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Running head: USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL 1

Using Literary Texts for Teaching ESL

Capstone Project Deliverable

Elisabeth Clapp

Post University

Dr. Jessica Pawlik-York


USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !2

Literature in
ESL Instruction

Imgur. (2016, Feb 6). Digital Literary Text. [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://imgur.com/3ZemCvL

Using Literary Texts for Teaching ESL:

Reading, Writing, Listening, and Speaking


USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !3

Table of Contents

Description of the Deliverable 5


The Rationale for Using Literature in ESL Instruction 5
Teaching Strategies 6
Metacognitive 6
Cognitive 6
Social/Affective 7
Learning Objectives 7

The Deliverable 8
Section One: Teaching Novels in the ESL Classroom 8
Section Two: Poetry in the ESL Classroom 9

Lesson Plans Native Son - Richard Wright 10


Lesson 1: Richard Wright Biography 11
Lesson 2: Fear, Flight, and Fate 14
Lesson 3: Book One 16
Lesson 4: Book Two 18
Lesson 5: Societal Issues 20
Lesson 6: Book Three 22
Lesson 7: Spoken and Written Word Comparison 24
Lesson 8: Epigraph 27
Lesson 9: Dramatic Reading 30
Lesson 10: Vocabulary Review 32
Lessons 11: Native Son (1986) 33
Lessons 12: Native Son (1986) 33

Lesson Plan The Pulley - George Herbert 34


USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !4

Lesson 1: Close Reading of The Pulley 35


Lesson 2: Group Oral Presentations 38

References 40

Appendices 42
A Introductory Guide to (CEFR) for English Language Teachers 42
B Syllabus Cambridge IGCSE Literature 43
C Cambridge English: Skills for Life - Speaking and Listening 44
D WASSCE / WAEC English Language (alternative b) Syllabus 45
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !5

Using Literary Texts for Teaching ESL

Description of the Deliverable

Literature in ESL instruction is primarily associated with reading and writing but plays an

equally meaningful role in teaching, listening and speaking. Oral readings, dramatizations, im-

provisations, role-playing, discussion, and group activities all may center on literature. The

lessons contained in the deliverable use an integrated method of combining the skills of listening,

speaking, reading, and writing for profound language development.

The deliverable is composed of two sections; poetry and novels. These sections are de-

signed for the English as a second language (ESL) instructor at the secondary level. The intended

students are English language proficient from the high beginner to low advanced levels, targeting

A2 to C1 ability levels of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) (see Ap-

pendix A). The purpose of these lessons is to integrate with the learning objectives, that which is

reflected in the Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE)

syllabus, The Cambridge English: Skills for Life - Speaking and Listening, and the West African

Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) standardized test objectives (see Appendices

B - D).

The Rationale for Using Literature in ESL Instruction

According to Fatiloro (2015) and Sotiloye, Bodunde and Olayemi (2015), English lan-

guage learners (ELLs) must be extensive readers of literature, to master the intricacies involved

in the language. English learners must read because reading in English improves pronunciation,

grammar, vocabulary, reading comprehension, and writing skills (Fatiloro, 2015, p. 29). Ac-

cording to Khatib (2011), teachers must provide ELLs with a wide range of literary texts to
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !6

choose from based on their needs and interests. According to Krashen (1998), Neuman and

Celano (2001), as cited by Khatib (2011), research has shown that individuals are more motivat-

ed to read if they have access to appropriate books. However, without instruction, incorporating

authentic literary texts into the lesson cannot develop vocabulary and grammar to the level of

academic proficiency (Cummins, 2003). Teachers may focus entirely on vocabulary and gram-

mar and neglect to teach ELLs how to use the language they are learning (Course Crafters,

2011). ELLs need to learn how to read different types of text. They also need to learn how to

use different types of strategies for different types of texts.

Teaching Strategies

Metacognitive. Metacognitive strategies attempt to supervise language learning by

planning and monitoring language acquisition and content material. Metacognitive strategies or-

ganize learning by planning, monitoring and evaluating thinking processes. Rather than ELLs

memorizing information, teachers model and explicitly teach thinking skills, which is crucial for

learning new concepts. Metacognitive strategies include:

Previewing a concept or principle in anticipation of a learning activity.

Determining in advance which specific areas of input to emphasize.

Practicing linguistic components (phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and

pragmatics) which will be required for an imminent assignment or activity.

Self-monitoring of progress and knowledge as learning is occurring (Saville-Troike,

2012, p. 97).

Cognitive. Cognitive strategies are a set of learning techniques that analyze and synthe-

size linguistic material. The progression of reflecting and developing comprehension is in-
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !7

creased by scanning and summarizing, clarifying concepts, and predicting the information to be

learned. Cognitive strategies include:

Repeating after language is modeled initiating the coding process.

Repetition.

Translating from L1

Remembering a new word in L2 by relating it to one that sounds the same in L1.

Creating vivid images for memorization.

Summarizing or paraphrasing to improve ability to store information in long-term

memory by creating connections between new concepts and prior knowledge.

Guessing or anticipating the meaning of new material through inferencing (Sav-

ille-Troike, 2012, p. 97).

Social/Affective. Social/Affective strategies refer to the engagement of language com-

munication and interaction with others. Social/Affective strategies include:

Seeking opportunities to interact with native English language speakers.

Working cooperatively with peers to obtain feedback or combine efforts.

Asking questions to obtain clarification.

Requesting repetition, explanation, or examples (Saville-Troike, 2012, p. 97).

Learning Objectives

1. Discussion To provide teachers with tasks that lead to group interaction and discussion,

and help them to establish a classroom environment in which ELLs freely speak and con-

tribute
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2. Vocabulary To help teachers learn how ELLs can acquire topic related vocabulary from

academic sources as well as proverbs and idioms

3. Fluency To assist teachers in increasing ELLs rate of speech by providing them with the

vocabulary for a topic, background information on the topic, an opportunity to think criti-

cally about the topic, and allowing students opportunities to speak without interruption or

correction, lowering their affective filter

4. Accuracy To enable teachers to increase ELLs precision of speech by helping them

identify their mistakes and self-correct them by teaching ELLs common grammar used in

conversation.

5. Culture To instruct teachers how to help ELLs understand cultural differences in con-

versing.

The Deliverable

Section One: Teaching Novels in the ESL Classroom

Literature is authentic material not written for the exclusive purpose of teaching a lan-

guage. The novels presented in the deliverable offer authentic samples of language in real-life

context. The language contained in the novels is primarily intended for native English speakers.

Literature of this nature allows ELLs to become familiar with different linguist forms, challeng-

ing lexical features, unusual grammatical constructions, informal language, and cultural insights

into the use of the English language. The novel in this section is a title taken from the WASSCE/

WAEC Literature for English syllabus (Larnedu, 2016); Native Son, by Richard Wright.

Section Two: Poetry in the ESL Classroom


USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !9

Poetry can be used as content in language classrooms for a variety of purposes. The po-

ems presented in the deliverable act as authentic texts, which illustrate the aesthetic, historical,

and social realities of the target language culture. Poetry can also be used to facilitate discussion

and critical engagement with elements of the genre. Poetry can serve as a unique model for tar-

get language use by exposing ELLs to a variety of grammatical structures and unique forms of

discourse. Also, the shortened format of poetry has the potential of decreasing Krashens affec-

tive filter, making ELLs less anxious and encouraging them to read more (Lightbown & Spada,

2013). Poems included in this section are titles taken from the WASSCE/WAEC Literature for

English syllabus (Larnedu, 2016); George Herbert - The Pulley.


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Lesson Plans Native Son - Richard Wright

Wikipedia. (2016, Nov 6). Native Son First Edition. [Photograph]. [Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_Son Image Credit
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL 1! 1

LESSON PLAN
Native Son - Richard Wright

Lesson 1

Learning Objectives
Group interaction and discussion where ELLs speak freely and contribute
Acquire topic related vocabulary
Use background knowledge for critical thinking
Grammar instruction for bio-poem
Discuss societal issues relating to text

Materials and Equipment


Smartboard
Bulletin board paper roll
Computer with internet connection
Art supplies to create a collage or model (construction paper, colored pens/pencils, glue, and
magazines)

Discussion of a Literature Circle


There are nine key ingredients to the literature circle, which include:
1. Students choose the reading materials - teacher selects in ESL.
2. Small groups based on book choice.
3. Different groups are reading different books.
4. Groups meet on a regular basis.
5. ELLs use written notes to guide their reading and discussion.
6. Discussion topics generated by the ELLs.
7. Group meetings aim to be natural conversations.
8. The teacher serves as a facilitator.
9. Evaluations by teacher observation and student self-evaluations (Furr, 2003).

Model Lesson
Write the dates 1908-1960, on the smartboard.
Lead ELLs to brainstorm events taking place in the United States and Mississippi during those
years. Use the internet to research.
a. http://www.umich.edu/~eng217/student_projects/20thcenturywriters/wright.html
b. http://mwp.olemiss.edu//dir/wright_richard/
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c. http://www.jbhe.com/features/59_richardwright.html
Inform ELLs that the dates represent the life span of the American author, Richard Wright,
who was born in Mississippi.
Provide ELLs with context vocabulary and briefly discuss (communist, composite, Jim Crow
Laws, personify, racism).
Explain that the concept of hunger is present in much of Wrights work.
Ask ELLs to list in their notes the types of things for which one might hunger.
ELLs will share their answers with their literature circle and compare/contrast their notes with
the information they learn about the author.

Practice the Lesson


Cooperatively, ELLs will create a timeline of the major events in the authors life. Have ELLs
write their information on a piece of bulletin board paper for display.
In the literature circles, ELLs will use all available resources to research specific areas of
hunger in the authors life. They will list the areas using a graphic organizer (Frayer Model
http://www.theteachertoolkit.com/index.php/tool/frayer-model) and then offer reasons for
them. ELLs will illustrate these hungers by creating one of the following: collage, model, or
drawing.
Write an encyclopedia entry for Wright (for example http://www.encyclopedia.com/people/lit-
erature-and-arts/american-literature-biographies/richard-wright). Include facts of the authors
life and how they affected his career.

Closure
Using all the information they have collected, ELLs will construct a ten-line bio-poem (http://
www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/lesson_images/lesson398/biopoem.pdf) about Wright.
These can be posted or shared so that ELLs can discuss them. The teacher will lead the class in
combining their thoughts to produce one bio-poem which most accurately depicts the author.
Display bio-poems on a bulletin board.

Evaluation
If ELLs used the correct form and listed in their notes what one might hunger (5 points for
listing and 5 points for correct usage).
Orally sharing answers and correct verbal usage (5 points each for sharing their answers orally
and 5 points each for correct verbal usage).
Timeline (10 points.)
Encyclopedia paragraph entry (10 points).
Bio-poem (10 points.)
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !13

References
Furr, M. (2003). Literature circles for the EFL classroom. TESOL Arabia Conference. Retrieved
from http://www.eflliteraturecircles.com/howandwhylit.pdf.
Wright, R. (2005). Native Son. New York, NY: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.

http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/lesson_images/lesson398/biopoem.pdf
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !14

LESSON PLAN
Native Son - Richard Wright

Lesson 2

Learning Objectives
Group interaction and discussion where ELLs speak freely and contribute
Acquire topic related vocabulary
Use background knowledge for critical thinking
Grammar instruction for bio-poem
Discuss societal issues relating to text

Materials and Equipment


Smartboard
Bulletin board
Computer with internet connection

Activity #1
Begin the lesson by drawing ELLs attention to the bulletin board. Explain that the book ELLs
are about to read is divided into three sections titled FEAR, FLIGHT, and FATE. Explain that
the meanings of these three words as titles for the sections of the book are significant.
Point out the examples of FEAR. Ask ELLs what things in their lives make them fearful.
Ask ELLs to define FLIGHT. What kinds of flight are there? Does FLIGHT imply freedom (as
the symbolic bird flying) or can it suggest other things, too? What kinds of things can it imply?
Ask ELLs to define FATE. What is fate? Who, if anyone or anything, controls our fates? Do
we have any control over our destinies?

Activity #2
Vocabulary. Before reading Book One, ELLs will do vocabulary work related to the
section. ELLs should keep their vocabulary work as study materials for the unit
test. Direct ELLs to dictionaries and the website https://www.vocabulary.com/lists/409590.
(Search the title under the book using the list drop-down.) ELLs are to write each word; the
definition provided and in their own words use the word in a sentence.
Reading Assignment Sheet. Complete the reading assignment sheet to let ELLs know
when the reading has to be completed and distribute. Advise ELLs to become
familiar with the reading assignments, so they know what is expected of them.

Activity #3
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Define the term metaphor http://literarydevices.net/metaphor/ and discuss the beginning of


Book One when Bigger kills a black rat. The rat represents Bigger as the predator when he
commits murder. The rat also represents society which preys on Bigger, entraps and executes
him. Bigger is chased by the police like a rat through a maze. He is caught and disposed of
just as the rat Bigger catches and kills at the beginning of the Book One.

Closure
In the final 5 minutes, the teacher will take an informal survey of ELLs progress in class. For
any student with the vocabulary words not completed tell them it is homework due at the start
of the next class period.

Evaluation
Vocabulary word definitions and used in a sentence correctly with proper grammar (50 points).

References
Wright, R. (2005). Native Son. New York, NY: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !16

LESSON PLAN
Native Son - Richard Wright

Lesson 3

Learning Objectives
Group interaction and discussion where ELLs speak freely and contribute
Acquire topic related vocabulary
Use background knowledge for critical thinking
Fluency - Language Lab
Discuss societal issues relating to text

Materials and Equipment


Smartboard
Computer with internet connection
Language Lab
Flash Drive

Pre-reading
Begin a discussion of Book One using a summary if necessary http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/
nativeson/section1.rhtml. Provide ELLs with approximately twenty minutes to complete the
related vocabulary work for Book One in literature circles.

Reading Assignment
ELLs begin reading Book One (chunk #1) of Native Son aloud in the language lab.
ELLs will be recorded, and the recording will be saved on their flash drives for review.
Complete Book One (chunk #2) as homework, before Lesson 3 (date/day.)
Complete an Oral Reading Evaluation for each ELL rating 1 - 5 with five being excellent and
one poor for the skills: Fluency, clarity, audibility, and pronunciation. Include any comments.

Closure
With the final 5 minutes of class, ask ELLs open-ended questions to determine understanding
of the assignment for the day and to assess general interest of the literature. Such interest
questions of higher order thinking such as What part of what you read today was most inter-
esting? and Describe why? The questioning may be best done in a quick pair share with 1
minute given to each partner and the teacher selecting a student to tell what they heard from
their partner.
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Evaluation
Oral Reading Evaluation (50 points).

References
Wright, R. (2005). Native Son. New York, NY: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !18

LESSON PLAN
Native Son - Richard Wright

Lesson 4

Learning Objectives
Group interaction and discussion where ELLs speak freely and contribute
Acquire topic related vocabulary
Use background knowledge for critical thinking
Develop fluency by leading group discussions
Discuss societal issues relating to text

Materials and Equipment


Smartboard
Computer with internet connection
Dictionaries

Activity #1
Vocabulary quiz. The words are read aloud while ELLs spell, define and properly use them in
a sentence.

Activity #2
Begin discussion of Book Two using a summary if necessary http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/
nativeson/section5.rhtml outlining the story using the smartboard.
Practice public speaking and leadership skills by having individual ELLs lead the discussion.
The teacher should guide the discussion when appropriate.

Activity #3
Provide ELLs with twenty minutes to begin the vocabulary work for Book Two https://
www.vocabulary.com/lists/409607. ELLs may work in literature circles.

Activity #4
Ask ELLs to read silently Book Two of Native Son. Inform ELLs that they should complete
reading Book Two (chunks #3, #4, #5, #6, #7 as homework, before Lesson Six (day/date).

Closure
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !19

With 3 minutes remaining survey ELLs how many pages they each have remaining to read be-
fore the next class. The teacher can go around the room to hear answers in the most efficient
manner they choose.

Evaluation
Vocabulary Quiz (50 points).

References
Wright, R. (2005). Native Son. New York, NY: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !20

LESSON PLAN Native Son - Richard Wright

Lesson 5

Learning Objectives
Group interaction and discussion where ELLs speak freely and contribute
Acquire topic related vocabulary
Use background knowledge for critical thinking
Develop fluency by leading group discussion
Practice writing skills
Discuss societal issues relating to text

Materials and Equipment


Smartboard
Bulletin board
Computer with internet connection

Discussion
Native Son contains many complex societal issues. The central theme of the book is the inher-
ent problems of racism facing a black person in America during the 1930s.
Discuss other central themes of the book and turn the discussion to societal problems in other
parts of the world.

Assignment
Read three nonfiction articles relating to racial/societal issues in the world. The purpose of the
assignment is to become familiar with the issues and to become aware of different viewpoints.
Complete an Hourglass Organizer for each article and attach it to the article http://
www.scholastic.com/teachers/contributor/collateral_resources/pdf/23/9780545437523.pdf.
Submit the assignment sheet and article, and article review paper.
If necessary, introduce a mini-lesson using the resource by Elliot and Lierman (2011) to aid
ELLs in developing writing skills http://www.prescott.edu/library/learning-commons/writing-
center/organization-hourglass.html.

Closure
At 5 minutes before dismissal of class, check ELLs progress and remind them the finished
Hourglass Organizers are due at the start of the next class.
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !21

Evaluation
Hourglass Organizer (50 points: Introduction 10, Body 30 - 3 paragraphs, and conclusion 10).

References
Elliot, B. & Lierman, J. (2011). Essay writing made easy with the hourglass organizer. Scholastic
Teaching Resources. [Website]. Retrieved from http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/
contributor/collateral_resources/pdf/23/9780545437523.pdf
Wright, R. (2005). Native Son. New York, NY: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.

http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/ contributor/collateral_resources/pdf/23/9780545437523.pdf
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !22

LESSON PLAN
Native Son - Richard Wright

Lesson 6

Learning Objectives
Group interaction and discussion where ELLs speak freely and contribute
Acquire topic related vocabulary
Use background knowledge for critical thinking
Develop fluency by leading group discussions
Discuss societal issues relating to text

Materials and Equipment


Smartboard
Computer with internet connection
Dictionaries

Activity #1
Book Two Vocabulary Quiz (the same format as Book One quiz.) Collect the quizzes and
Hourglass Organizer assignment, then as a class, discuss both.

Activity #2
Begin group discussion of Book Three using a summary if necessary http://www.sparknotes.-
com/lit/nativeson/section8.rhtml.
Practice public speaking and leadership skills by having individual ELLs lead the discussion.
The teacher should guide the discussion when appropriate. Provide ELLs 20 minutes to pre-
view the vocabulary work for Book Three https://www.vocabulary.com/lists/409629. ELLs
may work in literature circles.

Closure
Inform ELLs before the conclusion of class that they will need to continue reading Book Three
of Native Son. Inform ELLs that they should complete reading Book Three (chunks #8, #9,
#10, #11, #12 as homework, before Lesson Ten (day/date).

Evaluation
Vocabulary Quiz (50 points).
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !23

References
Wright, R. (2005). Native Son. New York, NY: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !24

LESSON PLAN
Native Son - Richard Wright

Lesson 7

Learning Objectives
Group interaction and discussion where ELLs speak freely and contribute
Acquire topic related vocabulary
Use background knowledge for critical thinking
Develop fluency by leading group discussions
Discuss societal issues relating to text

Materials and Equipment


Smartboard
Computer with internet connection
Dictionaries

Speaking and Writing Assignment


ELLs are to formulate answers to interpretative and critical questions. Assign one ques-
tion to each ELL. In literature circles, ELLs will discuss the questions, respond to their ques-
tion in writing and orally provide the class with a response. (ELLs may use class materials.)

Interpretation
1. From what point of view is Native Son written, and what effect does that have on the story?
2. Where is the climax of the story?
3. Are the characters in Native Son stereotypes?
4. What is the setting of the story? Are the setting and period relevant to the story? What are
the main conflicts in the story? Are they resolved? How or why not?

Critical
5. Explain the significance of the title of Native Son.
6. Are Bigger's actions believably motivated? Explain why or why not.
7. Characterize Richard Wright's style of writing. How does it contribute to the value of the nov-
el?
8. Describe Bigger's relationship with his family.
9. Compare and contrast Mr. Dalton and Jan.
10. Describe Bigger's relationship with Bessie.
11. Describe Bigger's relationship to Gus.
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !25

12. What is Bessie's role in Native Son? What does she add to the story, and how would the
story have been different without her?
13. Who was responsible for Mary's death?
14. Describe Jan's attitude towards Bigger.
15. Is Mr. Dalton a hypocrite?
16. Were Mary, Jan, and Max cruel to Bigger? If so, how? If not, why not?
17. How would the essence of the novel have changed if Bigger had been granted a life sen-
tence?
18. Give examples of the major symbols in the novel and explain the use and meaning of each.
19. Explain the significance of Bigger's name.
20. Why did Bigger always want to read accounts of his crimes and trial in the newspaper?
21. What is the role of education in the story?
22. What is the role of religion in the story?
23. How does Bigger deal with his feelings of fear?
24. Why does Bigger have to cut off Mary's head? Why doesn't Richard Wright have her fit
neatly into the furnace?
25. Discuss Bigger's character development throughout the novel.

Accuracy

The teacher is to guide ELLs to self-correct when switching from oral to written responses.
Literature circles are to listen, read and proof members of their groups responses.

Discussion

Part of the discussion is devoted to ELLs responses to the questions. For the remaining class,
begin discussing the differences between written and spoken responses.

Written texts are permanent and usually cannot be changed once they have been printed.
Written text can communicate across time.
Written language is more complex and intricate than speech.
Texts contain longer sentences and many subordinate clauses.
The punctuation of written texts has no spoken equivalent. Except, text messaging and
email is closer to spoken language.
Writers do not receive immediate feedback from their readers.
Writers can use punctuation, headings, layout, colors and other graphical effects in their
written texts.
Written material can repeatedly be read and analyzed.
Some grammatical constructions and some kinds of vocabulary are only used in writing.

Speech lasts only for a short time unless it is recorded.


Speech is to communicate immediately.
A spoken language can be full of repetitions and incomplete sentences.
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !26

In speech, feedback is immediate both vocal and expression.


Speech does not use punctuation, headings, layout, colors and other graphical effects.
Speech uses tone, timing, volume, and timbre to add emotional context.
Some types of vocabulary are used only in speech. These include slang expressions such
as yknow and like.

Closure
With 2 to 3 minutes of class remaining remind students to continue the reading. The teacher
may ask ELLs how many pages they need to complete or even how many hours of reading
they think they will need to finish the reading assignment.

Evaluation
Speaking and Writing Assignment (25 points each for content and grammar.)

References
Wright, R. (2005). Native Son. New York, NY: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !27

LESSON PLAN
Native Son - Richard Wright

Lesson 8

Learning Objectives
Group interaction and discussion where ELLs speak freely and contribute
Acquire topic related vocabulary
Use background knowledge for critical thinking
Develop fluency by leading group discussions
Discuss societal issues relating to text

Materials and Equipment


Smartboard
Computer with internet connection
Paper and colored pens/pencils

Pre-reading
Introduce ELLs to the epigraph on page 4 of the text.
Explain to the class that an epigraph is a phrase or quotation that stands between the title and
the text indicating the leading idea or connects the work to the larger literary theme (Sagner,
2012).
Remind ELLs of the meaning of metaphor: A figure of speech which makes an implicit, im-
plied or hidden comparison between two things that are unrelated but share some common
characteristics (Literary Devices, 2016). Example: It is raining cats and dogs. Cats and
dogs do not literally pour from the sky; there is simply
an abundance of cats and dogs.

Reading Assignment
Select an ELL to read the epigraph out loud to the class.

Writing Assignment
ELLs are to write an essay about what the passage means in the context of the novel.

Activity
Bring the class back together and present the video summary of the Book of Job. https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=7z7IlCoaa8k
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !28

Ask ELLs to expand on their previous free write for another 2-3 minutes incorporating what
they watched in the video.
Project the images on the smartboard.

http://www.slideshare.net/vjmartin/por-5-problemofevil-sum08

Ask ELLs to use a blank piece of paper and respond to the following question by creating a
drawing or illustration: Using knowledge from the video and lesson 2, what are the
metaphors when comparing the Book of Job to Native Son? Who or what encompasses the
role of Satan in Native Son? of God? of Job?
Scaffold the activity by explaining the connection between Bigger and Job. As a class,
create an illustration using the smartboard that depicts Bigger physically and emotionally.
Job and Bigger have free will.
Job and Bigger face hardships and injustice.
Bigger lashes out. Job does not.
Provide ELLs with 20 minutes to complete their drawings. Remind them that there are no
wrong answers and that the drawing should reflect their interpretation of the two stories.
The teacher guides ELLs logic during this time.

Closure
The class comes back together, and volunteers present their drawings
The class discusses ELLs drawings and interpretations of the text and characters.

Evaluation
How well the writing assignment relates the epigraph to the novel. Graded on content and
grammar (50 points).
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !29

References
Literary Devices. (2016). Metaphor definition. Retrieved from http://literarydevices.net/
metaphor/
Sagner, R. (2012, Dec 6). Do epigraphs matter?. New Republic. [Website].
Retrieved from https://newrepublic.com/article/110640/art-epigraph-how-great-books-
begin-rosemary-ahern
Wright, R. (2005). Native Son. New York, NY: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !30

LESSON PLAN
Native Son - Richard Wright

Lesson 9

Learning Objectives
Fluency To assist teachers in increasing ELLs rate of speech by providing them with the
vocabulary for a topic, background information on the topic, an opportunity to think critically
about the topic, and allowing students opportunities to speak without interruption or correc-
tion, lowering their affective filter
Accuracy To enable teachers to increase ELLs precision of speech by helping them identify
their mistakes and self-correct them by teaching ELLs common grammar used in conversa-
tion.

Materials and Equipment


Smartboard
Computer with internet connection
Dictionaries
Nambi Kelleys and Samuel French Native Son excerpts

Activity #1
Using the smartboard and the link, the teacher leads a discussion of the differences between
spoken and written English http://www2.wmin.ac.uk/eic/learning-skills/literacy
sp_vs_writ_dif.shtml.

Activity #2
Introduce the class to dramatic excerpts from Native Son.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N0wXcPdNj3U
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=anQH_dxcseo Fear
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fUGK_C7zmhU Flight
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ulumnk_jPWM Fate
http://www.stagechannel.com/video.php?ebc=tilJCywRWf

Activity #3
Assign roles (seven male, four female) and read the excerpts. The teacher may need to scaf-
fold a dramatic reading for ELLs. The purpose of the activity is to demonstrate the differences
between writing and speaking and also to show the differences between individuals of different
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !31

cultures, race, social status, and education speaking to one another. Use the script links listed
in the reference section.

Evaluation
Participation in the dramatic reading of excerpts from Native Son (50 points).

References
Samual French. (2016). Native Son (Revised). [Website]. Retrieved from http://
www.samuelfrench.com/p/7566/native-son-revised
National New Play Network. (2016). Native Son by Nambi Kelley. [Website]. Retrieved from
https:// newplayexchange.org/plays/27553/native-son
Wright, R. (2005). Native Son. New York, NY: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !32

LESSON PLAN
Native Son - Richard Wright

Lesson 10

Learning Objectives
Group interaction and discussion where ELLs speak freely and contribute
Acquire topic related vocabulary
Use background knowledge for critical thinking
Develop fluency by leading group discussions
Discuss societal issues relating to text

Materials and Equipment


Smartboard
Computer with internet connection
Dictionaries

Activity #1
Book Three Vocabulary Quiz (same format as Books One and Two).

Activity #2
Before class begins, have all of the previously assigned vocabulary words written on the
smartboard. The teacher provides a definition or the vocabulary word in a sentence. Divide
the class into two teams, the class competes to determine which team can answer the most vo-
cabulary words correctly.

Activity #3
Ask ELLs to write the vocabulary words that are read aloud. As an assignment ELLs are to use
all of those vocabulary words in a composition relating to Native Son.

Evaluation
Vocabulary Quiz (50 points).
Vocabulary word composition related to Native Son and correct grammar (50 points).

References
Wright, R. (2005). Native Son. New York, NY: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !33

LESSON PLAN
Native Son - Richard Wright

Lessons 11 & 12

Learning Objectives
Group interaction and discussion where ELLs speak freely and contribute
Acquire topic related vocabulary
Use background knowledge for critical thinking
Develop fluency by leading group discussions
Discuss societal issues relating to text

Materials and Equipment


Smartboard
Computer with internet connection

Activity #1
View Native Son (1986) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KtvlVtTA3F0 in two class ses-
sions.

Closure
Discuss the differences between the book and the film. Write a one-page essay due after lesson
12.

Evaluation
Essay describing the differences between the book and the movie. Grade on observed differ-
ences (Mary and the furnace) and general comprehension of the story. Also grade on grammar
(50 points).

References
Wright, R. (2005). Native Son. New York, NY: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !34

Lesson Plans The Pulley - George Herbert

http://www.eng-literature.com/2015/11/pulley-normal-0-false-false-false-en-us.html
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !35

LESSON PLAN
The Pulley - George Herbert

Lesson 1

Assignment before class


Read about the life of George Herbert https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poet/george-herbert.
Read the assigned poem The Pulley, by George Herbert (Herbert, 1976, p. 165 or https://
www.poets.org/poetsorg/poem/pulley.)
Practice reading the poem both silently and out loud.
Paraphrase each line or sentence of the poem for literal meaning.
Write down any words, phrases, or lines that need clarification.

Learning Objectives
ELLs will improve the skills of reading comprehension, interpretation, and criticism of the
poem and vocabulary.
ELLs will gain confidence in their ability to decipher and interpret a poem.
ELLs will gain experience at collaborating with other students and helping one another (scaf-
folding) to understand and interpret a common text.
Through writing, ELLs will develop the skills of close analysis of the words of a poem as
well as reflection on the larger meaning and significance of the poem as a whole.
By reflecting on the presentation and assignment, ELLs will gain insight into the benefits of
reading and interpreting texts with other ELLs.
Ells will learn the cultural language of the 17th-century.

Materials
Smartboard
Dictionaries
Paper and writing utensils

Literary Terms
Conceit is a figure of speech where two vastly different objects are likened together by using
similes or metaphors (Literary Devices, 2016). In the 3rd stanza rest, a conceit extends the
metaphor.
Allegory is a figure of speech in which abstract ideas and principles are described in terms of
characters, figures and events. It can be employed in prose and poetry to tell a story with a
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !36

purpose of teaching an idea and a principle or explaining an idea or a principle. The objective
of its use is to preach some kind of a moral lesson (Literary Devices, 2016).

Close Reading of the Poem


Introduce ELLs to the process of close reading for literary analysis http://writing.wisc.edu/
Handbook/CloseReading.html.
1. Annotate. Read with a pencil in hand, and annotate the text.
2. Look for patterns in the text - repetitions, contradictions, similarities.
3. Ask questions about the patterns - how and why.
Scaffold close reading through:
Shared reading
Interactive read aloud
Literature circles
Questioning the author

Procedure
ELLs, in groups, will use the class period to analyze the poem. Each group will then present
their poem to the class. The teacher will rotate among the groups.

Groups
For the presentation (lesson 2), one group member will read the poem out loud to the
class and practice reading the poem out loud to the group.
ELLs discuss the meaning of the poem and share what they did and did not understand.
Provide dictionaries so ELLs can look up words they do not know. Ask ELLs to combine
the paraphrases they wrote before class to create a group paraphrase of the poem. One
member of the group should write the paraphrase down to share with the class. Include
any words or phrases the group cannot define or interpret.
Groups are to reflect on the meaning of the poem and how Herbert accomplishes this.
Explain to the class that Herbert intentionally gave his poems a certain poetic form, and
this form is significant. Ask one person to take notes for the group and to explain the
meaning of the poem to the class.
Discussion of George Herbert (Timeline http://www.luminarium.org/sevenlit/herbert/
herbtime.htm.)
George Herbert (1593-1633) comes from a noble family from Montgomery,
Wales.
Throughout his life, he wrote religious poems
Wrote with precision and ingenious use of imagery.
Ametaphysical poet a style that uses unusual similes and metaphors.
Word Notes & Glossary http://www.eng-literature.com/2015/11/pulley-normal-0-false-
false-false-en-us.html
Discuss the themes of the poem.
Gods love for mankind. He has blessed man with many gifts but withholds the
gift of rest.
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !37

Mans dependency on God.


Mans perpetual state of restlessness, anxiety, and worry.
Structure
The poem is rhythmic with an alternating rhyme scheme.

Closure
Explain the procedure for the next class period and the writing assignment due during lesson 2.

Writing Assignment:
Using the notes taken in class, write a commentary for The Pulley by writing endnote citations
to:
Define and explain any difficult words.
Describe words that were used differently in the 17th-century.
Define words that have multiple meanings.
Describe words that are a metaphor, allegory, or metaphysical conceit.
Describe the mood or tone of the poem.
Explain Herbert's personal life.
Explain words that require a theological or cultural background to be understood.
Describe how the title of the poem expresses the poem's meaning. Reflect the group project
and writing assignment and how the experience influenced an understanding of the poem.

References
Herbert, G. (1976). The Poems of George Herbert. New York, NY: AMS Press Inc.
Literary Devices. (2016). Literary devices. [Website]. Retrieved from http://literarydevices.net/
conceit/
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !38

LESSON PLAN
The Pulley - George Herbert

Lesson 2

Assignment before class


Review and rehearse for the group presentations.
Listen to a recording of a reading of The Pulley:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uzz7N1l67JE
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cmp8FIGk5Bs

Learning Objective:
Fluency - ELLs will gain experience at public speaking and explaining a work of literature
orally.

Procedure
Provide each group with 10 minutes to read and present their poem. Other ELLs will have 5
minutes to ask the group questions about their interpretation of the poem at the end.

1. Provide ELLs 5 minutes to finalize their presentation.


2. The group presenting will:
Read the poem out loud to the class
Paraphrase the poem noting any confusing or difficult words or lines.
Explain what the poem means and how the meaning is revealed through the use of
metaphors, conceit, or allegory.
Explain the significance of the poem.
3. Provide time for the class to ask questions and the group to respond.

Closure
Discuss if this approach influenced their understanding of the poem.

Grading Rubric for The Pulley Writing Assignment and presentation (100 points):
Does the ELLs presentation demonstrate preparation?
Does the presentation indicate that the ELL participated in the group and reflected on the
meaning of the poem? For the writing assignment?
Do the endnote citations define and explain any 17th-century vocabulary?
Do the endnotes explain words with more than one meaning?
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !39

Do the endnotes explain any metaphors, metaphysical conceit, or allegory in the poem?
Do the endnotes include words that reveal the mood or tone of the poem?
Do the endnotes describe any details from Herbert's personal life that explain the
meaning of a word or phrase?
Do the endnotes explain any theological concepts or cultural background to understand vocab-
ulary words?
Does the paragraph explain how the title of the poem expresses the poem's meaning?
Does the paragraph include the significance of the poem in Herbert's life?

USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !40

References

Course Crafters, I. (2011). Teaching English language learners : practical articles by educators

from the ELL outlook. Haverhill, MA: Course Crafters. Retrieved from http://

eds.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/ebookviewer/ebook/ZTAwMHhuYV9fNDA1NjAxX19BTg2?

sid=3c20f123-1ef5-4d07-972d-37b56dc26e6d@sessionmgr4001&vid=0&format=

EB&rid=1

Cummins, J. (2003). Reading and the bilingual students: Fact and friction. In G. G. Garcia (Ed.),

English learners: reaching the highest level of English literacy, 2-33. Newark, DE:

International Reading Association.

Fatiloro, O. F. (2015). Tackling the challenges of teaching English language as second language

(ESL) in Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME), 5(2),

26-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.9790/7388-05212630

Khatib, M. (2011). Some recommendations for integrating literature into EFL/ESL classrooms.

International Journal of English Linguistics, 1(2), 258-263. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/

ijel.v1n2p258

Larnedu. (2016). WASSCE / WAEC literature in English syllabus. Retrieved from

http://www.larnedu.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/WASSCE-WAEC-Literature-In-

English-Syllabus.pdf

Lightbown, P.M. & Spada, N. (2013). How languages are learned (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford

University Press.
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !41

SavilleTroike, M. (2012). Introducing second language acquisition (2nd ed.). New York:

Cambridge University Press.

Sotiloye, B. S., Bodunde, H., Olayemi, O. (2015). English language prepositions: An Albatross

for English language learners in Nigeria. International Journal of English and Literature,

6(6), 103 - 108. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJEL2015.0783


USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !42

Appendix A

Introductory Guide to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR)

for English Language Teachers

http///

www.englishprofile.org/images/pdf/GuideToCEFR.pdf
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !43

Appendix B

Syllabus Cambridge IGCSE Literature

http://www.cie.org.uk/images/203901-2017-2018-syllabus.pdf
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !44

Appendix C

Cambridge English: Skills for Life - Speaking and Listening

http://www.cambridgeenglish.org/images/182483-cambridge-english-esol-skills-for-life-2015-handbook.pdf
USING LITERARY TEXTS FOR ESL !45

Appendix D

WASSCE / WAEC English Language (alternative b) Syllabus (for candidates in the Gambia,
Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Liberia only)

http://www.larnedu.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/WASSCE-WAEC-English-Language-_Alternative-B_Syllabus-For-Candidates-In-The-
Gambia-Nigeria-Sierra-Leone-And-Liberia-Only.pdf