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3, MAY/JUNE 2014

Wind Turbine Model Development

Shih-Yu Yang, Yuan-Kang Wu, Member, IEEE, Huei-Jeng Lin, and Wei-Jen Lee, Fellow, IEEE

AbstractThis paper focuses mainly on the development of a the phase-locked loop (PLL) [5] is usually used in the doubly

completed typical doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind fed induction system to track the phase of the grid voltage and

turbine model. It includes the interaction between mechanical and the flux of the stator.

electrical parts. In the mechanical part, the aerodynamic of the

wind turbine blade was analyzed by the XFOIL. With the proper- The control method for classical DFIG wind turbines is usu-

ties of the blade, the model was established by the fatigue, aero- ally based on the stator voltage-oriented vector control or the

dynamics, structures, and turbulence (FAST) in the MATLAB/ stator flux-oriented vector control [6][9]. The main drawback

Simulink. The DFIG electrical model was constructed by using for these control schemes is that their performances rely highly

mathematical equations in MATLAB/Simulink that integrates on the tuning of the parameters of the proportional-integral (PI)

with the FAST. In the DFIG, the space vector is applied in the ac

machine to represent the flux, voltage, and current magnitudes. controller. Therefore, the direct control methods such as direct

The grid-side converter stabilized the voltage at the dc bus, and power control, direct current control, and direct torque control

the rotor-side inverter directly controls the electric torque in the (DTC) were proposed subsequently [10][13]. The operation of

generator. Currently, most research articles model the mechanical the DFIG system under distorted grid conditions was discussed

and the electrical parts of the wind turbine separately. In this in [14][17].

paper, both systems were discussed in detail and integrated into

a complete model for the DFIG-based wind turbine system. On the mechanical part, blade element momentum (BEM)

theory is one of the most commonly used methods for calcu-

Index TermsAerodynamic, doubly fed induction generator lating induced velocity on wind turbine blades [18]. The BEM

(DFIG), fatigue, aerodynamics, structures, and turbulence (FAST),

space factor, XFOIL. originally designed by William Froude (1878), David W. Taylor

(1893), and Stefan Drzewiecki was proposed to determine the

I. I NTRODUCTION behavior of propellers. In recent years, the National Renewable

Energy Laboratory (NREL) in the USA has also carried out

reau of Energy proposed a plan entitled Thousand Wind

Turbines Project in 2012. The target of this project is to install

many research works on the wind turbine blade and developed

some codes such as the abbreviation of fatigue, aerodynamics,

structures, and turbulence (FAST) [19] and AeroDyn [20], [21].

450 onshore and 600 offshore wind generators by 2030. Before FAST is a code that is used to simulate the wind turbine

starting the wind power promotion project, it is important to structure. AeroDyn is a subcode in the FAST; it can be used

investigate their potential impact on the system with an accurate on the simulation with the wind data and the aerodynamic

wind turbine model. properties of the blade shape. The codes in AeroDyn and FAST

A wind turbine includes two main parts: the mechanical and can be linked together. In this paper, the aerodynamic properties

the electrical parts. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)- are established by the XFOIL [22].

based wind turbine is the most popular wind turbine nowadays Most of the papers did not consider the modeling for the

owing to its capability on variable-speed operation. In the DFIG whole wind turbine system. Since there are interactions be-

system, the stability on the voltage of the dc bus is significant. tween the mechanical and electrical systems, the complete

There are many studies regarding the control of dc-bus voltage model should consist of mechanical and electrical parts. There-

[1][4] by using the grid-side converter (GSC). Additionally, fore, in this paper, the mechanical and the electrical models in

a DFIG wind turbine will be considered together, in which the

Manuscript received June 8, 2013; revised August 17, 2013; accepted FAST is used in the simulation on the mechanical part and the

October 12, 2013. Date of publication October 25, 2013; date of current version DTC is used for the generator control. With the combination

May 15, 2014. Paper 2013-ESC-217.R1, presented at the 2013 IEEE Industry of both systems, the simulation would be more complete and

Applications Society Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, USA, October 611, and

approved for publication in the IEEE T RANSACTIONS ON I NDUSTRY A PPLI - realistic.

CATIONS by the Energy Systems Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications

Society. This work was supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan

under Grant NSC 101-2221-E-194-064. II. M ECHANICAL M ODEL AND I TS S IMULATION

S.-Y. Yang and H.-J. Lin are with National Taiwan University, Taipei 106,

Taiwan (e-mail: f00525016@ntu.edu.tw; hjlin@ntu.edu.tw). The complete model of the wind turbine should consider not

Y.-K. Wu is with National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan

(e-mail: allenwu@ccu.edu.tw). only the generator modeling but also the aerodynamic modeling

W.-J. Lee is with the University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 that depends on the shape of the blade. However, most of the

USA (e-mail: wlee@uta.edu). studies on the simulation of variable-speed generators did not

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. consider the blade of a wind turbine or only use a simple

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIA.2013.2287308 transfer function to represent the characteristics of the blade.

0093-9994 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.

See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

YANG et al.: INTEGRATED MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL DFIG WIND TURBINE MODEL DEVELOPMENT 2091

considered on the modeling of the wind turbine. Fig. 2. Relation among wind speed, rotor speed, and the relative speed

FAST has been used to simulate the characteristic for the between wind speed and rotor on the blade cross section.

blade of a wind turbine in recent years. With the AeroDyn

included in the FAST, the 3-D aerodynamics of the whole blade

can be calculated. The detailed procedure for the simulation

will be explained in the following sections.

Turbine System

FAST is a tool that can be used to simulate the structure anal-

ysis of a wind turbine blade, particularly for the horizontal type

wind turbine. Although FAST has a relative primitive user inter-

face, it has high computational efficiency and yields compatible

results. In this paper, AeroDyn in the FAST is used to simulate

the aerodynamic of the blade. With the calculation of the aero- Fig. 3. Relation among the FL , FD , and Vwind_rotor .

dynamic, the rotor speed of the wind turbine can be determined.

The simulation structure of the FAST is illustrated in Fig. 1.

Data for describing the mechanical property of the blades,

tower, furling, and platform can be defined in each indepen-

dent file. FAST is already constructed in a block inside the

MATLAB/Simulink program, and the AeroDyn is another code Fig. 4. Shape for the blade type S818/S825/S826.

that can be linked to the FAST.

AeroDyn is the most important file to simulate the mechan-

B. XFOIL for Calculating the Aerodynamic Property of the

ical part of the wind turbine in this work. It can calculate the

Wind Turbine Blade

aerodynamic lift, drag, and pitching moment of airfoil blades

by using the BEM. According to the theory of BEM, the blade CL and CD are the most important parameters in the wind

of the wind turbine is modeled as a two-dimension airfoil. turbine system to describe the aerodynamic property of the

Fig. 2 shows the relative speed on the cross section of the blade. With a chosen airfoil, the CL and CD can be calcu-

blade. In the figure, Vwind is the vector of the wind speed, lated by using several simulation tools, such as FLUENT and

Vrotor_blade is the vector of speed on the cross section of the XFOIL. They belong to the finite element simulation tools for

blade, Vwind_rotor is the vector of the relative speed between the fluid analysis. In this paper, XFOIL was utilized to calculate

the wind turbine rotor cross section and the wind, is the angle the CL and CD .

of attack, is the angle across the chord line and trajectory of The XFOIL can accurately calculate the pressure coefficient

the blade, and is the local inflow angle. Cp on the cross section of the airfoil; afterward, the CL and

With the chosen airfoil, the CD (drag coefficient) and CL CD can be calculated. In the XFOIL, the Reynolds number and

(lift coefficient) can be determined on the basis of different the Mach number are two essential numbers to determine these

Reynolds numbers and the relative speeds. In fluid mechanics, coefficients.

the Reynolds number is a dimensionless number that gives The Reynolds number depends on the wind speed and rotor

a measure of the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces; it speed. The Vrotor_blade can be expressed as

consequently quantifies the relative importance of these two

types of forces for different flow conditions. The lift force FL Vrotor_blade = r (1)

and drag force FD on the blade cross section can be determined

by CL and CD , and the relation among the FL , FD , and where is the rotor speed and r is the distance between the

Vwind_rotor is shown in Fig. 3. cross section and the center of the hub. The Reynolds number

2092 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 50, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 2014

Fig. 7. DFIG-based wind turbine system.

and the Mach number are defined respectively as where Pm is the kinetic power of the blade related to the torque

15 C Vwind_rotor L T and rotational speed . With the length of the rotor and the

Re = (2) rotor speed, the tip speed ratio can be determined. Moreover,

15 C

in the optimization simulation, the wind speed is a constant

Vwind_rotor value; therefore, the Cp can be calculated by

Mach = (3)

C15 C = Rblade /Vwind (5)

Pm

where is the air density, L is the characteristic length of Cp = (6)

the blade, is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid, and C is the Pwind

sonic speed. The blade designed by the NREL was used in the where Rblade is the radius of the blade and Pwind is the wind

simulation. The airfoils in the blade include the type of S818, power. The simulation is based on the 11-m/s wind speed.

S825, and S826. The shape of the blade is plotted by using the With the constant wind speed and the controllable torque, the

MATLAB and shown in Fig. 4. rotor speed and the power under each value of torque were

Taking the calculation of S818 for example, when the angle calculated. The simulation result for the Cp curve is shown

of attack is zero, the result of the calculation for the shape of in Fig. 6. In the figure, the maximum value of the Cp is 47.9%

the blade is represented in Fig. 5, in which the blue and red as the tip speed ratio is 6.5.

Cp curves indicate respectively the pressure coefficient on the

top and bottom surfaces of the blade. The dashed line is the III. M ODEL OF A DFIG-BASED W IND T URBINE

distribution of the inviscid pressure coefficient. In this paper, A DFIG-based wind turbine is used in this work. Fig. 7 shows

the inviscid pressure was not discussed. the basic topology for a DFIG-based wind turbine system. Its

The XFOIL can calculate different angles of attack simul- stator directly connects to the grid, and the rotor indirectly con-

taneously and obtain the result. Although the calculation for nects to the grid by a back-to-back converter that includes the

all of the angles of attack is difficult, the NREL has made an rotor-side inverter (RSI) and GSC. There is a capacitor between

Excel file AirfoilPrep_v2.02.01 to handle it. In the file, many RSI and GSC. GSC controls the voltage of the capacitor by the

mathematical equations were used to find out the final result. grid; RSI controls the voltage of the rotor and then affects the

Based on these equations, all of the angles of attack can be flux of the rotor.

achieved.

A. Space Vector and Transformation Between

C. Cp Curve of the Chosen Blade and the Cp Optimization Reference Frames

The space vector is widely used in the three-phase electric

The Cp curve (efficiencytip speed ratio curve) in the

system and ac motors. With the Clark direct transformation,

wind turbine system can be determined when the type of blade

three-phase magnitude can directly be transformed into the

is chosen. To find the optimization point on the Cp curve in

complex plane that can clearly define the condition of the three-

the simulation, it is convenient to give a constant wind speed

phase system, including voltage, current, and flux. The Clark

and a controllable torque on the wind turbine rotor. Based on

direct transformation can be expressed as the following matrix:

the speed on the rotor and the controllable torque, the power of

the blade can be determined by 1 Xa

X 2 1 1

Xb

3

= 2 2 (7)

Pm = T (4)

X 3 0 2

3

2 Xc

YANG et al.: INTEGRATED MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL DFIG WIND TURBINE MODEL DEVELOPMENT 2093

Fig. 10. Equivalent circuit of the DFIG in any reference frame.

in the three-phase system. The three phases are represented by

the subscripts a, b, and c; and are the two components of Fig. 11. DFIG induction machine block diagram.

the realimaginary complex plane: is the real part, and

is the imaginary part. With the transformation matrix (7), the B. DFIG Model

balanced three-phase magnitude can be represented as a space DFIGs consist of three-phase windings on both the stator and

vector in a plane. Because the angle between each phase in rotor. According to Lenzs law, the induced voltage depends on

the balanced three-phase system is 120 , the magnitude of the the variation of flux and the turn ratio of the inducing side core

space vector is always the same. The Simulink block diagram and the induced side core. The voltage equations of the space

for (7) is shown in Fig. 8. With the Clark transformation, the vector in DFIG are

three-phase magnitude can be represented by a space vector

s

because the space vector can be calculated easily in a three- ss (t) = Rsiss (t) + ds (t)

V (9)

phase system. dt

There are four different reference frames in the complex d rr (t)

rr (t) = Rrirr (t) +

V (10)

plane for the DFIG system: dt

1) stator reference frame ( ); where the superscripts s and r indicate the space vectors

2) rotor reference frame (DQ); that are referred to the stator and rotor reference frames, re-

3) synchronous reference frame (dq); spectively. The relation between the fluxes and currents in the

4) grid voltage vector reference frame (dgqg). space vector can be expressed as

Fig. 9 shows the relation among the aforementioned refer- s = Lsis + Lmis

s s r (11)

ence frames. s , r , and e are the synchronous angle, the

slip angle, and the electric angle of the rotor, respectively. The r r

r = Lm is + Lr irr (12)

dgqg reference frame is almost 90 ahead of the synchronous

reference frame. where means the flux, L denotes the stator inductance, s is

With the relation among these reference frames, the space for the stator, r is for the rotor, and m means the magnetizing.

vector can be easily transformed into any reference frame by With (8), the voltage equilibrium equations (9) and (10) can be

the following mathematical equation: based on any kind of reference frame, as shown in

f

initial

nial = exp(j) X f (t) = Rsif (t) + ds (t) + jf

V f (13)

X (8) s s

dt s

f

f (t) = Rrif (t) + dr (t) + j(f e )

V f. (14)

where is the angle between two reference frames. s r

dt r

2094 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 50, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 2014

in DFIG are based on the stator reference frame, rotor refer-

ence frame, or synchronous reference frame. Restated, in these

equations, f in (13) and (14) is replaced by r or s. In (13) and

(14), f is the speed of f , where f is a self-defined reference

frame angle that leads to the stator reference frame; e is the

electrical angular frequency of the DFIG. The relation between

the electric angular frequency e and the mechanical angular

frequency m is

The equivalent circuit of the DFIG in any reference frame can

be expressed in Fig. 10, where Ls and Lr are the leakage

inductances in the stator and rotor, respectively; f is the

rotational speed of any reference frame.

Solving (9)(12) simultaneously (the detail is shown in the

Appendix), the state space of the DFIG in the stator reference

frame can be obtained

s s s

d

V

s s s

s

= [M 1 ] s

+ s (16)

dt r r V r

where

LsR s Lr

Lr L2

R s Lm

Ls Lr L2m Fig. 13. Voltage vector of the converter.

[M1 ] = m

. (17)

R r Lm

Ls Lr L2m Ls Lr L2 +

R r Ls

je

m

Mathematical models are used in the space-vector voltage

In (16), the flux is the state vector. For convenience, the converter. The operation of switch S is opposite to that of

flux can be replaced by the current i using (11) and (12); switch S. In the converter model, when switch Sa turns on, the

equation (16) then becomes voltage between nodes a and o is Vdc . When switch Sa turns

s s off, the voltage between nodes a and o is zero. Therefore,

d iss is s

V voltages Vao , Vbo , and Vco depend on the switch operation and

s = [M2 ] s + [M3 ] s (18)

d r i i r Vr can be represented by

S = 1, when the switch turns on

Rs Lr je L2m Rr Lm je Lm Lr S = 0, when the switch turns off.

Ls Lr L2m Ls Lr L2m

[M2 ] = Rs Lm +je Lm Ls Rr Ls +je Lr Ls (19)

Ls Lr L2m Ls Lr L2m With the Clark direct transformation, the space-vector volt-

Lr Lm

age on the complex plane is shown in Fig. 13, in which the

Ls Lr L2m Ls Lr L2m amplitude of the space vector is 2Vbus /3; Vbus is the voltage

[M3 ] = Lm Ls . (20)

Ls Lr L2m Ls Lr L2m amplitude on the dc bus. The space vector modulation (SVM)

is utilized in the converter of the DFIG system in this work

The Simulink block diagram for the DFIG induction machine because the SVM has been widely used for the control of power

is shown in Fig. 11. Equation (18) constructs f1(u)f4(u). converters.

Equations (11) and (12) construct f5(u) and f6(u), respectively. The switches at the GSC and RSI are controlled by the SVM

The electric torque, represented as f7(u), can be expressed as block diagram (see Fig. 14). The SVM has three subsystems.

The input signals of the SVM block include - and -voltage

3

Te = pL (ir is is ir ). (21) reference values and the measured dc voltage at the back-to-

2 m

back converter. The block named avoid saturation prevents

large voltage reference values because the maximum voltage

output from the back-to-back converter depends on dc voltage.

C. Space-Vector Voltage of the Converter

Hence, the magnitude of the modulated voltage signal cannot be

Fig. 12 shows the basic circuit topology of the GSC in larger than that of the measured dc voltage. There are six active

the DFIG system. The same topology is applied on the RSI. voltage vectors and two zero vectors from the converter. The

There are six IGBT electric switches to control the voltage for six active voltage vectors separate the space into six areas. For

each converter. The operating method on both RSI and GSC is convenience, all vectors can be transformed into an equivalent

the same. space vector inside the first sextant (between V1 and V2 in

YANG et al.: INTEGRATED MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL DFIG WIND TURBINE MODEL DEVELOPMENT 2095

GSC vector.

Fig. 15. Determination of the V

E. DTC of the DFIG System

Fig. 13). The block named sextant choosing uses the input

The DTC is one of the control methods for the DFIG system.

reference vector to choose which sextant is active. For instance,

Based on different wind-speed conditions, the optimal power

when the reference vector is in the third sextant (between V3

output of the wind turbine can be determined with the Cp

and V4 ), only V3 , V4 , V0 , and V7 are active. As the modulation

curve. The equation of the electric torque in the DFIG is

uses a digital signal to modulate the analog signal, the duty

cycle block is utilized to turn the switch off or on.

3 pLm r | sin

s

Te = | (23)

2 Ls Lr L2m

D. Voltage Control at the DC Bus of the DFIG System

In most of variable-speed wind turbines, there is a capacitor where is the vector angle between the rotor and stator flux.

that exists in the back-to-back converter in order to maintain With the voltage equilibrium equations of the rotor, i.e., (24)

a stable voltage on the dc bus. There are several methods that and (25), the deviation of the rotor flux can be expressed as the

have been proposed to control the voltage on the dc bus. In this function of switch time Tswitch , as shown in (26)

paper, the vector control is used in our simulation.

r r

In the DFIG system, GSC controls the voltage on the dc bus. rr (t) = Rrirr (t) + dr (t) dr (t)

V (24)

If the voltage is higher than the reference value, the energy is dt dt

delivered from the rotor to the grid and vice versa. The voltage rr = rr dt

V (25)

balance equation of the space vector between the GSC and grid

can be expressed as rr = V

nr Tswitch

(26)

g = ig (Rf + js Lf ) + V

V GSC ig js Lf + V

GSC (22)

where V nr is the voltage vector on the rotor reference frame,

where V g is the grid voltage, ig is the grid current, s is the

which is injected by the RSI; Tswitch is the transient switching

synchronous speed of the grid, V GSC is the voltage at the side time. The stator flux has the constant amplitude with syn-

of GSC and is modulated by the SVM, and Lf and Rf are the chronous rotational speed on the stator reference frame.

inductor and the resistance of the filter, respectively. Fig. 15 The key point in the DTC is to control the amplitude and

shows the diagram about the composition of vectors to achieve the phase angle of the rotor flux. In the control logic, the rotor

GSC , which is modulated by the converter.

the V reference frame is separated into six parts as shown in Fig. 17.

By using the PLL controller, the dgqg reference frame can Furthermore, the operation of the switch controller with hys-

be fixed based on the Vg . The active power and reactive power teresis band UF or UT is shown in Fig. 18, in which the DF and

from the grid to the dc bus can be directly controlled by the DT are defined respectively as the difference of flux amplitude

converter. Additionally, the command of reference ig can be and the difference of electric torque with a reference value,

confirmed by using the PI controller, and the V GSC can be i.e., DF = | r | |

r | and DT = Te Te (the superscript

determined by using (22). means the reference value). The selection for the switch during

Fig. 16 represents the schematic diagram of the voltage the SVM operation is summarized in Table I. Additionally, the

control on the dc bus. block diagram for the DTC is shown in Fig. 19.

2096 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 50, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 2014

TABLE II

PARAMETERS OF A T YPICAL 1.5-MW DFIG-BASED

W IND T URBINE S YSTEM

Fig. 18. Onoff controller with hysteresis band. The main mechanical part in wind turbine systems is the rotor

of the blade. The rotor speed in the generator can be increased

TABLE I

T HE V ECTOR S ELECTION W ITH UF AND UT by using the gearbox. In the simulation, aerodynamic properties

CL and CD are calculated by the XFOIL, and these data are

used in FAST to calculate the dynamic behavior of the wind

turbine. Notably, the FAST can be used to calculate the rotor

speed, mechanical load, and moment on the blade or tower.

The rotor speed of the blade multiplied by the gear ratio is the

rotor speed of the generator m , and m multiplied by the pole

numbers is the electric angular speed e . When the rotor speed

of the blade is known, the electrical torque reference value of

the generator can be calculated, and the electrical torque can

be fixed by the DTC. As the load on a blade includes the

aerodynamic load and electrical torque, the electrical torque

should be fed back to the FAST.

In this paper, four different wind-speed conditions were

simulated. The first one represents an ideal condition (see

Fig. 20), in which the step function is used to simulate the wind

speed. The wind speed in the 20-s period is divided into three

levels, including 7, 10, and 9 m/s. The rotor speed of the wind

Fig. 19. Block diagram for the DTC.

turbine initially is constant when the wind speed is 7 m/s. When

the wind speed suddenly increases and subsequently stays at

10 m/s, the rotor speed increases. Finally, the wind speed is

IV. S IMULATION R ESULTS

decreased to 9 m/s, which causes lower rotor speed.

In this paper, a typical 1.5-MW DFIG-based wind turbine It is obvious from Fig. 20 that the output power from the

was modeled. The complete model of the wind turbine, includ- machine (Pm ), rotor (Pr ), or stator (Ps ) is highly dependent on

ing electrical and mechanical parts, is used in our simulation. the rotor speed and torque. In Fig. 20(h), the positive sign rep-

After measuring the rotor speed, the mechanical power output resents generation, and the negative sign means consumption.

and the torque of the induction machine can be instantaneously Fig. 20(i) shows the voltage curve at the dc bus, in which the

calculated. The parameters of the DFIG-based wind turbine are voltage can be maintained at 1100 V. There is a little oscillation

shown in Table II. that appears on the power of the stator (Ps ), the voltage at

By using the wind-speed data and the calculation tool Aero- the dc bus, and the current of the rotor (ir ). These oscillation

Dyn, the kinetic energy on the blades can be achieved. Then, the signals appear when the slip is closest to zero. The simulation

appropriate torque of the induction machine can be calculated results indicate clearly that the frequency of the rotor current

based on the transformation from the kinetic energy into the is dependent on the slip. The frequency of the rotor current

electrical energy. Additionally, the voltage at the dc bus is changes to the opposite direction when the slip reversed its sign.

almost a constant value because of the control by GSC. A stable Additionally, the frequency of the stator current is as fast as the

voltage at the dc bus could help the RSI control the rotor torque. frequency at the grid.

YANG et al.: INTEGRATED MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL DFIG WIND TURBINE MODEL DEVELOPMENT 2097

Fig. 20. Simulation results under an ideal wind condition. (a) Wind speed. (b) Rotor speed of the wind turbine. (c) Rotor speed of the generator. (d) Slip.

(e) Electrical torque. (f) Power output of the machine. (g) Power output from the stator. (h) Power output from the rotor. (i) DC-bus voltage. (j) Three-phase

voltage at grid. (k) Current from the stator. (l) Current from the rotor.

The second time series of wind speed as shown in Fig. 21 cillation in the signals at the stator power and the dc-bus voltage

was measured from Penghu, Taiwan. The wind-speed data were when the slip is zero (the synchronous operation of the DFIG).

measured every 0.5 s and have been used in the simulation. Another two wind conditions were also considered: a wide

Fig. 21 shows the rotor speed of the turbine and the generator; wind-speed range (see Fig. 22) and a low wind-speed series (see

both speeds are directly proportional to the gear ratio. The Fig. 23). In Fig. 22, the wind-speed range was 4.411.3 m/s,

torque and power are controlled according to the speed of the which was measured at the Penghu Wind Farm. The speed of

rotor. It is obvious from this figure that there appears a little os- the rotor follows the trend of the wind speed. Additionally,

2098 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 50, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 2014

Fig. 21. Simulation results under a high wind-speed series. (a) Wind speed. (b) Rotor speed of the wind turbine. (c) Rotor speed of the generator. (d) Slip.

(e) Electrical torque. (f) Power output of the machine. (g) Power output from the stator. (h) Power output from the rotor. (i) DC-bus voltage. (j) Three-phase

voltage at grid. (k) Current from the stator. (l) Current from the rotor.

stator power and voltage on the dc bus oscillate little when the In the simulation, all electrical components were modeled

slip value is zero. In Fig. 23, the range of low wind-speed series using mathematical equations. However, in the computing pro-

was 3.265 m/s (mean of 3.95 m/s), which was also measured at cess, all operational procedures used the discontinuous dis-

the Penghu Wind Farm. In that case, wind speed was relatively crete signal. To acquire realistic simulation results, one can

stable such that fluctuations in turbine speed and generator alter the sampling time in Simulink. For example, a small

speed were small. Furthermore, no obvious oscillations existed sampling time increased the accuracy of the simulation result

in stator power and voltage on the dc bus because the slip value and computational time and vice versa. In this simulation,

did not cross zero. the sampling time was fixed at 106 s. Moreover, simulation

YANG et al.: INTEGRATED MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL DFIG WIND TURBINE MODEL DEVELOPMENT 2099

Fig. 22. Simulation results under a wide wind-speed range. (a) Wind speed. (b) Rotor speed of the wind turbine. (c) Rotor speed of the generator. (d) Slip.

(e) Electrical torque. (f) Power output of the machine. (g) Power output from the stator. (h) Power output from the rotor. (i) DC-bus voltage. (j) Three-phase

voltage at grid. (k) Current from the stator. (l) Current from the rotor.

V. C ONCLUSION

speed also depends on hardware specifications. For example,

by using the industrial-grade software package, RT-LAB, near- The complete modeling of the DFIG-based wind turbine was

real-time simulation speed is achieved. In this paper, model performed in this work by using the MATLAB/Simulink and

simulation was implemented on a personal computer with an the FAST. The whole model of the wind turbine considering

Intel i5-3210 CPU with 4.0-GB RAM. The computer took both mechanical and electrical parts was seldom discussed be-

31.62 min to implement a 60-s-long simulation for the proposed fore. With the analysis of the aerodynamic, the characteristic of

DFIG generator. Notably, FAST can only be used in the 32-b wind turbine blades is obtained in this work. Furthermore, the

MATLAB environment, prolonging computation time. DTC can directly control the response of the torque and power.

2100 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 50, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 2014

Fig. 23. Simulation results under a low wind-speed series. (a) Wind speed. (b) Rotor speed of the wind turbine. (c) Rotor speed of the generator. (d) Slip.

(e) Electrical torque. (f) Power output of the machine. (g) Power output from the stator. (h) Power output from the rotor. (i) DC-bus voltage. (j) Three-phase

voltage at grid. (k) Current from the stator. (l) Current from the rotor.

Four wind-speed conditions have been used in this paper, and most used a transfer function to replace a complete generator

the simulation results indicate that the proposed model works model. In such cases, power output corresponds to rotational

well. The proposed wind turbine model can also be applied to speed when using a transfer function, and the power output will

other wind-speed conditions if necessary. be somewhat inaccurate. Owing to the switching characteristics

Most studies modeling the wind turbine failed to integrate the of power electronics (i.e., the step-function signal), the wind

mechanical and the electrical systems, subsequently ignoring turbine system has discontinuous characteristics.

some wind turbine properties. Generally, purely mechanical Electrical torque is produced by the generator. Machine

studies failed to analyze the details on the generator; instead, components under discontinuous loading for a long period are

YANG et al.: INTEGRATED MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL DFIG WIND TURBINE MODEL DEVELOPMENT 2101

damaged more easily than when under continuous loading. was constructed on detailed mathematical equations. Therefore,

Therefore, when stress analysis for wind turbines is imple- these models are useful reference models for further studies of

mented, boundary conditions can be determined based on an- wind turbine technology.

alytical results in this work. Additionally, many mechanical

characteristics of wind turbines, such as loading of the blade,

A PPENDIX

tower, and bearing, can also be determined using analytical

D ERIVATIVE OF THE DFIG I NDUCTION

results.

M ACHINE M ODEL

Many studies on the DFIG examined how to control torque

and power within a short time. Hence, several advanced control Equation (8) that is used to transfer the vector from the rotor

methods, including predictive control, have been developed. reference frame to stator reference frame can be expressed as

Nevertheless, the blades can restore energy. For a large wind

turbine, inertia is very considerable, explaining why storage r = exp(je ) X

X s (A.1)

capacity for mechanical energy is also very large. When one

where the vector of X can be represented as voltage, current,

uses a control method that is not the best or uses a controller that

or flux. The voltage equations of the space vector for the stator

has an inaccurate sampling time, torque cannot be controlled

and rotor are, respectively,

accurately; however, energy that cannot be transferred directly

into electric energy can restore temporarily the kinetic energy s

of the blade, which causes the increase of rotor speed and, as s (t) = Rsis (t) + ds (t)

V (A.2)

s s

dt

a result, increases the torque reference value.In other words, rr (t)

wind energy that is not transformed into electric energy on r (t) = Rrir (t) + d

V r r . (A.3)

time does not disappear, and the energy transfer is implemented dt

later. Therefore, the accurate and timely control of generator Inserting (A.1) into (A.3), one can yield

torque and power may not be necessary when one considers the

mechanical characteristics of wind turbines. d sr eje

The rotor speed of a large wind turbine depends on wind rs eje = Rrirs eje +

V (A.4)

dt

speed. The rotor speed in this work is 620 r/min, approxi-

s

mately 0.10.34 Hz, but the normal grid frequency is 50 or s eje = Rrirs eje + dr eje je

V s eje

r r

60 Hz. Therefore, a large difference exists between grid fre- dt

quency and rotor speed. Thus, wind turbine modeling cannot (A.5)

only consider the mechanical or electrical characteristics; they s

Vrs (t) = Reisr (t) + dr (t) je sr (t). (A.6)

must be integrated. Simulation results can then provide an dt

actual response for the DFIG.

The novel contributions of this work are as follows. This The relation between the fluxes and currents in the space vector

work thoroughly analyzes and models the complete DFIG wind for the stator and rotor can be expressed, respectively, as

turbine system, including the blade, generator, and back-to- ss = Lsiss + Lmisr

(A.7)

back converter. The complete model for a wind turbine has

seldom been discussed in the literature. The work provides very rr = Lmirs + Lrirr .

(A.8)

realistic boundary conditions for the mechanism characteristics

of the wind turbine, such as the loading of the blade, tower, Inserting (A.1) into (A.8), one can yield

and bearing. The FAST utilized in this work can calculate a s eje = Lmis eje + Lris eje

r s r (A.9)

lot of data about mechanical characteristics. This work only

derives the rotational speed of the wind turbine by the FAST. s s s

r = L m is + L r ir . (A.10)

Notably, the FAST can be used to determine, for example,

the deflection of the blade, acceleration of the blade, shear Solving the iss and isr by using (A.7) and (A.10), one could yield

force on the blade, moment on the blade, and moment on s s

the bearing. Although most DFIG studies failed to consider iss = Lr s Lm r (A.11)

Ls Lr L2m

mechanical parts, the mass moment of inertia of the blade is

s s

very large. Therefore, the mechanical and electrical properties isr = Ls r Lm s . (A.12)

of the integrated model differ markedly from that of models Ls Lr L2m

with a constant-rotor-speed or variable-rotor-speed generator.

This work is based on Taiwans Thousand Wind Turbines Replacing (A.11) and (A.12) with (A.2) and (A.6), respectively,

Project. Before large-scale wind turbines are constructed, the yields the state equations of DFIG, as in (A.13) and (A.14),

complete wind turbine modeling is of priority concern. This which are the same as (16) in the matrix form

work also uses real measured wind speeds that were measured ss

d R s Lr s R s Lm s s

at Taiwans Penghu Wind Farm to facilitate meaningful simula- = s + + Vs (A.13)

dt Ls Lr Lm2 Ls Lr L2m r

tions. This work includes flow-field analysis of airfoils, dc-bus

control at the back-to-back converter, electrical torque control srq

d R r Lm s R r Ls

= + je s +V

rs. (A.14)

at the generator, and induction machine modeling. Each model dt Ls Lr L2m s Ls Lr L2m r

2102 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 50, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 2014

B.S. degree from the Department of Mechanical En-

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balancing of a space vector-modulated five-level STATCOM, IET Power

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B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees from the Department

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of Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan University,

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Taipei, Taiwan.

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He is currently a Professor with National Taiwan

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improved control of DFIG under distorted grid voltage conditions, IEEE

2006 and the President from 2006 to 2009 at National

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Penghu University, Penghu, Taiwan, a Visiting Professor in the Department

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of Information and Electrical Engineering, UMBC, USA, in 2004, the Vice-

driven DFIG systems under distorted grid voltage conditions: Analysis Chairperson of the NTU-ITRI Nano Center from 2004 to 2005, a Visiting

and experimental validations, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 27,

Researcher in the Laboratory of Material Science and Engineering, NIST, USA,

no. 5, pp. 23542366, May 2012.

from 2003 to 2004, and a Visiting Scholar in the School of Aeronautics and

[16] M. I. Martinez, G. Tapia, A. Susperregui, and H. Camblong, Sliding-

Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA, from 1990 to 1991.

mode control for DFIG rotor- and grid-side converters under unbalanced His research interests are in wind turbine systems, composite material structure

and harmonically distorted grid voltage, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers.,

analysis, biomechanics, acoustic behavior of FRP, and carbon nanotubes.

vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 328339, Jun. 2012.

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Earthscan, 2008. Wei-Jen Lee (M85SM97F07) received the B.S.

[19] M. L. B. J. Jason and M. Jonkman, FAST Users Guide, National and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from Na-

Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, Tech. Rep. NREL/ tional Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, in 1978 and

EL-500-38230, Aug. 2005. 1980, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical

[20] A. C. Hansen and D. J. Laino, USERS GUIDE to the wind tur- engineering from the University of Texas at Arling-

bine aerodynamics computer software AeroDyn, National Renewable ton, Arlington, TX, USA, in 1985.

Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, Subcontract TCX-9-29209-01, In 1985, he joined the University of Texas at

Dec. 24, 2002. Arlington, where he is currently a Professor in the

[21] G. Patrick, J. Moriarty, A. Colorado, and A. Craig Hansen, AeroDyn Department of Electrical Engineering and the Direc-

Theory Manual, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, tor of the Energy Systems Research Center. His cur-

USA, Tech. Rep. NREL/EL-500-36881, Dec. 2005. rent research interests include power flow, transient

[22] M. Drela and H. Youngren, XFOIL 6.94 User Guide. Cambridge, MA, and dynamic stability, voltage stability, short circuits, relay coordination, power

USA: MIT Press, Dec. 10, 2001. quality analysis, renewable energy, and deregulation for utility companies.

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