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# Project Physics

Contents

## No. Contents Page

1 INTRODUCTION 2
2 METHOD 3
3 DISCUSSION 6
4 CONCLUSION 9
5 REFERENCES 10

Introduction

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Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and
material elements sliding against each other. There are several types of friction:

1. Dry friction resists relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. Dry
friction is subdivided into static friction between non-moving surfaces, and kinetic
friction between moving surfaces.
2. Fluid friction describes the friction between layers within a viscous fluid that are
moving relative to each other.
3. Lubricated friction is a case of fluid friction where a fluid separates two solid
surfaces.
4. Skin friction is a component of drag, the force resisting the motion of a fluid
across the surface of a body.
5. Internal friction is the force resisting motion between the elements making up a
solid material while it undergoes deformation.

When surfaces in contact move relative to each other, the friction between the two
surfaces converts kinetic energy into heat. This property can have dramatic
consequences, as illustrated by the use of friction created by rubbing pieces of wood
together to start a fire. Kinetic energy is converted to heat whenever motion with friction
occurs, for example when a viscous fluid is stirred. Another important consequence of
many types of friction can be wear, which may lead to performance degradation and/or
damage to components. Friction is a component of the science of tribology.

Friction is not itself a fundamental force but arises from fundamental electromagnetic
forces between the charged particles constituting the two contacting surfaces. The
complexity of these interactions makes the calculation of friction from first principles
impractical and necessitates the use of empirical methods for analysis and the
development of theory.

Objective:

## 3. To relate result of different speed at the same ramp with 45 degree.

Method

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In this project group, the experiment we will cover in this theory is about to know the
relationship between the timing of car moving at different surface and friction and also to
know whether the car will pass or not at different speed at the same surface, angle and
high.

Project 1:

To know the relationship between the timing of car moving at different surface and
friction.

Apparatus:

1. Toy car
2. Meter tape
3. The roughness and smoothness of surfaces. Ex: Glass Window
4. Ruler
5. Stop watch

Procedure:

1. The experiment is setup in Figure 1.1 and 1.2. The length of the surface is 18.
2. Firstly use surface of smoothness.
3. The car must pull in 6 in Figure 1.3 to get the speed of the car. Hold the tyre of
car and put at the starting of the surface smoothness in Figure 1.4.
4. The car was released and time taken.
5. Next, use the roughness surface.
6. Step same like no 3 and 4.

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## Figure 1.3 Figure 1.4

Project 2:

To know whether the car will pass or not at different speed at the same surface, angle
and high.

Apparatus:

1. Toy car
2. Same surface. Ex: Glass Window
3. Protractor

Procedure:

1. The experiment is setup in Figure 2.1 and 2.2. The car must pull 1 time to get the
speed of the car. Hold the tyre of car and put at the starting of the surface.
2. The car put at starting surface in Figure 2.3. After that release the car.
3. After that using different speed, the car setup same in no 1 and 2 but the car
must pull 2 times to get different speed.
4. Observation is taken.

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Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2

Figure 2.3

Discussion

Project 1

Every surface in the world must have friction. In this theory we use a toy car to know the
time taken at different surface. The theory proves that friction is a force that slows
moving objects. First, using the smoothness surface the time was taken. After that using
the roughness surface the time was taken. After observation, its seen clearly that using
smoothness is faster to moving a car than using a roughness because its friction.
Therefore, smoothness and roughness surface have different friction.

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Figure 3.1 is one of the kinetic frictions. The force of friction is only weakly dependent on
the speed and is roughly proportional to the normal force. In simplified model we will
use, the force of kinetic friction is assumed to be proportional to the normal force and
independent of speed:

Fk = UkN

## Figure 3.1 a moving car on road

Friction is a key concept when we are attempting to understand car accidents. The force
of friction is a force that resists motion when two objects are in contact. If we look at the
surfaces of all objects, there are tiny bumps and ridges. Those microscopic peaks and
valleys catch on one another when two objects are moving past each other.

The level of friction that different materials exhibit is measured by the coefficient of
friction. The formula is = f / N, where is the coefficient of friction, f is the amount of
force that resists motion, and N is the normal force. Normal force is the force at which
one surface is being pushed into another. If a rock that weighs 50 Newtons is lying on
the ground, then the normal force is that 50 Newtons of force. The higher is, the more
force resists motion if two objects are sliding past each other.

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There are two forms of friction, kinetic and static. If we try to slide two objects past each
other, a small amount of force will result in no motion. The force of friction is greater than
the applied force. This is static friction. If we apply a little more force, the object "breaks
free" and slides, although we still need to apply force to keep the object sliding. This is
kinetic friction. We do not need to apply quite as much force to keep the object sliding as
you needed to originally break free of static friction.

## Surfaces (static) (kinetic)

Steel on steel 0.74 0.57
Glass on glass 0.94 0.40
Metal on Metal
0.15 0.06
(lubricated)
Ice on ice 0.10 0.03
Teflon on Teflon 0.04 0.04
Tire on concrete 1.00 0.80
Tire on wet road 0.60 0.40

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## These values are approximate.

Project 2

In this theory, we only use the ramp at same angle and high but when release the car at
different speed. We try use concept of friction but more to the use of velocity of the car.
The kinetic friction still same because we use at same surface. First we try to use slow
speed to see whether the car can pass the ramp or not. The observation was taken. We
see that the car cannot surpass the ramp. Therefore the car only reach at the top of the
ramp. After that, we try to use faster speed to see whether the car can pass the ramp or
not. The observation was taken. We see that the car can pass the ramp.

This concept we try relate with the stunt of motor cross. We see that how motor cross
can make a jump with any high of ramp? For sure he use more speed more velocity to
surpass the high ramp. With an angle given, he knows which velocity he needed. The
rider also must take the kinetic friction on the ramp to get maximum velocity to pass the
ramp.

Conclusion

Friction is a force that holds back the movement of a sliding object. The coefficient of
friction is a dimensionless scalar value which describes the ratio of the force of friction
between two bodies and the force pressing them together. With friction we can move.
Walking also has friction. Without friction all object in the world cannot move or sliding.
We also know that friction is forces that slow moving objects. So the car must know
which speed must use to move a car.

Friction plays a vital role in our daily life. Without friction we are handicap.

## 1. It is becomes difficult to walk on a slippery road due to low friction. When

we move on ice, it becomes difficult to walk due to low friction of ice.
2. We cannot fix nail in the wood or wall if there is no friction. It is friction

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which holds the nail.
3. A horse cannot pull a cart unless friction furnishes him a secure Foothold.

Roughness and smoothness has different friction. Smoothness has small friction than
roughness. For example on ice, ice has small friction than on the pavement road. So the
car must drive slowly on ice to balanced the car and make sure car not too speed.

Also at ramp with 45 degree, the car must move with double speed than speed at the