Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8


by James F. Dunham by the Dean who recognized his Serge Diaghilev were felt by the
talent. He continued at Oxford young Walton.
When I was first approached to from 1918-1920 but never fin-
write an article on the Walton ished. Why? I could find no Therefore, when Edith Sitwell
Viola Concerto, a work I know answer: even the scholars remain wrote her Faade Poems it is no
well and love, I jumped at the mystified! While there, however, he surprise that her adoptive broth-
chance. I always want to know made his most important and er, the quiet in residence com-
more, and have been curious about long-lasting friends: the poet poser was approached to provide
several things: What were Waltons Siegfried Sassoon and the Sitwell the music. Although the first inti-
real reasons for creating a second family with whom he later lived as mate performance was given in
orchestration? Was he always revis- adoptive, or elected, brother to January 1922, many revisions were
ing, or only in this piece? Why are Edith, Osbert and Sacheverell made even before the first of many
there discrepancies between several Sitwell.1 Thanks to the Sitwells, he final versions, which I find telling
versions of the solo viola part? Is also met young Constant Lambert, when considering the future revisions
there a correct version? an excellent composer who later in the viola concerto. In fact, it
became conductor, critic, close was not until 1951 that the defin-
It has been an enlightening search friend and Waltons favorite narra- itive score for Faade was released.
that has drawn me further into tor of his first great success: Faade.2
Waltons world, to be charmed and In 1925 Waltons overture Portsmouth
amused by William Walton the Always concerned with money, it Point brought him to the attention
man, and fascinated by William was the Sitwells and their friends of Hubert Foss who had recently
Walton, the composer. The sources who generously arranged to guar- founded Oxford University Press.
I drew from proved to be numer- antee an annual income for the Their initial five-year contract soon
ous, varied, and excellent, so I have young Walton that enabled him to turned into a lifelong partnership,
included an annotated bibliogra- concentrate solely on composing. and OUP remains Waltons pub-
phy in the hope that you will They took him on family vacations lisher to this day.
explore them further. I have cho- to Spain and Italy (where he would
sen to synthesize information from later live), introduced him to cen- His Personality:
all of them into a kind of mini- tral figures of the day and made it A disciplined worker, Walton often
biography in order to offer a possible for him to hear the works seemed overly quiet to others,
glimpse into Waltons life and of the current masters: Stravinskys spending long hours alone working
working style, and to present a few Petrushka and Rite of Spring, at his upright piano.4 Yet in private
specifics about the two orchestra- Ravels Daphnis et Chlo, works by he could be very clever with words
tions and the solo viola parts to the Prokofiev, Debussy, and even Jazz. and even a bit saucy! His affection-
Viola Concerto. In August of 1923, the 21-year old ate, long lasting (but evidently pla-
Walton participated in the first fes- tonic) relationship with Christabel
A Brief Background: tival of the International Society Aberconway, dedicatee of the Viola
Born to a musical family in March for Contemporary Music (ISCM), Concerto, is a case in point:
1902, Walton sang in his fathers in which his String Quartet was Dearest Christabel he wrote, I
church choir until age 10 when he performed alongside music by really might have written you
won a scholarship to attend school Bartk, Jancek, Bliss and before, but I have no news to tell
at Christ Church, Oxford. He was Hindemith!3 Even the influences of you, nothing except what you
there for six years, well looked after the great Russian dance impresario already know, & what is supposed

to be unwise to commit to For all the wit and glibness evident does come off, it should make a rous-
paper...5 in his correspondence, though, ing & diverting finish to the work. It
Walton was demanding of himself is meant to divert, & also to annoy,
In person he tended to be more throughout his life, constantly & I shall be intensely disappointed if
circumspect, but there is a telling making revisions and sincerely ask- I get a kind word from either Peter
anecdote about his first meeting ing the opinions of his trusted Heyworth or Donald Mitchell or
many years later with his future friends. In a strange kind of symbi- anybody else. Vulgar without being
wife. Walton was in Buenos Aires otic relationship, he even became a funny (in the words of the late Sir
at a press conference when music close personal friend of the music B. Sitwell in reply to some inane
publisher Leslie Boosey tactlessly critic Peter Heyworth who regular- remark of Osberts) is the best I can
announced in front of Walton that ly wrote unkind reviews of hope for.10
Benjamin Britten (represented by Waltons music! Yet they would
Booseys firm, of course) was the stay at each others homes, either The Viola Concerto
UKs leading composer! Happily on the Italian island of Ischia or in It was Thomas Beecham who sug-
there was instant compensation for London, and share both humor gested to Walton that he write a
the wounded Walton: he caught and a musical challenge. concerto for the great English vio-
the eye of the British Councils sec- Heyworths criticism notwithstand- list Lionel Tertis, who had for
retary, a vivacious girl of 22: We ing, Walton could also respond many years led a campaign cham-
met, went off to lunch and I pro- with tongue-in-cheek needling, so pioning the viola as the neglected
posed to her the next day. As far as it was an unusual yet compatible Cinderella of the string family.
I remember, she said Dont be relation. For instance in a 1962 Following the success of both
ridiculous, Dr. Walton, but we got letter, Walton wrote in part: Faade and Portsmouth Point,
engaged three weeks after that.6 Walton was gaining confidence in
My dear Peter, (or tormentor-in- his composing, though still pro-
Generally self-deprecating, Walton chief), I did as a matter of fact tele- fessing difficulty in the actual writ-
insisted that he only conducted phone you but with no success. Once ing. In February 1929 Walton
because he was asked to. Of course on Sun morn. April 1st pointing out wrote to his friend Siegfried
he then added: I certainly could you had split an infinitive & hoping Sassoon I finished yesterday the
conduct my music better than you would have to bore yourself blue second movement of my Viola
most ...because it was, to me, by reading through your contribution Concerto. At the moment, I think
childs play and still is.7 His piano to find it... Blessings, and dont pull it will be my best work, better
playing, on the other hand, seems your punches! 9 than the Sinfonia, if only the third
to have left much to be desired. and last movement works out
Composing at the keyboard was While otherwise sensitive to most well.11 At the same time, he wrote
laborious, and trying to play from public criticism, especially as his his good friend, pianist Angus
score nearly disastrous. Once music began to fall out of favor as Morrison, relating his progress
Walton called his friend, the critic old-fashioned in the 1950s and with the concerto, and implying
Basil Maine, and offered to come 1960s, he was nevertheless still that his style was maturing.
over to play some of his newly willing to take risks on his own Morrison was amused to hear this
completed viola concerto for him. terms. Walton wrote of his Partita from such a young composer, but
Maine recalled: He arrived soon for Orchestra (1957) : changed his mind when Walton
after, and, in the indescribable played the concerto for him later
idiom of his pianoforte playing, ...I think you will agree with me (I that spring: In this work, declared
gave some idea of the orchestral refer to movement III) that I have Morrison, he had, in fact, reached
score, and occasionally a sketchy been sailing far too near to the wind complete maturity of style and
vocalise of the viola part.8 in fact one could say, perhaps, that given full rein, for the first time, to
one has gone too far. However, if it his entirely personal lyrical gift.12


Yet life is never simple. Having Later, Walton would comment to Tertis perform Waltons Concerto
completed the concerto, Walton Hindemiths biographer that he had in September 1932. It was the only
forwarded it immediately to Lionel been much influenced by Hindemiths time Walton and Elgar met, and
Tertis who sent it back abruptly by own viola concerto, Kammermusik both Tertis and Basil Maine confirm
return post. The oft-quoted passage No. 5. I was surprised he played that Elgar did not like the piece.
from Tertis autobiography reads: (my concerto)... One or two bars are Elgar paced up and down behind
almost identical.16 the orchestral gallery during the
One work of which I did not give performance of the concerto, deploring
the first performance was Waltons While the Concerto itself was hap- that such music should be thought
masterly concerto. With shame and pily received, Paul Hindemiths fit for a stringed instrument.21
contrition I admit that when the performance was less so. In the
composer offered me the first per- same interview Walton confessed, Changes in the Viola Concerto
formance I declined it. I was unwell Hindemiths playing was very In considering the evolution of the
at the time; but what is also true is brusque... His technique was mar- Viola Concerto and its eventual re-
that I had not learnt to appreciate velous, but he was rough- no non- orchestration, I have tried to find a
Waltons style. The innovations in his sense about it. He just stood up pattern in Waltons other composi-
musical language, which now seem and played.17 Lionel Tertis, who tions and revisions. I think it is
so logical and so truly in the main- attended the premiere, had similar important to note that he was con-
stream of music, then struck me as misgivings. I felt great disappoint- stantly making changes himself
far-fetched.13 ment with his playing. The notes, and allowing changes from his
certainly, were all there, but the soloists, seemingly without com-
What to do? When Walton began tone was cold and unpleasant and plaint. Certainly, his first great suc-
composing the concerto, he initial- the instrument he played did not cess came with Faade, which went
ly claimed that he knew little deserve to be called a viola, it was through multiple re-workings,
about the viola except that it made far too small.18 Nevertheless, Paul including the performance of sev-
a rather awful sound.14 Of course, Hindemith did save the day and as eral previously unreleased sections
he had studied Berlioz Harold in it turns out, he did so against the as late as 1977!22 Both the Scottish
Italy and also knew and admired wishes of his own manager! There soloist William Primrose and
Paul Hindemiths viola concerto is a letter from manager Willy Lionel Tertis reworked the solo
Kammermusik No. 5. As Hindemith Strecker to Hindemiths wife part in the viola concerto to make
was already a famous violist/com- Gertrude saying: it more virtuosic and flamboyant
poser, the idea of inviting him to for themselves, with Tertis edition
perform the premiere was quite a The London affair is very regrettable. eventually published by Oxford
natural one, especially since the I want your husband, appearing University Press. Walton even sug-
two men had become friends at there for the first time before the gested that a few of the added
the ISCM festival in 1923. Susana larger public, to do it in a worthy octaves or the occasional 8va per-
Walton, in her biography of her setting, and as a composer, not just as formed by Primrose might possibly
husband, writes that it was Edward a soloist. An appearance with Wood19 be improvements,23 although years
Clark, program planner for the BBC, to play a concerto by a moderately later Primrose learned that Walton
who thought to send the concerto gifted English composer - and that is really didnt care for his revisions
to Hindemith. When he gallantly what Walton is- is not as I see it a after all!24 In the same vein, it is
accepted, William was delighted.15 debut... Your husband should make clear from letters exchanged with
himself harder to get.20 the great Gregor Piatigorsky while
The premiere went well, in spite of writing the Cello Concerto that
too little rehearsal and many errors Although the Concerto met with Walton extended the same cour-
in the printed orchestral parts: much general success, there was tesy to him. He even invited
Walton was up all night making one significant exception. The Piatigorsky to consider the orches-
corrections before the concert. great Edward Elgar heard Lionel tral scoring: I only hope it will
come up to your expectations ground found a more suitable ing there are actually a few more
when you come to playing it with voice for this intimate and interac- strings called for in the revised ver-
the orchestra. If anything in the tive concerto than did the two sion than in the original!29
orchestration (that vibraphone for virtuoso soloists who performed
instance) should irk you, just cut it it so frequently during those same An increasingly likely influence,
out! It is not absolutely essential years. In any case, Walton grew to both on the piece as a whole and
(though I might miss it!).25 prefer Riddles interpretation above the revised orchestration, is the
all others. Riddles reworking of Prokofiev Violin Concerto no. 1, a
He did, however, have his limits. the solo line is true to Waltons beautiful work by a composer
Following the first performances of text, but his legato groupings and Walton admired. To begin with,
the Cello Concerto, Walton wrote: crisp marcato articulations enhance Waltons Viola Concerto itself bears
the character of the composition many remarkable similarities to
Dear Grisha, You have made (& and are convincingly practical in Prokofievs composition, perhaps
made for me) a terrific impression instrumental terms. Walton, recog- even serving as an analog for the
here with the Concerto...I have heard nizing that here was the expertise younger Waltons first concerto for
the tapes of the world premiere & he had lacked, asked Riddle to a string instrument.30 The opening
the Philharmonic & there are I submit his version to OUP - and lyrical melody of the Walton seems
think a few comments & suggestions this became the solo part pub- to echo the flowing first statement
I can make. The timings: my timings lished from 1938 to 1961.28 of the Prokofiev. And Waltons first
are perhaps a little on the fast side, movement recapitulation, like
but the biggest difference is the last Why Changes? Prokofievs, is shortened, intro-
movement & to my mind the differ- Over the years, Walton made duced by double stops in the solo
ences occur in the two solo improvs. numerous small adjustments to the line, followed by a singing wood-
To make it quite clear how I feel they score of the Viola Concerto, mak- wind melody embroidered by
should go, Im making a tape which I ing notations in his reference score triplets in the solo line.31 Similarly,
will send to you very shortly. This I that were then copied into the near the end of the last movement
think is the best way...I do so hate actual parts. Eventually, it became of both works the opening theme
asking you to do this & I know you clear that a revised version was of the concerto returns while the
wont think it is because I dont needed and Walton set about the main theme of the Finale acts as
appreciate your playing of the work task in 1961. He also changed the accompaniment, very possibly a
as a whole but it is just these parts woodwinds from triple to double, device that Walton borrowed from
where the performance could be removed one trumpet and the tuba Prokofiev.32 Thus it is not such a
tightened up. Do forgive me.26 and added a harp. The new edi- stretch to imagine that Prokofiev's
tion, for smaller orchestra, might texture still lingered in Waltons
For decades, Walton had the have been an attempt to encourage mind, for his amendment brings
opportunity to conduct both Tertis more performances. In addition, his scoring (particularly in the use
and Primrose many times, even its orchestration and extensive use of harp and bass clarinet) markedly
recording the viola concerto with of harp suggests that by then closer to Prokofievs (where harp
Primrose and the Philharmonia Walton had evolved a different and clarinet are also prominent).33
Orchestra in 1946. But it was a orchestral sound, different but not
performance and recording27 he necessarily an improvement over Change often brings resistance,
conducted in 1938 that spoke the original. There is some thought and this re-orchestration is no dif-
most deeply to Walton; the soloist that he was trying to lighten the ferent. In this case, however, the
was Frederick Riddle, principal texture for the soloist. In actuality, composer himself doesnt help.
violist of the London Symphony in both versions the full orchestra Walton writes that, although the
Orchestra. Perhaps Riddles cham- only plays during the tutti sec- new version is strongly preferred,
ber music and orchestral back- tions, yet when the soloist is play- the old can still be performed! In a


review of Waltons 70th Birthday tion OUP didnt understand the At the moment, I miss some of the
concert at Royal Festival Hall, in distinction, and only discovered youthful edge of the original.
which Sir Yehudi Menuhin performed the confusion after the 1962 score Still, I look forward to spending
the Viola Concerto, Ronald Crichton had been released with the old time reassessing this masterwork
wrote in the Financial Times: One 1930 solo line back in place! As a and my relation with it.
wished that just this once they had result, most American violists like
gone back to the old scoring with me, who came of age after 1962, Certainly, we are fortunate to have
triple wind and without harp - no learned the new orchestration this cornerstone of the viola solo
doubt the revisions make life easier with the old part, while British repertoire available to us in such a
for the solo, but the smoothing violists seem to have grown up beautiful new edition. In addition
and streamlining tone down an with the Riddle version all along! to the fine viola and piano reduc-
acerbity that was very much part of Interestingly, I have on loan both the tion which includes Riddles mark-
the music, while the harp brings it scores and parts used by former ings, Volume 12 of the William
nearer the Tennysonian euphony of Houston Symphony principal vio- Walton Edition has both the 1929
Ischia and the later period, very list Wayne Crouse. Included is a and 1962 orchestrations in it as
beautiful, yet different.34 yellowing copy of the pre-1961 well as the original and Riddle ver-
Riddle edition as published by sions of the solo line. It also has a
An additional bit of a mystery has OUP, and a copy of the 1962 rich, well-written and informative
surrounded the solo viola part since new version, proudly inscribed preface by its editor Christopher
the new 1962 score was released. by hand with the words: This edi- Wellington along with excellent
In the excellent foreword to the tion was used for 3 performances source material. It is a must for the
William Walton Edition of the viola with Sir William Walton conduct- personal library of all serious vio-
concerto, Christopher Wellington ing the Houston Symphony Jan. lists! And I wish you well as you,
(violist, scholar, editor) wonderfully 1969. Wayne Crouse, viola too, reconsider this masterpiece.
relates a story that I will summarize soloist. And in the miniature Whatever you decide, I suspect
here: In order to set about reworking score, without complaint, is hand that Sir William would approve.
the orchestration, Walton requested written in pencil Wayne Crouse
a dummy score from OUP, with with love, Sir William. Special thanks:
only instrument names, bar lines and To Dr. Matthew Dane for access to
the solo viola line included, upon I love this concerto and feel the scores and parts used by then-
which he would then re-score the relieved to understand how it is principal violist Wayne Crouse in
concerto. He was sent this materi- that the viola parts became so con- three 1969 performances of the
al, but somehow it arrived with the fused. It is also important to know Walton Viola Concerto with the
originally published 1930 viola line that, as early as 1938, Walton pre- Houston Symphony Orchestra, Sir
included rather than the newer Riddle ferred the more lyrical, smoother William Walton conducting.
edition! Complicating matters, Walton solo viola line of Frederick Riddle.
made a few changes to the (old) Most likely I am influenced by too To Suzanne L. Ford (Performance
solo line - possibly bits that he had many years of knowing the piece in Promotion Manager for Oxford
taken from Primroses recorded per- its 1930 version. I feel a certain University Press, Music Division,
formance- giving some credibility to kinship with the Financial Times NY) for her time, support and gen-
the old part and perhaps implying reviewer quoted earlier when he erosity in making materials avail-
that he had accepted it again. wrote the smoothing and stream- able to me.
lining tone down an acerbity that
Upon completion of the new (is) very much part of the music. Former violist of the Cleveland
orchestration, Walton then request- The twenties were a time of great Quartet, James F. Dunham is
ed that the new viola part be experimentation in all of the arts, Professor of Viola and Chamber
reinstated (meaning the Riddle ver- and Walton was fully aware of his Music at Rice Universitys Shepherd
sion), but through miscommunica- musical heritage and surroundings. School of Music.
NOTES 19 The Henry Wood Symphony 31 Robert Meikle, The
Orchestra, with Walton con- Symphonies and Concertos in
1 Michael Kennedy, Portrait of ducting at the Proms. William Walton: Music and
Walton (London: Oxford 20 Skelton, 97. Literature, ed. Stewart R.
University Press, 1990), 16. 21 Kennedy, 52. Elgar conducted Craggs (Aldershot: Ashgate,
2 Ibid., 44. his own For the Fallen at the 1999), 71.
3 Ibid., 25. same concert. 32 Kennedy, 51.
Ibid., 32. Lionel Carley quot- 22 Ibid., 35. 33 Meikle, 74.
ed in Delius, A Life in Letters: 23 Preface to William Walton 34 Preface to William Walton
(Mrs. Frederick Delius) told Edition, Volume 12: Concerto Edition, Volume 12, viii-ix
me ...he sat for 2 1/2 hours & for Viola and Orchestra, ed.
never said a word in spite of all Christopher Wellington
her efforts-he was so shy! (London: Oxford University
5 The Selected Letters of William Press, 2002), x.
Walton, ed. Malcolm Hayes 24 David Dalton, Playing the
(London: Faber and Faber Viola: Conversations with
Limited, 2002), 38. William Primrose (London:
6 Humphrey Burton & Oxford University Press,
Maureen Murray, William 1988), 197. William Primrose
Walton: The Romantic Loner, A learned, after years of perform-
Centenary Portrait Album ing the Concerto with his own
(London: Oxford University octavisations and other
Press, 2002), 104. improvements, that Walton
7 Kennedy, 44 really preferred the solo the
8 Stephen Lloyd, William way he had written it!
Walton: Muse of Fire (London: Primrose is quoted: For thirty
The Boydell Press, 2001), 91. five years I pursued my
9 The Selected Letters of way...all this time with nary a
William Walton, 326. peep of protest from the com-
10 Ibid., Letter to Alan Frank, 304. poser. Was he too modest, too
11 Ibid., 45. sensible of my pride, my finer
12 Neil Tierney, William Walton: His feelings, to tell me to play
Life and Music (London: Robert what was written and not to
Hale Limited, 1984), 61-62. mess about with his ideas, that
13 Lionel Tertis, My Viola and I he was the composer and
(London: Elek Books Limited, knew best?
1974), 36. 25 The Selected Letters of
14 Michael Kennedy, 48-49. William Walton, 284.
15 Susana Walton, William 26 Ibid., 295-296.
Walton: Behind the Faade 27 See annotated bibliography for
(London: Oxford University information on this recording.
Press, 1988), 68. 28 Christopher Wellington,
16 Geoffrey Skelton, Paul Hidden Harmony The Strad
Hindemith: The Man Behind (June 2001), 619.
the Music (London: Victor 29 Ibid., 619.
Gollancz, 1975), 98. 30 Atar Arad, Walton as
17 Ibid., 98. Scapino, The Strad (February
18 Tertis, 36-37. 1989), 138.
Companion to The Walton Viola Concerto: Dalton, David. Playing the Viola: Conversations with
A Synthesis, by James F. Dunham William Primrose. London: Oxford University Press, 1988.
A must have book for the alert violist. Well-
Arad, Atar. Walton as Scapino. The Strad. 100 written with excellent questions and answers; a
(February 1989),138-141. real insiders look at the performance and teaching
Atar Arad, my predecessor in the Cleveland techniques of this outstanding soloist. It is also a
Quartet, carries forward work begun in 1964 by treat to hear the lyric cadence of this fine
P. J. Price (Scapino: The Development of Scotsmans speech.
William Walton) and continued by B.
Northcott in 1982 (In Search of Walton). The The Selected Letters of William Walton, ed. Malcolm
premise is that, not only did Walton borrow Hayes. London: Faber and Faber Limited, 2002.
certain formal ideas from Prokofievs First This recent book at last allows an exceptional look
Violin Concerto- he used the piece as an overt into the inner world of William Walton. It allows
model and wrote the Viola Concerto as an actu- us to see him in his own words and as he really
al analog of the Prokofiev! Mr. Arad gives a was: in turn serious, humorous, cheeky, clever, and
nearly note-by-note comparison and makes a always caring. Beautifully collected and presented
very compelling case for this view. It is also sug- with well-researched introductions to each section.
gested that Walton was trying to fool the schol-
ars. (Mr. Price quotes: Scapino: to escape- Howes, Frank. The Music of William Walton.
mild enough - I found King of Con Men! But London: Oxford University Press, 2nd Ed, 1974.
in Molires original 1671 farce, Scapino himself A detailed look at the music of Walton, written
states The vulgar would call me a con man. I while Sir William was still living. Well researched
would call myself an artist.) The practice of and presented.
writing analogs is a common technique among
composers, though it is true that Walton never Kennedy, Michael. Portrait of Walton. London:
acknowledged this seemingly obvious connec- Oxford University Press, 1990.
tion. Is the clever Walton also stating I am an This is an outstanding biography. Anyone with an
Artist...? interest in Walton will want to own it. It is
informative, insightful, written with personality
Burton, Humphrey & Maureen Murray. William and humanity. If you can have only one book on
Walton: The Romantic Loner, A Centenary Portrait Walton, this is it.
Album. London: Oxford University Press, 2002.
A luscious picture book, filled with a treasure- Lloyd, Stephen. William Walton: Muse of Fire.
trove of photographic memorabilia, as well as London: The Boydell Press, 2001.
informative and well written commentary. A A recent addition. Thoroughly researched, crisp
beautiful collectors item. and informative.

Meikle, Robert. The Symphonies and Concertos. Skelton, Geoffrey. Paul Hindemith: The Man Behind
William Walton: Music and Literature. ed. Stewart R. the Music. London: Victor Gollancz, 1975.
Craggs. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999. A thorough and classic biography with many
A collection of essays by many important writers important insights. A fine cross-reference due to
and musicians on all the music of Walton. the friendship of these two superb composers.

Smith, Carolyn J. William Walton: A Bio- Music Sources: Recordings
Bibliography. Greenwood Press, 1988. There are many recordings of the Walton Viola
An incredibly useful tool for locating archival Concerto with the 1962 orchestration. Violists and
sources in all collections (current to 1988). violinists have been eager to record this work, includ-
ing Nobuko Imai, Yuri Bashmet, (Nigel) Kennedy,
Tertis, Lionel. My Viola and I. London: Elek Books Yehudi Menuhin, etc. I have found only two available
Limited, 1974. with the original orchestration:
A classic must have for every violist. An expand-
ed version of an earlier short autobiography: William Walton: Viola Concerto, Frederick Riddle,
Cinderella No More. London: Peter Neville, viola, William Walton, conductor.
1953. It is filled with the inimitable flavor of his (1937, London Symphony Orchestra; Original
speech and the passion of a true believer in the orchestration) Pavilion Records,
beauty of the Viola! Pearl GEM 0171.

Tierney, Neil. William Walton: His Life and Music. William Walton: Viola Concerto, William Primrose,
London: Robert Hale Limited, 1984. viola, William Walton, conductor.
A fine, expressive biography, filled with detail (1946, Philharmonia Orchestra; Original orches-
and color. tration) DoReMi DHR-7722.

Walton, Susana. William Walton: Behind the Faade.

London: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Lady Walton offers a chatty inside look at the
life of her famous husband. Informative and
entertaining with frequent borrowings from
other texts.

Wellington, Christopher. Hidden Harmony. The

Strad. 112:1334 (June 2001): 618-621.
It is in this article that Mr. Wellington first intro-
duces his newly edited Oxford edition of the
complete works of Walton.

William Walton Edition, Volume 12: Concerto for

Viola and Orchestra. ed. Christopher Wellington.
London: Oxford University Press, 2002.
This is an outstanding resource and yet another
must have for the serious violist. It is thorough-
ly researched, fully documented and annotated,
with an excellent foreword by editor Christopher
Wellington. I cannot recommend it highly enough.

Music Sources: Repertoire

Paul Hindemith, Kammermusik
No. 5, op. 36 no. 4.
Sergei Prokofiev, Violin Concerto
No. 1 in D, op. 19.