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2011

SEMESTER - 2

## Q1. Write the steps involved in analyzing the efficiency of non-recursive

algorithms.

The steps involved in analyzing the efficiency of non-recursive algorithms are as follows:
Decide the input size based on the constraint n
Identify the

2 Define selection sort and explain how to implement the selection sort? 3+7=10

Definition: Selection sort is one of the simplest and performance oriented sorting techniques
that work well for small files. It has time complexity as O(n2) which is unproductive on large
lists.

## 3 What is mean by Topological sort? And explain with example. 5+5=10

Answer: Topological sort is done using a directed acyclic graph (DAG), which is a linear
ordering of all vertices G= (V, E) is an ordering of all vertices such that if G contains an edge (u,
v), then u appears before v in the ordering. A topological sort of a particular graph can be looked
upon as a horizontal line where all directed edges travel from left to right. Thus, topological sort
differs from the

## 4. Explain good-suffix and bad-character shift in Boyer-Moore algorithm. 5+5=10

This shift helps in shifting a matched part of the pattern, and is denoted by Q. Good suffix shift
Q is applied after 0 < k < m characters are matched.

Q = distance

Item 1 2 3 4

Weight 2 6 4 8

## Value (in Rs.) 12 16 30 40

Knapsack capacity is given as W=12. Analyze the Knapsack problem using memory
functions with the help of the values given above. 10

Knapsack Problem by Memory Functions

I 0 1 23 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

## Variable Length Encoding

Variable-length codes can allow sources to be compressed and decompressed with zero error
(lossless data compression) and still be read back symbol by symbol. With the right coding
strategy an

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