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RA-06 : Hydrothermal Breccia Texture

HYDROTHERMAL BRECCIA
TEXTURE

RO CKS A NAYSLIS

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Piroklastika jatuhan

Proses
sedimentasi Kubah lava

Leher gunungapi Aliran lava


sill retas
Volkanisme
Kantong magma

Proses
Dapur magma magmatisme

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STRATIGRAFI/ FASIES VOLCANIC

(Bogie & Mackenzie, 1998)

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VOLCANIC BRECCIA
VOLCANIC BRECCIA is pyroclastic (fire-formed
fragments) and forms in explosive eruptions. It is a
mix of large angular fragments and small ash.
Often, the material is hot when it comes to rest and
cools (welds) into a very hard rock.

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BRECCIAS
Breccia is rocks that composed of clast (fragments) > 2 mm size and
angular nor sub-angular shape, cement (hydrotermal mineral or
crystalline igneous rock) and open space
Grain-size of subdivision of clast are :
2-4 mm fine-grained
4-64 mm medium-grained
64-256 mm coarse-grained
> 256 mm very coarse grained
Bryner (1968) recognized problem when he ppointed out that many
clasts in hydrothermal breccia are mostly rounded, so the term of
breccia was misleading in these cases
Breccias in some cases consists of fragments that are neither angular
nor sub-angular (e.g. Pebble breccia)

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GENETIC CLASSIFICATION OF BRECCIAS
There are seven principal types of breccia comprising
13 sub-types occuring in epithermal-porphyry mineral
deposits :
I. Instrusive Breccias
II. Volcanic Breccias
III. Phreatomagmatic Breccias
IV. Magmatic-Phreatic Breccias
V. Phreatic Breccias
VI. Tectonic Breccias
VII. Sedimentary Breccias
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1. INTRUSIVE BRECCIAS
These are subdivided into three members :
1a. Magmatic-Intrusive-Breccias :
Created during the emplacement of an intrusive body
Consist of clasts comprising xenolith of country rocks,
including previous intrusives, and fragment of early-
crystallized portionw of the intrusive disrupted during
emplacement, in matrix of crystalline igneous material
Frequently occur on the margins of intrusive bodies
and contain clast of country rock in a crystalline
igneous matrix

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1. INTRUSIVE BRECCIAS
These are subdivided into three members :
1a. Magmatic-Intrusive-Breccias :
High temperature of emplacement and show reaction
rims around the xenoliths
Mineralization in this type of breccias is direct magmatic
origin and some reaction with host rocks as in skarn
deposit
Important setting for base metal mineralization
In term of exploration: the ore-hosting breccia could be
expected to be closely spatially related to the margins of
an intrusive, and these area should be explored.
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1. INTRUSIVE BRECCIAS
These are subdivided into three members :
1b. Magmatic-Hydrothermal Breccias
1c. Magmatic-Tectonic Breccias

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2. VOLCANIC BRECCIAS
The essentil feature of these breccias is that the
energy causing brecciation (and/or) ejection from the
volcano) is dependent on the release of pressure of
magmatic volatiles. Divided into two sub-types:
a) Endogenous Volcanic Breccias (non-eruptive or
vent breccias)
b) Exogenous (Eruptive) Volcanic Breccias

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3. PHREATOMAGMATIC BRECCIAS
These are equivalent to hydromagmatic breccias
(Sillitoe, 1985). Phreatomagmatism occurs when
upwelling magma encounter water. This may be
groundwater, connate water, or a body of surface
water.Thi breccias divided into :
a. Endogenous (non eruptive) phreatomagmatic
breccias
b. Exogenous (eruptive) Phreatomagmatic
Breccias

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4. MAGMATIC-PHREATIC BRECCIAS
Occurs through the flashing or expansion of a fluid
which is composed of water or steam
May contain a proportion of magmatic volatiles but
predominantly of meteoric, groundwater or connate
origin, and directly heated by the intrusion of magma
Does not contain juvenile magmatic products
Divided into :
A. Edogenous (non-eruptive) Magmatic-Phreatic
Breccias
B. Exogenous (eruptive) Magmatic-Phreatic Breccias

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5. PHREATIC BRECCIAS
A phreatic eruption is caused by expansion of steam and
gas from a water-dominated fluid, with only a minor
component of magmatic volatiles
The mechanism of energy transport to the focus of
eruption has to be at some point by a freely-conveting
column of sub-critical hydrous fluid
Reffered as hydrothermal eruption or vent breccia
divided into :
A. Endogenous Phreatic Breccias
B Exogenous Phreatic Breccias

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6. TECTONIC BRECCIAS
Formed by the mechanical disruption of rocks in response to
tectonic stress.
May grind clasts to rock flour forming gouge or mylonite
Tend to occur in identifiable, usually steeply dipping, fault planes
Tectonic breccias are major importance for mineralization in
metamorphic terraines
If mineralization is associated with a tectonic breccia in non-
metamorphosed volcanic terrain, it is unlikely that the tectonism
caused the mineralization, and so the function of the breccia is
probably just to provide permeable path for mineralzing fluids.
Exploration strategy should consist of tracking the extent of the
brecia, and separately interpreting the mineralizing process
If mineralization appears to have pre-dated faulting, the possibility
of concealed cut-off mineralized zone should be considered.

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7. SEDIMENTARY BRECCIAS
in the typical epithermal/porphyry environment, they consist principally of
volcanic material
volcaniclastic sediment range from epiclastic deposits such as laharic or
avalanche deposit, that have little evidence of sedimentary processes,
through to well-sorted volcanogenic sandstones or pumicities
the essential feature of these breccias is that they have been emplaced on
the earths surface by predominantly sedimentary processes.
Features indicative of water transport may be apparent, suh as cross
bedding.There may be interbedded non volcanogenic sediments
mineralization in this setting is not directly related to brecciation processes
In term of exploration, can be apply similar to an exogenous volcanic
breccia.
The extent and location of the breccia can be predicted by stratigraphy, but
the mineralizing processes should be seperately evaluated
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DESCRIBING BRECCIAS
breccia are very important host rocks for mineralization, not only
becouse, of the large surface area they make available for water-rock
interaction and the fact that they represent zones of high permeability,
but some of the processes of breciation such as hydraulic fracturing
can closely related to the process of mineralization
He classification is based on the proportions of vein clast, rock clasts,
chemically deposited cement, and clastic/igneous matrix within the
breccia.
When describing breccias,the following features chould be noted :
1. Clast lithologies
2. The shape of clasts
3. The size and size distribution (degree of sorting) of the clasts

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DESCRIBING BRECCIAS
When describing breccias, the following features chould
be noted :
4. Alignment, imbrication, or grading, and any textures
such as flow structures are apparent in the matrix
5. Whether the breccia is clast supported or matrix
suppported
6. The ratio of clast to matrix; e.g. Jigsaw; crackle;
breccias have a high cement ratio of clasts to matrix,
but clasts are separately by a cement of secondary
minerals, and are therefore matrix-supported

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DESCRIBING BRECCIAS
When describing breccias, the following features chould
be noted :
7. The nature of matrix: crystallline, clastic, or igneous,
and its mineralogy, and whether any open voids are
present
8. The relative timing of brecciation and veining.
9. If the breccia is altered or mineralized, whether th
matrix and clast seem to have been altered in the
same way
10.There could be more tha one generationg of
brecciation
11.Sufficiently large exposure is asscesble
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SEVERAL DESCRIPTIVE
Crackle Breccia
Jigsaw Breccia
Cockade breccia

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DESCRIPTIVE NAMES FOR BRECCIAS
(Davies, et al,1995; Davies, 2000; Davies, 2005) based on
the approach to volcanics rocks of McPhie et al, 1993

1) Geometry
eg. Pipe, cone, dyke, vein, irregular, tabular
Contact-sharp, gradational, faulted, irregular, planar,
concordant, discordant

2) Grain size (clast)


Mud (1/16 mm)
Sand (1/16-2 mm)
Breccia/conglomerate
Fine grained (2-4 mm)
Medium grained (4-64 mm)
Coarse-grained (64-256 mm)
Very coarse grained (>256)
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DESCRIPTIVE NAMES FOR BRECCIAS
(Davies, et al,1995; Davies, 2000; Davies, 2005) based on the
approach to volcanics rocks of McPhie et al, 1993

3) Component : Clasts - Matrix - Cement - Open space or


vugs
a) Clasts
Monomict or polymict
Lithology/type-lithic (type), vein, breccia, juvenile
magmatic, accretionary lapilli, pseudoclastic,
mineralised, altered)
Morphology angular, subangular, subround (eg. Pipe,
cone, dyke, vein, irregular, tabular)
b) Matrix
Rock flour, crystal fragments, lithic fragments, vein
fragments
Texture banded, laminated, massive
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DESCRIPTIVE NAMES FOR BRECCIAS
(Davies, et al,1995; Davies, 2000; Davies, 2005) based on the
approach to volcanics rocks of McPhie et al, 1993

3) Component : Clasts - Matrix - Cement - Open space or vugs


(contd)

c) Cement
Ore and gaunge mineralogy, and grain size
Texture e.g. cockade, massive, drusy
Crystalline igneous rock

d) Open space or vugs

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DESCRIPTIVE NAMES FOR BRECCIAS
(Davies, et al,1995; Davies, 2000; Davies, 2005) based on the
approach to volcanics rocks of McPhie et al, 1993

4) Internal Organisation (outcrop scale features)


Clast abundance clast/matrix/cement supported
Clast distribution jigsaw-fit, insitu rotated, chaotic
Massive (non-graded) or graded
Clast sorting by size and/or shape
Stratified or unstratified

5) Alteration
Clast/matrix/cement and paragenesis

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TUGAS KELOMPOK
Buat kelompok masing-masing anggota kelompok maximal 5
orang. Laporan di ketik 2 spasi. Dan kumpul mgg dpn
Buat tulisan lengkap tentang breksi berikut (1-7) dan beri
gambar dan contoh mineralisasi/deposit yang memiliki tipe atau
jenis breksi tersebut
I. Instrusive Breccias
II. Volcanic Breccias
III. Phreatomagmatic Breccias
IV. Magmatic-Phreatic Breccias
V. Phreatic Breccias
VI. Tectonic Breccias
VII. Sedimentary Breccias
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