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3, MAY/JUNE 2014

Integrated Mechanical and Electrical DFIG

Wind Turbine Model Development
Shih-Yu Yang, Yuan-Kang Wu, Member, IEEE, Huei-Jeng Lin, and Wei-Jen Lee, Fellow, IEEE

AbstractThis paper focuses mainly on the development of a the phase-locked loop (PLL) [5] is usually used in the doubly
completed typical doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind fed induction system to track the phase of the grid voltage and
turbine model. It includes the interaction between mechanical and the flux of the stator.
electrical parts. In the mechanical part, the aerodynamic of the
wind turbine blade was analyzed by the XFOIL. With the proper- The control method for classical DFIG wind turbines is usu-
ties of the blade, the model was established by the fatigue, aero- ally based on the stator voltage-oriented vector control or the
dynamics, structures, and turbulence (FAST) in the MATLAB/ stator flux-oriented vector control [6][9]. The main drawback
Simulink. The DFIG electrical model was constructed by using for these control schemes is that their performances rely highly
mathematical equations in MATLAB/Simulink that integrates on the tuning of the parameters of the proportional-integral (PI)
with the FAST. In the DFIG, the space vector is applied in the ac
machine to represent the flux, voltage, and current magnitudes. controller. Therefore, the direct control methods such as direct
The grid-side converter stabilized the voltage at the dc bus, and power control, direct current control, and direct torque control
the rotor-side inverter directly controls the electric torque in the (DTC) were proposed subsequently [10][13]. The operation of
generator. Currently, most research articles model the mechanical the DFIG system under distorted grid conditions was discussed
and the electrical parts of the wind turbine separately. In this in [14][17].
paper, both systems were discussed in detail and integrated into
a complete model for the DFIG-based wind turbine system. On the mechanical part, blade element momentum (BEM)
theory is one of the most commonly used methods for calcu-
Index TermsAerodynamic, doubly fed induction generator lating induced velocity on wind turbine blades [18]. The BEM
(DFIG), fatigue, aerodynamics, structures, and turbulence (FAST),
space factor, XFOIL. originally designed by William Froude (1878), David W. Taylor
(1893), and Stefan Drzewiecki was proposed to determine the
I. I NTRODUCTION behavior of propellers. In recent years, the National Renewable
Energy Laboratory (NREL) in the USA has also carried out

T O PROMOTE wind energy development, Taiwans Bu-

reau of Energy proposed a plan entitled Thousand Wind
Turbines Project in 2012. The target of this project is to install
many research works on the wind turbine blade and developed
some codes such as the abbreviation of fatigue, aerodynamics,
structures, and turbulence (FAST) [19] and AeroDyn [20], [21].
450 onshore and 600 offshore wind generators by 2030. Before FAST is a code that is used to simulate the wind turbine
starting the wind power promotion project, it is important to structure. AeroDyn is a subcode in the FAST; it can be used
investigate their potential impact on the system with an accurate on the simulation with the wind data and the aerodynamic
wind turbine model. properties of the blade shape. The codes in AeroDyn and FAST
A wind turbine includes two main parts: the mechanical and can be linked together. In this paper, the aerodynamic properties
the electrical parts. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)- are established by the XFOIL [22].
based wind turbine is the most popular wind turbine nowadays Most of the papers did not consider the modeling for the
owing to its capability on variable-speed operation. In the DFIG whole wind turbine system. Since there are interactions be-
system, the stability on the voltage of the dc bus is significant. tween the mechanical and electrical systems, the complete
There are many studies regarding the control of dc-bus voltage model should consist of mechanical and electrical parts. There-
[1][4] by using the grid-side converter (GSC). Additionally, fore, in this paper, the mechanical and the electrical models in
a DFIG wind turbine will be considered together, in which the
Manuscript received June 8, 2013; revised August 17, 2013; accepted FAST is used in the simulation on the mechanical part and the
October 12, 2013. Date of publication October 25, 2013; date of current version DTC is used for the generator control. With the combination
May 15, 2014. Paper 2013-ESC-217.R1, presented at the 2013 IEEE Industry of both systems, the simulation would be more complete and
Applications Society Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, USA, October 611, and
approved for publication in the IEEE T RANSACTIONS ON I NDUSTRY A PPLI - realistic.
CATIONS by the Energy Systems Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications
Society. This work was supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan
under Grant NSC 101-2221-E-194-064. II. M ECHANICAL M ODEL AND I TS S IMULATION
S.-Y. Yang and H.-J. Lin are with National Taiwan University, Taipei 106,
Taiwan (e-mail: f00525016@ntu.edu.tw; hjlin@ntu.edu.tw). The complete model of the wind turbine should consider not
Y.-K. Wu is with National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan
(e-mail: allenwu@ccu.edu.tw). only the generator modeling but also the aerodynamic modeling
W.-J. Lee is with the University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 that depends on the shape of the blade. However, most of the
USA (e-mail: wlee@uta.edu). studies on the simulation of variable-speed generators did not
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. consider the blade of a wind turbine or only use a simple
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIA.2013.2287308 transfer function to represent the characteristics of the blade.

0093-9994 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.
See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

Fig. 1. Simulation structure of the FAST.

In fact, the aerodynamic from the blade is significant to be

considered on the modeling of the wind turbine. Fig. 2. Relation among wind speed, rotor speed, and the relative speed
FAST has been used to simulate the characteristic for the between wind speed and rotor on the blade cross section.
blade of a wind turbine in recent years. With the AeroDyn
included in the FAST, the 3-D aerodynamics of the whole blade
can be calculated. The detailed procedure for the simulation
will be explained in the following sections.

A. FAST for Simulating the Mechanical Part of the Wind

Turbine System
FAST is a tool that can be used to simulate the structure anal-
ysis of a wind turbine blade, particularly for the horizontal type
wind turbine. Although FAST has a relative primitive user inter-
face, it has high computational efficiency and yields compatible
results. In this paper, AeroDyn in the FAST is used to simulate
the aerodynamic of the blade. With the calculation of the aero- Fig. 3. Relation among the FL , FD , and Vwind_rotor .
dynamic, the rotor speed of the wind turbine can be determined.
The simulation structure of the FAST is illustrated in Fig. 1.
Data for describing the mechanical property of the blades,
tower, furling, and platform can be defined in each indepen-
dent file. FAST is already constructed in a block inside the
MATLAB/Simulink program, and the AeroDyn is another code Fig. 4. Shape for the blade type S818/S825/S826.
that can be linked to the FAST.
AeroDyn is the most important file to simulate the mechan-
B. XFOIL for Calculating the Aerodynamic Property of the
ical part of the wind turbine in this work. It can calculate the
Wind Turbine Blade
aerodynamic lift, drag, and pitching moment of airfoil blades
by using the BEM. According to the theory of BEM, the blade CL and CD are the most important parameters in the wind
of the wind turbine is modeled as a two-dimension airfoil. turbine system to describe the aerodynamic property of the
Fig. 2 shows the relative speed on the cross section of the blade. With a chosen airfoil, the CL and CD can be calcu-
blade. In the figure, Vwind is the vector of the wind speed, lated by using several simulation tools, such as FLUENT and
Vrotor_blade is the vector of speed on the cross section of the XFOIL. They belong to the finite element simulation tools for
blade, Vwind_rotor is the vector of the relative speed between the fluid analysis. In this paper, XFOIL was utilized to calculate
the wind turbine rotor cross section and the wind, is the angle the CL and CD .
of attack, is the angle across the chord line and trajectory of The XFOIL can accurately calculate the pressure coefficient
the blade, and is the local inflow angle. Cp on the cross section of the airfoil; afterward, the CL and
With the chosen airfoil, the CD (drag coefficient) and CL CD can be calculated. In the XFOIL, the Reynolds number and
(lift coefficient) can be determined on the basis of different the Mach number are two essential numbers to determine these
Reynolds numbers and the relative speeds. In fluid mechanics, coefficients.
the Reynolds number is a dimensionless number that gives The Reynolds number depends on the wind speed and rotor
a measure of the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces; it speed. The Vrotor_blade can be expressed as
consequently quantifies the relative importance of these two
types of forces for different flow conditions. The lift force FL Vrotor_blade = r (1)
and drag force FD on the blade cross section can be determined
by CL and CD , and the relation among the FL , FD , and where is the rotor speed and r is the distance between the
Vwind_rotor is shown in Fig. 3. cross section and the center of the hub. The Reynolds number

Fig. 6. Cp curve in the wind turbine system.

Fig. 5. Simulation result obtained by the XFOIL.

Fig. 7. DFIG-based wind turbine system.
and the Mach number are defined respectively as where Pm is the kinetic power of the blade related to the torque
15 C Vwind_rotor L T and rotational speed . With the length of the rotor and the
Re = (2) rotor speed, the tip speed ratio can be determined. Moreover,
15 C
in the optimization simulation, the wind speed is a constant
Vwind_rotor value; therefore, the Cp can be calculated by
Mach = (3)
C15 C = Rblade /Vwind (5)
where is the air density, L is the characteristic length of Cp = (6)
the blade, is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid, and C is the Pwind
sonic speed. The blade designed by the NREL was used in the where Rblade is the radius of the blade and Pwind is the wind
simulation. The airfoils in the blade include the type of S818, power. The simulation is based on the 11-m/s wind speed.
S825, and S826. The shape of the blade is plotted by using the With the constant wind speed and the controllable torque, the
MATLAB and shown in Fig. 4. rotor speed and the power under each value of torque were
Taking the calculation of S818 for example, when the angle calculated. The simulation result for the Cp curve is shown
of attack is zero, the result of the calculation for the shape of in Fig. 6. In the figure, the maximum value of the Cp is 47.9%
the blade is represented in Fig. 5, in which the blue and red as the tip speed ratio is 6.5.
Cp curves indicate respectively the pressure coefficient on the
top and bottom surfaces of the blade. The dashed line is the III. M ODEL OF A DFIG-BASED W IND T URBINE
distribution of the inviscid pressure coefficient. In this paper, A DFIG-based wind turbine is used in this work. Fig. 7 shows
the inviscid pressure was not discussed. the basic topology for a DFIG-based wind turbine system. Its
The XFOIL can calculate different angles of attack simul- stator directly connects to the grid, and the rotor indirectly con-
taneously and obtain the result. Although the calculation for nects to the grid by a back-to-back converter that includes the
all of the angles of attack is difficult, the NREL has made an rotor-side inverter (RSI) and GSC. There is a capacitor between
Excel file AirfoilPrep_v2.02.01 to handle it. In the file, many RSI and GSC. GSC controls the voltage of the capacitor by the
mathematical equations were used to find out the final result. grid; RSI controls the voltage of the rotor and then affects the
Based on these equations, all of the angles of attack can be flux of the rotor.
A. Space Vector and Transformation Between
C. Cp Curve of the Chosen Blade and the Cp Optimization Reference Frames
The space vector is widely used in the three-phase electric
The Cp curve (efficiencytip speed ratio curve) in the
system and ac motors. With the Clark direct transformation,
wind turbine system can be determined when the type of blade
three-phase magnitude can directly be transformed into the
is chosen. To find the optimization point on the Cp curve in
complex plane that can clearly define the condition of the three-
the simulation, it is convenient to give a constant wind speed
phase system, including voltage, current, and flux. The Clark
and a controllable torque on the wind turbine rotor. Based on
direct transformation can be expressed as the following matrix:
the speed on the rotor and the controllable torque, the power of
the blade can be determined by    1  Xa
X 2 1 1

= 2 2 (7)
Pm = T (4)
X 3 0 2
2 Xc

Fig. 8. Simulink block diagram for Clark transformation.

Fig. 10. Equivalent circuit of the DFIG in any reference frame.

Fig. 9. Relation among different reference frames.

where X represents the magnitude of voltage, current, or flux

in the three-phase system. The three phases are represented by
the subscripts a, b, and c; and are the two components of Fig. 11. DFIG induction machine block diagram.
the realimaginary complex plane: is the real part, and
is the imaginary part. With the transformation matrix (7), the B. DFIG Model
balanced three-phase magnitude can be represented as a space DFIGs consist of three-phase windings on both the stator and
vector in a plane. Because the angle between each phase in rotor. According to Lenzs law, the induced voltage depends on
the balanced three-phase system is 120 , the magnitude of the the variation of flux and the turn ratio of the inducing side core
space vector is always the same. The Simulink block diagram and the induced side core. The voltage equations of the space
for (7) is shown in Fig. 8. With the Clark transformation, the vector in DFIG are
three-phase magnitude can be represented by a space vector
because the space vector can be calculated easily in a three- ss (t) = Rsiss (t) + ds (t)
V (9)
phase system. dt
There are four different reference frames in the complex d  rr (t)

rr (t) = Rrirr (t) +
V (10)
plane for the DFIG system: dt
1) stator reference frame ( ); where the superscripts s and r indicate the space vectors
2) rotor reference frame (DQ); that are referred to the stator and rotor reference frames, re-
3) synchronous reference frame (dq); spectively. The relation between the fluxes and currents in the
4) grid voltage vector reference frame (dgqg). space vector can be expressed as
Fig. 9 shows the relation among the aforementioned refer-  s = Lsis + Lmis
s s r (11)
ence frames. s , r , and e are the synchronous angle, the
slip angle, and the electric angle of the rotor, respectively. The  r r 
r = Lm is + Lr irr (12)
dgqg reference frame is almost 90 ahead of the synchronous
reference frame. where means the flux, L denotes the stator inductance, s is
With the relation among these reference frames, the space for the stator, r is for the rotor, and m means the magnetizing.
vector can be easily transformed into any reference frame by With (8), the voltage equilibrium equations (9) and (10) can be
the following mathematical equation: based on any kind of reference frame, as shown in
 nial = exp(j) X  f (t) = Rsif (t) + ds (t) + jf
V f (13)
X (8) s s
dt s

 f (t) = Rrif (t) + dr (t) + j(f e )
V  f. (14)
where is the angle between two reference frames. s r
dt r

The commonly used voltage equations for the space vector

in DFIG are based on the stator reference frame, rotor refer-
ence frame, or synchronous reference frame. Restated, in these
equations, f in (13) and (14) is replaced by r or s. In (13) and
(14), f is the speed of f , where f is a self-defined reference
frame angle that leads to the stator reference frame; e is the
electrical angular frequency of the DFIG. The relation between
the electric angular frequency e and the mechanical angular
frequency m is

e = p m (15) Fig. 12. Two-level voltage converter in the DFIG.

where p is the number of pole pairs in the DFIG system.

The equivalent circuit of the DFIG in any reference frame can
be expressed in Fig. 10, where Ls and Lr are the leakage
inductances in the stator and rotor, respectively; f is the
rotational speed of any reference frame.
Solving (9)(12) simultaneously (the detail is shown in the
Appendix), the state space of the DFIG in the stator reference
frame can be obtained
 s  s  s

s s s
= [M 1 ]  s
+ s (16)
dt r r V r


LsR s Lr
Lr L2
R s Lm
Ls Lr L2m Fig. 13. Voltage vector of the converter.
[M1 ] = m
. (17)
R r Lm
Ls Lr L2m Ls Lr L2 +
R r Ls
Mathematical models are used in the space-vector voltage
In (16), the flux is the state vector. For convenience, the converter. The operation of switch S is opposite to that of
flux can be replaced by the current i using (11) and (12); switch S. In the converter model, when switch Sa turns on, the
equation (16) then becomes voltage between nodes a and o is Vdc . When switch Sa turns
   s  s off, the voltage between nodes a and o is zero. Therefore,
d iss is s
V voltages Vao , Vbo , and Vco depend on the switch operation and
 s = [M2 ] s + [M3 ]  s (18)
d r i i r Vr can be represented by

where Vio = Si Vdc , where i = a, b, and c

 S = 1, when the switch turns on
Rs Lr je L2m Rr Lm je Lm Lr S = 0, when the switch turns off.
Ls Lr L2m Ls Lr L2m
[M2 ] = Rs Lm +je Lm Ls Rr Ls +je Lr Ls (19)
Ls Lr L2m Ls Lr L2m With the Clark direct transformation, the space-vector volt-
 Lr Lm
age on the complex plane is shown in Fig. 13, in which the
Ls Lr L2m Ls Lr L2m amplitude of the space vector is 2Vbus /3; Vbus is the voltage
[M3 ] = Lm Ls . (20)
Ls Lr L2m Ls Lr L2m amplitude on the dc bus. The space vector modulation (SVM)
is utilized in the converter of the DFIG system in this work
The Simulink block diagram for the DFIG induction machine because the SVM has been widely used for the control of power
is shown in Fig. 11. Equation (18) constructs f1(u)f4(u). converters.
Equations (11) and (12) construct f5(u) and f6(u), respectively. The switches at the GSC and RSI are controlled by the SVM
The electric torque, represented as f7(u), can be expressed as block diagram (see Fig. 14). The SVM has three subsystems.
The input signals of the SVM block include - and -voltage
Te = pL (ir is is ir ). (21) reference values and the measured dc voltage at the back-to-
2 m
back converter. The block named avoid saturation prevents
large voltage reference values because the maximum voltage
output from the back-to-back converter depends on dc voltage.
C. Space-Vector Voltage of the Converter
Hence, the magnitude of the modulated voltage signal cannot be
Fig. 12 shows the basic circuit topology of the GSC in larger than that of the measured dc voltage. There are six active
the DFIG system. The same topology is applied on the RSI. voltage vectors and two zero vectors from the converter. The
There are six IGBT electric switches to control the voltage for six active voltage vectors separate the space into six areas. For
each converter. The operating method on both RSI and GSC is convenience, all vectors can be transformed into an equivalent
the same. space vector inside the first sextant (between V1 and V2 in

GSC vector.
Fig. 15. Determination of the V

Fig. 16. Block diagram for controlling the dc-bus voltage.

Fig. 14. MATLAB block diagram for SVM.

E. DTC of the DFIG System
Fig. 13). The block named sextant choosing uses the input
The DTC is one of the control methods for the DFIG system.
reference vector to choose which sextant is active. For instance,
Based on different wind-speed conditions, the optimal power
when the reference vector is in the third sextant (between V3
output of the wind turbine can be determined with the Cp
and V4 ), only V3 , V4 , V0 , and V7 are active. As the modulation
curve. The equation of the electric torque in the DFIG is
uses a digital signal to modulate the analog signal, the duty
cycle block is utilized to turn the switch off or on.
3 pLm  r | sin
Te = | (23)
2 Ls Lr L2m
D. Voltage Control at the DC Bus of the DFIG System
In most of variable-speed wind turbines, there is a capacitor where is the vector angle between the rotor and stator flux.
that exists in the back-to-back converter in order to maintain With the voltage equilibrium equations of the rotor, i.e., (24)
a stable voltage on the dc bus. There are several methods that and (25), the deviation of the rotor flux can be expressed as the
have been proposed to control the voltage on the dc bus. In this function of switch time Tswitch , as shown in (26)
paper, the vector control is used in our simulation.
r r
In the DFIG system, GSC controls the voltage on the dc bus. rr (t) = Rrirr (t) + dr (t) dr (t)
V (24)
If the voltage is higher than the reference value, the energy is dt dt

delivered from the rotor to the grid and vice versa. The voltage  rr = rr dt
V (25)
balance equation of the space vector between the GSC and grid
can be expressed as  rr = V
nr Tswitch
g = ig (Rf + js Lf ) + V
V GSC ig js Lf + V
GSC (22)
where V nr is the voltage vector on the rotor reference frame,
where V g is the grid voltage, ig is the grid current, s is the
which is injected by the RSI; Tswitch is the transient switching
synchronous speed of the grid, V GSC is the voltage at the side time. The stator flux has the constant amplitude with syn-
of GSC and is modulated by the SVM, and Lf and Rf are the chronous rotational speed on the stator reference frame.
inductor and the resistance of the filter, respectively. Fig. 15 The key point in the DTC is to control the amplitude and
shows the diagram about the composition of vectors to achieve the phase angle of the rotor flux. In the control logic, the rotor
GSC , which is modulated by the converter.
the V reference frame is separated into six parts as shown in Fig. 17.
By using the PLL controller, the dgqg reference frame can Furthermore, the operation of the switch controller with hys-
be fixed based on the Vg . The active power and reactive power teresis band UF or UT is shown in Fig. 18, in which the DF and
from the grid to the dc bus can be directly controlled by the DT are defined respectively as the difference of flux amplitude
converter. Additionally, the command of reference ig can be and the difference of electric torque with a reference value,
confirmed by using the PI controller, and the V GSC can be i.e., DF = | r | |
 r | and DT = Te Te (the superscript
determined by using (22). means the reference value). The selection for the switch during
Fig. 16 represents the schematic diagram of the voltage the SVM operation is summarized in Table I. Additionally, the
control on the dc bus. block diagram for the DTC is shown in Fig. 19.


Fig. 17. Six sections in the rotor reference frame.

Fig. 18. Onoff controller with hysteresis band. The main mechanical part in wind turbine systems is the rotor
of the blade. The rotor speed in the generator can be increased
T HE V ECTOR S ELECTION W ITH UF AND UT by using the gearbox. In the simulation, aerodynamic properties
CL and CD are calculated by the XFOIL, and these data are
used in FAST to calculate the dynamic behavior of the wind
turbine. Notably, the FAST can be used to calculate the rotor
speed, mechanical load, and moment on the blade or tower.
The rotor speed of the blade multiplied by the gear ratio is the
rotor speed of the generator m , and m multiplied by the pole
numbers is the electric angular speed e . When the rotor speed
of the blade is known, the electrical torque reference value of
the generator can be calculated, and the electrical torque can
be fixed by the DTC. As the load on a blade includes the
aerodynamic load and electrical torque, the electrical torque
should be fed back to the FAST.
In this paper, four different wind-speed conditions were
simulated. The first one represents an ideal condition (see
Fig. 20), in which the step function is used to simulate the wind
speed. The wind speed in the 20-s period is divided into three
levels, including 7, 10, and 9 m/s. The rotor speed of the wind
Fig. 19. Block diagram for the DTC.
turbine initially is constant when the wind speed is 7 m/s. When
the wind speed suddenly increases and subsequently stays at
10 m/s, the rotor speed increases. Finally, the wind speed is
decreased to 9 m/s, which causes lower rotor speed.
In this paper, a typical 1.5-MW DFIG-based wind turbine It is obvious from Fig. 20 that the output power from the
was modeled. The complete model of the wind turbine, includ- machine (Pm ), rotor (Pr ), or stator (Ps ) is highly dependent on
ing electrical and mechanical parts, is used in our simulation. the rotor speed and torque. In Fig. 20(h), the positive sign rep-
After measuring the rotor speed, the mechanical power output resents generation, and the negative sign means consumption.
and the torque of the induction machine can be instantaneously Fig. 20(i) shows the voltage curve at the dc bus, in which the
calculated. The parameters of the DFIG-based wind turbine are voltage can be maintained at 1100 V. There is a little oscillation
shown in Table II. that appears on the power of the stator (Ps ), the voltage at
By using the wind-speed data and the calculation tool Aero- the dc bus, and the current of the rotor (ir ). These oscillation
Dyn, the kinetic energy on the blades can be achieved. Then, the signals appear when the slip is closest to zero. The simulation
appropriate torque of the induction machine can be calculated results indicate clearly that the frequency of the rotor current
based on the transformation from the kinetic energy into the is dependent on the slip. The frequency of the rotor current
electrical energy. Additionally, the voltage at the dc bus is changes to the opposite direction when the slip reversed its sign.
almost a constant value because of the control by GSC. A stable Additionally, the frequency of the stator current is as fast as the
voltage at the dc bus could help the RSI control the rotor torque. frequency at the grid.

Fig. 20. Simulation results under an ideal wind condition. (a) Wind speed. (b) Rotor speed of the wind turbine. (c) Rotor speed of the generator. (d) Slip.
(e) Electrical torque. (f) Power output of the machine. (g) Power output from the stator. (h) Power output from the rotor. (i) DC-bus voltage. (j) Three-phase
voltage at grid. (k) Current from the stator. (l) Current from the rotor.

The second time series of wind speed as shown in Fig. 21 cillation in the signals at the stator power and the dc-bus voltage
was measured from Penghu, Taiwan. The wind-speed data were when the slip is zero (the synchronous operation of the DFIG).
measured every 0.5 s and have been used in the simulation. Another two wind conditions were also considered: a wide
Fig. 21 shows the rotor speed of the turbine and the generator; wind-speed range (see Fig. 22) and a low wind-speed series (see
both speeds are directly proportional to the gear ratio. The Fig. 23). In Fig. 22, the wind-speed range was 4.411.3 m/s,
torque and power are controlled according to the speed of the which was measured at the Penghu Wind Farm. The speed of
rotor. It is obvious from this figure that there appears a little os- the rotor follows the trend of the wind speed. Additionally,

Fig. 21. Simulation results under a high wind-speed series. (a) Wind speed. (b) Rotor speed of the wind turbine. (c) Rotor speed of the generator. (d) Slip.
(e) Electrical torque. (f) Power output of the machine. (g) Power output from the stator. (h) Power output from the rotor. (i) DC-bus voltage. (j) Three-phase
voltage at grid. (k) Current from the stator. (l) Current from the rotor.

stator power and voltage on the dc bus oscillate little when the In the simulation, all electrical components were modeled
slip value is zero. In Fig. 23, the range of low wind-speed series using mathematical equations. However, in the computing pro-
was 3.265 m/s (mean of 3.95 m/s), which was also measured at cess, all operational procedures used the discontinuous dis-
the Penghu Wind Farm. In that case, wind speed was relatively crete signal. To acquire realistic simulation results, one can
stable such that fluctuations in turbine speed and generator alter the sampling time in Simulink. For example, a small
speed were small. Furthermore, no obvious oscillations existed sampling time increased the accuracy of the simulation result
in stator power and voltage on the dc bus because the slip value and computational time and vice versa. In this simulation,
did not cross zero. the sampling time was fixed at 106 s. Moreover, simulation

Fig. 22. Simulation results under a wide wind-speed range. (a) Wind speed. (b) Rotor speed of the wind turbine. (c) Rotor speed of the generator. (d) Slip.
(e) Electrical torque. (f) Power output of the machine. (g) Power output from the stator. (h) Power output from the rotor. (i) DC-bus voltage. (j) Three-phase
voltage at grid. (k) Current from the stator. (l) Current from the rotor.
speed also depends on hardware specifications. For example,
by using the industrial-grade software package, RT-LAB, near- The complete modeling of the DFIG-based wind turbine was
real-time simulation speed is achieved. In this paper, model performed in this work by using the MATLAB/Simulink and
simulation was implemented on a personal computer with an the FAST. The whole model of the wind turbine considering
Intel i5-3210 CPU with 4.0-GB RAM. The computer took both mechanical and electrical parts was seldom discussed be-
31.62 min to implement a 60-s-long simulation for the proposed fore. With the analysis of the aerodynamic, the characteristic of
DFIG generator. Notably, FAST can only be used in the 32-b wind turbine blades is obtained in this work. Furthermore, the
MATLAB environment, prolonging computation time. DTC can directly control the response of the torque and power.

Fig. 23. Simulation results under a low wind-speed series. (a) Wind speed. (b) Rotor speed of the wind turbine. (c) Rotor speed of the generator. (d) Slip.
(e) Electrical torque. (f) Power output of the machine. (g) Power output from the stator. (h) Power output from the rotor. (i) DC-bus voltage. (j) Three-phase
voltage at grid. (k) Current from the stator. (l) Current from the rotor.

Four wind-speed conditions have been used in this paper, and most used a transfer function to replace a complete generator
the simulation results indicate that the proposed model works model. In such cases, power output corresponds to rotational
well. The proposed wind turbine model can also be applied to speed when using a transfer function, and the power output will
other wind-speed conditions if necessary. be somewhat inaccurate. Owing to the switching characteristics
Most studies modeling the wind turbine failed to integrate the of power electronics (i.e., the step-function signal), the wind
mechanical and the electrical systems, subsequently ignoring turbine system has discontinuous characteristics.
some wind turbine properties. Generally, purely mechanical Electrical torque is produced by the generator. Machine
studies failed to analyze the details on the generator; instead, components under discontinuous loading for a long period are

damaged more easily than when under continuous loading. was constructed on detailed mathematical equations. Therefore,
Therefore, when stress analysis for wind turbines is imple- these models are useful reference models for further studies of
mented, boundary conditions can be determined based on an- wind turbine technology.
alytical results in this work. Additionally, many mechanical
characteristics of wind turbines, such as loading of the blade,
tower, and bearing, can also be determined using analytical
Many studies on the DFIG examined how to control torque
and power within a short time. Hence, several advanced control Equation (8) that is used to transfer the vector from the rotor
methods, including predictive control, have been developed. reference frame to stator reference frame can be expressed as
Nevertheless, the blades can restore energy. For a large wind
turbine, inertia is very considerable, explaining why storage  r = exp(je ) X
X s (A.1)
capacity for mechanical energy is also very large. When one
where the vector of X can be represented as voltage, current,
uses a control method that is not the best or uses a controller that
or flux. The voltage equations of the space vector for the stator
has an inaccurate sampling time, torque cannot be controlled
and rotor are, respectively,
accurately; however, energy that cannot be transferred directly
into electric energy can restore temporarily the kinetic energy s
of the blade, which causes the increase of rotor speed and, as  s (t) = Rsis (t) + ds (t)
V (A.2)
s s
a result, increases the torque reference value.In other words,  rr (t)
wind energy that is not transformed into electric energy on  r (t) = Rrir (t) + d
V r r . (A.3)
time does not disappear, and the energy transfer is implemented dt
later. Therefore, the accurate and timely control of generator Inserting (A.1) into (A.3), one can yield
torque and power may not be necessary when one considers the  
mechanical characteristics of wind turbines. d  sr eje
The rotor speed of a large wind turbine depends on wind rs eje = Rrirs eje +
V (A.4)
speed. The rotor speed in this work is 620 r/min, approxi-
mately 0.10.34 Hz, but the normal grid frequency is 50 or  s eje = Rrirs eje + dr eje je
V  s eje
r r
60 Hz. Therefore, a large difference exists between grid fre- dt
quency and rotor speed. Thus, wind turbine modeling cannot (A.5)
only consider the mechanical or electrical characteristics; they  s
Vrs (t) = Reisr (t) + dr (t) je  sr (t). (A.6)
must be integrated. Simulation results can then provide an dt
actual response for the DFIG.
The novel contributions of this work are as follows. This The relation between the fluxes and currents in the space vector
work thoroughly analyzes and models the complete DFIG wind for the stator and rotor can be expressed, respectively, as
turbine system, including the blade, generator, and back-to-  ss = Lsiss + Lmisr
back converter. The complete model for a wind turbine has
seldom been discussed in the literature. The work provides very  rr = Lmirs + Lrirr .
realistic boundary conditions for the mechanism characteristics
of the wind turbine, such as the loading of the blade, tower, Inserting (A.1) into (A.8), one can yield
and bearing. The FAST utilized in this work can calculate a  s eje = Lmis eje + Lris eje
r s r (A.9)
lot of data about mechanical characteristics. This work only
derives the rotational speed of the wind turbine by the FAST.  s  s  s
r = L m is + L r ir . (A.10)
Notably, the FAST can be used to determine, for example,
the deflection of the blade, acceleration of the blade, shear Solving the iss and isr by using (A.7) and (A.10), one could yield
force on the blade, moment on the blade, and moment on s s
the bearing. Although most DFIG studies failed to consider iss = Lr s Lm r (A.11)
Ls Lr L2m
mechanical parts, the mass moment of inertia of the blade is
s s
very large. Therefore, the mechanical and electrical properties isr = Ls r Lm s . (A.12)
of the integrated model differ markedly from that of models Ls Lr L2m
with a constant-rotor-speed or variable-rotor-speed generator.
This work is based on Taiwans Thousand Wind Turbines Replacing (A.11) and (A.12) with (A.2) and (A.6), respectively,
Project. Before large-scale wind turbines are constructed, the yields the state equations of DFIG, as in (A.13) and (A.14),
complete wind turbine modeling is of priority concern. This which are the same as (16) in the matrix form
work also uses real measured wind speeds that were measured  ss
d R s Lr  s R s Lm  s  s
at Taiwans Penghu Wind Farm to facilitate meaningful simula- = s + + Vs (A.13)
dt Ls Lr Lm2 Ls Lr L2m r
tions. This work includes flow-field analysis of airfoils, dc-bus
control at the back-to-back converter, electrical torque control  srq
d R r Lm  s R r Ls
= + je  s +V
rs. (A.14)
at the generator, and induction machine modeling. Each model dt Ls Lr L2m s Ls Lr L2m r

R EFERENCES Shih-Yu Yang was born in 1988. He received the

B.S. degree from the Department of Mechanical En-
[1] M. Saeedifard, R. Iravani, and J. Pou, Control and dc-capacitor voltage
gineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan,
balancing of a space vector-modulated five-level STATCOM, IET Power
Taiwan, in 2011. He is currently working toward
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Ph.D. degree in the Department of Engineering Sci-
[2] E. Tremblay, A. Chandra, P. J. Lagace, and R. Gagnon, Study of grid-
ence and Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan Uni-
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versity, Taipei, Taiwan.
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[3] R. G. V. Sumitha, Enhancement of reactive power capability of DFIG
aerodynamic, elasticity, structure analysis, solid me-
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[6] J. Hu, Y. He, L. Xu, and B. W. Williams, Improved control of DFIG ceived the Ph.D. degree in electronic and electri-
systems during network unbalance using P-IR current regulators, IEEE cal engineering from the University of Strathclyde,
Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 439451, Feb. 2009. Glasgow, U.K., in 2004.
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pp. 2633, May/Jun. 2002. neer at the Taiwan Electric Research and Testing
[8] R. Pena, J. C. Clare, and G. M. Asher, Doubly fed induction generator Center, Taiwan. He is currently an Associate Profes-
using back-to-back PWM converters and its application to variable-speed sor with the Department of Electrical Engineering,
wind-energy generation, IEE Proc. Elect. Power Appli., vol. 143, no. 3, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan,
pp. 231241, May 1996. working in the area of wind turbine modeling, wind
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direct torque control of the doubly fed induction machine with reduced
Huei-Jeng Lin was born in 1956. He received the
torque and flux ripples at low constant switching frequency, IEEE Trans.
B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees from the Department
Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 10501061, May 2008.
of Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan University,
[12] G. Abad, M. A. Rodriguez, and J. Poza, Predictive direct power control
Taipei, Taiwan.
of the doubly fed induction machine with reduced power ripple at low
He is currently a Professor with National Taiwan
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[13] L. Shuhui, T. A. Haskew, K. A. Williams, and R. P. Swatloski, Control
ment of Ocean Engineering at National Taiwan
of DFIG wind turbine with direct-current vector control configuration,
University from 2000 to 2003 and transferred the
IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 111, Jan. 2012.
department into Engineering Science and Ocean En-
[14] H. Jiabing, N. Heng, X. Hailiang, and H. Yikang, Dynamic modeling and gineering. He was the Vice-President from 2005 to
improved control of DFIG under distorted grid voltage conditions, IEEE
2006 and the President from 2006 to 2009 at National
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Penghu University, Penghu, Taiwan, a Visiting Professor in the Department
[15] X. Hailiang, H. Jiabing, and H. Yikang, Operation of wind-turbine-
of Information and Electrical Engineering, UMBC, USA, in 2004, the Vice-
driven DFIG systems under distorted grid voltage conditions: Analysis Chairperson of the NTU-ITRI Nano Center from 2004 to 2005, a Visiting
and experimental validations, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 27,
Researcher in the Laboratory of Material Science and Engineering, NIST, USA,
no. 5, pp. 23542366, May 2012.
from 2003 to 2004, and a Visiting Scholar in the School of Aeronautics and
[16] M. I. Martinez, G. Tapia, A. Susperregui, and H. Camblong, Sliding-
Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA, from 1990 to 1991.
mode control for DFIG rotor- and grid-side converters under unbalanced His research interests are in wind turbine systems, composite material structure
and harmonically distorted grid voltage, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers.,
analysis, biomechanics, acoustic behavior of FRP, and carbon nanotubes.
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[18] M. O. L. Hansen, Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines, 2nd ed. Oxford, U.K.:
Earthscan, 2008. Wei-Jen Lee (M85SM97F07) received the B.S.
[19] M. L. B. J. Jason and M. Jonkman, FAST Users Guide, National and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from Na-
Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, Tech. Rep. NREL/ tional Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, in 1978 and
EL-500-38230, Aug. 2005. 1980, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical
[20] A. C. Hansen and D. J. Laino, USERS GUIDE to the wind tur- engineering from the University of Texas at Arling-
bine aerodynamics computer software AeroDyn, National Renewable ton, Arlington, TX, USA, in 1985.
Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA, Subcontract TCX-9-29209-01, In 1985, he joined the University of Texas at
Dec. 24, 2002. Arlington, where he is currently a Professor in the
[21] G. Patrick, J. Moriarty, A. Colorado, and A. Craig Hansen, AeroDyn Department of Electrical Engineering and the Direc-
Theory Manual, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, tor of the Energy Systems Research Center. His cur-
USA, Tech. Rep. NREL/EL-500-36881, Dec. 2005. rent research interests include power flow, transient
[22] M. Drela and H. Youngren, XFOIL 6.94 User Guide. Cambridge, MA, and dynamic stability, voltage stability, short circuits, relay coordination, power
USA: MIT Press, Dec. 10, 2001. quality analysis, renewable energy, and deregulation for utility companies.