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Arranged By:
Tan Ali Al Ayubi
NRP. 4216106028


Pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases) by mechanical action.
Generally the classification of pump can be divided into 2 part, that is positive
displacement pump and non positive displacement pump.
1. Positive displacement pump
A positive displacement pump makes a fluid move by trapping a fixed amount
and forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe
2. Non positive displacement pump
A non positive displacement pump is a pump with a volume of space that is not
change when the pump is working.

Centrifugal pump is a pumps that have a major element in the form of the
motor with the impeller blade that rotates at high speed. Principle works of
centrifugal pump is converts kinetic energy (velocity) of fluid into potential energy
through an impeller rotating within casing. The rotational energy typically comes
from an engine or electric motor. Centrifugal pumps are the dynamic work to most
used because it has a simple form and most economic.
1. Main parts of a centrifugal pump
Each centrifugal pump is made of hundreds of parts. There are a few
components that virtually every centrifugal pump has in common. These
components can be subdivided into the wet end and the mechanical end. The
wet end of the pump includes those parts that determine the hydraulic
performance of pump. The two primary wet ends are the impeller and casing.
In some causes the first radial bearing can be water lubricated. In this case also
bearing can belongs to wet ends. The mechanical end includes those parts that
support the impeller within the casing. The mechanical end of the pump
includes the pump shaft, sealing, bearings and shaft sleeve.
Picture 1. Main Part of Centrifugal Pump

2. Classification of centrifugal pump

Centrifugal pump is one which uses the centrifugal force to pump up
the fluid to certain head. The basic classification of centrifugal pump:

a) Type of casing
Volute casing
In order to increase the pressure head, the velocity of fluid is decrease.
It is done by gradually increasing the area of the casing from the
impeller out let
Vortex Casing

If a circular chamber known as vortex is introduce between the impeller

and chamber then the casing is called vortex casing.

b) Working head
Low lift centrifugal pumps
Are capable of working against heads up to 15 m.
Medium lift centrifugal pumps
Are basically used against the heads as high as 40 m.
High lift centrifugal pumps

Are used to deliver liquids at heads above 40 m.

c) Liquid handled
Pure liquid
When pure liquid is to pumped the centrifugal pump with the closed
impeller are used because they have better guidance and high efficiency
Little impure liquid
When liquid have a little impurity then centrifugal pump with semi
open impeller are used

Liquid with solid matter

When sewage, paper pulp, water containing sand or grit is to be
pumped then pump with open impeller is used.

d) Number of impellers per shaft

Single stage centrifugal pump
They are used in place where low head and low discharge rate is
Multi-stage centrifugal pump

They are used in place where high head and high discharge is required

e) Relative direction of flow through impeller

Radial flow pump are one in which regular radial flow impellers are
Axial flow pump are one in which designed to deliver low head but huge
quantity of water.
Mixed flow pump are mostly used for irrigation purpose
3. The workings of centrifugal pump

The centrifugal pump works by using a rotating impeller that creates a

low pressure sector at the inlet of the impeller. This area is referred to as the
eye of the impeller. The low pressure sucks in the fluid around it, which is then
pushed along the impeller to the casing where it collects before being pumped
out through the discharge nozzle, completing the cycle.

The centrifugal pump is a relatively simple device used often in

hydraulics systems because of its ability to push liquid through a piping system
with relative ease. The pump relies on centrifugal force to operate. Centrifugal
force, along with other centrifugal hydraulic principles, can be used to regulate
the pressure and motion of the liquid within the centrifugal pump. There are
four different types of centrifugal pumps. One is mechanically actuated that has
a reciprocating mechanical linkage directly attached to the diaphragm working
in conjunction with a set of gears to operate the motor. A hydraulically actuated
centrifugal pump works in much the same as a mechanically actuated one, but
it uses hydraulic fluid rather than gears. A solenoid centrifugal pump has an
electric motor to alternately energize and de-energize the solenoid. This creates
an electromagnetic force that helps the pump function. The final type is an air-
operated, double-diaphragm centrifugal pump that has two diaphragms and two
sets of valves. The flow in the pump is regulated by the air pressure created and
distributed to the pump.

4. Characteristic of centrifugal pump

Creating a resistance to the flow controls the kinetic energy of a liquid
coming out of an impeller. The first resistance is created by the pump volute
(casing), which catches the liquid and slows it down. When the liquid slows
down in the pump casing, some of the kinetic energy is converted to pressure
energy. It is the resistance to the pumps flow that is read on a pressure gauge
attached to the discharge line. A pump does not create pressure, it only creates
flow. Pressure is a measurement of the resistance to flow.
Picture 2. Characteristic of Centrifugal Pump

Advantages and disadvantages centrifugal pump

1. Advantages centrifugal pump
- Small in size, space saving and less capital coast
- Easy for maintenance
- Able to work medium to low head
- Able to work medium to low viscous fluid
2. Disadvantages centrifugal pump
- Extra priming pump requires
- Cannot be able to work high head
- Cannot deal with high viscous fluid
The dangers of letting centrifugal pump dry:
- Pump gland & bearing damage due to overheating
- Shaft misalignment
- Seal ring damage
- Wear ring damage
- Impeller damage

5. Application centrifugal pump on industries

Centrifugal pumps many applied in industrial activity. Generally,
centrifugal pump used to delivered fluid from one place to other place.
Examples of the used of centrifugal pumps on industries:
1. Petroleum industry.
Most of pumps used in the gathering station facilities, that a fluid collection
unit of production wells before its processed and marketed.
2. Shipbuilding industry
Many pumps used to expedite work on ship. Centrifugal pumps used to
delivered fluid to other place on vessel such as the fresh water system, fuel
oil system etc.
3. Other industries
- Chemical industry
- Food and beverage industry
- Etc.