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Exer 4: Nutrient Procurement Respiratory System (have Transport via Xylem

and Processing and Gas requirements 1. Respiratory Root pressure theory- guttation
Exchange in Plants and surface 2.moist 3.protecting the pressure
Animals organ 4.transport of gases) Transpiration-tension-cohesion
Maintenance processes-nutrient Cockroach Tracheal sys.-spiracles, theory Transpiration-
procurement and processing taenidia, trachea evaporation to lose water- no
gas exchange Trachea- taenidia, water- get water from xylem-
internal transport and excretion trachedes,annular rings PULLING High SA, High TTCT
TOAD Lung sys.-nares, nasal (leafy plants)
Organisms based on mode of cavities, epiglottis, glottis, Light,air currents, temp, humidity
nutrition bronchi, lung, alveoli Translocation via Phloem (review
autotrophs (chemosynthetic or notes)
heterotrophs (absorptive or Internal transport and Excretion in
ingestive) Exer 5: Transport and Animal
Excretion in Plants and Circulatory system
Plants *root-mineral and water Animals Cockroach- 3 hemocoels
*leaves; lenticels Internal transport(essential) (1.sternal-nerve cords
*root-pneumatophores,hairs *distribution of necessary 2.perivisceral-alimentary canal 3.
materials from site of synthesis to Pericardial-heart); aorta(anterior-
Animal *digestive 1. Incomplete- different parts *movement of most) and heart-walled; 13
gastrovascular cavity & mouth metabolic wastes to structures for hearts-10 abs with ostia
2. Complete-alimentary excretion (guarded by valves) [heart-aorta-
canal+mouth&anus 1&2-3-back to heart]
*respiratory (surfaces) Flowering plants-conducting
Aquatic-gills(evaginated) tissues- VASCULAR BUNDLES Toad (Refer to manual and
Terrestrial-invaginated *xylem *phloem handout)
1.tracheal(inv.) 2.lung(v.) *stem-primary organ for transport a. heart (pericardium 1V and 2A)
*wastes-by-products of b.arterial system
PLANT metabolism (ergastic substances)- c. venous system
Roots Monocot- epidermis,cortex, stored on vacuoles d.blood vessel
endodermis,pericycle, xylem, artery(ellipse shape- away) and
phloem,pith, Circulatory system-blood,heart(- vein (back)-lumen, tunica intima,
Dicot-Epidermis, cortex, like structure), blood vessels t. media, t. adventitia [vaso
endodermis , pericycle ,X&P Blood-transport fluid;delivers, vasorum]
(CROSS) carries, maintain e. lymphatic system-lymph fluid,
1. closed- well-defined vessels veins, capillaries [spleen]
Symplast- cell to cell via (arteries, veins, capillaries) Excretory system
plasmodesmata 2. open- absence of vessels but Cockroach- malphigian tubules
Apoplast- cell wall-cell wall(X with hemocoels (mesenteron and ileum)
endoderm) TOAD- urogenital (fat bodies,
Endodermis-regulate passage of Regulation of water balance kidney, tract, cloaca, urinary
W Contractile vacuoles-protozoans bladder, anus)
VasBun-xy,phl,vas sheath Nephridium-flatworms
Leaves Monocot-upper epidermis Malphigian tubules-insects
with cuticle ,buliform cells, Kidneys-vertebrates Exer 6: Chemical and Nervous
VasBun, lower epidermis, Control of Mechanisms in
mesophyll PLANTS(internal transport) Plants and Animals
Dicot- Upper, Palisade, VasBun, Monocot(Atactostele) epidermis, Responsiveness- ability to
Spongy, Lower epidermis, hypodermis (mechanical respond to stimuli
stomata support),ground tissue, VasBun, 1.Perception of stimulus 2.
CO2-stomatal pores-air (bundle sheath, phloem, metaX- Conductions of signals
spaces-mesophyll cells- new, lacuna, protoX-old) 3.Response
chloroplasts Dicot (Eustele)- epidermis,
hypodermis, cortex, VasBun Plants- chemical control by
Stomata-subsidiary cells, pore, (bundle sheath, phloem, growth-regulating substances
guard cells vasCAMBIUM, protoX, metaX), (growth regulators)
Epistomatic-upper only pith Tropisms-direction of stimuli
Hypostomatic-lower only Nastic movements-independent
Amphistomatic-both XYLEM- tracheid- narrower,
tapered Animals (neuroendocrine system)
ANIMAL Vessel elements-broad,perforated Hormones-chemical control
Digestive system-herbivores, at end (endocrine s.)
carnivores, omnivores PHLOEM-sieve tube elements-
1.food seekers 2.substrate broad, perforated at end(sieve Nervous S.
swallowers 3.filter-feeders plates)-dead at Ganglia (+nerve cords)-
Digestion,absorption,assimilation Companion cell-living cell invertebrates
Neurons-nervous control (Ca+)
Cockroach-mouth, Stem architecture (1.vascular Homeostasis
esophagus,salivary gland, crop, tissue arrangement/ 2.Stele Regulation of movt
gizzard, gastric ceca, SI, [enclosed cortex]) Coordination of body
mesenteron, malphigian tubules, 1. a. Alternate/radial functions
rectum anus b. collateral-isang beses lang (XP) CNS- brain and spinal cord
TOAD-mouth, tongue, c. bicollateral- sandwich (XPX) PNS-all other nervous tissues
pharynx,esophagus, liver, d.Concentric-
gallbladder, stomach, pancreas, amphivasal(P)/amhicribral(X) PLANT (plant-growth regulators)
SI, LI (colon), cloaca, anus 2. a. a. auxins- indole acetic acid
protostele(haplo,action,plecto) b. cytokinins c. gibberellins d.
Small intestine-lumen, villus, b. abscissic acid e. ethylene
tunica mucosa, t. submucosa, siphonostele(ectophloic/amphiphl
stratum circulare, s. longitudinale oic) ANIMAL
(2s.=t muscularis), t.serosa c.dictyostele Chemical Control- endocrine
Villus-absorptive area d.eustele- occurs on 1b or 1c glands
e.atactostele-scattered VasBun a. hypothalamus b. thyroid c.
pituitary d. parathyroid e. adrenal
cortex and medulla g.pancreas h. Atlas(1st), postzygapophysis, a favorite of both monarchs.
ovary i. testis typical trunk vertebra(2nd-8th), Indeed, James granted
Nervous control- neurons/nerve sacral vertebra(9th), urostyle(10th) Shakespeare's company the
cells synapse (perikaryon, greatest possible compliment by
nucleus, axon, dendrite) [cross- endowing them with the status of
section endoneurium, king's players. Wealthy and
Pectoral girdle-clavicle,
perineurium, epineurium] renowned, Shakespeare retired to
suprascapula, scapula, coracoid,
Stratford, and died in 1616 at the
epicoracoid, glenoid fossa
Nervous System Cockroach- age of fifty-two. At the time of
cerebral ganglion, subesophageal Shakespeare's death, such
ganglion, thoracic ganglia and luminaries as Ben Jonson hailed
osmosternum, mesostermun,
nerves(first 3), abdominal ganglia him as the apogee of Renaissance
and nerves(next 3), double theatre.
Pelvic girdle-ischium, pubis, aceta
TOADa. Brain- olfactory nerve, Shakespeare's works were
bulum, ilium
lobe, sagittal fissure (optic nerve collected and printed in various
and chiasma), (infundibulum, editions in the century following
Anterior limb- phalanges,
pituitary gland) cerebrum, his death, and by the early
metacarpals, centrale, radiale,
midbrain, pineal body, optic lobe, eighteenth century his reputation
ulnare, radio-ulna, longitudinale
cerebellum, medulla as the greatest poet ever to write
groove, condyle, humerus, deltoid
oblongata(spinal cord) in English was well established.
ridge, head
The unprecedented admiration
SomaticNS(voluntary) and garnered by his works led to a
Posterior limb-femur, tibio-fibula,
AutonomicNS(independent)-para/ fierce curiosity about
tibiale tarsals, metatarsals,
Sympathetic [brachial plexus, Shakespeare's life; but the
spinal nerves, sciatic plexus] paucity of surviving biographical
Muscular Sys. Smooth-fusiform, information has left many details
Sense Organs-Eye- conjunctiva, of Shakespeare's personal history
uninucleated, w/o striations,
cornea, anterior chamber with shrouded in mystery. Some
aqueous humor, pupil, iris, lens, people have concluded from this
Cardiac- [long
posterior chamber with vitreous fact that Shakespeare's plays in
humor, fovea, retina, optic nerve, reality were written by someone
uninucleated, w/ striations,
sclera, choroid elseFrancis Bacon and the Earl
Ear- tympanic membrane- of Oxford are the two most
columella, fenestra ovalis, popular candidatesbut the
multinucleated, w/ striations,
Eustachian tube evidence for this claim is
overwhelmingly circumstantial,
Abdomen Muscles-mylohyoid, and the theory is not taken
anterior pectorals, middle seriously by many scholars.
pectorals, posterior pectorals,
rectus abdominis, linea alba, In the absence of definitive proof
inscriptions tendinae, external to the contrary, Shakespeare
Exer 7: Body Framework and
oblique must be viewed as the author of
Movement in Animals
Exoskeleton-invertebrates (cuticle the 37 plays and 154 sonnets that
Posterior limb(Ventral)- Triceps bear his name. The legacy of this
and chitin)
femoris, vasts internus, Sartorius, body of work is immense. A
Endoskeleton vertebrates
aductor magnus, gracilis major, number of Shakespeare's plays
minor, extensor crucis, seem to have transcended even
Connective tissues: tendons(B-M)
gastrocnemius the category of brilliance,
Dorsal-rectus femoris anticus, becoming so influential as to
vastus externus, biceps femoris, affect profoundly the course of
Shape 1.long(epiphysis-spongy +
semimembranous, peroneus, Western literature and culture
diaphysis-compact) 2.Short 3.Flat
gastrocnemius ever after.
Muscular System-muscles- muscle Troilus and Cressida is one of
cells Shakespeare's later plays, written
Structure 1.striated 2.smooth Summary shortly after Hamlet (1600-01),
Function 1. Voluntary-conscious but before the other great
control 2.involuntary Likely the most influential writer tragedies. Composed around
1+1=skeletal 1+2=cardiac in all of English literature and 1602, it was probably performed
2+2=visceral m. certainly the most important in the winter of 1602-3, but no
playwright of the English record of the performance
TOAD (Skeletal Sys.) Renaissance, William Shakespeare survives, and the play itself was
Tissue organization in a V. Bone was born in 1564 in the town of not published in a collection for
Haversian canal, lamellae, lacuna, Stratford-upon-Avon in six more years. For these reasons,
osteocytes, canaliculi Warwickshire, England. The son of a number of critics have
a successful middle-class glove- suggested that it was performed
Bones of the dorsal surface of maker, Shakespeare attended only once, or not at allpossibly
skull grammar school, but his formal because some of the characters in
Premaxillae, nasal, spenethmoid, education proceeded no further. the Greek and Trojan armies were
front parietal, maxilla, orbital, In 1582, he married an older thinly disguised caricatures of
quadrojotugal, squamosal, woman, Anne Hathaway, and had contemporaries, either of other
proocties, exoccipital, occipital three children with her. Around playwrights or of members of King
condyle Foramen magnum 1590 he left his family behind and James's court.
traveled to London to work as an
Ventral surface of skull actor and playwright. Public and The genre classification of Troilus
Premaxillae, maxilla, palatine, critical success quickly followed, and Cressida has been in dispute
spenethmoid, quadrotojugal, and Shakespeare eventually from the beginning. Labeled a
parasephenoid, pterygoid became the most popular history play in an early folio, it
playwright in England and part bears superficial similarities to the
Bones of lower jaw- dentary, owner of the Globe Theater. His tragedies, but lacks much of the
mentomekelian, Angulo-spenial career bridged the reigns of typical tragic plot structure.
Elizabeth I (ruled 1558-1603) and Today,Troilus and Cressida is often
Vertebral column (10 vertebra)- James I (ruled 1603-1625); he was grouped with the so-called
"problem comedies" In Troy, the sons of King Priam Troilus - A prince of Troy. The
with Measure for debate whether it is worthwhile to younger brother of Hector and
Measure and All's Well That Ends continue the waror whether Paris, he is a valiant warrior and
Well. All three share a dark, bitter an honorable man. He is also
they should return Helen to the
wit and a pessimistic view of desperately in love with Cressida.
human relations that contrast Greeks and end the struggle. Cressida - A beautiful young
sharply with earlier, sunnier Hector argues for peace, but he is Trojan woman. The daughter of
comedies like Twelfth won over by the impassioned Calchas, a Trojan priest who
Night and As You Like It. Troilus, who wants to continue the defected to the Greek camp, she
struggle. In the Greek camp, becomes Troilus's lover.
Sources for the play include Thersites, Ajax's foul-mouthed Hector - A prince of Troy. The
classical mythology and greatest warrior on the Trojan side
slave, abuses everyone who
Homer's Iliad , which contains the and matched in might only by
crosses his path. His master, Achilles himselfhe is a hero to
Achilles-Hector story arc. The
meanwhile, has been honored by his entire city and is respected
romance of Troilus and Cressida is
derived from pseudo-Homeric the commanders over the sulking even by his enemies.
medieval sourcesand, of course, Achilles, and is to fight Hector the Ulysses - One of the Greek
from Chaucer's great fourteenth- next day. commanders. A highly intelligent,
century epic, Troilus and even philosophical man, he is
Criseyde. (Shakespeare, true to renowned for his cunning.
That night, Pandarus brings Troilus Pandarus - Cressida's uncle. He
form, used only the bare bones of
and Cressida together, and after serves as a go-between for Troilus
these stories for his play, and
emphasized the Elizabethan idea they pledge to be forever true to and Cressida, acting as a kind of
of Cressida's falseness over one another, he leads them to a cheerful, bawdy pimp for his
Chaucer's more sympathetic bedchamber to consummate their niece.
interpretation.) In reading Troilus Thersites - A deformed slave
love. Meanwhile, Cressida's
and Cressida, it is important to serving Ajax who has a vicious,
father, the treacherous Trojan abusive tongue.
remember the popularity of all priest Calchas, asks the Greek
these stories in Shakespeare's Achilles - The greatest of the
commanders to exchange a Trojan Greek warriors, he is also an
time. For the audience, the story
of Troy was a well-known one and prisoner for his daughter, so that arrogant, vicious thug, who
the events of the play, including he may be reunited with her. The refuses to fight in the war
the denouement, would have commanders agree, and the next whenever his pride is injured.
been expected from the Ajax - A Greek warrior, he is as
morningto Troilus and Cressida's
beginningCressida's treachery proud as Achilles, but less
dismaythe trade is made, and a intelligent and less skilled in
and Hector's death would have Greek lord named Diomedes leads battle.
been as predictable as the sinking
Cressida away from Troy. That Agamemnon - The Greek
of the Titanic is for moviegoers
today. afternoon, Ajax and Hector fight general, and the elder brother of
Characters to a draw, and after Hector and Menelaus.
Achilles exchange insults, Hector Diomedes - A Greek commander
who seduces Cressida.
In the seventh year of the Trojan and Troilus feast with the Greeks
Paris - A prince of Troy. His theft
War, a Trojan prince named Troilus under a flag of truce. As the camp of Menelaus's wife, Helen,
falls in love with Cressida, the goes to bed, Ulysses leads Troilus precipitated the Trojan War.
daughter of a Trojan priest who to the tent of Calchas, where the Menelaus - A Greek commander,
has defected to the Greek side. Trojan prince watches from hiding Agamemnon's brother, and the
as Cressida agrees to become abandoned husband of Helen.
Troilus is assisted in his pursuit of
Diomedes's lover. Helen - Menelaus's wife. Her
her by Pandarus, Cressida's uncle. elopement with Paris led to the
Meanwhile, in the Greek camp, Trojan War.
the Greek general, Agamemnon, The next day, in spite of unhappy Calchas - A Trojan priest, and
wonders why his commanders premonitions from his wife, sister, Cressida's father. He defected to
seem so downcast and and his father, Hector takes the the Greeks in the early days of
field, and a furious and the war.
pessimistic. The wise and crafty
Aeneas - A Trojan commander.
Ulysses informs him that the heartbroken Troilus accompanies
Nestor - The oldest of the Greek
army's troubles spring from a lack him. The Trojans drive the Greeks commanders.
of respect for authority, brought back, but Patroclus is killed, which Cassandra - A Trojan princess
about by the behavior of Achilles, brings a vengeful Achilles back and prophetess; she is considered
the greatest Greek warrior, who into the war, finally. Achilles is mad.
refuses to fight and instead unable to defeat Hector in single Patroclus - A Greek warrior.
combat, but he later catches him Achilles's best friendand, it is
spends his time sitting in his tent
suggested, his lover.
with his comrade (and lover) unarmed and, together with a
Priam - The king of Troy, and
Patroclus, mocking his superiors. gang of Greek warriors, the father of Hector, Paris, and
Shortly thereafter, a challenge to slaughters him. Achilles then Troilus, among others.
single combat arrives from Prince drags Hector's body around the Antenor - A Trojan commander,
Hector, the greatest Trojan walls of Troy, and the play ends he is exchanged for Cressida after
warrior, and Ulysses decides to with the Trojan warriors retreating his capture by the Greeks.
to the city to mourn their fallen Helenus - A prince of Troy.
have Ajax, a headstrong fool, fight
Andromache - Hector's wife.
Hector instead of Achilles, in the hero.
hopes that this snub will wound
Achilles's pride and bring him Act I, Scenes i-ii
back into the war.