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Systems Guide

Mobile Hydraulics
Open Centre, Constant Pressure
and Load Sensing Systems
Introduction Definitions

The contents of this brochure highlight important differences between open centre,
constant pressure and load sensing systems.

17
16

50 5 100 200 1 10
6

8
4

13
12 15

11
2 14
3

1. Work ports A and B 11. Pump


Connection for hoses to cylinders or motors. Unit delivering oil to the system.
2. Parallel line 12. Pump connection
Gallery feeding the actuators. Unbroken parallel line gives
a parallel circuit. Broken parallel line gives a tandem circuit. 13. Tank connection

3. Open Centre line 14. Tank


Gallery for the pump oil in an open centre valve where Unit for containing, cooling and de-airing oil.
surplus oil flows. Progressively builds up pump pressure 15. Filter
the more the spools are moved out of neutral position. Unit for cleaning oil.
4. Load check valve 16. Cylinder
Prevents oil from going in the wrong direction through Unit converting oil flow to linear movement.
the work ports.
17. Motor
5. Work port relief valve Unit converting oil flow to rotating movement.
Relief valve protecting the work ports, with or without
anti-cavitation function.
Single function operation
6. Anti-cavitation The operator moves one lever/spool at the time.
A check valve for refilling.
Simultaneous operation
7. Notch The operator moves two or more levers/spools
Notch pump to tank (PT), in open centre line, building at the same time.
up system pressure.
Flow interference
8. Notch Flow from one section is affected when another
Notch pump to work port (PW). section is activated.
9. Notch Controllability
Notch work port to tank (WT). Used for both single function operation and
simultaneous operation; indicates how well
10. Spool functionality the valve modulates flow and pressure at each
work port.


Introduction Products

Mobile valves spool actuators

Manually operated Pilot operated


Manual Pneumatic Hydraulic Electro-hydraulic

Manual Pneumatic Hydraulic Electro-hydraulic


1 axis proportional lever 1 and 2 axis proportional 1 and 2 axis proportional 1, 2 and 3 axis proportional
No mechanical hysteresis levers levers levers
Some force hysteresis 30 % mechanical hysteresis 10 % mechanical hysteresis 3 % mechanical hysteresis

Mobile motors
Parameters for discussion:
Displacement
Axial torque
Pressure
Gear Vane Axial piston
Speed
Sensitivity to dirt
Sensitivity to temperature shocks
Torq Radial piston

Cylinders and accumulators


Parameters for discussion:

Cylinders:
Stroke
Diameter
Pressure Rotary actuators Mobile cylinders
Service life

Accumulators:
Pressure ratio Piston Diaphragm
Pre-charge level accumulators accumulators
Amplitude
Frequency
Volume
Bladder accumulators


Heat Generation Pump Choice

Required engine power (kW): Highest pressure (bar) x pump flow (l/min)
600

Fixed pump

i>


`i
`i
*ii

 *v

Gear Pump Vane Pump Axial Piston Pump


Light/Medium Duty Medium/Heavy Duty Medium/Heavy Duty

Bypass:
A spool in L90LS inlet. Enables
the use of a fixed displacement
pump. When using a bypass,
system designation is LS or CFC. Closed Centre Valve
Open Centre Valve
Bypass
Inlet LS

10 bar

Open Centre System Load Sensing System


OC LS
(CFC)


Heat Generation Pump Choice

Heat generation: Improved Systems:


Red areas in the diagrams Multi-pump system
represent heat loss One pump for high pressures, one for low

Variable pump

i>


`i
`i
*ii

 V> >>Li

Regulator:
A pump unit
controlling the
Axial Piston Pump pressure differ-
Medium/Heavy Duty ence between LS
and pump pressure.

CPhl CPU:
High (h) pressure when spools are
activated, low (l) pressure when
spools are in neutral position
Regulator Regulator
Pressure Compensated Load Sensing

Closed Centre Valve Closed Centre Valve Closed Centre Valve

Constant Pressure Constant Pressure Load Sensing System


System CP High-Low System CPhl LS
(Unloaded System CPU)


System Performance Open Centre Valves

Why
Lowest cost for pump and
directional valve
50 100 200
Stable system
Short response time
Uncomplicated
Where
Fork lift trucks
Small wheel loaders
Truck cranes
50 100 200 Telehandlers
How
215 215 215 Same max. flow rate for all work ports
Flow rate is affected by pump speed
Interference depending on spool selection
215 Often multi-pump and/or multi-
valve systems

Manually operated
Parkers unique Intermediate Pressure Technology reduces flow interference for improved
precision and efficiency compared to generic systems.

Added values of Parker OC technology:


Less dead band => Longer active lever stroke => Better controllability and precision
Well defined intermediate pressure level => Less interference in multiple function operations
Easier to distribute all available pump oil => Can improve productivity by up to 50 %

Pilot operated
Parkers Pressure Compensation Technology further enhances system performance
compared to generic systems.

Added values of Parker OC technology:


Less dead band => Longer active lever stroke => Better controllability and precision
Load independence => A specific stroke always equals the same flow => Easier operation
Well defined intermediate pressure level => Less interference in multiple function operations
Easier to distribute all available pump oil => Can improve productivity by up to 50 %

20 % increase in productivity = 15000 per year for a timber crane!


Before: Loading and unloading, 1 hour; transport 3 hours. After: Loading and unloading, 40 minutes; transport 3 hours.
Value for the operator: 50 extra loads per year = 15000.
Environmental value: 1000 litres less fuel spent loading and unloading = 1000.
Logistics value: Frees up unloading space at the saw mill.

Guide to diagrams
The following diagrams show relative flow, pressure and lever strokes for different systems while
lowering and lifting a load.

Yellow lines indicate flow


Dotted blue lines indicate pressure


Flow/Pressure, % Manual operation, lowering Flow/Pressure, % Manual operation, lowering
100 100

200 bar 60 bar


200 bar 60 bar

System Performance Open Centre Valves


Meter out
Adaption of
Meter in & out

200 bar

60 bar

Generic system Parker OC Technology 200 bar

60 bar

Lever stroke, % Lever stroke, %

Flow/Pressure, % Manual operation, lifting Flow/Pressure, % Manual operation, lifting

100 100
Adaption of
Meter in & out
200 bar
200 bar
Meter in

60 bar
60 bar

60 bar 200 bar 60 bar 200 bar

Parker
Andra Lever stroke, % Lever stroke, %

Flow/Pressure, % Manual operation, lowering Flow/Pressure, % Manual operation, lowering

100 100
ion, lowering Flow/Pressure, % Pilot operation, lowering Flow/Pressure, % Pilot operation, lowering Flow/Pressure, %
200 bar 60 bar
100 100 100
200 bar 60 bar
60 bar 200 bar 60 bar Adaption of 200 bar 60 bar
Meter out Meter in & out

200 bar
Meter out Meter out Meter o
Flow forces
60 bar
200 bar
200 bar

60 bar
00 bar 60 bar
200 bar

0 bar Lever stroke, % 60 Lever


bar stroke, %

Lever stroke, % Flow/Pressure, % Lever stroke,


Manual operation, lifting% Flow/Pressure, % Manual operation, lifting%
Lever stroke,

100 100
ration, lifting Flow/Pressure, % Pilot operation, lifting Flow/Pressure, % Pilot operation, lifting Flow/Pressure, %
Adaption of
100 100 Meter in & out 100

200 bar
200 bar
200 bar Meter in 200 bar Meter in 200 bar
Flow forces
Meter in Meter in

60 bar
60 bar 60 bar 60 bar
60 bar
60 bar 200 bar 60 bar 200 bar

60 bar 200 bar 60 bar 200 bar 60 bar


Lever stroke, % Lever stroke, %

Lever stroke, % Lever stroke, % Lever stroke, %

ion, lowering Flow/Pressure, % Pilot operation, lowering Flow/Pressure, % Pilot operation, lowering Flow/Pressure, %

100 100 100

60 bar 200 bar 60 bar 200 bar 60 bar

Meter out Meter out Meter o


Flow forces
200 bar

00 bar 60 bar 200 bar

0 bar 60 bar

Lever stroke, % Lever stroke, % Lever stroke, %

ration, lifting Flow/Pressure, % Pilot operation, lifting Flow/Pressure, % Pilot operation, lifting Flow/Pressure, %

100 100 100

200 bar 200 bar  Meter in 200 bar


Flow forces
Meter in Meter in
System Performance Constant Pressure Valves

Why
Low cost for directional valve
Stable system

50 100 200 Where


Mining machines
Refuse machines
Forestry machines
Telehandlers
How
Individual flow rate per work port
No interference between the
50 100 200 work ports flow

215 215 215

215

Flow, % Manual operation, lowering Flow, % Pilot operation, lowering

100 100

Manually operated single


150 bar function Pilot operated single function
Section flow isMeter
affected
out
by load pressure
50 bar
PressureMeter
Compensation
out 50-150Technology
bar section flow
All loads start moving at the same lever stroke is less affected by load pressure
Flow forces
All loads start moving at the same lever stroke
Manually operated multiple function
No interference Pilot operated multiple function
No interference

Lever stroke, % Lever stroke, %

Flow, % Manual operation, lifting Flow, % Pilot operation, lifting


100 100

Meter in 50 bar Meter in


50-150 bar
Flow forces
150 bar

Lever stroke, % Lever stroke, %

Flow, % Manual operation, lowering Flow, % Pilot operation, lowering

100 100

150 bar

Meter out 50-150 bar


Meter out 50 bar
Flow forces

Lever stroke, % Lever stroke, %

Flow, % Manual operation, lifting Flow, % Pilot operation, lifting


100 100

Meter in 50 bar Meter in


System Performance Load Sensing Valves

Why
Usually the most efficient type
of mobile system

50 100 200 Where


Forestry machines
Large and medium size wheel loaders
Cranes
Excavators
Refuse machines
How
With variable or fixed displacement pump
Individual flow rate per work port
55 105 205
Individual pressure per work port
5 Bar 5 Bar 5 Bar
No interference between work ports flow
Parker performance values
Force feedback enables soft acceleration
215 215 215 215 Adapted flow forces enable soft retardation
Feed Reducer gives more efficient use
of pump oil
1020 % higher productivity

Flow, % Pilot operation, lowering


Flow, % Manual operation, lowering
100
10 % increase in productivity = 36000
100 per year for a harvester!

Before: 60 trees per hour. After: 66 trees per hour.


Value for the operator: An additional 3 cubic metres per hour = 12 per hour = 36000
50-150 barper year!
150 bar
Meter out
Meter out Flow forces
50 bar
Manually operated single function Pilot operated single function
Section flow independent of load pressure (compensator) Section flow independent of load pressure (compensator)
All loads start moving at the same lever stroke All loads start moving at the same lever stroke
Pressure control per work port (compensator) Pressure control per work port (compensator)
Manually operated multiple function Pilot operated multiple function
Lever stroke, %
No interference Lever stroke, %
No interference

Flow,% Manual operation, lifting Flow,% Pilot operation, lifting

100 100

Meter in Meter in
50-150 bar 50-150 bar
Compensator Compensator

Lever stroke, % Lever stroke, %

Flow, % Manual operation, lowering Flow, % Pilot operation, lowering


100 100

150 bar 50-150 bar

Meter out Meter out


50 bar Flow forces

Lever stroke, % Lever stroke, %

Flow,% Manual operation, lifting


Flow,% Pilot operation, lifting
100
100


Meter in 50-150 bar


Cleanliness

Purpose of filtration:
Long service life for the hydraulic circuit
Maximizing system availability

In-line filtration
Designed to handle full system flow
Fixed displacement pump: Continuous filtration
Variable displacement pump: Filtration at work port flow only
Pressure filter: System protection against component wear
Return filter: System protection against ingression and component wear
Breather filter: System protection against ingression

Off-line filtration
Filtration works whether the system is running or not
Usually low flow through the filter, which enables very small
particles to be filtered out
Easier to over-dimension for increased capacity

In-Line Filtration

Pump Directional valve


Pressure filter

Return filter

Breather filter

Hydraulic oil tank

Sub system Off-Line Filtration

Pump Directional valve

Sub hydraulics
circuit (e. g. fan drive)
Pump

Return filter
Breather filter

Hydraulic oil tank

10
Value Added Services

Purpose of Value Added Services:


Minimizing transactions and logistics
Minimizing acquisition and product cost
Reducing development and production time
Ensuring 100 % functionality

Breadman Tech Services


Packed and delivered just-in-time Cost reduction and Dry Technology
concepts through engineering solutions
Kitting
Complete sets saving time Training
Fully adapted to the clients needs
Assembly
Ready for final assembly EDI
Paperless transactions
Sub-assembly
Partial pre-assemblies Strategic Account manager
One client one contact

11
Hydraulics Group
Sales Offices
Europe International

Ed. 2007-04-18
AT Austria IE Ireland AU Australia
Wiener Neustadt Dublin Castle Hill
Tel.: +43 (0)2622 23501-0 Tel.: +353 (0)1 466 6370 Tel.: +61 (0)2-9634 7777
Fax: +43 (0)2622 66212 Fax: +353 (0)1 466 6376 Fax: +61 (0)2-9842 5111
AT Austria IT Italy BR Latin America Group
Wiener Neustadt Corsico (MI) Brazil
(Resp. for East Europe) Tel.: +39 02 45 19 21 Tel.: +55 51 3470 9144
Tel.: +43 (0)2622 23501 970 Fax: +39 02 4 47 93 40 Fax: +55 51 3470 9281
Fax: +43 (0)2622 23501 977
NL The Netherlands CA Canada
BE Belgium Oldenzaal Milton, Ontario
Nivelles Tel.: +31 (0)541 585 000 Tel.: +1 905 693 3000
Tel.: +32 (0)67 280 900 Fax: +31 (0)541 585 459 Fax: +1 905 876 0788
Fax: +32 (0)67 280 999
NO Norway CN China
CZ Czech Republic Ski Shanghai
Klecany Tel.: +47 64 91 10 00 Tel.: +86 21 5031 2525
Tel.: +420 284 083 111 Fax: +47 64 91 10 90 Fax: +86 21 5834 8975
Fax: +420 284 083 112
PL Poland HK Asia Pacific Group
DE Germany Warsaw Hong Kong
Kaarst Tel.: +48 (0)22 573 24 00 Tel.: +852 2428 8008
Tel.: +49 (0)2131 4016 0 Fax: +48 (0)22 573 24 03 Fax: +852 2425 6896
Fax: +49 (0)2131 4016 9199
PT Portugal IN India
DK Denmark Leca da Palmeira Mumbai
Ballerup Tel.: +351 22 999 7360 Tel.: +91 22 5613 7081/82-85
Tel.: +45 43 56 04 00 Fax: +351 22 996 1527 Fax: +91 22 2768 6841/6618
Fax: +45 43 73 31 07
SE Sweden JP Japan
ES Spain Spnga Tokyo
Madrid Tel.: +46 (0)8 59 79 50 00 Tel.: +(81) 3 6408 3900
Tel.: +34 91 675 73 00 Fax: +46 (0)8 59 79 5110 Fax: +(81) 3 5449 7201
Fax: +34 91 675 77 11
SK Slovakia US USA
FI Finland Ref. Czech Republic Cleveland (industrial)
Vantaa Tel.: +1 216 896 3000
Tel.: +358 20 753 2500 UK United Kingdom Fax: +1 216 896 4031
Fax: +358 20 753 2200 Warwick Lincolnshire (mobile)
Tel.: +44 (0)1926 317 878 Tel.: +1 847 821 1500
FR France Fax: +44 (0)1926 317 855 Fax: +1 847 821 7600
Contamine-sur-Arve
Tel.: +33 (0)4 50 25 80 25 ZA South Africa
Fax: +33 (0)4 50 25 24 25 Kempton Park
Tel.: +27 (0)11 961 0700
Fax: +27 (0)11 392 7213

Parker Hannifin is the worlds premier supplier of motion and control systems
and solutions, with sales and manufacturing facilities throughout the world.
For product information and details of your nearest Parker sales office, visit us
at www.parker.com or call free on 00800 2727 5374.

Bulletin HY17-8009/UK
www.morot.se 07-04

POD 04/2007 PC

Copyright 2007
Parker Hannifin Corporation
All rights reserved

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