to the British Museum
can see a fascinating array of clocks and
watches.
Every year the British Museum is visited
by 2 million people.

EXERCISES
I. Answer two questions:
1. W h e n was the British Museum built?
2. W h e r e is the Museum situated?
3. W h o was the benefactor of the Museum?
4. W h o m was Sir Hans Sloane's collections of-
fered to?
5. W h o can use the Reading R o o m of the B r i t -
ish Museum?
II. Match the two halves.*
1. T h e B r i t i s h Museum is situated in . . .
2. The Museum comprises . . .
3. T h e benefactor of the Museum was . . .
4. Sir Hans Sloane offered his collection to .. .

63
5. Anthony Panizzi . . .
6. T h e Reading R o o m has an unusual . . .
7. T h e superintendent . . .
8. There is a fascinating array of . . .

a) Sir Hans Sloane.


b) the British people.
c) designed the plans f o r the construction of
the Reading R o o m .
d) shape.
e) issues and collects books.
f) clocks and watches.
g) the National Museum of A r c h i t e c t u r e and
Ethnography and the National L i b r a r y .
h) in London.
III. Fill in the gaps.*
1. T h e Museum comprises . . . .
2. Sir Hans Sloane a r r i v e d i n London . . . .
3. A l l his l i f e S i r H a n s S l o a n e r e m a i n e d
a ..... . .
4. The present building was constructed
in . . . .
5. T h e British Museum is connected w i t h the
name of . . . .
6. Only people over the age of . . . can use the
Reading Room.
7. T h e Reading R o o m has an unusual shape;
it's a . . . .
8. E v e r y year the British Museum is v i s i t e d
by . . . people.

64
IV. True or false?*
1. Sir Hans Sloane was an architect.
2. People over 21 years old may enter the Read-
ing Room.
3. V i s i t o r s are g r e a t l y impressed by the e f f i -
ciency of the staff.
4. By L a w a copy of every book is preserved
in the P a r l i a m e n t L i b r a r y .
5. A. P a n i z z i was a lawyer.
6. E v e r y year the British Museum is v i s i t e d
by 200,000 people.

Covent Garden

Covent Garden is the biggest market-place


in Britain. If you come to Covent Garden in
the afternoon, you'll only see enormous build-
ings and a few tourists. But if you come
here early in the morning, y o u ' l l see hun-
dreds of people buying and selling vegeta-
bles, fruit and flowers. Cars, vans, lorries are
everywhere. There are voices everywhere.
Some people are carrying heavy boxes of
fruit and vegetables. They are crying: " M i n d
your backs, please". Before the businessmen
arrive at their offices, all the cars and vans
will have arrived at the shops all over Lon-

65
don. They'll have delivered everything f o r
c u s t o m e r s . B y t h e a f t e r n o o n all t h e f a r m -
ers, shopkeepers, porters and d r i v e r s w i l l h a v e
gone home. The market-place will have been
cleaned by the dustmen. I t ' l l be ready to
meet tourists.
C o v e n t G a r d e n has been t h e m o s t i m p o r -
t a n t m a r k e t - p l a c e i n L o n d o n f o r 300 y e a r s .
It was officially established by K i n g
Charles I I i n 1 6 7 0 . I t w a s called C o v e n t G a r -
den because it was the g a r d e n of the m o n k s
of W e s t m i n s t e r Abbey. At that time it was
v e r y s m a l l , a n d used o n l y b y L o n d o n e r s .
N o w a d a y s it serves the whole of Britain.
Those w h o w o r k t h e r e say: " I f t h e r e i s any
kind of fruit or vegetable which we haven't
g o t n o b o d y has g o t i t " .
T o d a y , C o v e n t G a r d e n has been e x t e n s i v e -
ly r e s t o r e d and is n o w a l i v e l y s h o p p i n g area,
w i t h w i n e bars, restaurants and t h e a t r e
and an open P i z z a and covered Central M a r -
ket.

EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.


1. W h a t is Covent Garden?
2. W h e n was Covent Garden established?

66
3. W h a t can you buy at Covent Garden?
4. W h y was this place o r i g i n a l l y called "con-
vent garden"?
II. Fill in the gaps.*
1. Covent Garden i s the biggest . . . i n B r i t -
ain.
2. In the afternoon y o u ' l l see . . . there.
3. By the midday e v e r y t h i n g w i l l be delivered
for . . . .
4. T h e market-place w i l l have been cleaned
by . . . .
5. Covent Garden was established by . . . .
6. Covent Garden was . . . o f . . . o f W e s t -
minster A b b e y .
7. Nowadays it . . . the whole of B r i t a i n .

The Museum of Transport

The Museum of British Transport is in


L o n d o n . It tells the story of public trans-
port in Britain.
In 1829, an Irishman (Shillibeer by name)
started the first bus-service in London. H i s
b u s w a s v e r y d i f f e r e n t t o t h o s e y o u can see
in London today. It was drawn by three hors-
es and looked like a carriage. T h e first dou-
ble-decker bus was built in 1 8 5 1 . B u t t h e

67
upper deck didn't have a roof until about
1936. W h e n it was raining the passengers
were g i v e n raincoats.
In 1885, the first buses, driven by a petrol
engine were used in London. The speed of
the first petrol engine bus was 12 miles per
hour.
The first trains, like the first buses, were
drawn by horses. But they were not passen-
ger trains. They were used in mines and
factories to carry materials f r o m one place
to another. The first steam train was used
in an iron-works in South Wales. It was built
by Richard Trevithick, in 1804.
The first passenger railway in England
(and in the world) was the Liverpool and
Manchester Railway. In 1829, the company
offered a prize of 500 pounds f o r the best
steam train. The prize was won by George
Stephenson, w i t h his famous train " T h e
R o c k e t " . It could travel 29 miles per hour,
which was v e r y fast at that time.
Lots of people were afraid of the rail-
ways and trains. They tried to stop their
construction. But in 1842 people had to ac-
cept the railway. Queen Victoria, herself,
travelled in a train from Slough to Padding-

68
t o n . A special r a i l w a y c a r r i a g e was built f o r
her in 1869.
In 1938 a train ( " M a l l a r d " ) was built. It
t r a v e l l e d at 126 miles per hour, and that
w a s w o r l d r e c o r d speed f o r a steam t r a i n .
N o w a d a y s this t r a i n can be seen in t h e M u -
seum of Transport.

EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.


1. W h e n was the first double-decker bus built?
2. W h a t was the speed of the f i r s t petrol en-
gine bus?
3. W h e r e were the first trains used?
4. W h a t was the name of the first steam train?
5. W h a t was w o r l d record speed f o r a steam
train?
II. Fill in the gaps.*
1. T h e M u s e u m of B r i t i s h T r a n s p o r t is
in . . . .
2. In . . . Shillibeer started the first . . .
in London.
3. T h e f i r s t bus was drawn by . . . and looked
like . . . .
4. T h e first trains were used i n . . . .
5. T h e f i r s t passenger r a i l w a y in E n g l a n d
was . . . .
6. Stephenson's train was called . . . .

69
7. Queen Victoria travelled from . . . t o . . . .
8. T h e w o r l d record speed f o r a steam engine
was . . . .
III. True or false?*
1. T h e f i r s t bus appeared in 1829.
2. T h e first double-decker d i d n ' t have a roof.
3. T h e speed of the first train was 12 miles
per hour.
4. T h e f i r s t trains were to carry passengers.
5. T h e first train was built by G. Stephenson.
6. A special carriage was built f o r Queen V i c -
toria.
7. T h e world record speed f o r a steam train
was 12 miles per hour.
8. In 1842 the construction of the railway f r o m
Slough to Paddington was stopped.
IV. Arrange the sentences in the proper or-
der.*
1. " M a l l a r d " travelled at 126 miles per hour.
2. In 1829 an Irishman started the f i r s t bus-
service.
3. In 1842 people had to accept the r a i l w a y .
4. T h e first double-decker was built in 1 8 5 1 .
5. " T h e R o c k e t " could travel 29 miles per hour.
6. T h e prize f o r the best steam train was won
by G. Stephenson.
7. In 1885 the first buses, d r i v e n by a petrol
engine were used in London.
8. T h e first trains were drawn by horses.

70
9. T h e f i r s t railway in England was the L i v e r -
pool and Manchester R a i l w a y .
10. T h e first trains were used in mines and fac-
tories.

The Royal Academy

There is a house of great beauty and co-


lour in London. This is Burlington House.
Since 1869 it has been the R o y a l A c a d e m y
of A r t s .
In 1768 a group of leading painters, sculp-
tors and architects presented a memorial to
K i n g George I I I . The young art-loving mon-
arch declared his patronage, protection and
support. A l l succeeding Sovereigns have ac-
cepted the style of " P a t r o n , Protector and
Supporter" of the Royal Academy. The mon-
arch formally sanctions the elections of new
Royal Academicians.
The first President of the Academy was
Sir Joshua Reynolds, whose statue (palette
and brush in hand) surveys the forecourt of
Burlington House. He was President for 24
years and created in the Academy a body of
highly skilled professional artists.

71
In 1771 the A c a d e m y established its
headquarters at Somerset House and re-
mained there until 1837 when it moved to
the east w i n g of the National Gallery.
The prime purpose of the Academy is the
teaching of art to the most talented students.
A b o u t 100 students attend the A c a d e m y
School. They're selected by examinations from
those who have spent two or more years at
London or provincial art schools.
Since 1768 about 7,000 artists and archi-
tects have been trained free of charge in
the School of Painting and Drawing, Sculp-
ture and Architecture. The students study
the main "classic disciplines". Several stu-
dents in recent years have won major inter-
national awards.
The exhibitions of the students' work in
June and November attract attention of
many people: teachers, art critics and gal-
lery owners.
There are two annual exhibitions, orga-
nized by the Academy: the W i n t e r Exhibi-
tion and the Summer Exhibition.
The Academy also organizes special exhi-
bitions in its Diploma Gallery.
The Summer Exhibition has been held

72
since 1 7 6 9 . I t i s t h e l a r g e s t annual o p e n a r t
show in the world. A b o u t 10,000 works are
judged by the Royal Academicians. Different
s t y l e s and t r a d i t i o n s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e
E x h i b i t i o n . I t i s o p e n f o r 3.5 m o n t h s . T h e
m a j o r i t y o f t h e w o r k s are f o r s a l e .
The A c a d e m y believes that it is impor-
t a n t t o g i v e all artists a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o
e x h i b i t a n d sell t h e i r w o r k s . T h e r e a r e n o
o t h e r such e x h i b i t i o n s .

EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.


1. Since what time has Burlington House been
the home f o r the R o y a l A c a d e m y of A r t s ?
2. W h o was the f i r s t to declare his support of
the A c a d e m y ?
3. W h o was the first President of the A c a d e -
my?
4. W h a t is the primary purpose of the A c a d e -
my?
5. H o w often does the A c a d e m y organize the
exhibitions?
6. W h a t Exhibition is the largest annual open
show in the world?
7. H o w long does the Summer Exhibition stay
open?

73
II. True or false?*
1. T h e R o y a l A c a d e m y o f A r t was f o r m e d
in 1869.
2. K i n g George I I I was the f i r s t President of
the A c a d e m y .
3. In 1837 the A c a d e m y m o v e d to the N a t i o n -
al Gallery.
4. T h e prime purpose of the A c a d e m y is teach-
i n g the most talented students.
5. A b o u t 7,000 artists and architects have been
trained in the A c a d e m y .
6. E v e r y year t w o exhibitions are organized
by the A c a d e m y .
7. T h e W i n t e r Exhibition is the largest annu-
al open show in the w o r l d .

The Channel Tunnel

Great Britain is separated f r o m the Con-


tinent by English Channel.
On M a y , 6, 1994 the Channel tunnel be-
tween Calais and Folkstone was opened by
Queen Elizabeth II of B r i t a i n and President
Mitteran of France. They were the first to
t r a v e l u n d e r t h e sea.
That was the biggest project in which
B r i t a i n took part. T h e process of the con-

74
struction was v e r y difficult and not always
a successful one. The price of construction
was very high ( 9 billion), several people were
killed during the construction, and the start
of service was several times postponed.
People didn't reveal great enthusiasm. At
first the tunnel was opened only f o r private
cars. The saving in travel time didn't com-
pensate for the discomfort of travelling. Peo-
ple got used to travelling on comfortable
ferries. A n d besides, they simply were afraid
of travelling under the sea. But the authors
of the project are rather optimistic, because
the d i r e c t t r a i n services b e t w e e n P a r i s
and London o f f e r a great reduction of trav-
el time. There is a project to use a high-
speed train between London and the British
end of the Channel tunnel. But that will
be only in the 2 1 s t century.

EXERCISES

I. True or false?*
1. T h e f i r s t to t r a v e l through the tunnel were
the w o r k e r s .
2. T h e project was a success f r o m the v e r y be-
ginning.

75
3. T h e tunnel was opened between London and
Paris.
4. P e o p l e w e r e not e n t h u s i a s t i c about t h e
project.
5. At first the tunnel was opened to p r i v a t e
cars.
6. A great reduction of travel time didn't com-
pensate f o r the discomfort of t r a v e l l i n g .
7. A high-speed train w i l l take people f r o m
P a r i s to London in the 21st century.
II. Complete the sentences.*
1. T h e Channel tunnel was opened in . . . by ...

2. T h e tunnel was the biggest . . . .


3. T h e construction price was . . . .
4. A t first the tunnel was opened t o . . . .
5. People were afraid of . . .
6. T h e direct train services o f f e r . . . .

The Thames
The R i v e r Thames is one of the sights of
London. Tourists come to admire the beau-
ty of Cleopatra's N e e d l e , b i g Ben and the
Houses of Parliament. In fact the r i v e r isn't
just a part of the scenery. W i t h o u t the riv-
er London wouldn't exist. L e t ' s look back
into history.

76
T w o thousand years ago, in A. D. 43 a
Roman army decided to cross the Thames at
a point where a bridge could be built. That
was the beginning of the City of London.
The Thames connected the settlements of
the Romans at K e n t and at Colchester. A l l
foreign traffic and goods had to cross the
Roman bridge, that's why the nearby land
g r e w into a key port, thus increasing trade
with the Continent.
Over the next five hundred years, London
exported the nation's wool, cattle and im-
ported fine clothes from Flanders, wine from
France, furs f r o m Scandinavia. The trades-
men formed guilds, which protected their
interests and strengthened London's posi-
tion as a commercial centre.
The 16th century brought new horizons
in exploration and conquest by sea. But
there appeared some problems. The twenty
arches o f L o n d o n B r i d g e disturbed the
r i v e r ' s current, causing "rapids". The ships
were forced to stop below the bridge, pay-
ing small boats to take their goods up-
streams.
To solve this problem the first docks were
built in the 17th century at Rotherhithe. In

77
the 18th and 19th centuries the docks were
also built on the Isle of Dogs. In 1908 the
P o r t of London A u t h o r i t y was formed to
look after them.
The importance of the Thames was great.
London has changed greatly over the years.
At Chelsea B r i d g e t w o periods of his-
tory stand facing each other. On the N o r t h
bank is the Royal Hospital. This house was
built in the 18th century by Sir Christo-
pher W r e n .
On the South bank there is Battersea pow-
er station, built to provide electricity f o r
Londoners.
If we move downstream, w e ' l l come to
Vauxhall Bridge. This area contains facto-
ries and offices.
Under Lambeth Bridge, the r i v e r flows
on past the Victoria flower gardens towards
Westminster Bridge. Here are the Houses
of Parliament and Big Ben, built in the 19th
century in the gothic style.
From this point all along the embank-
ment run the Embankment Gardens, with
their tramps, memorials and flowers. At the
riverside itself there is a row of charming
Victorian lamp-posts decorated with ferocious-

78
looking dolphins. Even the public benches are
decorated with winged sphinxes. Y o u can also
admire Cleopatra's Needle, a huge obelisk
carved in Ancient Egypt and given to Queen
Victoria and Great Britain in 1820. It was
placed by the river in 1878, and a "time box",
containing objects typical of that time was
buried beneath it.
Near W a t e r l o o Bridge, on the South bank
of the r i v e r is a group of modern, concrete
buildings. These include the Royal Festival
Hall, Queen Elizabeth Hall, and the new Na-
tional Theatre. W a t e r l o o Bridge is concrete
and modern, but it replaces an older bridge
built to mark the anniversary of the Battle
of W a t e r l o o . The lampstandards along the
bridge were made from guns captured at
the battle.
As you pass the widest of London's brid-
ges Blackfriars Bridge you see the
dome of St. P a u l ' s .
The next bridge is Southwark B r i d g e ,
which leads to Southwark Cathedral ( i t
is as beautiful as W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y ) .
Then you come to London Bridge. Original-
ly it was made of wood. The first stone
bridge wasn't built until 1176. A new Lon-

79
don B r i d g e replaced it in 1831, but you
w o u l d n ' t f i n d this L o n d o n B r i d g e now
either, as it was sold to America in 1972. It
was taken there stone by stone to be reas-
sembled as a tourist attraction. The British
have a modern replacement now.
But the bridge that symbolizes London
to most people is Tower Bridge.
Much of London's wealth has been gen-
erated by the trade and industry brought
by the river. The river became badly pollut-
ed in V i c t o r i a n t i m e s . Industrial waste
flowed freely into it. There was a terrible
smell. A l l the fish died.
Since the 1950s, new laws have controlled
industrial waste and sewage levels in the
Thames. N o w the river is much less polluted.
Fish have returned to the cleaner water. Plea-
sure boats sail from Westminster and Char-
ing Cross piers, taking summer visitors to
Greenwich and Hampton Court, Palace.
To protect London from tide the Greater
London Council decided to built a barrier
across the river at Woolwich. The floodgates
lie on the river bed in normal weather, but
can be raised to shut off dangerously high
waters.

80
London could never have lived without
the Thames.

EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.


1. W h y were the first docks at R o t h e r h i t h e
built?
2. W h o was the architect of the R o y a l Hospi-
tal?
3. W h a t anniversary does W a t e r l o o B r i d g e
mark?
4. W h i c h b r i d g e is the widest?
5. W h e r e can you see London B r i d g e ?
6. W h i c h b r i d g e symbolizes London?
II. Fill in the gaps.*
1. . . . years ago the Romans decided to cross
the Thames.
2. In the 18th and 19th centuries the . . .
w e r e built on the Isle of D o g s .
3. T h e area of Vauxhall B r i d g e contains . . .
and . . . .
4. T h e f i r s t W a t e r l o o B r i d g e was b u i l t t o
mark . . . .
5. In 1972 a new London B r i d g e was sold
to . . . .
6. The bridge that symbolizes London is . . . .
7. To protect London f r o m tide a . . . across
the r i v e r was built.

81
Part 3

EDUCATION IN GREAT
BRITAIN

England schooling is compul-


sory f o r children of 5 to 16 years of age.
A n y child may attend a school without pay-
ing fees. Over 9 0 % of children of compul-
sory school age go to state schools. The most
important changes in Britain's educational
system were introduced under the Educa-
tion R e f o r m A c t 1988. It led to the com-
pulsory National Curriculum for pupils aged
5 to 16 in state schools. The A c t also aims
to g i v e parents a wider choice of schools
for their children. Local educational aut-
horities finance most school education at
local level. They also employ teachers. Ev-
ery state school in England and W a l e s has a
governing body, responsible for the school's

82
main policies. Parallel reforms are intro-
duced in both Scotland and N o r t h e r n Ire-
land.
Full-time education is compulsory up to
the middle teenage years. There are three
stages in education. The first stage is pri-
mary education; the second is secondary ed-
ucation; the third is further education at
university or college.
Before going to a primary school chil-
dren receive nursery education (some children
attend pre-school p l a y - g r o u p s ) . I t ' s the
first age of education. Around half of 34
years old in Britain receive nursery educa-
tion. Children of nursery age need care as
well as education. Social, emotional and phys-
ical needs must be taken into consideration.
Compulsory primary education begins at
the age of 5 in England, Wales and Scotland
and at 4 in Northern Ireland. Children start
their education in an infant school and move
to a junior school at 7 years old. Primary
schools vary in size and location. Pupils study
different subjects (English, mathematics, sci-
ence, history, geography, music, art, physical
education). Over 80% of all primary schools
are mixed.

83
In Britain most children of compulsory
secondary school age ( 1 1 1 6 ) receive free
education financed from public funds. The
large majority of schools are mixed.
The school year in England and W a l e s
begins in September and continues into July.
In Scotland it is from August to June. In
N o r t h e r n Ireland f r o m September to
June. At this level children start to learn a
modern f o r e i g n language. The course of
study at secondary school may lead to Gen-
eral C e r t i f i c a t e of Secondary Education
(GCSE) qualifications. At 16 years old chil-
dren take different examinations and have
quite a lot of coursework, only after which
they're awarded GCSE.
Those who stay at school after GCSE,
study f o r 2 more years f o r A ( A d v a n c e d )
level exams in two or three subjects.
A small proportion of children (about
8 % ) attend private, or independent schools,
which are not financed by the state. To un-
derstand this phenomenon a little history is
needed.
The British government payed little at-
tention to education until the end of the
19th century. Schools had existed in Brit-

84
ain long before the g o v e r n m e n t took an
interest in education. A small group of
schools admitted only the sons of the upper
and upper middle classes. At these public
schools much m o r e a t t e n t i o n was p a i d
to "character-building" and the develop-
ment of "team s p i r i t " rather than to aca-
demic achievements. These were "boarding-
schools" (as the pupils lived in t h e m ) . The
pupils w o r e d i s t i n c t i v e clothes and the
schools had their own traditions. The aim
of those schools was to prepare young men
to take up positions in the higher ranks
of army, in business, civil service and poli-
tics.
A typical public school is for boys f r o m
13. It admits fee-paying pupils. Such school
is a boarding one. Each school is divided
into houses w i t h its housemaster. Public
school place great emphasis on team sports.
These schools are not at all luxurious or
comfortable. A typical example of such a
school is Eton.
B r i t i s h education has many d i f f e r e n t
faces but one goal. Its aim is to realize the
potential of all for the good of the individ-
ual and society as a whole.

85
The School Year

T h e school year is usually d i v i d e d into


three terms.
A u t u m n t e r m lasts f r o m September ( o r
A u g u s t ) till Christmas holiday, which is
about 2 weeks. T h e n spring t e r m till
Easter holiday (also 2 w e e k s ) , and s u m m e r
t e r m , w h i c h lasts t i l l J u n e ( o r J u l y ) . S u m -
m e r h o l i d a y is about 6 w e e k s .
I n a d d i t i o n all s c h o o l s h a v e a h a l f - t e r m ,
w h i c h lasts a f e w days or a w e e k in t h e m i d -
dle of each t e r m .

School Life
N e a r l y all schools w o r k f i v e days a w e e k .
T h e y are closed on Saturdays and Sundays.
T h e school day starts at 9 o'clock and f i n -
ishes b e t w e e n 3 and 4 p . m . T h e lunch break
usually lasts an hour-and-a-quarter. M o s t

86
pupils have lunch provided by the school.
The lunch is paid by parents. Other chil-
dren either go home f o r lunch or have a
snack at school.

Exams

At 1516 years old school children take


public exams. They are not usually set up
by the government (rather by independent
examining boards). Each school or Local Ed-
ucation Authority decides which exams their
pupils are to take. The boards publish sylla-
bus f o r each subject. There is no single
school-leaving exam or school-leaving cer-
tificate. Usually a vast range of subjects is
offered for school children. N e a r l y all pu-
pils do exam in English, Maths and Science.
Most do exams in technology and in a for-
eign language. Some pupils take exams in
34 additional subjects.
Usually exams have nothing to do w i t h
school years. Once the examining boards
decided to include certain popular televi-
sion programmes on their literature sylla-
bus.

87
EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.


1. W h a t is the goal of education in Britain?
2. W h a t types of school do you know in B r i t -
ain?
3. W h a t school do children at 6 years attend?
4. W h a t exams do children have to take at
16 years old?
5. W h a t subjects do pupils learn at secondary
school?
6. Is there any difference between state and
independent schools?
7. W h a t is the aim of p r i v a t e schools?
8. Can you give an example of a private school?
9. Is schooling compulsory for pupils of 17 years
old?
10. W h e n does the academic year begin?
II. True or false?*
1. Schooling is compulsory f o r c h i l d r e n of
5 to 16 years of age.
2. Quite a large number of children attend pub-
lic schools.
3. T h e first stage of education is secondary
education.
4. Children in England, W a l e s , Scotland and
N o r t h e r n Ireland go to school at the same
age.

88
5. Only a small part of schools are m i x e d .
6. At public schools much attention is paid to
character-building.
7. A f t e r finishing secondary school children
are awarded GCSE.
I I I . Explain the meaning of the following
words and expressions.
1. p r i v a t e education
2. compulsory education
3. mixed schools
4. boarding schools
5. GCSE
6. academic year
7. nursery education

Education in Great Britain


( continued )

At the age of 16 pupils can leave school.


But quite a lot of them want to continue
their education. Only 1/3 of all leave school
at 16 and look for a job. (The general level
of unemployed is high today. Some of them
find job immediately and many take part in
training schemes (which means job com-
bined with part-time college courses).

89
In England and W a l e s those who stay at
school study just three subjects in prepara-
tion f o r taking A - l e v e l exams (Advanced
Level).
These academic exams are set by the
same examining boards that set GCSE ex-
ams. T h e y ' r e taken by pupils at the age of
18 years old, who wish to continue their
education.
Universities usually select students on the
basis of A-level results and an interview (stu-
dents who wish to enter Oxford and Cam-
bridge have to take certain exams). Those
who have better A-level results are usually
accepted.
H i g h e r education has become more avail-
able in the second half of the 20th century.
In 1960 there were less than 25 universities
in Britain. By 1980 there were already more
than 40, and by 1995 there were over a hun-
dred institutions with university status.
U n i v e r s i t i e s take the better students,
that's why nearly all students complete their
studies. The normal course of study lasts
34 years. Students are not supposed to
take a job during the term. Unless their
parents are rich, they receive a state grant,

90
which covers most of their expenses, includ-
ing the cost of accomodation. Quite a lot
of students live on campus (or in college) or
in rooms nearby.
However, nowadays the government re-
duces the amount of the students and en-
courages a system of top-up loans. That's
why quite a lot of students can't afford to
live in college and many more of them are
forced to do a part-time job, but this reduc-
es the traditionally high quality of British
university education. A n d , in addition, the
number of students from low-income fami-
lies has been greatly reduced.
There are no great distinctions between
different types of universities in Britain.
But still there are some categories of them.
First of all, Oxbridge. Oxford and Cam-
bridge were founded in the medieval peri-
od. These Universities consist of semi-inde-
pendent colleges, each of them having its
own staff ( " F e l l o w s " ) .
The " F e l l o w s " teach the college students
either one-to one or in v e r y small groups.
This system is unique in the w o r l d and
known as tutorials in Oxford and supervi-
sions in Cambridge.

91
Then, Scotish universities. By 1600 Scot-
land had 4 universities Glasgow, Edin-
burgh, Aberdeen and St. Andrews. St. A n -
drews resembles Oxbridge very much. In the
other three most of the students live at home
or find their rooms in town. The process of
study at these universities is v e r y close to
the continental one. There is less special-
ization than at Oxbridge.
During the 19th century various insti-
tutions of higher education (usually tech-
nical ones) w e r e founded in the indus-
trial towns and cities such as Birmingham,
Manchester and Leeds.
Their buildings were of local brick, so they
got the name "redbrick" universities. They
contrasted chiefly with Oxford and Cam-
bridge. At first, they prepared students f o r
London University degrees, but later they
were given the right to award their own de-
grees. They became universities themselves.
N o w they accept students from all over the
country. These universities are financed by
local authority.
One of the developments in education in
Britain is certainly the Open U n i v e r s i t y . It
was founded in 1971. Some people don't have

92
an opportunity to study full-time, and this
university allows them to study f o r degree.
The university's courses are taught through
television, radio and coursebooks. Its stu-
dents work individually and with tutors, to
whom they send their papers. The students
discuss their work at meetings or through
correspondence. In summer t h e y attend
short courses.

EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.


1. Do pupils at 16 prefer to continue their ed-
ucation or to find job?
2. H o w many subjects are studied by pupils in
preparation f o r taking A - l e v e l exams?
3. W h e n do pupils take their A - l e v e l exams?
4. H o w do universities select students?
5. W h y do all students usually complete their
studies?
6. W h y has the high quality of B r i t i s h uni-
v e r s i t y education been reduced recently?
7. W h e n was the Open U n i v e r s i t y founded?
II. Explain the meaning of the following
words and expressions.
1. training schemes

93
2. on campus
3. a part-time job
4. low-income families
5. staff
6. " r e d b r i c k " universities
III. Fill in the gaps.*
1. At the age of . . . pupils can leave school.
2. Only . . . of all pupils leave school and look
f o r a job.
3. Those who stay at school study . . . sub-
jects.
4. A - l e v e l exams are taken at . . . years old.
5. Universities select students on the basis of
exams.
6. By 1986 there were more than . . . univer-
sities in Britain.
7. The course of study at universities lasts
. . . years.
8. The government encourages a system
of . . . loans.
9. O x f o r d and C a m b r i d g e w e r e f o u n d e d in
the . . . period.
10. T h e unique system of education in B r i t a i n
i s known a s . . . a t O x f o r d and . . . at
Cambridge.
1 1 . One of the developments in education in
Britain i s ... .

94
Oxbridge

O x f o r d and Cambridge are the oldest


universities in Great Britain. They are cal-
led Oxbridge to denote an elitarian educa-
tion.
Only rich people send their children to
these universities. The main characteristic
feature of these universities is the tutorial
(that means the individual t u i t i o n ) .
The normal length of the degree course
is three years, after which the students take
the degree of Bachelor of A r t s . Some cours-
es may be a year or two longer.
Oxford and Cambridge universities con-
sist of a number of colleges, each self-gov-
erning and independent. Before 1970 most
of all Oxbridge universities were single-sex
(mostly for men). But now the majority ad-
mit both sexes. The administrative body of
the University consists of the Chancellor
(who is elected f o r l i f e ) , the vice-chancellor
(who is in practice the head of the Universi-
ty, and is appointed annually by the Chan-
cellor) and two proctors, whose job is to
maintain discipline and who are appointed

95
annually. Each college has its staff called
"Fellows".
The University is merely an administra-
tive body, which organizes lectures, arrang-
es examinations, grants degrees. Each col-
lege has its name. Most colleges have their
own dining hall, library and chapel.
The University has laboratories and re-
search institutes and other educational fa-
cilities. A l l the lectures are organized by
the University. In every college there are
students of various specialities but each stu-
dent follows his own course of study.
The largest colleges have more than 4 0 0
students, the smallest have less than 3 0 .
Oxford is one of the oldest universities
in Europe. It didn't come into being all at
once. Oxford had existed as a city f o r at
least 3 0 0 years before scholars began to re-
sort to it.
The end of the 12th century saw the
real beginning of the University. The first
group of scholars at Oxford may have been
joined by others from Paris, from other parts
of B r i t a i n . A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of
O x f o r d i s that many t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e
Middle A g e s are still current there. One of

96
them is that the students have to wear
gowns.
The earliest college buildings seem to have
no definite plan. They expanded as the need
f o r more room arose (the Queen's College).
N e w College had the first regular quad-
rangle.

97
Perhaps the most famous colleges are
Christ Church, University College and A l l
Souls. Nowadays there are 29 colleges f o r
men, 5 f o r women and another 5 have both
men and women members.
Oxford is a place of great beauty, but it is
not just a shrine to the past. It is a l i v i n g
entity and its historic buildings are the
homes of masters and students whose learn-
ing, thinking and ideas have a profound in-
fluence on culture, education, science and
politics. Many eminent world-known schol-
ars and scientists have been educated at
Oxford. A l l the graduates of Oxford never
f o r g e t "spirit of O x f o r d " .
Cambridge University dates back as the
13th century. Today there are more than
30 colleges. The University is situated on
the R i v e r Cam. The colleges line the r i g h t
bank. The oldest university is Peterhouse
(founded in 1284) and the most recent is
Robinson College (1977). But the most fa-
mous is the K i n g ' s College. The building is
the real example of English 15th century
architecture.
Until 1871 the University was only f o r
men. In 1871 the first women's college was

98
opened. In 1970s most colleges admitted
both men and women.
Students at Oxbridge have different so-
cieties and clubs. Different sports are v e r y
popular. But the most popular sports are
rowing and punting.
Every year at the end of March (or in

99
4*
early A p r i l ) a contest between O x f o r d and
C a m b r i d g e universities take place on the
R i v e r T h a m e s . T h e c o u r s e i s t h e 4 1/4 m i l e
stretch of r i v e r . T h e race usually starts at
m i d d a y or at 3 o'clock. By 1966 C a m b r i d g e
had w o n 61 times, O x f o r d 50 t i m e s .

EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.


1. W h a t does Oxbridge mean?
2. W h i c h of them is older?
3. W h a t makes these universities quite dif-
ferent f r o m any other?
4. H o w long is the course of study?
5. W h a t is the function of the U n i v e r s i t y ?
II. Fill in the gaps.*
1. Only . . . people send their children to Ox-
bridge.
2. Each college is . . . and . . . .
3. T h e U n i v e r s i t y is an administrative body,
which . . . .
4. Chancellor is elected f o r ... .
5. P r o c t o r ' s job is to ... .
6. T h e largest colleges have . . . students.
7. Oxford as a city had existed for at
least . . . years.

100
8. T h e first regular quadrangle had . . . Col-
lege.
9 . T h e most popular sports are . . . .
10. A l l the students have t o wear . . . .
III. Fill in the table.
Part 4

THE BRITISH PEOPLE

The English Language

ntil f e w centuries ago there w e r e


m a n y natives o f w h a t w e call t h e B r i t i s h
I s l e s , w h o d i d n ' t speak E n g l i s h . T h e w e s t -
ern land of W a l e s spoke W e l s h ; in the far-
thest n o r t h and the islands of Scotland the
language was Gaelic; and a similar language,
Irish Gaelic, was spoken in Ireland; M a n x
was the language of the Isles of M a n x and
Cornish that of the south-western tip of
Britain.
In Scotland the Gaelic L a n g u a g e Society
has e x i s t e d f o r e i g h t y y e a r s . I t ' s d e d i c a t e d
to preserving the traditions of the Gaelic
songs, v e r s e and prose. A n d nowadays m o r e
and m o r e people in the L o w l a n d areas of
Scotland, as well as the islands, w h e r e Gaelic

102
is still spoken, now want to learn the lan-
g u a g e . Since 1970s many people g o t o
evening classes and learn Gaelic. Gaelic can
be chosen f o r the final exam. In W a l e s the
W e l s h Language Society was founded in
1962 and since that time it has been t r y i n g
to restore W e l s h to an equal place with En-
glish. In 1967 W e l s h was recognized as an
equal language for use in law courts. In
W a l e s some of the programmes of the I V t h
channel are broadcast in W e l s h .
English is spoken as a native language by
more than 300 million people, most of them
living in N o r t h America, the British Isles,
Australia, N e w Zealand, the Caribbean and
South A f r i c a . In several of these countries
English isn't the sole language (e. g. in Can-
ada French is also spoken; many Irish
and W e l s h speak the Celtic language). But
English is the second language for govern-
mental, commercial, social or educational
activities in the countries where native lan-
guage isn't English.
In about 25 countries English has been
used as an official language (either it is the
sole official language there, or it shares that
status with other languages).

103
Most of these countries are former Brit-
ish territories. Even more widely English is
studied and used as a foreign language. It
has already acquired international status.
It is used for communication, listening, read-
ing, broadcast, in commerce and travel.
H a l f of the world's scientific literature
is in English. It is the language of automa-
tion and computer technology. It is not only
the universal language of international avia-
tion, shipping and sport, it is also the univer-
sal language of literacy and public communi-
cation. It is the major language of diplomacy
and it is the most frequently used language
in the general conduct of UN business.
Only in the course of the last hundred
years English has become a world language.
In Shakespeare's time it was " p r o v i n c i a l "
language of secondary importance. Only
6 million people spoke English.
From the British Isles English spread all
over the world, but English hasn't always
been the language of the people of those is-
lands. W h e n the Romans colonized England
(the 1st century of our e r a ) , the country
was inhabited by the Celtic tribes. U n t i l the
5th century only the Celtic languages were

104
spoken by the people of Britain. A b o u t the
m i d d l e of the 5th century the B r i t i s h Isles
began to be invaded by the A n g l e s , Saxons
and J u t e s , w h o spoke dialects o f t h e l a n g u a g e
which was the ancestor of the present-day
E n g l i s h . N o w w e call i t O l d E n g l i s h . D u r -
i n g f i f t e e n hundred years that have passed
s i n c e t h e A n g l o - S a x o n i n v a s i o n E n g l i s h has
changed considerably. It was influenced by
the language of the Danish ( V i k i n g ) invad-
ers (in the 8 1 0 t h c e n t u r y ) .
Between the 12th and 14th century En-
glish was influenced (both in g r a m m a r and
vocabulary, and in its pronunciation) by
N o r m a n French. In the 1 4 t h 1 6 t h century
q u i t e a number of L a t i n and Greek w o r d s
were introduced into English.
English belongs to the Germanic branch
of the Indo-European family of languages.

EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.


1. W h a t languages are spoken on the B r i t i s h
Isles?
2. W h a t language is widely spread in Scotland?
3. Since what time has English become a world
language?

105
4. W h a t branch of languages does English be-
l o n g to?
5. In what countries is English considered to
be the official language?
6. W h e r e is it spoken as the second language?
7. W h a t languages have influenced English
since the 8th century?
I I . Complete the sentences.*
1. English is* spoken in . . . .
2. English has become the language of . . . .
3. T h e W e l s h Language Society was f o r m e d
to . . . .
4. English is spoken as a native language by
more than . . . .
5. E n g l i s h is used as an o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e
in . . . .
6. M o s t of the countries where English is spo-
ken are . . . .
7. In Shakespeare's time English was a lan-
guage o f . . . .
8. U n t i l the 5th century only . . . languages
w e r e spoken by the people of B r i t a i n .

Holidays and Festivals

There are eight holidays a year in Great


Britain. On these days people don't go to

106
work. They are: Christmas Day, Boxing Day,
N e w Y e a r ' s Day, Good Friday, Easter, M a y
Day, Spring Bank Holiday, Late Summer
Bank Holiday.
Most of these holidays are of religious
origin. But nowadays they have lost their
religious significance and are simply days on
which people relax, visit their friends. A l l the
public holidays (except New Year's Day, Christ-
mas and Boxing Day) are movable. T h e y
don't fall on the same date each year.
Besides public holidays, there are other
festivals, anniversaries, on which certain
traditions are observed. But if they don't
fall on Sunday, they're ordinary working
days.

New Year

In England N e w Y e a r is not as widely


observed as Christmas. Some people just ig-
nore it, but others celebrate it in one way or
another.
The most common type of celebration is a
N e w Y e a r party (either a family party or
one arranged by a group of young people).

107
This usually begins at about 8 o'clock p . m .
and goes until the early hours of the morn-
ing. There is usually a buffet supper of cold
meat, pies, sandwiches, cakes, a big bowl of
punch.
At midnight people listen to the chiming
of B i g Ben and sing " A u l d L a n g S y n e "
(a song by Robert Burns "The days of long
ago").
A n o t h e r popular way of celebrating N e w
Y e a r is to go to a N e w Y e a r ' s dance. Most
hotels and dance halls hold a special dance
on N e w Y e a r ' s Eve.
The most famous celebration is round
the statue of Eros in P i c c a d i l l y Circus.
People sing, dance and welcome the N e w
Y e a r . Someone usually falls into the foun-
tain. January 1st is a public holiday. Peo-
ple don't work. They send cards and g i v e
presents.
C H R I S T M A S D A Y is observed on the
25th of December. In Britain this day was a
festival long before the conversion to Chris-
tianity. Though religion in Britain has been
loosing ground Christmas is still the most
widely celebrated festival. It is the most
colourful and merry holiday.

108
On Christmas E v e e v e r y t h i n g is rush.
Offices close at one o'clock but the shops
stay open late. Most cities are decorated with
coloured lights and enormous Christmas trees.
In the homes people decorate Christmas trees
and hang a bunch of mistletoe under which
the boys kiss the girls. They also arrange
Christmas cards on shelves, tables, mantel-
pieces. The housewife is busy cooking a tur-
key and baking Christmas cakes.
Over the end of the bed people hang stock-
ings. Children believe that Father Christmas
will come down the chimney and fill the stock-
ings with presents. A carrot for the reindeer
is usually left on the mantelpiece.
On Christmas Day many people go to
church. On returning from church the fam-
ily gather round the Tree and open the par-
cels. Everyone gets something.
Christmas meal is really traditional
stuffed turkey, boiled ham, mashed potatoes
to be followed by plum pudding, mince pies,
tea or coffee and cakes.
People travel from all parts of the coun-
try to be at home for Christmas.
A n o t h e r popular festival is Guy Fawkes
Night (November, 5 ) . It commemorates the

109
discovery of the so-called Gunpowder P l o t
and is w i d e l y celebrated throughout the
country.
Conspiracy was g o i n g to d e s t r o y the
E n g l i s h Houses of Parliament and K i n g
James I, when the latter opened Parliament
on November, 5,1605.
In May 1604 the conspirators rented a
house adjoining the House of Lords f r o m
which they dug a tunnel to a vault below
the house. There they stored 36 barrels of
gunpowder. It was planned that when K i n g
and Parliament were destroyed the Roman
Catholics should attempt and seize power.
But on October, 26, one of the conspirators
wrote to Lord Monteagle and warned him
to stay away from the House of Lords. On
November, 4, a search was made and the gun-
powder was found together with Guy Fawkes,
an English Roman Catholic. Fawkes had been
commissioned to set o f f the e x p l o s i o n .
Fawkes was hanged.
According to another theory the plot nev-
er existed at all. The Government just want-
ed to blacken the Catholics and tighten the
laws against them. The truth is so deeply
buried that we are not likely to discover it.

110
On November, 5, children are allowed to
let off fireworks to make a bonfire and burn
on it the f i g u r e of a " g u y " made of old
clothes, straw and a hat.

St. Valentine's Day

St. Valentine's Day is celebrated on Feb-


ruary, 14. Every St. Valentine's Day thou-
sands of people travel to a small village on
Scotland's border with England to get mar-
ried. The village is called Gretna Green. Its
romantic reputation began in 1754. In that
times in England marriage for the people
under the age of 21 without parents' per-
mission was banned. However, in Scotland
this permission was not required. Gretna
Green was the first stop across the border.
Many young couples came to Gretna Green
to get married there.
Nowadays, in this place, at least one cou-
ple gets married every day of the year.
W e d d i n g s for St. Valentine's Day have to
be booked 3 months in advance. On this
day boys and girls, sweethearts, husbands
and wives, friends and neighbours exchan-

111
ge greetings of affection and love. People
send each other greeting cards, chocolates
and flowers. Valentine's cards are v e r y co-
lourful, with a couple of human hearts on
them.
In the last century, sweethearts would
spend hours fashioning a home-made card
or a present.
There is a version of the first Valentine.
It was a bishop, a Christian martyr who
before he was put to death by the Romans
sent a note of friendship to his jailer's blind
daughter.

Easter

Easter is a time when certain traditions


are observed. It is celebrated either as the
start of spring or a religious festival. In
England presents traditionally take the form
of an Easter egg. Easter eggs are usually
made of chocolate. Nowadays, Easter eggs
are often artificial. But they haven't been
used before the middle of the last century
and they haven't displaced the true Easter
eggs.

112
E a s t e r e g g s a l w a y s g r a c e b r e a k f a s t tables
on Easter Day. Sometimes they are hidden
about t h e house f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t o f i n d t h e m .
There are some Easter games like egg-
r o l l i n g and egg-shackling. E v e r y y e a r L o n -
don greets the spring with Easter Parade
in Battersea P a r k on Easter Sunday. The
p a r a d e b e g i n s at 3 p. m.

EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.


1. W h a t holidays are celebrated on the same
date each year?
2. H o w do people celebrate N e w Y e a r ?
3. H o w are the homes decorated on Christmas
Eve?
4. W h e r e do usually people put their presents
on Christmas Eve?
5. W h a t is the usual Christmas meal?
6. W h a t holiday is celebrated on November, 5?
7. W h e n is St. Valentine's Day celebrated?
8. W h a t is Gretna Green famous for?
9. H o w does London greet spring?
10. W h a t graces breakfast tables on Easter Day?
II. Give synonyms to the following words.*
1. importance
2. to pay no attention

113
3. v e r y big
4. all o v e r the country
5. a house next to
6. to let smb. know about smth. in advance
III. True or false?*
1. T h e most widely observed holiday is N e w
Y e a r ' s Day.
2. M o s t hotels hold a special dance on N e w
Year's Eve.
3. Christmas Day became a festival after the
conversion to Christianity.
4. On N e w Y e a r E v e people hang a bunch of
mistletoe.
5. Father Christmas puts all his presents un-
der the Christmas T r e e .
6. English people celebrate Christmas at home.
7. On N o v e m b e r , 5 the Catholics planned to
seize power.
IV. Fill in the gaps*
1. M o s t of the holidays in Great B r i t a i n are
of . . . o r i g i n .
2. A l l the public holidays are . . . .
3. T h e r e are a lot of festivals on which . . .
are observed.
4. A N e w Y e a r party usually begins at . . .
and goes on until . . . .
5. A t midnight people listen t o the . . . o f
B i g Ben.
6. T h e most famous celebration of N e w Y e a r
i s round the . . . .

114
7. Christmas Day is observed on . . . .
8. Christmas meal is usually traditional . . . .
9. T h e Government wanted an excuse to . . .
the Catholics.

The Weekend
Most people in Britain work f i v e days a
week from Monday to Friday. Schools, col-
leges and universities are closed on Satur-
day and Sunday.
Weekend starts on Friday evening when
people leave work and wish each other a nice
weekend.
Those who work away f r o m home may go
home. Some people go away for the week-
end. They stay in a hotel or boarding house
in the country or at the sea.
People who stay at home at the weekend
try to relax, enjoy themselves. On Friday night
people like to go to a bar for the happy hour,
or the theatre. Nowadays it is not " i n " to go
to all-night parties, they get up early on
Saturday morning. Saturday morning is the
time for cleaning the house, washing the
car, doing the laundry. W o m e n usually do
housework, sewing and gardening.

115
Saturday morning is a busy time for shop-
ping. On weekdays shops close between 5.30
and 6 p. m. (They're closed on Sundays.)
The shops in the centre of big cities usually
close at one in the afternoon.
At about one o'clock people go out f o r
lunch. A f t e r lunch they go f o r a walk or do
some sports. On Saturday afternoon sport-
ing events take place football, horse-rac-
ing, rugby, cricket and other sports. People
either go and watch or sit and watch the
sports programmes on television.
Saturday evening is the favourite time
for going out: parties, dances or theatre,
maybe pictures. Some people like to go to
watch a band.
Church bells are a typical feature of an
English Sunday morning. On Sunday morn-
ing most people stay in bed till 9 o'clock.
Then they have a cup of tea or coffee. They
look through the newspapers. Reading Sun-
day papers is one of numerous traditions in
Britain. There are quite a number of papers
which are published weekly on Sundays.
A f t e r breakfast most people go for a walk
or to the local pub.Usually men go to the
pubs alone and their wives and children pre-
pare f o r brunch.
116
A t o n e o r 1.30 p e o p l e h a v e b r u n c h . I t i s a
g o o d t i m e f o r all the f a m i l y , w h e n g r a n d -
parents, parents and children go out to some
restaurant and spend an hour or t w o o v e r
brunch. Brunch is a huge meal. T h e y have
all sorts of salads, vegetables, chicken, cold
meat, pies, fruit, coffee, pudding.
Sunday evenings are rather quiet. Most
people prefer to stay at home and watch
television or just get ready f o r Monday. So
t h e y usually have an early night.

EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.


1. H o w long is a week in Britain?
2. W h e n does the weekend start in Britain?
3. W h e n do the shops close on Saturday in Brit-
ain?
4. W h a t do people usually do on Saturday af-
ternoon?
5. W h a t is the favourite time f o r g o i n g out?
6. W h a t does brunch mean?
7. W h a t do people usually have f o r brunch?
II. Match the two halves.*
1. People work . . .
2. W e e k e n d starts on . . .
3. Some people go away f o r .. .

117
4. Those who stay at home t r y to . . .
5. People d o n ' t go to all-night parties . . .
6. Saturday morning is the time f o r .. .
7. Saturday evenings is the time f o r . . .
8. On Sundays people g e t up .. .
9. Church bells are a typical feature of . . .
10. Brunch is .. .
11. On Sundays people have . . .

a) the weekend.
b) because they get up early on Saturday.
c) cleaning the house and doing shopping.
d) at 9 o'clock.
e) an English Sunday morning.
f) days a week.
g) a huge meal.
h) g o i n g out.
i) Friday evening.
j) relax and enjoy themselves.
k) an early night.
III. True or false?*
1. People work 6 days a week.
2. W e e k e n d starts on Saturday.
3. W o m e n do housework on Sunday.
4. On weekdays shops close at 2 o'clock.
5. Saturday morning is a busy t i m e f o r shop-
ping.
6. On Sunday afternoon sporting events take
place.

118
7. Saturday evening is the f a v o u r i t e time f o r
g o i n g out.
8. On Sunday morning people stay in bed till
9 o'clock.
9. People have brunch at 5 p. m.
10. Brunch is a snack between meals.
1 1 . People have tea or coffee f o r brunch.
12. On Sunday evenings people watch televi-
sion.
IV. Arrange the sentences in the proper or-
der.*
1. On Sunday people get up at 9 o'clock.
2. At 1 p. m. people go out f o r lunch.
3. M o s t men go to the pubs alone.
4. W e e k e n d starts on Friday n i g h t .
5. On Friday people like to go to a bar f o r the
happy hour.
6. A f t e r lunch they do some sports.
7. On Saturday afternoon people either go and
w a t c h or sit and w a t c h the sports p r o -
grammes.
8. On Saturday people usually do housework.
9. On weekdays shops close at 5.30 or 6 p. m.
10. A f t e r breakfast most people go to the local
pub.
1 1 . Sunday evenings are usually quiet.
12. On Sunday people have brunch in a restau-
rant.
13. T h e y have an early night.

119
14. A l l the f a m i l y spend an hour or t w o o v e r
brunch.
15. People g e t ready f o r Monday.
16. O v e r a cup of tea or coffee people read Sun-
day papers.

Holidays in Britain

T h e r e are f e w e r public holidays in B r i t -


a i n t h a n i n any o t h e r c o u n t r y i n E u r o p e . E v e n
N e w Y e a r ' s D a y w a s n ' t a public h o l i d a y i n
E n g l a n d and W a l e s u n t i l q u i t e r e c e n t l y . M o s t
o f f i c i a l h o l i d a y s occur just b e f o r e o r j u s t af-
ter a weekend. T h e r e are practically no ex-
t r a local holidays in particular places.
T h e w o r d holiday m e a n s holy day. B u t
n o t all p u b l i c h o l i d a y s a r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h
r e l i g i o u s celebrations. T h e a v e r a g e e m p l o y e e
gets f o u r w e e k s ' paid holiday a year. A b o u t
4 0 % of the population do not go away f o r
their holidays.
I n t h e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y t h e B r i t i s h u p p e r class
s t a r t e d t h e f a s h i o n f o r seaside h o l i d a y s . I n
t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y the w o r k i n g class g o t such
a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o o . A n d soon i t b e c a m e pop-
ular to spend a w e e k or t w o at t h e seaside
resort towns. These towns h a v e m a n y hotels.

120
Food in British hotels and restaurants is
reasonably cheap, but rooms are not. Few
English people rent houses or flats for their
holidays, but one of the traditional ways of
spending a holiday is in a boarding house.
These houses offer "bed and breakfast" or
" f u l l board" (that means that all meals are
provided).
If the weather is fine people go to the
beach, where children make sandcastles, eat
ice-creams or go swimming. Quite a lot of
people like just to relax and sunbathe.
In the evening and when it's raining, peo-
ple go to discos, theatres, dance halls, which
are usually situated on the pier.
In the 1950s and 1960s camping holi-
days were v e r y popular. People stayed in
chalets and had food and all kinds of en-
tertainment in the holiday camps. Camp-
ing holidays are not so popular in England
nowadays, but they are v e r y popular in
France.
Caravan holidays have become more pop-
ular nowadays. A caravan pulled by the fam-
ily car can provide good opportunity f o r
holiday. Many people like the friendly at-
mosphere in an organized caravan site.

121
F o r e i g n t o u r i s m has b e c o m e e x t r e m e l y
popular these days. M i l l i o n s of people spend
their holidays away from home. Most
f o r e i g n holidays are package holidays. Y o u
book transport and accomodation and
pay for everything in advance ( t h r o u g h a
travel agent).
Spain is a v e r y popular package-holiday
place today.
Traditionally people start planning their
summer holidays on Boxing Day.
S o m e h o l i d a y s i n B r i t a i n last o n l y t h r e e
o r less d a y s . F o r e x a m p l e , f o r B a n k h o l i d a y
weekend most people go to the most popu-
lar seaside resorts. R i c h people go to t h e i r
cottages in the countryside where they pre-
fer to spend the weekend.

EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.


1. H o w long is an annual holiday f o r the av-
erage employee in Britain?
2. W h a t does the word holiday mean?
3. W h a t was a popular type of holiday in the
18th century?
4. W h a t are people offered at boarding houses?

122
5. W h a t ' s the difference between the camp-
i n g holiday and a caravan holiday?
6. H o w do people spend their Bank holiday
weekend?
II. Explain the meaning of the following
words and expressions.
1. a boarding house
2. a caravan
3. to book in advance
4. package holiday
5. to book accomodation
III. Fill in the gaps.*
1. N e w Y e a r ' s Day wasn't a . . . quite recently.
2. N o t all public h o l i d a y s are connected
with . . . .
3 . . . . o f the population d o not g o away f o r
their holidays.
4. Food in hotels and restaurants is . . . .
5. F e w people . . . flats or houses f o r their
holidays.
6. A caravan is . . . by the f a m i l y car,
7. M a n y people like . . . in a caravan site.
8. If the weather is fine people go to the . . . .
9. In a camp people stay in . . . .
10. . . . tourism has become v e r y popular.
1 1 . Y o u book . . . and . . . in advance.
12. P e o p l e start planning t h e i r h o l i d a y s on
. . . Day.

123
An Englishman's Home
is His Castle"

Everyone in Britain dreams of l i v i n g in


a detached house, which means a separate
building. It is usually built of brick and
slate. A detached house is of "non-classi-
cal" shape with a lot of little corners, which
make the house v e r y cosy. In front of the
house there's always a beautiful garden with
smooth lawn. The garage is hidden away so
it doesn't spoil the rural feeling.
Every Englishman wants privacy. A n d a
large, detached house not only ensures pri-
vacy, but i t ' s also a status symbol. Such a
house is a dream for most people. But even
a small house with a garden is v e r y dear to
the hearts of many people in Britain.
Most people don't like blocks of flats, be-
cause they provide the least amount of pri-
vacy. Flats are usually much cheaper. (In
fact, they're the cheapest kind of home.) Peo-
ple who live in them cannot afford to have a
house of their own. Their dislike of l i v i n g
in flats is v e r y strong. In 1950s, f o r exam-
ple, millions of poor people lived in old, cold,

124
uncomfortable houses of the 19th century,
w i t h no bathroom. But when they were g i v -
en new blocks of flats to live in, with cen-
tral heating and bathrooms, more comfort-
able and cosy they hated their new homes.
They felt lonely without their gardens and
neighbours.
In Britain these "tower blocks" (or "high-
rise blocks") were a complete failure, because
they didn't suit British attitudes; while in

125
other countries people are v e r y happy in
modern flats. Nowadays only 4 0 % of the
population live in high-rises.
Law and custom in Britain support a clear
separation between what is public and what
is private. To emphasize this division, peo-
ple prefer to live in a house, set back f r o m
the road. This way they can have a garden
in front of the house, which separates them
from the world. This area may not be v e r y
big, but it allows people to have a low fence
or a hedge round it. Such a fence announces
that here the private property begins.
Flats don't g i v e people enough privacy.
N o t h a v i n g a separate entrance to the
outside world doesn't suit British tastes.
People like to choose the colour of their
own front door or window frames. Besides,
they can have a small garden of their own
in front of the house, even if the outside
territory is v e r y small. English people usu-
ally have flowerbeds with paths in between,
or just patches of grass to express their in-
dividuality.
British houses are thought to be very cold,
maybe the coldest in Europe. But it is not
so. About 3/4 of houses now have central

126
heating. The most important thing f o r Brit-
ish people is to feel cosy that is to create
a warm atmosphere (even if i t ' s not warm
in the house). In Britain many people have
a great desire to have a "real f i r e " . A fire-
place is a traditional symbol of warmth.
Nowadays, it may be an imitation of open
fire with plastic coal. Most older houses have
t w o living rooms. It allows the front room
to be used for formal visits while the fami-
ly spend their time in the back room, hidden
from public view. If there is one living room
in the house, then there is a hall into which
the front door opens. P r i v a t e houses usual-
ly have the back door f o r family or close
friends.
In spite of peoples' great desire to have a
house of their own they're not so much at-
tached to the house itself. The house can be
easily sold, if necessary and if the price is
attractive. Most houses are sold on the open
market by the "property developers" (they
are private companies).
The desire to have a private house is great,
but house prices are very high. About 70%
of all the houses are occupied by their own-
ers. Usually people borrow 8 0 % of the price

127
and then pay the m o n e y back m o n t h by
m o n t h . N o r m a l l y they pay the m o n e y back
over the period of 2 0 2 5 years.

I. Answer the questions.


1. W h a t does a "detached house" mean?
2. W h y d o n ' t English people like blocks o f
flats?
3. W h y is it so important f o r English peo-
ple to have a garden in front of the ho-
use?
4. H o w can an Englishman express his indi-
viduality?
5. W h a t is a traditional symbol of a cosy home
in Britain?
6. W h y do British people tend to have t w o liv-
i n g rooms?
II. Explain the meaning of the following
words and expressions.
1. a detached house
2. tower blocks
3. property developers
III. Fill in the gaps.*
1. A detached house means . . . f o r an En-
glishman.
2. Flats are usually much . . . than houses.

128
3. Only . . . % of the population l i v e in high-
rises.
4 . Flats d o n ' t g i v e people . . . .
5 . T h e y usually have a . . . i n f r o n t o f the
house.
6. A . . . is a symbol of w a r m t h in a British
home.
7. P r i v a t e homes have the . . . for family and
friends.
8 . Usually people borrow . . . % o f the price.
9. T h e y pay money back during . . . years.
10. A detached house is usually built of . . .
and . . . .

Meals
The usual meals are breakfast, lunch, tea
and dinner. A traditional English breakfast
is a v e r y big one sausages, bacon, eggs,
vegetables. But many people just have cere-
al with milk, juice or yoghurt, a toast with
marmalade, jam or honey. Marmalade is
made from oranges and jam is made f r o m
other fruit. The traditional breakfast drink
is tea which people have with cold milk. Some
people have coffee, often instant coffee, which
is made with just hot water. Many visitors
to Britain find English coffee just horrible.

129
5 1468
Lunch isn't small either. At lunch, which
is about one o'clock, cold mutton, fish with
potatoes, salad and pickles generally grace
the table. Lunch is a quick meal. In cities
there are a lot of sandwich bars, where of-
fice workers can choose the kind of bread
they want brown, white, or a roll and
then all sorts of salad and meat or fish to
go in the sandwich. English mutton is a treat,
and it is prepared in such a way that you
wouldn't know it is mutton. Salad is a little
different from ours. Y o u only get the clean
green leaves and the so-called "salad dress-
i n g " , a mixture of oil, vinegar, salt, pepper
and mayonnaise, that you may take accord-
ing to your taste. English pubs often serve
good, cheap food, both hot and cold. School
children can have a hot meal at school but
many just take a snack from home a sand-
wich, a drink, some fruit, some crisps.
A f t e r lunch most people take c o f f e e ,
though tea is the favourite beverage in En-
gland. That's why there are no "coffee hous-
e s " , but tea rooms and luncheon rooms are
in abundance. There is nothing like an En-
glish party, at home or in the open air. Tea
means two things. It is a drink and a meal.

130
S o m e people have afternoon tea, w i t h sand-
wiches, cakes, and, of course, a cup of tea.
C r e a m t e a s a r e p o p u l a r . Y o u h a v e scones
(a kind of cake) w i t h cream and j a m . T h e
evening meal is the main meal of the day
f o r many people. T h e y usually have it quite
early, between 6.00 and 8.00, and o f t e n the
w h o l e f a m i l y eat together. Dinner begins
w i t h some salad, followed by a clear soup,
f i s h , v e g e t a b l e and dessert. I n s i m p l i e r homes
the schedule is somewhat d i f f e r e n t . In the
m o r n i n g they have breakfast, at midday
dinner, which is considered to be the chief
meal, tea in the afternoon and supper in the
e v e n i n g . T h e supper m i g h t consist of an
o m e l e t t e , bacon, sandwich and a cup of tea,
coffee or cocoa.
On Sundays many families have a tradi-
tional lunch. T h e y have roast meat either
beef, lamb, chicken or pork w i t h potatoes,
v e g e t a b l e s a n d g r a v y . G r a v y i s a sauce m a d e
f r o m the meat juices. W h e n eating out, that
is, on a picnic, the English load their lun-
c h e o n b a s k e t s w i t h all s o r t s o f s a n d w i c h e s
m a d e of t h i n slices of bread and b u t t e r w i t h
m e a t , h a m , r a w tomatoes o r cucumbers. T h e r e
in the basket y o u would likely f i n d , besides

131
cakes and biscuits, some bottles of g i n g e r
beer.
The British like food f r o m other coun-
tries, too, especially Italian, French, Chine-
se and Indian. People often get takeaway
meals you buy the food at the restaurant
and then b r i n g it home to eat. E a t i n g in
Britain is quite international.

EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.


1. W h a t are the usual English meals?
2. Is English breakfast big or small?
3. W h a t do people have f o r breakfast?
4. Do British people have soup f o r lunch?
5. W h a t ' s the difference between English and
Russian salad?
6. W h a t does " t e a " mean?
7. W h e n do the English have dinner?
8. Sunday lunch is something special, i s n ' t it?
9. W h a t do British people load their luncheon
baskets with?
10. W h a t do foreign people think of English
coffee?
II. True or false?*
1. M a n y British people have a big breakfast.
2. People often have cereal or toast for break-
fast.

132
3. Marmalade is made f r o m any f r u i t .
4. People drink tea with hot milk.
5. M a n y f o r e i g n visitors love English c o f f e e .
6. A l l British people have a hot lunch.
7. Pubs are good places to go f o r lunch.
8. British people eat dinner late in the evening.
9. Sunday lunch is a special meal.
10. W h e n you get a takeaway meal, you eat it
at home.
III. There are seventeen words connected with
food; find them and write here.*

133
IV. Fill in the gaps*
1. English breakfast i s a big . . . .
2. People have . . . w i t h milk or juice.
3. People have tea w i t h . . . milk.
4. Pubs . . . good, cheap f o o d .
5. M a n y children take a . . . f r o m home.
6. T h e English . . . their baskets w i t h all
sorts of sandwiches.
7. Dinner in some homes is considered to be
the . . . meal.

134
8. T e a i s the f a v o u r i t e . . . i n England.
9. At lunch cold mutton, fish, pickles general-
ly .. . the table.
10. English mutton i s a . . . .
V. Choose the right answer*
1. G r a v y is . . .
a) kind of dessert.
b) a sauce made from meat juices.
c) a special beverage.
2. "Salad-dressing" is . . .
a) a special dish, consisting of d i f f e r e n t
vegetables.
b) a salad topping.
c) a mixture of oil, vinegar, salt, mayonnaise.
3. A scone is . . .
a) a kind of biscuit.
b) a drink.
c) a sauce.
4. Tea is usually drink w i t h . . .
a) hot milk.
b) lemon.
c) cold milk.

Pubs in Britain

Most countries have a national drink. In


England it is beer, and the " p u b " is a pecu-
liarly English institution.

135
T h e p u b i s t h e place w h e r e people can m e e t
and t a l k i n a f r i e n d l y a t m o s p h e r e . I t i s q u i t e
d i f f e r e n t f r o m bars or cafes in other coun-
tries. In cafes people drink coffee and g e t
out. The atmosphere is rather formal. But
in pubs t h e r e is a general a t m o s p h e r e of
w a r m t h and cosiness.
E v e r y p u b has a s i g n o u t s i d e w i t h i t s
n a m e . ( " T h e P i g and W h i s t l e " , " T h e B u l l " ,
" T h e D u k e o f C a m b r i d g e " , e t c . ) . A l l pubs h a v e
one d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e : t h e r e i s n o w a i t e r ser-
vice there. If you want something you have
t o g o and ask f o r i t a t t h e b a r . P e o p l e u s u a l l y
sit at tables and chat in a small r o o m , called
t h e " b a r " , b u t t h e same t e r m i s used f o r t h e
great counter of wood, where people stand
and have their drinks.
English people are proud of their tradi-
t i o n s , t h a t ' s w h y e v e n m o d e r n pubs l o o k as
if they were several hundred years old. In
earlier times people w e r e served only drinks
in pubs. T o d a y y o u can g e t w i n e , c o f f e e and
some food in them.
The staff of the bar usually know the reg-
u l a r c u s t o m e r s and chat w i t h t h e m . T h e cus-
tomers may play different games (the most
popular is the game of darts) or just watch
TV.

136
Nowadays nearly all pubs are owned by
brewery. The person who runs a pub (he is
called " l a n d l o r d " ) is employed by the brew-
ery. But in earlier times all pubs were pri-
vately owned (they were called " i n n s " ) , and
people could stay there f o r the night.
T h e r e are t w o important peculiarities
about pubs. One is that they have strictly
limited hours of opening. Each local gov-
ernment authority has power to f i x its own
"licensing hours".
The second peculiarity is that most pubs
are divided into at least two separated bars:
the public bar and the saloon bar.
The difference between them is that the
saloon bar is less uncomfortable.
Children are not allowed inside a pub if
the pub has no children's certificate.

EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.


1. W h a t is the difference between a pub and
a typical cafe?
2. A r e pubs p r i v a t e l y owned?
3. W h o is the owner of the pub?
4. A r e children allowed inside a pub?
5. H o w do people usually spend time in a pub?

137
II. Match the two halves.*
1. A pub is different f r o m . . .
2. A pub is the place where people . . .
3. T h e r e ' s no . . .
4. Each pub has its own . . .
5. In earlier times pubs w e r e called . . .

a) meet and talk.


b) waiter service in pubs.
c) name.
d) inns.
e) bars and cafes.
III. Complete the sentences.
1. A pub means . . .
2. T h e pubs used t o serve only . . . .
3. Today you can get . . . , . . . and . . . in a
pub.
4. Y o u must order a drink at . . . .
5. There is a . . . outside t h e pub w i t h
its . . . .
6. N e a r l y all pubs are owned by . . . .

Sport in Britain
Sport plays a v e r y important part in peo-
ple's lives in Britain. A b o u t 29 million peo-
ple o v e r the age of 16 regularly take part in
sport or exercise. W a l k i n g is the most pop-

138
ular recreation. For many people sport is
the main form of entertainment. There are a
lot of sport programmes on T V . Every news-
paper devotes several pages to sport.
The British are one of the best in the world
in different sports. The importance of sport
is recognized by the Government. Every local
authority has a duty to provide and maintain
playing fields and other facilities, which are
v e r y cheap to use (sometimes they are f r e e ) .
Such sporting occasions as the Cup Fi-
nal, the Derby, the Boat Race are regarded
as the event, rather than the sport itself.
They are watched on television by millions
of people. These annual sporting occasions
are available to all TV channels. Sometimes
such events are accompanied by strong tra-
ditions. For example, Wimbledon is not just
a tennis tournament. It means summer fash-
ions, strawberries and cream, garden par-
ties. Wimbledon is a middle-class event, and
British tennis fans would never allow them-
selves to be treated like football fans.
Every tennis player dreams of playing
at Wimbledon, as football player dreams of
W e m b l e y , and every cricketer dreams of
playing at L o r d ' s .

139
T h e g a m e peculiarly associated w i t h En-
gland is cricket. Cricket is English in ori-
g i n a n d has b e e n e x t e n s i v e l y a c c e p t e d i n t h e
Commonwealth. It is much m o r e than just a
s p o r t ; it s y m b o l i z e s a w a y of l i f e a s l o w
and peaceful rural w a y of life. Cricket is
associated w i t h l o n g s u m m e r a f t e r n o o n s , t h e
smell of new-mown grass. It is the national
English game.
R u g b y f o o t b a l l has e x i s t e d i n B r i t a i n since
the beginning of the 19th century, w h e n a
teacher at R u g b y school, w h i l e p l a y i n g f o o t -
ball, decided it would be better to pick up
the ball and run w i t h i t . T h e r e are t w o v e r -
s i o n s o f this f a s t b a l l g a m e : r u g b y u n i o n
and r u g b y league. T h e y are v e r y similar, but
the real difference between t h e m is a mat-
t e r of social history. R u g b y union is the
older of the t w o . In the 19th century it was
played by most of B r i t a i n ' s public schools.
R u g b y league split o f f f r o m r u g b y union at
the end of the century.
It is played by w o r k i n g class, w h i l e r u g -
by union is mainly f o r the m i d d l e class
( t h o u g h i n r e c e n t y e a r s i t has b e c o m e less
exclusively middle class).
Traditionally, the favourite sports of the
B r i t i s h u p p e r class a r e h u n t i n g , s h o o t i n g

140
and fishing. The most widespread form of
hunting is fox-hunting.
Shooting in Britain is allowed only dur-
ing certain specified times of the y e a r .
Shooting means killing birds w i t h guns.
It is confined largely to the higher social
classes.
The only kind of hunting which is associ-
ated with the working class is hare-coursing.
The one kind of hunting, which is popular
among all social classes is fishing.
Horse racing is a v e r y popular sport in
Britain. This sport became known as " t h e
sport of k i n g s " in the 1 7 t h century. Today
some members of the royal family own race
horses and attend certain annual race meet-
ings; some are active participants in the
sports of polo and show-jumping.
A l m o s t every sport is played in Britain.
Hockey, basketball, netball (for women) are
becoming v e r y popular.

EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.


1. H o w can you prove that sport is the main
f o r m of entertainment?
2. Does the Government pay any attention to
sport? ( P r o v e i t . )

141
3. W h a t sporting occasions are regarded as
the event, rather than the sport itself?
4. W h a t game was originated in England?
5. W h a t game symbolizes English way of life?
6. W h a t ' s the difference between rugby union
and rugby league?
7. W h a t are favourite English sports?
8. W h a t sport is known as " t h e sport of
kings"?
II. Complete the sentences.*
1. A b o u t . . . people take part in sport or
exercise.
2 . W a l k i n g i s the most popular . . . .
3. E v e r y local authority has a duty to . . . .
4. W i m b l e d o n isn't just a tennis tournament,
i t means . . . .
5. E v e r y football player dreams of p l a y i n g
at . . . .
6. T h e game associated w i t h England is . . . .
7 . R u g b y f o o t b a l l has e x i s t e d i n B r i t a i n
since . . . .
8. T h e most popular f o r m of hunting is . . . .
9. T h e difference between r u g b y union and
rugby league is . . . .
10. Some members of the royal f a m i l y are ac-
t i v e participants i n the sports o f . . . .
III. Match the two halves.*
1. F o r many people sport is . . .
2. There are a lot of sport programmes . . .
3. E v e r y local authority .. .

142
4. A n n u a l sporting occasions are .. .
5. E v e r y cricketer dreams of playing at . . .
6. Cricket is . . .
7. R u g b y union was played by . . .
8. R u g b y league is played by .. .
9. T h e f a v o u r i t e sports of the British upper
class are .. .
10. T h e one kind of hunting which is popular
among all social classes is . . .
1 1 . Horse-racing became known as " t h e sport
of k i n g s " in . . .

a) on T V .
b) available to all TV channels.
c) the national game.
d) most public schools.
e) hunting, shooting, fishing.
f) Lord's.
g) the main f o r m of entertainment.
h) provides playing fields.
i) w o r k i n g class.
j) the 17th century,
k) fishing.

Traditions and Customs

E v e r y n a t i o n and e v e r y c o u n t r y has i t s
own traditions. In Britain traditions play a

143
more important part in the life of the peo-
ple than in other countries.
T h e English are v e r y proud of their tra-
d i t i o n s and c a r e f u l l y keep t h e m . W h e n y o u
come to E n g l a n d y o u ' r e struck at once by q u i t e
a n u m b e r of c u s t o m s . S o m e c e r e m o n i e s a r e
r a t h e r f o r m a l , such a s t h e C h a n g i n g o f t h e
Guard at Buckingham Palace, Trooping the
Colour, the State opening of Parliament, the
C e r e m o n y o f t h e K e y s . S o m e t i m e s y o u will
see a g r o u p of c a v a l r y m e n r i d i n g on b l a c k
horses t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s o f L o n d o n . T h e y
w e a r red u n i f o r m s , shining helmets, l o n g black
b o o t s and l o n g w h i t e g l o v e s . T h e s e m e n a r e
L i f e G u a r d s . T h e i r special d u t y i s t o g u a r d
the K i n g or the Queen of Great Britain, and
v e r y important guests of the country.
One of the most impressive and popular
d i s p l a y s o f r o y a l p a g e a n t r y i s t h e Chang-
ing of the Guard, w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e at B u c k -
ingham Palace every day including Sunday
a t 1 1 . 3 0 . T h e t r o o p s w h o t a k e p a r t a r e se-
lected f r o m the five regiments of F o o t
Guards. Their numbers depend on w h e t h e r
the Queen is in residence or not. T h e m e n
of the duty guard march f r o m either W e l l -
i n g t o n or Chelsea Barracks to B u c k i n g h a m
Palace w i t h a band.

144
The guard to be relieved forms at the
south end of the forecourt under the com-
mand of the Captain of the Queen's Guard.
The N e w Guard enters the forecourt by the
north gate. As it approaches, the Old Guard
i s called t o a t t e n t i o n . T h e N e w G u a r d i s t h e n
halted to be f o r m e d i n t o files b e f o r e it ad-
vances to position at a slow march. W h i l e
this is t a k i n g place, the band plays. L a t e r
t h e band leads the Old G u a r d back to t h e i r
barracks.

The Ceremony of the Keys

E v e r y n i g h t at 9.53 the Chief W a r d e r of


the yeomen warders (Beefeaters) of the Tow-
er of L o n d o n lights a candle lantern and
t h e n m a k e s his w a y t o w a r d s t h e B l o o d y T o w -
e r . I n t h e A r c h w a y his E s c o r t a w a i t s h i s
arrival. The Chief W a r d e r , carrying the keys,
m o v e s o f f w i t h his Escort t o the W e s t G a t e ,
which he locks, while the Escort "presents
a r m s " . Then the Middle and B y w a r d T o w -
ers are locked.
The party then returns to the Bloody
T o w e r A r c h w a y , and there t h e y are halted

145
by the challenge of the sentry. " H a l t " , he
commands. " W h o goes there?" The Chief
W a r d e r answers, " T h e keys". The sentry
demands, " W h o s e keys?" "Queen Elizabeth's
k e y s " , replies the Chief W a r d e r . " A d v a n c e
Queen Elizabeth's keys, all's w e l l " , com-
mands the sentry.
At 10 p. m. the Chief W a r d e r proceeds
to the Queen's House, where the keys are
g i v e n into the custody of the Resident Gov-
ernor and M a j o r .
T h e Ceremony of the K e y s dates back 700
y e a r s a n d has t a k e n p l a c e e v e r y n i g h t d u r -
ing that period. Only a limited number of
visitors are admitted to the ceremony each
n i g h t . A p p l i c a t i o n t o see i t m u s t b e m a d e a t
least f o r t y - e i g h t hours in advance at t h e
Constable's office in the T o w e r .
A new tradition has been born in Brit-
ain. E v e r y y e a r a l a r g e n u m b e r o f a n c i e n t
m o t o r cars d r i v e f r o m L o n d o n t o B r i g h t o n .
S o m e o f t h e s e cars l o o k v e r y f u n n y . T h i s r u n
f r o m London to Brighton is a colourful dem-
o n s t r a t i o n . P e o p l e are dressed i n t h e c l o t h e s
of those times. It is not a race, and m o s t of
the cars come to B r i g h t o n ( w h i c h is 60 miles
f r o m London) only in the evening.

146
EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.


1. W h a t are the English so proud of?
2. W h a t formal ceremonies do you know?
3. W h a t is the route of the duty guard?
4. H o w often does the Ceremony of the K e y s
take place?
5. A r e tourists admitted to the Ceremony of
the K e y s ?
6. W h a t new tradition has been born in B r i t -
ain?
7. H o w f a r is B r i g h t o n f r o m London?
II. Complete the sentences.*
1. Great Britain has v e r y many . . . .
2. Foreigners coming to England are struck
by . . . .
3. T h e special duty of L i f e Guard is . . . .
4. T h e c h a n g i n g of the G u a r d takes place
at . . ., at . . . o'clock.
5. The men of the duty guard march from . . .
to . . . .
6. T h e C e r e m o n y o f t h e K e y s takes p l a c e
at . . . .
7. T h e Ceremony of the K e y s dates back . . .
years.
III. Give the opposites.*
1. ancient

147
2. to be on duty
3. to open
4. to reply
IV. Find the words and expressions that
mean:*
1. to be greatly surprised
2. to go along the streets
3. to close the door
4. to answer
5. old (cars)
V. Match the two halves.*
1. Every nation has . . .
2. The English are very proud . . .
3. Cavalrymen wear . . .
4. Their duty is to . . .
5. Changing of the Guard takes place .. .
6. The number of the troops depend on . . .
7. The Chief Warder of the yeomen warders
makes his way towards .. .
8. The sentry demands: . . .
9. The Chief Warder replies: . . .
10. Application to see the ceremony must be
made .. .
1 1 . A large number of ancient cars drive . . .
12. Some of them look . . .

a) of their traditions.
b) guard the Queen of Great Britain.

148
c) at Buckingham Palace.
d) the Bloody T o w e r .
e) red uniforms and shining helmets.
f) its customs and traditions.
g) "Whose keys?"
h) at least f o r t y - e i g h t hours in advance.
i) "Queen Elizabeth's k e y s " .
j) whether the Queen is in residence or not.
k) f r o m London to B r i g h t o n .
1) funny.
VI. True or false?*
1. T h e Changing of the Guard takes place ev-
ery Sunday at 11.30.
2. T h e men of the duty guard march f r o m
Buckingham Palace to the T o w e r of Lon-
don.
3. E v e r y night the Chief W a r d e r of the yeo-
men warders makes his way towards the
Bloody T o w e r .
4. At 10 p. m. the keys are g i v e n into the
custody of the Resident Governor and Ma-
jor.
5. T h e C e r e m o n y o f t h e K e y s dates b a c k
700 years.
6. E v e r y year a large number of motor cars
take part in a race London B r i g h t o n .
KEY TO EXERCISES

THE HISTORY OF BRITAIN

Ill. 1. England and Wales; 2. The Angles


and Saxons; 3. 8th century; 4. a baron;
5. the Tudor; the monarch; 6. the Civil War;
7. 18th century; the Industrial Revolution;
8. stable; 9. Ireland; Canada; Australia; In-
dia and large parts of Mrica; 10. the La-
bour party.

LOCATION
Ill. 1. geographical; 2. the North Sea;
the Atlantic Ocean; 3. 242,534 sq. km.
4. Dublin; 5. 1801; 6. 300; 7. Cardiff;
8. the Cheviot Hills; 9. the Vikings; 10. Bel-
fast.
IV. 1. b.; 2. c.

SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT

I11.1.T;2.F;3.T;4.T; 5.T;6.F; 7.T;


8. T; 9. F; 10. F.
150
PARLIAMENT

Ill. 1. the Houses of Parliament; 2. Hous-


es; 3. are followed; 4. 1992; Speaker; 5. 650;
6. the Queen; Royal assent; 7. 1,000; 8. an
inherited aristocratic title; 9. 700 years;
10. elected House of Commons.

THE PRESS
IN GREAT BRITAIN
11. 1. b.; 2. a; 3. b; 4. b.
Ill. 1. report; 2. popular papers; 3. en-
tertain; 4. Sundays; 5. tradition; 6. once,
twice; 7. Fleet Street.
IV. 1. a daily newspaper; 2. a "quality"
paper; 3. "tabloid"; 4. colour supplement;
5. local newspaper
V. 1. c; 2. a; 3. e; 4. b; 5. d.

TELEVISION
IN GREAT BRITAIN

11. 1. entertainment; 2. four; 3. the li-


cence fee; 4. objectivity in news reporting;
5. advertising; 6. 1954; 7. sport.
Ill. 1. F; 2. F; 3. F; 4. T; 5. F; 6. T; 7. F.
151
LONDON AND ITS PLACES OF
INTEREST

11. 1. b; 2. c; 3. c; 4. c; 5. b; 6. b; 7. c.
Ill. 1. f; 2. g; 3. a; 4. h; 5. b; 6. c; 7. i;
8. d; 9. e:
IV. 1. the seat of Government; the crown-
ing place of kings and queens; 2. in the
11th century; 3. crowned; buried; 4. Down-
ing Street, 10.

THE BRITISH MUSEUM

11. 1. h; 2. g; 3. a; 4. b; 5. c; 6. d; 7. e; 8. f.
Ill. 1. the National Museum of Archae-
ology and Ethnography and the National
Library; 2. 300 years ago; 3. a collec-
tor; 4. 1852; 5. Anthony Panizzi; 6. 21;
7. circle; 8. 2 million.
IV. 1.F; 2.T;3.T;4.F; 5.T;6.F.

COVENT GARDEN

11. 1. market-place; 2. enormous build-


ings and a few tourists; 3. customers;
4. the dustmen; 5. King Charles II; 6. the
garden; the monks; 7. serves.
152
THE MUSEUM OF TRANSPORT

11. 1. London; 2.1829; bus-service; 3. three


horses; a carriage; 4. mines and factories;
5. the Liverpool and Manchester Railway;
6. "The Rocket"; 7. Slough to Paddington;
8. 126 miles per hour.
Ill. 1. T; 2. T; 3. F; 4. F; 5. F; 6. T; 7. F;
8. F.
IV. 2;4; 7; 8; 10; 9; 6; 5; 3; 1.

THE ROYAL ACADEMY .

1I.1.T;2.F;3.T;4.T;5.T;6.T; 7.F.

THE CHANNEL TUNNEL

L 1. F; 2. F; 3. T (T); 4. T; 5. T; 6. T (T); 7. F.
11. 1. 1994; Queen Elizabeth II of Britain
and President Mitteran of France; 2. project;
3. 9 billion; 4. private cars; 5. travelling
under the sea; 6. a great reduction of travel
time.
153
THE THAMES

11. 1. 2,000; 2. docks; 3. factories and


offices; 4. the anniversary of the Battle of
Waterloo; 5. America; 6. Tower Bridge;
7. barrier.

EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN

11. 1.T;2.F;3.F;4.F; 5.F;6.T; 7.T.

EDUCATION (continued)

Ill. 1. 16; 2. 1/3; 3. three; 4. 18; 5. A-level


results and interview; 6. 40; 7. 3-4 years;
8. "top-up"; 9. Medieval; 10. "tutorials"; "su-
pervisions"; 11. the Open University.

OXBRIDGE

11. 1. rich; 2. self-governing; indepen-


dent; 3. organizes lectures, arranges exams,
grants degrees; 4. life; 5. maintain disci-
pline; 6. more than 400; 7. 300 years before
scholars began to resort to it; 8. New;
9. rowing and punting; 10. gowns.
154
Ill.
Univer- The Number The The The rnaiIl
sity time of of oldest most charac-
founda- colleges college famous teristic
tion college feature

the New Christ "tutor-


Oxford 12th 39 College Church ials"
century College,
University
College,
All Souls
College

Camb- the Peter- The "super-


ridge 13th 30 house King's vision"
century College

THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE


11. 1. the British Isles, North America,
Australia, New Zealand, the Caribbean and
South Africa; 2. communication, broadcast,
commerce and travel; 3. restore Welsh
to an equal place with English; 4. 300 mil-
lion people; 5. 25 countries; 6. former Brit-
ish territories; 7. secondary importance;
8. Celtic.
155
HOLIDAYS AND FESTIVALS

11. 1. significance; 2. to ignore; 3. enor-


mous; 4. from all parts of the country;
5. adjoining; 6. to warn.
1I1.1.F;2.T;3.F;4.F;5.F;6.T; 7.T.
IV. 1. religious; 2. movable; 3. certain tra-
ditions; 4. about 8 o'clock p.m.; the early hours
of the morning; 5. chiming; 6. statue of Eros
in Piccadilly Circus; to be followed by plum
pudding; 7. the 25th of December; 8. stuf-
fed turkey, boiled ham, mashed potatoes, pud-
ding, mince pies, tea or coffee and cakes;
9. blacken.
THE WEEKEND

11. 1. f; 2. i; 3. a; 4. j; 5. b; 6. c; 7. h;
8. d; 9. e; 10. g; 11. k.
IILI.F;2.F;3.F;4.F;5.T;6.F; 7.T;
8.T;9. F; 10.F; 11. F; 12.T.
IV. 4; 5; 8; 9; 2; 6; 7; 1; 16; 10; 3; 12;
14; 11; 15; 13.

HOLIDAYS IN BRITAIN
Ill. 1. public holiday; 2. religious cele-
bration; 3. about 40% ; 4. reasonably cheap;
156
5. rent; 6 pulled; 7. the friendly atmosphere;
8. beach; 9. chalets; 10. Foreign; 11. trans-
port; accomodation; 12. Boxing.

"AN ENGLISHMAN'S HOME


IS HIS CASTLE"

Ill. 1. a separate building; 2. cheaper;


3. 40%; 4. enough privacy; 5. garden;
6. fireplace; 7. back door; 8. 80%; 9. 20-25;
10. brick; slate.
MEALS

11. 1. T; 2. T; 3. F; 4. F; 5. F; 6. F; 7. T;
8. F; 9. T; 10. T.
Ill. marmalade
crisps
bread
potato
steak
jam
bacon
rice
vegetable
egg
banana
lamb
157
cereal
fish
yoghurt
grape
honey
IV. 1. meal; 2. cereal; 3. cold; 4. serve;
5. snack; 6. load; 7. main; 8. beverage;
9. grace; 10. treat.
V. 1. b; 2. c; 3. a; 4. c.

PUBS IN BRITAIN
11. 1. e; 2. a; 3. b; 4. c; 5. d.
Ill. 1. "public house"; 2. beer; 3. wine,
coffee, some food; 4. the bar; 5. sign, name;
6. brewery.

SPORT IN BRITAIN
11. 1. 29 million; 2. recreation; 3. pro-
vide and maintain playing fields and other
facilities; 4. summer fashions; 5. Wemb-
ley; 6. cricket; 7. the beginning of the 19th
century; 8. fox-hunting; 9. a matter of so-
cial history; 10. polo and show-jumping.
Ill. 1. g; 2. a; 3. h; 4. b; 5. f; 6. c; 7. d;
8. i; 9. e; 10. k; 11. j.
158
TRADITIONS AND CUSTOMS

11. 1. customs and traditions; 2. quite a


number of customs; 3. to guard the King
or the Queen of Great Britain and import-
ant guests of the country; 4. Buckingham
Palace; 11.30 a.m.; 5. either Wellington or
Chelsea Barracks to Buckingham Palace;
6. the Tower of London; 7. 700.
Ill. 1. modern; 2. to be relieved; 3. to
close; 4. to demand.
IV. 1. to be struck; 2. to march; 3. to
lock; 4. to reply; 5. ancient.
V. 1. f; 2. a; 3. e; 4. b; 5. c; 6. j; 7. d;
8. g; 9. i; 10. h; 11. k; 12. l.
VI. 1. F; 2. F; 3. T; 4. T; 5. F; 6. T.



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