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1.1 Introduction

Level 2 laboratory activities refer to the condition where only the problem is guided and given.
Students are required to find the ways & means and provide the answers to the given assignment
using the group creativity and innovativeness. The activity will enable the students to appreciate
independent learning and prepare them for a much harder task of open ended laboratory

In this laboratory activity students will be exposed to the apparatus and appropriate methods to
carry out the hydraulic parameters in uniform flow for open channels.

1.2 Objective

The objective of the test is:

To determine the coefficient of discharge (Cd) through a broad crested weir.

1.3 Learning Outcomes

At the end of the laboratory activities, students would be able to:

1. Identify and use the correct apparatus/tools to carry out test to determine hydraulic
parameters in uniform flow for open channels.
2. Analyse the collected data correctly and present in proper technical format.
3. Work in group to undertake the task and produce the technical report

1.4 Theoretical Background

Weirs are typically installed in open channels such as streams to determine discharge (flow rate).
The basic principle is that discharge is directly related to the water depth (h) is known as the
head. Broad- crested weirs, also called long-weirs, have crest lengths that are significantly longer
than sharp-crested weirs. These weirs are usually constructed of concrete, have rounded edges,
and are capable of handling much larger discharges than sharp-crested weirs. There are several
different designs of broad-crested, of which the rectangular weir can be considered
representative. A weir is a device used for measurement of flow in open channels and rivers. It is
nothing but a partial obstruction placed across the flow in the channel causing the liquid to back
up, upstream of the obstruction and then flow over it. When the liquid flows over the weir the
depth of flow above the crest level of the weir bears a relationship with the discharge over it.
Thus the discharge through an open channel can be obtained by the measurement of a single
parameter like the head of liquid above the crest of the weir.

A nappe is the sheet of water which passes through the notch and falls over the weir crest. When
the downstream water surface is far enough below the crest to allow air to circulate beneath the
nappe, the flow or drop is to be free or critical. If air does not freely circulate beneath the nappe,
then the flow is submerged or subcritical. Weirs are calibrated for free-flow conditions and, thus,
submerged flow conditions are not desirable and can result in erroneous readings. Figure 3.1:
Details description of critical flow over a broad crested weir

Figure 3.1: Details description of critical flow over a broad crested weir

Qtheoretical =1.705 B H

Qactual =

Qact =Cd .Qtheoretical

2.0 Problem Statement

A weir is said to be broad crested if its crest spans all the way across the width of the channel and
has substantial crest length along the direction of flow. The length of the crest should be greater
than three times the maximum head under which the weir is to be operating, so as to ensure that
the streamlines become parallel to the surface of the crest and the underside of the nappe adheres
to the weir crest throughout its length. The upstream edge of the weir is well rounded to prevent
the separation of flow and eddy formation so as to minimize the loss of energy.

In this laboratory activity, the group is required to perform tests on the determination of
coefficient discharge (Cd) through a broad crested weir.

3.1 Apparatus
Stop watch, broad crested weir apparatus

3.2 Procedures
1. A broad crested weir was installed to the height of 5 cm (z) in the channel
2. The pump was switched on and the flow rate was adjusted so that the critical flow was
obtained over the weir
3. The actual discharge was measured at flow rate using the flow meter attached to the flume by
taking a time of a certain volume of water.
4. The depth was measured in the channel upstream of the weir
5. The above procedures was repeated for two more different flow rates
6. The height of weir was increased to 10 cm in the channel and repeated all the above
3.3 Data Acquisition
Height of weir, Z = 0.05m Width of flume, B = 0.10m
QTheo ( m

Depth upstream, D Time, t ( s) Cd

No. H=DZ
(m) (s) 3
m /s ) Q act

1 0.070 0.020 115 4.82 104 8.70 104 1.80

3 3
2 0.0940 0.044 42 1.57 10 2.38 10 1.52

3 0.100 0.050 36 1.91 103 2.78 103 1.46

Height of weir, Z = 0.10m Width of flume, B = 0.10m

QTheo ( m3
Depth upstream, D Time, t ( s) Cd
No. H=DZ
(m) (s) 3
m /s ) Q act

1 0.125 0.025 73 6.74 104 1.37 103 2.03

2 0.135 0.035 53 1.12 103 1.89 103 1.69

3 3
3 0.148 0.048 36 1.79 10 2.78 10 1.55

Q Theoretical=1.705 B H 2

Qactual =

Qact =Cd .QTheoretical

C d=

For height of weir, Z = 0.05m


1. Q Theoretical=1.705 0.05 0.020 =4.82104 m3 /s


0.1 m 3
Qactual = =8.70 104 m3 /s
115 s

8.70 104 m3 / s
C d= =1.80
4.82 104 m3 / s

2. Q Theoretical=1.705 0.05 0.044 2 =1.57 103 m3 / s

Qactu al = =2.38 103 m3 /s
42 s

2.38 103 m3 /s
C d= =1.52
1.57 103 m3 /s

3. Q Theoretical=1.705 0.05 0.050 2 =1.91 103 m3 /s

0.1 m3
Qactual = =2.78 103 m3 / s
36 s

2.78 103 m3 /s
C d= =1.46
1.91 103 m3 /s
For height of weir, Z = 0.10m

1. Q Theoretical=1.705 0.10 0.025 2 =6.74 104 m 3 /s

0.1 m 3
Qactual = =1.37 103 m3 /s
73 s

1.37 103 m3 /s
C d= =2.03
6.74 104 m3 /s

2. Q Theoretical=1.705 0.10 0.035 2 =1.12 103 m3 /s

0.1 m3
Qactual = =1.89 103 m3 / s
53 s

1.89 103 m3 /s
C d= =1.69
1.12 103 m3 / s

3. Q Theoretical=1.705 0.10 0.048 2 =1.79 103 m 3 /s

0.1 m
Qactual = =2.78 103 m3 / s
36 s

2.78 103 m3 /s
C d= 3 3
1.79 10 m /s

4.0 Discusion

Broad crested weirs are robust structures that are generally constructed from reinforced concrete
and which usually span the full width of the channel. They are used to measure the discharge of
rivers, and are much more suited for this purpose than the relatively flimsy sharp crested weirs.
Additionally, by virtue of being a critical depth meter, the broad crested weir has the advantage
that operates effectively with higher downstream water levels than a sharp crested weir.
From the experiment, we get the coefficient of discharge (Cd) by using formula

Qact volume
C d= Qact QTheoretical=0.1705 BH 3/ 2 . The
QTheoretical , where = time and

discharge(Cd) were decrease when the depth upstream (D) were increase. For example, D = 0.07,
Cd = 1.80 and D = 0.094, Cd = 1.52. We take the Cd with two different height of weir and we
repeat two more different flow rats for each height of weir.
During experiment, the error we had found is parallax error for height D when we take the
reading, our eyes is not 90 degree to water level. To overcome this error the eyes must be 90
degree to the water level to get the accurate value of depth upstream (D).

5.0 Conclusion

Based on this experiment, the main objective is to determine the coefficient of discharge
(Cd) through a broad crested weir. In conclusion, it was noted that a large discrepancy between
the flow rate of theoretical and flow rate of experimental values occurred. This was because of
the different velocity of the water while conduct in the experiment compared to the theoretical

value which was using the formula given 1.705 BH . There are some error take place during

the experiment was carried out which could give effect to the data obtained to get the coefficient
of discharge (Cd). Firstly, error due to the observer of parallax error. This is most likely due to
errors in measurement or the depth of upstream (D). Thus, to overcome this error, the eye of the
observer must be 90o perpendicular to the measurement in order to get an accurate result. To get


the value coefficient of discharge (Cd) the equation was Qtheoretical . Next, the

disturbance due to the water and air also can affect the measurement taken. Thus, to overcome
this error, the experiment should being done in ideal condition so that an accurate measurement
will be obtained.




Figure 4.0 : Measure the height water

Figure 4.1 : Open the valve

Figure 4.3 : Height of weir

Figure 4.4 : volume meter and stop watch