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Lecture Outline

Muscle Function
Muscle Characteristics
Muscle Tissue Types
Muscle Physiology Skeletal Muscle
General Functions of Skeletal Muscle
Functional Anatomy
Physiology
Skeletal Muscle Types
Energetics
Adaptive Responses
Cardiac Muscle Physiology
Smooth Muscle Physiology

Muscle Function Muscle Tissue Characteristics


Movement All muscle tissues share basic characteristics
Depends on type of muscle tissue 1.Excitability
Depends on location of muscle tissue
Thermogenesis 2.Contractility
Protection
3.Elasticity
Posture Maintenance
Joint Stabilization
4.Extensibility

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Muscle Tissue Types Muscle Comparison Chart
Muscle Special
Tissue Cell Shape Striae Nucleus structures
Skeletal Control
Multi-
Skeletal Cylindrical Yes nucleate & Voluntary none
peripheral

Intercalated
Cardiac Cardiac Cylindrical
& branched
Yes
Uninucleate
& central
Involuntary
discs

May be
Uninucleate
Smooth Fusiform No Involuntary single-unit
& central
or multi-unit
Smooth

Skeletal Muscle Skeletal Muscle


General Functions - Voluntary General Functions

Movement Protection
Only have contractility in one direction of underlying structures
Requires multiple muscles abdominal viscera
to create movements from Stronger muscles =
the simple
greater protection,
flexion and extension
To the complex
increased joint stability
Circumduction

Stabilizing Movements & Joints


The result of synergistic muscles

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Skeletal Muscle Skeletal Muscle
General Functions - Involuntary General Functions - Involuntary

Shivering Thermogenesis (shivering reflex) Maintenance of Posture


asynchronous & involuntary
Involves stretch reflexes
Initiated by hypothalamic nuclei
Static reflexes
in the primary motor center for
Long term sustained contractile events
shivering (posterior nuclei)
Normally inhibited by the heat center Phasic reflexes
in the hypothalamus (preoptic nuclei) Dynamic and short term corrective responses
when body temp is in range (96.8-99.5) Regulated by gamma neurons which adjust
Receives cold signals from skin tension in the muscle spindles
and spinal cord
Skeletal
- -
Muscle

preoptic posterior Damage to the posterior


nucleus nucleus nuclei would cause?

Skeletal Muscle Skeletal Muscle


Functional Anatomy Functional Anatomy

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Skeletal Muscle Skeletal Muscle
Functional Anatomy Functional Anatomy

The smallest functional unit of skeletal


muscle is the sarcomere

Skeletal Muscle Skeletal Muscle


Functional Anatomy Functional Anatomy

Sarcomere is composed of various Myosin molecule


microfilaments and supporting structures consists of tail, hinge
and heads
Heads contain active
sites for
Actin
ATP
M-line consists of
myomesin and skelemin
proteins
Titin stabilize the myosin
largest known elastomeric protein filaments
theorized to aid in
Connects myosin to z-disc transmission of force
thought to be critical in the development of from sarcomere to
sarcomeres cytoskeletal intermediate
filaments

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Skeletal Muscle Skeletal Muscle
Functional Anatomy Functional Anatomy

Thin filaments are composed of The Z-disc


g-actin molecules in
a helical arrangement Anchors the filaments and interacts with
Contain myosin binding cytoskeletal framework
sites
nebulin
Filament that forms
internal support and
attachment for actin
tropomyosin filaments
troponin molecules
attached to tropomyosin
Has binding sites for Ca2+

Skeletal Muscle Skeletal Muscle


Functional Anatomy Physiology of Contraction

Transmission of force from the sarcomere How does all this functional anatomy
to the tissue at large work?
Sarcomeres linked by 1st synaptic transmission at the
distrophin to sarcolemma, neuromuscular junction
then via membrane nd
2 excitation-contraction coupling
proteins interacting with 3rd contraction-relaxation cycle
cytoskeletal framework

Muscular Dystrophy?

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Skeletal Muscle Skeletal Muscle
Physiology of Contraction - NMJ Physiology of Contraction Excitation-Contraction Coupling

1. Events at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) 2. Excitation-Contraction Coupling Process


a. action potential arrives at the pre-synaptic membrane a. Action potential spreads along sarcolemma and down t-
b. depolarization of membrane opens voltage gated Ca2+ tubules
channels b. Depolarization of membrane alters membrane protein
c. calcium influxes into synaptic bulb dihydropyridine L (DHP) configuration
d. calmodulin is activated by Ca2+ which c. Altered DHP configuration signals ryanodine Ca2+ receptors
e. activates protein kinase II (PK II) (RyR Ca2+) in the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic
reticulum
f. PKII phosphorylates synapsin (motor protein)
Neatly, these are near the I and A bands of the sarcomere!
g. vessicle binds to membrane proteins (SNAREs) d. Ca2+ is released into the sarcoplasm and
h. exocytosis of ACh e. binds to troponin
i. ACh binds to nicotinic receptors f. initiates a conformational change in the troponin-tropomyosin
j. Na+ influx creates an End Plate Potential (EPP) complex exposing the binding sites for myosin on actin
k. EPP spreads to edge of the motor end plate and initiates an g. Myosin binds to actin (electrostatic attraction)
action potential in the sarcolemma

Skeletal Muscle Skeletal Muscle


Physiology of Contraction Contraction-Relaxation Cycle Physiology of Contraction

3. Contraction-Relaxation Cycle
a. Myosin upon attaching to actin is hydrolized
(phosphate coming from the splitting of ATP by
Myosin ATPase)
b. This changes the conformation of myosin causing it
to bend at the neck towards the m-line
c. ADP is released by the conformational change
during the power stroke
d. ATP binding site is now available for another ATP
(along with magnesium Mg2+)
e. Splitting of ATP to ADP + P by myosin detaches
and returns myosin to its active state
f. This single event creates a twitch

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Skeletal Muscle Skeletal Muscle
Physiology of Contraction Physiology of Contraction

Skeletal Muscle Skeletal Muscle


Physiology of Contraction Physiology of Contraction

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Skeletal Muscle Skeletal Muscle
Physiology of Contraction Physiology of Contraction

Skeletal Muscle Skeletal Muscle


Physiology of Contraction Physiology of Contraction

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Skeletal Muscle Next Time
Physiology of Contraction

Animation of Skeletal Muscle Contraction- Muscle Energetics


Relaxation Events Muscle types