Finite elements of building retropectives of li cycle procedures in analisys

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 6

Finite elements of building retropectives of li cycle procedures in analisys

© All Rights Reserved

- Basic of Mechanical
- American Wide Flange Beams - W Beam
- Starting on the Road to Recovery: Saving lives and rebuilding livelihoods after the Pakistan earthquake
- 104-s45
- Limit Analysis And Limit Equilibrium analysis in Soil mechanics
- ENG.aca.0020 Low Damage
- Science 2
- 4 Inelastic Behavior 1
- EQ_4
- Topic07-ConceptsofEarthquakeEngineeringNotes
- Inf Interna Del Programa
- 46_Zillmann
- dytran_2012_example_problem_manual.pdf
- sm.docx
- CIDECT Final Report 8G-10_06(2of4)
- Gupta_Natural Hazard Prepardness and Mitigation
- Mechanical Engineering Design L1 - Ch1-Mechanical_properties
- Celik Kina
- HYDE Sydtem
- Beam type.pdf

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

org/papers

Structure

Authors: Hiroyuki Tagawa, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster

Prevention

Tomoshi Miyamura, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster

Prevention

Takuzo Yamashita, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster

Prevention

Masayuki Kohiyama, Keio University

Makoto Ohsaki, Hiroshima University

Subject: Seismic

Keywords: Seismic

Steel

Vibrations

2. Journal paper

3. Conference proceeding

4. Unpublished conference paper

5. Magazine article

6. Unpublished

Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat / Hiroyuki Tagawa; Tomoshi Miyamura; Takuzo Yamashita;

Masayuki Kohiyama; Makoto Ohsaki

International Journal of High-Rise Buildings

International Journal of

March 2015, Vol 4, No 1, 65-73

High-Rise Buildings

www.ctbuh-korea.org/ijhrb/index.php

Frame Structure subjected to Consecutive Ground Motions

Hiroyuki Tagawa1,2,, Tomoshi Miyamura1,3, Takuzo Yamashita1,

Masayuki Kohiyama4, and Makoto Ohsaki5

1

Hyogo Earthquake Engineering Research Center, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention,

Miki 673-0515, Japan

2

Department of Architecture, Mukogawa Womens University, Nishinomiya 663-8121, Japan

3

Department of Computer Science, College and Engineering, Nihon University, Koriyama 963-8642, Japan

4

Department of System Design Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522, Japan

5

Department of Architecture, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8627, Japan

Abstract

Detailed finite element (FE) analyses of a full-scale four-story steel frame structure, subjected to consecutive 60% and 100%

excitations from the JR Takatori records during the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, are conducted using E-Simulator. The

four-story frame was tested at the largest shake-table facility in the world, E-Defense, in 2007. E-Simulator is a parallel FE

analysis software package developed to accurately simulate structural behavior up to collapse by using a fine mesh of solid

elements. To reduce computational time in consecutive dynamic time history analyses, static analysis with gravity force is

introduced to terminate the vibration of the structure during the analysis of 60% excitation. An overall sway mechanism when

subjected to 60% excitation and a story mechanism resulting from local buckling of the first-story columns when subjected to

100% excitation are simulated by using E-Simulator. The story drift response to the consecutive 60% and 100% excitations is

slightly smaller than that for the single 100% excitation.

Keywords: Finite element analysis, Seismic response, Collapse, Consecutive excitation, E-simulator

a very fine mesh of solid elements were conducted by

The worlds largest three-dimensional (3D) shake-table using E-Simulator (Miyamura et al., 2011; Miyamura et

test facility, E-Defense, was constructed at the Hyogo al., 2015). In these analyses, local buckling behavior at the

Earthquake Engineering Research Center of the National top and bottom ends of the first-story columns and story

Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster mechanism were successfully simulated for a single exci-

Prevention (NIED), Japan, in 2005 (Ohtani et al., 2004; tation. However, the influence of the consecutive strong

Hyogo Earthquake Engineering Research Center, 2015). ground motions used for the E-Defense shake-table test

A full-scale four-story steel frame structure, which is the was not investigated.

object of simulation in this study, was tested at E-Defense Several researchers have investigated residual stress

in 2007 (Yamada et al., 2008; Suita et al., 2008). Simul- effects on the seismic performance of structures (Lu et al.,

taneously, at NIED, a parallel finite element (FE) analysis 2001; Okazaki et al., 2009; Mathur et al., 2011). Lu and

software package, E-Simulator, was developed to accura- MacRae (2011) conducted pushover and push-pull ana-

tely simulate the seismic behavior of building, bridge, and lyses and incremental dynamic analyses on a single canti-

underground structures up to collapse (Hori et al., 2007). lever column with nonlinear beam-column fiber sections

The platform of E-Simulator is a general purpose parallel under moderate compressive axial load. The results

FE analysis code, ADVENTURECluster (Allied Engi- showed that whereas the initial residual stresses do have

neering Corporation, 2015), and E-Simulator allows large- some effect on structural behavior at the first yielding, the

scale parallel computation for simultaneous simulation of postyielding behavior is not affected. Okazaki et al.

both global and local behavior, including buckling and (2009) conducted monotonic pushover and cyclic push-

fracture, by using a fine mesh of solid elements. Dynamic pull analyses on steel frame structures modeled by fiber

elements to compare the structural responses with and

Corresponding author: Hiroyuki Tagawa without the initial residual stresses and initial imperfec-

Tel: +81-798-67-4519; Fax: +81-798-67-4501 tions. They concluded that the initial residual stresses and

E-mail: tagawa@mukogawa-u.ac.jp imperfections accelerate frame collapse for cases in which

66 Hiroyuki Tagawa et al. | International Journal of High-Rise Buildings

deformation is concentrated in a small number of stories. cold-formed square-tube, beams are made of hot-rolled

Additionally, several researchers have investigated the wide-flange, and through diaphragm connection details are

effects of accumulated damage induced by multiple strong adopted, in which short brackets are shop-welded to the

ground motions (Takeda et al., 2011; Mizushima et al., columns. Table 1 provides a list of member sections.

2014). Mizushima et al. (2014) conducted detailed FE An FE model for the four-story steel frame structure,

analyses on a three-story steel frame, which was tested at which primarily consists of hexahedral solid elements, as

E-Defense in 2014 (Namba et al., 2014), for single and shown in Fig. 2, has 4,543,243 elements, 6,330,752 nodes,

consecutive ground motions. The steel frame was modeled and 18,992,256 degrees of freedom. This analysis utilizes

by shell elements and the concrete slab was modeled by a hexahedral element using linear functions enhanced by

solid elements. An analysis found that the drift response incompatible modes (Simo and Rifai, 1990; Simo and

for consecutive excitations was smaller than that for Armero, 1992). The element is fully integrated using eight

single excitation. They stated that one possible reason for integration points. The modeling details are described in

this result is strain hardening. previous studies (Miyamura et al., 2011; Miyamura et al.,

In this study, dynamic FE analyses are conducted by 2015). The FE models of column, beam, deck plate, and

using E-Simulator for consecutive 60% and 100% excita- wire mesh are shown in Fig. 3. The results of composite

tions of the JR Takatori records of the 1995 Hyogoken- beam tests conducted by Yamada et al. (2009) indicated

Nanbu earthquake. Simulation results are compared with that the contact of a column to a slab influences the res-

those for the single 100% excitation to evaluate the effects ponse of the beam during cyclic loading. However, be-

of consecutive excitations on structural responses. cause it is computationally expensive to simulate dyna-

mic contact in the current version of E-Simulator based

2. Finite Element Modeling on ADVENTURECluster, no contact condition is consi-

dered in this study. Accordingly, the two surfaces of the

The specimen was a four-story, two-bay by one-bay column and slab are always separated and not in contact.

steel moment-resisting frame structure, as shown in Fig.

1. Each story is 3.5 m high, making the overall specimen 3. Material Properties, Constitutive Model,

height equal to approximately 14 m. This is a typical steel and Natural Periods

building designed and constructed according to the current

design specifications and practice in Japan (Yamada et The self-weight of the steel is computed based on a mass

al., 2008; Suita et al., 2008). The columns are made of density of 7.86103 kg/m3. The mass density of 2.3103

Beam Column

Floor G1 G11 G12 Story C1, C2

R H-34617469 H-34617469 H-34617469 4 SHS-3003009

4 H-350175711 H-350175711 H-340175914 3 SHS-3003009

3 H-396199711 H-400200813 H-400200813 2 SHS-3003009

2 H-400200813 H-400200813 H-3902001016 1 SHS-3003009

Detailed Finite Element Analysis of Full-scale Four-story Steel Frame Structure subjected to Consecutive Ground Motions 67

Measured properties (N/mm2)

Member Steel Section Element

Yield strength Tensile strength

flange 309 443

H-340175914

web 355 468

flange 333 461

H-34617469

web 382 483

flange 302 441

H-350175711

web 357 466

Beam SN400B

flange 297 451

H-3902001016

web 317 458

flange 311 460

H-396199711

web 369 486

flange 326 454

H-400200813

web 373 482

first story 330 426

Column BCR295 SHS-3003009

second-fourth story 332 419

68 Hiroyuki Tagawa et al. | International Journal of High-Rise Buildings

Natural Period

Model

First Second Third Fourth Fifth

Analysis 0.826 0.808 0.542 0.266 0.261

Experiment 0.82 0.74-0.78

kg/m3 of the slab is increased appropriately to include the ted at 20.0 s and the following distinctive measures are

weights of nonstructural components, safe-guard system introduced in order to compute the unloaded state and

to protect shaking-table, and stair landings attached to the conduct the consecutive analysis for 100% excitation:

specimen. 1. Dynamic analysis is terminated at 20.0 s, and static

Table 2 lists the material properties of steel beam and analysis with only gravity force is conducted to stop the

column members. In the constitutive modeling, the piece- vibration. The displacements, stresses, and elastic-plastic

wise-linear combined isotropic-kinematic hardening mo- state at 20.0 s of the dynamic analysis are successively

del (Ohsaki et al., 2012) is used for the rolled mild steel used as the initial values for the static analysis. On the

material. This material model is based on the von Mises other hand, the accelerations and velocities are set to

yield criterion using a combined isotropic-kinematic har- zero; that is, the inertia and damping forces are abruptly

dening rule with a number of piecewise smooth harden- eliminated at 20.0 s. Therefore, the out-of-balance force

ing curves. Its parameters are determined from the results is released by conducting the Newton-Raphson method,

of the uniaxial tests under monotonic and cyclic loading and unloaded status with residual displacements and stre-

conducted by Yamada et al. (2002). These monotonic uni- sses due to elastic-plastic behavior in the dynamic analy-

axial tests were conducted for all members. Therefore, dif- sis are obtained.

ferent stress-strain curves are used for different members. 2. The consecutive analysis for 100% excitation is con-

The extended Drucker-Prager yield criterion (Abaqus ducted using the residual displacements, stresses and elas-

Analysis Users Manual, 2015) is utilized for the consti- tic-plastic state as the initial values.

tutive law of concrete material used in the slabs. Using this method, the computational time is signifi-

cantly reduced compared to the method in which a free

2 2 ,

F = l0 + q p tan d = 0 (1) vibration analysis with damping is conducted after 20.0 s

until the vibration is reasonably reduced.

where q is the equivalent stress, p is the hydrostatic stress,

is the internal frictional angle, and l0 and d are the 5. Results of Numerical Simulation

parameters to determine the shape of yield function. In

this analysis, is set to be 67.14 degree, l0 is 1.297 N/ 5.1. 60% Excitation and Unloading

mm2, and d is 33.71 N/mm2 according to the material test For 60% excitation of the JR Takatori records that were

results on slab concrete. measured on the shaking table during the test (ASEBI,

The natural periods of the steel frame obtained by the 2015), an overall sway mechanism, which was observed

analysis are shown and compared with experimental ones in the E-Defense shake-table test, is successfully simula-

in Table 3. The Rayleigh damping is applied and the co- ted by the analysis. The maximum first-story drift angles

efficients for the Rayleigh damping are calculated so that obtained by the analysis are 0.011 rad in the X-direction

damping factors of the first and fourth modes, which are and 0.019 rad in the Y-direction, which are similar to

the two lowest eigenmodes in the X-direction, are equal those obtained by the E-Defense shake-table test: 0.012

to 0.02. rad and 0.019 rad in the X- and Y-directions, respectively.

Residual drift angles of the first story at 20.0 s of 60%

4. Analysis Procedures for Consecutive excitation, which were obtained by the static analysis

Shaking with only gravity to release the out-of-balance force, as

explained in the previous section, are 0.00081 rad in the

In the simulation for the consecutive 60% and 100% X-direction and 0.00193 rad in the Y-direction. These

excitations from the JR Takatori records, the static analy- results correspond well with the residual drifts obtained

sis for the application of gravity force is first conducted, by the E-Defense shake-table test, which are almost zero

and then the dynamic analysis for 60% excitation is con- after 60% excitation.

ducted. The JR Takatori records used for the E-Defense The contour plots of the von Mises equivalent stress

shake-table test have a duration of approximately 160 s and equivalent plastic strain at the maximum first-story

(ASEBI, 2015), although the main excitation that causes drift angle, which corresponds to 6.08 s, 20.0 s, and un-

large amplitude vibration to the frame structure continues loading after 20.0 s, are shown in Figs. 4 and 5, respec-

for only approximately 10 s. To reduce the computational tively. The maximum values of the von Mises equivalent

time, the analysis for the first 60% excitation is termina- stress are 585.7 N/mm2 at 6.08 s and 399.7 N/mm2 at 20.0

Detailed Finite Element Analysis of Full-scale Four-story Steel Frame Structure subjected to Consecutive Ground Motions 69

citation (left: beam-column joint panel, right: column basement).

pletely, as shown in Fig. 6, during 100% excitation after

40% and 60% excitations of the JR Takatori records, in

which plastic deformations are observed. A story me-

chanism was caused by local buckling at the top and bo-

ttom of the first-story columns (Yamada et al., 2008; Suita

Figure 4. Contours of von Mises equivalent stress during et al., 2008). The local buckling at the top and bottom of

60% excitation. the first-story columns and story mechanism are also si-

mulated successfully in the analyses for both single 100%

excitation and consecutive 60% and 100% excitations, as

s, and the maximum value of residual stress is 338.5 N/ shown in Fig. 6. However, the complete collapse observed

mm2, as shown in Fig. 4. Additionally, the maximum value in the E-Defense shake-table test is not reproduced in

of the equivalent plastic strain is 0.1385 at 6.08 s, which either of the two analyses. The time histories of the first-

is accumulated to 0.2617 at 20.0 s and at unloading, as story drift angle in the X- and Y-directions are shown in

shown in Fig. 5. Therefore, the initial value of the equi- Figs. 7 and 8, respectively. The orbit for the first-story

valent plastic strain for 100% excitation in the consecu- drift angles in the X- and Y-directions is shown in Fig. 9.

tive analyses is 0.2617, which enlarges the von Mises In these figures, the results for the single 100% excitation

yield surface at the initial state. and those obtained by the E-Defense shake-table tests are

also shown. It is found that the maximum values of the

5.2. Consecutive 100% Shaking after 60% Shaking first-story drift angle for the consecutive 60% and 100%

The acceleration measured on the shaking table during excitations are 0.019 rad in the X-direction and 0.044 rad

the test (ASEBI, 2015) is also used in this section. In the in the Y-direction. These values are slightly smaller than

70 Hiroyuki Tagawa et al. | International Journal of High-Rise Buildings

Figure 6. Story collapse mechanism caused by local buck- X- and Y-directions.

ling in the first-story column observed by experiment.

Figure 7. Time-history of first-story drift angle in X-direc- Figure 10. Time-history of first-story shear forces in X-

tion. direction.

tion. Figure 11. Time-history of first-story shear forces in Y-

direction.

pectively, for the single 100% excitation. These maximum by the analyses for the single 100% excitation and conse-

values of the first-story drift angle obtained by the ana- cutive 60% and 100% excitations are similar to those ob-

lyses are much smaller than those obtained by the test in tained by the E-Defense shake-table test.

which the collapse occurred. The time histories of the first- The contour plots of the von Mises equivalent stress

story shear force in the X- and Y-directions are shown in and equivalent plastic strain at the maximum first-story

Figs. 10 and 11, respectively. Base shear forces obtained drift angle for the consecutive 100% and single 100%

Detailed Finite Element Analysis of Full-scale Four-story Steel Frame Structure subjected to Consecutive Ground Motions 71

100% excitation (left: beam-column joint panel, right: col-

umn basement).

100% excitation.

maximum value of the von Mises equivalent stress is 954.0

N/mm2 for the consecutive 100% excitation and 803.8 N/

mm2 for the single 100% excitation, as shown in Fig. 12.

The von Mises equivalent stress of one element for the

consecutive 100% excitation is always larger than that for Figure 14. Time-hostory of equivalent stress during single

the single 100% excitation as shown in Fig. 14. Additio- and consecutive excitations.

nally, the maximum values of the equivalent plastic strain

are 0.3979 and 0.3625 for the consecutive and single 100%

excitations, respectively. According to these observations, of solid elements, was analyzed for single 100% and

strain hardening progresses more for consecutive excita- consecutive 60% and 100% excitations of the JR Takatori

tion, which causes larger equivalent plastic strain and von records of the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. Major

Mises equivalent stress, and then a possibly smaller first- findings are summarized as follows:

story drift angle. 1. To conduct the two consecutive excitations, the dyn-

amic analysis was stopped after major response vibration

6. Conclusions terminated, then the accelerations and velocities were set

at zero. After that, the out-of-balance force was released

Dynamic finite element analyses of a four-story steel by conducting the static analysis with the Newton-Raphson

frame structure, which was tested by the worlds largest method and residual deformation and stresses were ob-

shake-table facility, E-Defense, in 2007, were conducted tained. This method can reduce the computational time

by using a parallel finite element analysis code, E-Simu- compared to the method in which free vibration analysis

lator. The steel frame structure, modeled by a fine mesh with damping is conducted until the vibration is reason-

72 Hiroyuki Tagawa et al. | International Journal of High-Rise Buildings

ably reduced. Miyamura, T., Yamashita, T., Akiba, H., Ohsaki, M. (2015)

2. Local buckling behavior at the top and bottom of the Dynamic FE Simulation of Four-story Steel Frame Mo-

columns in the first story and a story mechanism were deled by Solid Elements and Its Validation Using Results

simulated. Analysis results indicated that the first-story of Full-scale Shake-table Test. Structural Dynamics and

drift response for the consecutive 100% excitation after Earthquake Engineering, The Journal of the International

60% excitation was slightly smaller than that for single Association for Earthquake Engineering, (published on-

line, DOI: 10.1002/eqe.2526)

100% excitation.

Mizushima, Y., Mukai, Y., Nanba, H. (2014) E-Defense Sha-

3. Complete collapse, which occurred in the E-Defense

king Table Test for Full Scale Steel Building on Cumu-

shake-table test, was not observed by the analysis for the lative Damage by Sequential Strong Ground Motion (Part

consecutive 60% and 100% excitations or for the single 7 Detailed FEM Analysis). Summaries of Technical Pa-

100% excitation. pers of Annual Meeting, AIJ, C-2, pp. 987~988 (in Jap-

anese).

Acknowledgements Namba, H., Fujitani, H., Taga, K., Tani, A., Mukai, Y., Yam-

abe, Y., Kajiwara, K., Tani, K., Yamashita, T., Shiraga, S.,

The present study is conducted as a part of the E-De- Fukuoka, D., Morikawa, S. (2014) E-Defense Shaking

fense Seismic Experimental Research and Simulation Sys- Table Test for Full Scale Steel Building on Cumulative

tem Construction Project by the E-Simulator Development Damage by Sequential Strong Ground Motion (Part 1

Committee (Leader: Prof. Muneo Hori, The University of Outline of Test). Summaries of Technical Papers of An-

Tokyo) at NIED. The authors acknowledge the valuable nual Meeting, AIJ, C-2, pp. 975~976 (in Japanese).

contributions by the members of the committee as well as Ohsaki, M., Zhang, J. Y., Miyamura, T. (2012) A Heuristic

Algorithm for Parameter Identification of Steel Materials

the financial support of NIED. The contributions of Dr.

under Asymmetric Cyclic Elastoplastic Deformation.

Tomonobu Ohyama and Mr. Kiyoshi Yuyama (Allied En-

Proc. the 7th China-Japan-Korea Joint Symposium on

gineering Corporation) to code development, computation, Optimization of Structural and Mechanical Systems (CJK-

and mesh generation are also acknowledged. OSM7), Huangshan, China.

Ohtani, K., Ogawa, N., Katayama, T., Shibata, H. (2004)

References Construction of E-Defense (3-D Full-Scale Earthquake

Testing Facility). Proc. the 13th World Conference on

Abaqus Analysis Users Manual (2015) 19.3.1 Extended Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, Canada.

Drucker-Prager Models, Accessed on February 12, 2015 Okazaki, T., Parkolap, M., Fahnestock, L. A. (2009) Inter-

http://abaqusdoc.ucalgary.ca/v6.9/books/usb/default.htm face of the Direct Analysis Method and Seismic Res-

Allied Engineering Corporation (2015) ADVENTUREClu- ponse. Proc. the ASCE Structures Congress, Austin, TX,

ster. Accessed on February 12, 2015 http://www.alde.co. USA.

jp/english/index.html Simo, J. C., Rifai, M. S. (1990) A Class of Assumed Strain

ASEBI (2015) Archives of Shakingtable Experimentation Methods and the Method of Incompatible Modes.

Database and Information. Accessed on February 12, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engi-

2015. http://www.bosai.go.jp/hyogo/asebi/dataopen_1.html neering, Vol. 29, pp. 1595~1638.

Hori, M., Noguchi, H., Ine, T. (2007) Project Report of De- Simo, J. C., Armero, F. (1992) Geometrically Nonlinear

velopment of Numerical Shaking Table Coping with E- Enhanced Strain Mixed Methods and the Method of In-

Defense. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, JSCE, Vol. compatible Modes. International Journal for Numerical

29, pp. 1420~1425 (in Japanese) Methods in Engineering, Vol. 33, pp. 1413~1449.

Hyogo Earthquake Engineering Research Center (2015) E- Suita, K., Yamada, S., Tada, M., Kasai, K., Matsuoka, Y.,

Defense. Accessed on February 12, 2015 http://www. Shimada, Y. (2008) Collapse Experiment on 4-Story Steel

bosai.go.jp/hyogo/ehyogo/index.html Moment Frame: Part 2 Detail of Collapse Behavior. Proc.

Lu, A. Y. C., MacRae, G. A. (2011) Residual Stress Effects the 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering

on the Seismic Performance of Low-rise Steel Frames. (14WCEE), Beijing, China.

Proc. the 9th Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engi- Takeda, S., Kanai, Y., Manabe, Y., Niwa, K., Narita, Y. Tu-

neering Building an Earthquake-Resilient Society, Au- bota, H., Kasai, Y. (2011) Examination of Application of

ckland, New Zealand. Impact Analysis Code based on the Explicit Time Inte-

Mathur, K. (2011) Effects of Residual Stresses and Initial gration to the Shaking Table Tests of Full-Scale Six Story

Imperfections on Earthquake Response of Steel Moment RC Building. Summaries of Technical Papers of Annual

Frames. Thesis for the degree of Master of Science in Meeting, AIJ, B-1, pp. 227~228 (in Japanese).

Civil Engineering in the Graduate College of the Univer- Yamada, S., Imaeda, T., Okada, K. (2002) Simple Hyste-

sity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. resis Model of Structural Steel Considering the Bau-

Miyamura, T., Ohsaki, M., Kohiyama, M., Isobe, D., Onda, schinger Effect. Journal of Structural and Construction

K., Akiba, H., Hori, M., Kajiwara, K., Ine, T. (2011) Engineering (Transactions of Architectural Inst. of Japan),

Large-Scale FE Analysis of Steel Building Frames Vol. 67, No. 559, pp. 225~232 (in Japanese).

Using E-Simulator. Progress in Nuclear Science and Te- Yamada, S., Satsukawa, K., Kishiki, S., Shimada, Y., Mat-

chnology, Vol. 2, pp. 651~656. suoka, Y., Suita, K. (2009) Elasto-Plastic Behavior of

Detailed Finite Element Analysis of Full-scale Four-story Steel Frame Structure subjected to Consecutive Ground Motions 73

Panel Zone in Beam to External Column Connection with Shimada, Y. (2008) Collapse Experiment on 4-Story

Concrete Slab. Journal of Structural and Construction Steel Moment Frame: Part 1 Outline of Test Results.

Engineering (Transactions of Architectural Inst. of Japan), Proc. the 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engi-

Vol. 74, No. 644, pp.1841~1849, (in Japanese). neering (14WCEE), Beijing, China.

Yamada, S., Suita, K., Tada, M., Kasai, K., Matsuoka, Y.,

- Basic of MechanicalЗагружено:Fawad Hassan
- American Wide Flange Beams - W BeamЗагружено:Harold Abubo Haber
- Starting on the Road to Recovery: Saving lives and rebuilding livelihoods after the Pakistan earthquakeЗагружено:Oxfam
- 104-s45Загружено:M Hadianto Waruwu
- Limit Analysis And Limit Equilibrium analysis in Soil mechanicsЗагружено:Sathyamoorthy Venkatesh
- ENG.aca.0020 Low DamageЗагружено:vcKamp
- Science 2Загружено:Thiago Barcelos
- 4 Inelastic Behavior 1Загружено:Oguzhan Turgut
- Topic07-ConceptsofEarthquakeEngineeringNotesЗагружено:Nabil Muhammad
- EQ_4Загружено:atac101
- Inf Interna Del ProgramaЗагружено:Mario Lupe
- 46_ZillmannЗагружено:Pedro Troncoso Acuña
- dytran_2012_example_problem_manual.pdfЗагружено:AdamD
- sm.docxЗагружено:balajimettur
- CIDECT Final Report 8G-10_06(2of4)Загружено:Raquel Carmona
- Gupta_Natural Hazard Prepardness and MitigationЗагружено:Sambit Prasanajit Naik
- Mechanical Engineering Design L1 - Ch1-Mechanical_propertiesЗагружено:Bilal Tayyab
- Celik KinaЗагружено:romic_pn
- HYDE SydtemЗагружено:pradeepk_136
- Beam type.pdfЗагружено:IdrisSaat
- Strain Rate and Flow RateЗагружено:jaydeepnarule
- Cyclic Behaviour of Steel Braced FramesЗагружено:asrhael
- 1-s2.0-S007964250800039X-mainЗагружено:Ali Moghi
- IDEA Connection Theoretical Manual en Ver 8 0Загружено:harislee
- Modelling the Material Resistance to Cuttin-grupo 5Загружено:sebastian
- Relacion de Articulos de Housner - Resumen BibliograficoЗагружено:Mariano Salcedo
- 9541585Загружено:العلم نور
- 1402 Fib Mumbai ViS BsЗагружено:hxalejandro
- 2005, Mader, Fundamentals of the Deep Rolling of Compressor Blades for Turbo Aircraft EnginesЗагружено:Ammar
- 2019 Didit Aasec Sis 006Загружено:Taufik Ramalis

- Xindi Insectoid WarshipЗагружено:iltharanos
- Breech PresentationЗагружено:John Ervin Agena
- FAQ for USB Flash DriveЗагружено:Siaw Ys
- Blood Purif 2015 40(1) 84-91Загружено:Fabiana Salerno
- What Are the Effects of El NiñoЗагружено:Onesimo Nkomo
- Engine DesignЗагружено:Abdul-Wahab Anwar
- Georgia Stormwater Management Manual_ Volume 2Загружено:RafaelAssumpcao
- Review Questions 4 Colonialism and Industrial RevolutionЗагружено:AmeenIbrahim
- art-3A10.1007-2Fs00170-009-2411-2Загружено:Yogi Harsanto
- DARPA_FY18_Presidents_Budget_Request.pdfЗагружено:Kelito Brigante
- Squamasnema amazonica n. gen. n. sp. (Heligmonellinae): A newparasite of Proechimys roberti (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in the BrazilianAmazonЗагружено:Helrik Cordeiro
- Denise Duffy & Associates Inc.-environmental Services_RedactedЗагружено:L. A. Paterson
- Prickley Pear - Newsletter#3Загружено:D_Chaos
- Medical+Ozone+Generator+AOT-MD-500Загружено:Alberto Espinoza
- XT Series PRO3V120 Service ManualЗагружено:Erc Nunez V
- MaintenanceЗагружено:فردوس عثمان
- SCREEN SAND CONTROLЗагружено:saptagunung
- 12-Physics-NCERT SOLUTIONS -chapter-8-exercises EM Waves.pdfЗагружено:SureshChoudhary
- Lec01 Overview ChebroluЗагружено:23wings
- AD&D - forgotten realms - adventure - endless armies (Lv4-6).pdfЗагружено:vandooo
- EEET2263 SampleExamStyleQuestions UPDATEDЗагружено:pigilante
- Japanese GardensЗагружено:vgdarch
- Steel BookЗагружено:AKSHEYMEHTA
- Glaze ForwardЗагружено:John Aonegodman Smith
- Greenland-2256-2513-6Загружено:seacoastonline
- stainless steel & sugar industry reportЗагружено:api-19798491
- Thermally Induced Deflections in Bolted Flanged ConnectionsЗагружено:Ton Phichit
- l1 capitulo 3aЗагружено:api-330872465
- C_TSCM66_66(SAP Certified Application Associate - Logistics Execution and Warehouse Management With SAP ERP 6.0 EHP6)Загружено:Nahit
- Sciencegeography4StudentBook.pdf 4 primaria.pdfЗагружено:margantoni

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.