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# Review

of
Synchronou
s
Sequential C
ircuits
CoE 23: Lec
ture 1
Sequential Circuits
Logic circuit where the present value of the inputs is
dependent not only on the present inputs but also on the
history (previous state) of the inputs

## CoE 23: Lecture 1 2

Sequential Circuits

## CoE 23: Lecture 1 3

Synchronous Sequential Circuits
Behavior can be dened from the knowledge of its signals at
discrete instants of >me

## All state changes (transi>ons from present state Qn to next state

Qn+1) in memory elements are controlled by a system clock

## CoE 23: Lecture 1 4

Flip-?lop
Most basic memory element in sequen>al circuits

## Maintains (memorizes) a state un>l directed by an input

signal to switch state

## Types: SR (set-reset), JK, D (data or delay), T (toggle)

CoE 23: Lecture 1 5
D Flip?lops

T Flip?lops

SR Flip?lops

JK Flip?lops

## CoE 23: Lecture 1 9

Selecting Memory
Sample applica>ons:
D ip-ops for data transfers
T ip-ops for complementa>on
JK ip-ops for general purpose applica>ons

## Usually dened in the problem; otherwise, use the one

that makes a simpler machine

## CoE 23: Lecture 1 10

State Transition Diagrams
Usual conven>on: state-> bubbles, transi>ons->arrows
Input and output values are indicated beside the
transi>on it is associated with

## CoE 23: Lecture 1 11

Mealy or Moore Machines
Mealy machines
Output depends on the state and the input
Output values are indicated beside the transi>on (arrow)
There is a combina>onal path between the output and the input

Moore machines
Output depends on the state alone
Output values can be indicated in the state (bubble)
No direct combina>onal path between the output and the input

## CoE 23: Lecture 1 12

Mealy or Moore Machine
1
0 0 0
0

0 1 1

1/0
0/0 A B 1/1
0/0

## CoE 23: Lecture 1 13

Mealy or Moore Machines

## CoE 23: Lecture 1 14

Design Example
Design a beginning-of-message detector that outputs a 1
(permanently) when three consecu0ve ones are present
in a digital line. Use D ipops.

Design Example

Design Example

## CoE 23: Lecture 1 17

Design Example
Use K-maps to obtain the following equa>ons:
Z = XQ2+ Q2Q1
D2= XQ1+ Z
D1= XQ1+ Q2Q1 (can be XQ1 + Z)

Design Example