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ara operon: Dual positive and

negative control

trp operon:

lac operon:

Zinc fingers
- one reason that proteins are so large is that they
must self-assemble inside cells
- our cell, on the other hand, often use a zinc atom
to take a short cut: by arranging 2 cys and 3 hys
close to each other in a chain, a protein can grab
a zinc ion and fold tightly around it
a short chain of 20-30 AA is enough to
create a solid, stable structure

- originally discovered in TFIII-A from frog eggs - the signal (after the transcription factors bind to
which contains 9 zinc fingers in a row; help the different sites in the enhancer DNA
stabilize the many copies of RNA as the cell sequence) is sensed using CREB-binding protein
develops or p300
- the string of zinc fingers curls along the DNA or a large domain in the centre acts as a
RNA strands, binding in the grooves and histone acetyltransferase, modifying histones in
extending AA inwards to read the bases nucleosomes and causing them to disassemble
- a single zinc finger does not bind very tightly and and reveal the gene;
can only recognize 2 or 3 bp, but when several
are strung together, the group binds more tightly
and can read longer DNA sequences
- the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein contains 2 zinc
fingers that grip the viral RNA during budding of
the virus

Enhanceosome helps decide CREB-binding protein (blue) with domians from several
the appropriate time to of its binding partners (green). Flexible portions not
seen in the structures are shown as dots
transcribe a gene
- assembly of the enhanceosome leads to removal
- in order to specify which gene will be expressed of the nucleosome, allowing the gene to be
in a given situation, cells use a diverse collection expressed
of DNA-binding proteins to control access to DNA - DNA bind to enhanceomers is nearly straight
human genome encodes about 2,600 - Interactions between the proteins is very limited,
even though the binding of the proteins is known
- when the cell is infected by viruses, several to be cooperative, such that binding of one
different DNA-binding proteins are produced, protein promotes the binding of others
including ATF-s/c-Jun interferon response factor proteins may promote binding by distorting
(IRF) and nuclear factor kB (NF-kB); individually, the DNA slightly into a preferred conformation
each one is not sufficient to activate the gene,
and each one also plays other roles in the - Inside cells, CREB-binding protein or p300 might
activation of other genes (NF-kB is also important
generate a strong cooperative effect through its
in immune responses, inflammation, apoptosis);
binding to the different proteins
when they bind together, they activate the gene
and interferon is made