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Table of Contents:

Executive Summary

History of Boko Haram

United States Recommendations

African Union Recommendations

United Nations Recommendations

Non-Governmental Organization Recommendations

Contributors:

Adrian Pachuca
Amanda Padden
Christina Lu
Hannah Labow
Henry Gamble
Jamaya Tookes
Jenna Donatiello
Jim Clark-Stewart
Kojo Simmons
Lucy Montgomery
Madison Eller
Maryjane Garcia
Meaghan Lanctot
Morgan Carmen
Rachel Seplow
Rohin Shivdasani
Sabrina Lee Shen
Shane Zerr
Stella Esensten-Cicon
Zack Gaynor

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
We are the School for Ethics and Global Leadership (SEGL). Founded in 2006, SEGL focuses
on the development of ethical and global leaders with discussion, case studies, and a series of
capstone projects including this collaborative policy document. For the summer of 2015, our
session has chosen to focus on the global impacts of Boko Haram and to develop a
comprehensive plan through efforts to counteract the spread of this extremist groups power. We
examine this issue in five sections: the history of Boko Haram and what four different
communities - the United Nations, African Union, United States, and international non-
governmental organizations - can do to stop this terrorist organization.

History: Boko Haram, a violent Nigerian Islamist group, has become increasingly active over the
years. Founded in 2002 Boko Harams leader, Mohammed Yusuf, did not intend for any violence
from the sect. With the sudden death of their leader in 2009, Boko Harams new leader had a
different philosophy. Looking at past and recent events, we are able to see how the group has
progressed over time.

U.S.: We suggest to the United States that they take a multi step approach, strengthening Nigeria
as a whole from multiple points of access. The United States should help fund GNOs in the
nation, first those who promote democracy, then those who promote human rights. After the
NGOs have established their presence in the region the United States should pressure Nigeria to
prosecute those who have committed crimes against humanity. Once the United States feels like
the proper steps have been put in place to comply with Leahy Law, the United States shall help
arm and train their military.

AU: We suggest that the African Union (AU) addresses Boko Haram through four main
missions. These missions include continuing the use of the Multinational Joint Task Force
(MNJTF), combating tribal segregation within Nigeria, and convincing Nigeria to accept aid
from the United States through the U.S Department of States International Military and
Education Training system. We also recommend that the AU assists specific African countries
targeted by Boko Haram with small-scale military equipment, such as ammunition.

UN: We recommend to the United Nations to reaffirm precedents addressing the responsibility
to protect and to intervene in West Africa to counteract human rights violations. We suggest that
the UN focuses on eliminating Boko Harams access to funding by implementing targeted
reforms based in education, detention, military, and legal matters. We propose that the UN
focuses on advocating for international cooperation among organizations and regions and
instigates conversations regarding potential actions to counteract Boko Haram.

NGOs: We advise that NGOs focus on helping build Nigerias economy by financing farms,
farm co-ops, and farm inputs; this can be done through Islamic microfinancing. Another way to
enhance Nigerias economy is by empowering women in safe zones led by faith leaders and
having them go to technology courses to aid in their search for education while also giving them
a source of income.

HISTORY
Origins and History:
As it was forming, Boko Haram (loosely translating to western education is forbidden)

(Blanchard, Lauren Ploch: Nigerias Boko Haram FAQ), started off as a Sunni Islamic sect.

Founded in 2002 by Mohammed Yusuf, Boko Haram was formed in northern Nigeria
(Blanchard, Lauren Ploch: Nigerias Boko Haram FAQ). As it started Boko Haram was a non-

violent islamist movement, wanting to convert people and gain support for their radical religious

views(Blanchard, Lauren Ploch: Nigerias Boko Haram FAQ). The intended purpose of Boko

Haram was to rid Nigeria of western influence, which they find sinful in regards to Islam (Boko

Haram is hardly a new phenomenon in Nigeria). To further impose this way of thinking, Yusuf

(who was the spiritual leader at the time) rid their members of anything that was remotely

traceable to their Western influence: secular education, t-shirts, tennis shoes, etc (Blanchard,

Lauren Ploch: Nigerias Boko Haram FAQ). Once the new recruits rid themselves of western

influences, the group then went on to force their religious ideas onto the rest of Nigeria and

neighbouring countries.(http://www.cnn.com/2014/12/01/world/africa/nigeria-boko-haram-

attack/)

Though the group started off small, Yusuf managed to gain many young followers by

appealing to their emotions (Blanchard, Lauren Ploch: Nigerias Boko Haram FAQ). New

recruits would be told that western education is a sin, and that their government had abandoned

them, favoring their southern neighbors (Nigeria: Past, Present and Future). Thus they should

protest and try to gain as many supporters as they could to try to improve their conditions

(Blanchard, Lauren Ploch: Nigerias Boko Haram FAQ). However, as Boko Haram began to

grow, the followers began to have more and more violent outbreaks against government officials

and the Nigerian police force (Blanchard, Lauren Ploch: Nigerias Boko Haram FAQ). This

marks the beginnings of violence that the Boko Haram group would soon be known for, but for

the next 7 years it was to be thought of as a non-violent radical group (Ochonu, Moses. "Boko

Haram Is Hardly a New Phenomenon in Nigeria.").


The context of Nigeria has shaped Boko Haram into the violent organization that it is

today. After the death of General Abacha in 1998 , Nigeria was scrambling to try to find a

suitable replacement; the country was in shambles (Elden, Stuart. "The Geopolitics of Boko Haram and Nigerias

war on Terror."). Because of this, there was no real government presence in the country, leaving the

people abandoned (Blanchard, Lauren Ploch: Nigerias Boko Haram FAQ). The lack of

government contributed a great amount to the forming of Boko Haram. Moreover, the countries

religions were also split into two: The North was mainly composed of Muslims, and had no

natural resources leaving it in a state of poverty (Blanchard, Lauren Ploch: Nigerias Boko

Haram FAQ). Their Southern counterparts, on the other hand, were a thriving community

(mainly composed of Christians) with a surplus amount of natural resources allowing it to boom

(Blanchard, Lauren Ploch: Nigerias Boko Haram FAQ).

The British were also, partially, responsible for the division of the country. Until the

1960, Nigeria was a British colony (Nigeria: Past, Present and Future). During British rule,

Britain gave some of Nigeria's northern land to surrounding Muslim rulers (The British

Government's Responsibility for Northern Nigeria). Thus promoting Islam in these northern

states, but also ostracizing Christians in these areas (Background Briefing: What Is the Boko

Haram?). In these northern states, where the religion is now predominantly Islam, Christians

were treated as inferiors politically and socially (The British Government's Responsibility for

Northern Nigeria). To regain their political and social rights, many Christians began to migrate

further south in Nigeria, thus separating these two religious populations (The British

Government's Responsibility for Northern Nigeria). What helped solidify the separation was

when it was discovered that southern Nigeria had a vast amount of natural resources, this then
brought the remaining Christian population in the North to the South (Nigeria: Past, Present and

Future).

Timeline of Major Events and Progression of the Organization:

When Boko Haram launched their full campaign for Islamic rule in 2009, the first notable

instances of continued violence and conflict between Boko Haram and Nigerian security forces

arose. As a result of Boko Harams pursuit of forming a Nigerian caliphate, cities and towns

located in northeastern Nigeria and mainly within the Borno state such as Maiduguri and Bauchi

were attacked, leaving hundreds dead (http://www.cnn.com/2014/12/01/world/africa/nigeria-

boko-haram-attack/), by Boko Haram militants who claimed they were willing to fight to the

death to implement Islamist rule. These initial attacks of Boko Harams 2009 campaign grabbed

the attention of the Nigerian government and security forces and also brought the violent nature

of the group to light for the first time nationally in Nigeria. After the violent campaign by Boko

Haram in 2009, the insurgency ended most operations and went dark. Boko Haram used this time

to gather resources, recruit members, and train militants. By the time the organization became

active again, new leader Abubakar Shekau was in place and the organization was further

radicalized. One of Boko Harams first moves was the break of the Bauchi prison, in which they

released hundreds of prisoners and detainees, including many of their own members and

operatives. Boko Haram continued to attack Christian civilians. By 2011 the rate at which the

organization used explosives increased, and attacks came more frequently. In August 2011, Boko

Haram staged an attack on a UN building using a suicide bomber. In 2012 a new international-

focused faction of Boko Haram appeared, Ansaru. This faction spoke out against the killing of

Muslim Nigerian leaders and focused attacks on foreigners. This splintercell has been blamed
with the kidnapping and death of several Europeans. (Blanchard, Lauren Ploch: Nigerias Boko

Haram FAQ)

After observing continued and advanced violence in the Northeast, Nigerian President Goodluck

Jonathan declared a state of emergency in the three northern states of Borno, Yobe, and

Adamawa on May 14, 2013. The city of Maiduguri continued to be a point of major tension and

conflict between the Nigerian military and Boko Haram as the insurgency continued to capture

and seize increasing amounts of territory in the northeastern region. On November 14, 2013, the

United States Department of State formally declared Boko Haram a terrorist

group.http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/other/des/123085.htm On April 14th 2014, Boko Haram

attracted international attention when they kidnapped 276 schoolgirls from the northeastern town

of Chibok. Abubakar Shekau, the leader of Boko Haram at the time, released a video in which he

stated, There is a market for selling humans. Allah says I should sell; he commands me to sell. I

will sell women. I sell women. Sotubo, Jola. "Full Transcript of Abubakar Shekaus Speech in Latest Video."

The response of the international community included social media campaigns such as

#Bringbackourgirls, but no real governmental or military responses to aid the Nigerian

government in fighting Boko Haram. In Abubakar Shekaus video speech released on May 5,

2014, he claims that all the remaining girls have either been sold or married off, some for the

price of about 12 dollars. Boko Haram continued to increase the amount of violent attacks such

as car bombings and town raids with militants. Sotubo, Jola. "Full Transcript of Abubakar Shekaus Speech in

Latest Video." The Guardian estimates that in the year 2014, at least 10,000 people died from Boko

Haram related attacks, and over 1 million refugees have been created due to frequent Boko

Haram attacks in border towns such as Baga, and attacks in border countries such as Chad and

Cameroon, and Niger. The Guardian. "Boko Haram Attacks Timeline."


On January 3, 2015, Boko Haram attacked and seized a key Nigerian military base near the

border with Chad, and in the following four days, Boko Haram attacked Baga, killing up to 2,000

people, according to Amnesty International. The Guardian. "Boko Haram Attacks Timeline."

The 2015 Presidential elections were delayed by 6 weeks due to the situation in the northeastern

region. The unstable situation included a large threat of violence on election day, and many

refugees not being able to vote because of displacement and not being in their voter district as

well as not having the correct voter identification cards.

http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2015/03/28/nigeria-presidential-

elections/70588026/The highly anticipated elections took place on March 28 without any major

Boko Haram attacks and the incumbent President Goodluck Jonathan lost to Muhammadu

Buhari, who before becoming president, was a military general from the north.

The Goal:

As a radical Islamic sect, Boko Harams end goal is to overthrow the Nigerian

government and impose a strict Islamic theocracy throughout the whole country. The ideal

Islamic theocracy Boko Haram wishes to established would be built around Sharia law.

(http://usip.org/publications/why-do-youth-join-boko-haram ) In the caliphate Boko Haram

strives to establish, the law would be informed by the Quran and Sunnah traditions within Islam

and the government would strictly enforce Islamic social and moral norms.The group believes

that secular democracy brings Western social vices and corruption, and the only way to eliminate

these vices are to overthrow the Nigerian state and impose strict Islamic Sharia law throughout

the whole country. (www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13809501)

UNITED STATES
Introduction:

Since 2009, Boko Haram has launched violent attacks on civilians, including bombings,

assassinations, and the mass kidnapping of over 270 schoolgirls, gaining international attention.

Boko Haram has created instability within Nigeria and the neighboring states of Chad, Niger,

and Cameroon. The United States has a national interest in Nigeria due to the oil deposits in the

region and Nigerias fast-growing economy. Thus, it is essential that the United States (U.S.) aid

antiterrorism efforts (the prevention of terrorist attacks) in Nigeria as well as, counterterrorism

efforts (the attempt to hinder the functionality of existing terror groups).

United States-Nigerian Relations:

The U.S. established diplomatic relations with Nigeria in 1960, following the latters

independence from the United Kingdom. The two countries created the U.S. Nigeria Binational

Commission to discuss good governance, transparency, and integrity; energy and investment;

regional security; the Niger Delta; and agriculture and food security. (1) The U.S. is the largest

foreign investor in Nigeria. U.S. interests include the exports of wheat, vehicles, machinery, oil,

and plastic as well as the imports of cocoa, rubber, returns, antiques and food waste. Though the

U.S. and Nigerian governments maintain a fairly stable relationship, there are major rifts

between the two militaries. The Nigerian military has often been reluctant to accept military

training from the United States; therefore, the Pentagon circumvents the Nigerian military

entirely and instead works with security officials in neighboring countries such as Niger, Chad,

and Cameroon. (2) As Boko Harams power swells, bilateral support grows increasingly

imperative; however, fundamental differences between Nigerian and American militaries impede

progress.

Leahy Law:
The U.S.s accordance with Leahy Law strains current relations despite prior positive

interactions with Nigeria. Leahy Law, was implemented in 1961, and states no assistance shall

be furnished to any unit of the security forces of a foreign country if the Secretary of State has

credible information that such unit has committed a gross violation of human rights. (3) The

legislation provides measures which allow nations who have committed these violations to

institute a comprehensive plan to rectify the situation.

Once the violations have ceased, the U.S. will once again consider providing military aid

to those nations. (4) Most of the violations that have taken place in Nigeria originate from a lack

of control. Without consent from the Nigerian government, the military conducts many

unnecessarily violent raids in attempt to find members of Boko Haram. (5) If the U.S. aids in

increasing the structure in both the government and military, theoretically the issues at hand

would subside.

United States Response to Terrorism:

The Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism partnership is an effort instituted by the U.S. government

to increase the aptitude of the North and West African militaries, law enforcement, and citizens

in countering terrorism. African nations involved in the Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism

partnership include Algeria, Burkina Faso, Tunisia, Senegal, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad,

Mali, Mauritania, and Morocco. (6) After the Unified Command for Africa (AFRICOM) was

created in 2008, the Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism partnership became a matter of AFRICOM

responsibility. Funded by the U.S., the program aims to improve the capability of West and

North African armed forces to orchestrate counterterrorism procedures both independently and in

conjunction with other North and West African militaries as well as strengthen border security

and law enforcement ability to surveill, intercept, and prosecute terrorist actions. The program
also aids West and North African militaries in overseeing and stemming the flow of resources to

terrorist groups and lessening the support of terrorism within communities. The Trans-Sahara

Counterterrorism partnership has organized various outreach programs to counteract the

influence and attraction of terror groups on youth. (7)

Among the initiatives established by the U.S. government to counter terrorism are the

Counterterrorism Finance (CTF) program, the Antiterrorism Assistance (ATA) program, and the

Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) program, and the Antiterrorism Assistance (ATA)

program. The CTF provides training and support to governments across the world that strive to

successfully analyze and halt the movement of funds to terror groups. The U.S. Department of

State sends Resident Legal Advisors to countries in need of improvements within their

counterterrorism and judicial systems. The CVE focuses on supplying youth at risk of being

recruited into extremist terrorist groups with other, more favorable choices, and counteracting

violent extremist propaganda. CVE also emphasizes expanding the cooperation between the

third sector of society and the government. CVE prioritizes the engagement of women in

communities as well as rehabilitation and prevention programs in prisons in order to prevent

further radicalization. The Center for Strategic Counterterrorism Communications (CSCC), a

program within CVE, operates in conjunction with U.S. embassies and consulates as well as

external specialists in order to challenge terrorist propaganda. CVE is primarily funded by local

grants that are overseen U.S. embassies and consulates as well as grants from the U.S.

government. The Antiterrorism Assistance program is the central source of counterterrorism

training for law enforcement of allied nations. The ATA aids law enforcement agencies in

enhancing their ability to defend borders, conduct investigations, utilize cyber security, and work

with other nations on antiterrorism and counterterrorism operations. The courses included in the
ATA program concentrate on the protection of human rights and the successful implementation

of justice.

Current Combat Efforts:

The U.S. is required to follow Leahy Law, which has prevented the U.S. from sending

sophisticated arms to Nigeria, thereby exacerbating tensions between the two military entities.

This has resulted in Nigeria cancelling final stages of U.S. military training, limiting U.S. aid to

non-military sectors. Initially, the U.S. formally recognized Boko Haram and its commanders as

a Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO) and Specially Designated Global Terrorists under

Executive Order 13224. Next, the U.S. established Antiterrorism Assistance programs and

financed Nigerian law enforcements counterterrorism efforts, including securing borders,

handling terrorist threats, and creating processes to restrict Boko Harams financial mobility. To

promote internal peace and unity, the U.S. counters extremism among civilians by promoting

engagement between law enforcement and citizens and elevating the role of women civil society

leaders.

Recommendations for the United States Government:

Support Nigerian democracy

o The U.S. must support Nigeria in strengthening its own democracy in order to

create a stable foundation to move towards national peace. The U.S. should press

the International Republic Institute, National Democratic Institute, and other

NGOs to help endorse free, fair, and credible elections as well as oversee Nigerian

election processes.

Fund NGOs and Social Programs


o The United States should increase funding for the CTF, CVE, and CSCC

programs in Nigeria as a means to limit the functionality of Boko Haram. The

United States must also allocate funding to USAID so that they can coordinate

humanitarian NGOs efforts in Nigeria. USAID can ensure safe and efficient

functioning of NGOs concerning humanitarian assistance. It is essential that the

U.S. open a consulate in the north of Nigeria so as to mitigate internal conflict and

serve as a democratic presence. The location of the consulate will allow it to

coordinate Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) social programs to counteract

the pull of terror groups on at-risk youth.

Encourage internal reparations of Nigerian government and military

o Eliminating internal corruption in Nigeria is a prerequisite to defeating Boko

Haram. The U.S. should put pressure on the Nigerian government to prosecute the

copious human rights violators. Once the military has shown intent to bring these

perpetrators to justice, the U.S. will be able to supplement the Nigerian military

with sophisticated arms and joint training programs. If Nigeria accepts U.S.

military training prior to receiving arms, the U.S. should increase International

Military Education and Training (IMET) funding in addition to implementing

systems to sustainably combat internal corruption.

AFRICAN UNION

The African Union (AU) is responsible for ending conflict in Africa. This includes the

crimes against humanity that are corrupting Nigeria and preventing the United States from aiding

the Nigerian military. If Nigeria is able to prove that no human rights violations are occurring in

their country, the United States can provide assistance to the Nigerian government and military.
Along with contributing to the strength of Nigerias military, the largest help the U.S could give

comes with intelligence.(Eugene, Scott) The U.S could develop a monitoring and tracking

security system of Boko Haram members, which would then be implemented by the AU.

The Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF) has successfully completed missions

targeting Boko Haram members. This force is composed of Nigeria, Cameroon, Niger, Chad, and

Benin soldiers and is organized through the African Union. It is thought that this force may rout

the militants and help stabilize northeastern Nigeria and border communities in Niger and

Cameroon.(Matfess, Hilary)]. Due to this proven success, the AU is expected to deploy a new

MNJTF mission within the next few weeks. The MNJTF is the only African military powerful

enough to combat Boko Haram. It is in the best interest of African countries threatened by Boko

Haram to continue their involvement in the MNJTF for the protection of their innocent civilians.

As seen in the African Unions fight against the Somali terrorist group Al-Shabaab, the

African Union has previously involved themselves in military matters that have continued much

longer than expected. Therefore, it is essential for the AU to revise the established plans against

Boko Haram when necessary. One lesson learned from the Somali crisis is to construct a timeline

for involved countries; allotting a reasonably estimated amount of time for operations and the

overall mission of eradicating Boko Haram.

The African Union does not have the resources to supply African militaries with

extensive equipment necessary for them to combat a group such as Boko Haram. Each country is

responsible for its own machinery. One preeminent issue regarding the militaries and

multinational force is the lack of simple materials, such as ammunition. Despite the AUs

inability to supply large-scale machinery, they do have the means to provide the MNJTF with

these minor yet extremely significant materials.


It is necessary for the countries infiltrated by Boko Haram to tailor the equipment needed

to the landscape of the country. In Nigeria, Boko Haram mainly occupies underground locations.

It is not necessary to provide Nigerian forces with aircrafts. In Chad, however, since Boko

Haram members are located in the mountainous terrain, helicopters are essential for successful

missions.

The African Union firmly believes that the MNJTF is the most effective unit in

eradicating the extremist terrorist group Boko Haram. MNJTF is the joint coalition between

Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Benin. Past events have shown that MNJTF is extremely

capable, and able to defend territories that are threatened and/or under attack by Boko Haram.

Currently in Chad, the Chadian army has launched a "major operation" to clear Boko

Haram from islands in Lake Chad. This operation is in response to numerous Boko Haram

suicide bombings, attacks, and raids in major Chadian cities. Additionally, Chad has conducted

numerous airstrikes and has stationed its troops at border areas around Lake Chad. Seeing that

the Chadian military is considered to be the regions most effective military, the African Union

commends Chad for taking initiative in both fighting Boko Haram and working to protect its

own people, and urges them to continue sending forces and airstrikes to combat Boko Haram.

Niger has also greatly assisted Nigeria in its campaign to retake dozens of Nigerian

towns. Thousands of Nigerian refugees have fled into Niger in response to Boko Haram attacks.

However, since Niger has long suffered from poor harvests, it is unlikely that they will have an

adequate amount of food to feed both its own people and the incoming flood of refugees. As a

result, Niger recently deported 1,200 Nigerian refugees so that it could carry out a military

operation against Boko Haram. In order to become more effective, however, the African Union

advises that the current Nigerien military forces work in accordance with their Nigerian
neighbors. Niger and Nigeria could more easily contain Boko Harams threats if they closed in

on both the Northern and Southern regions of Nigeria.

In Cameroon, after numerous attacks and the abduction of Cameroons Vice Prime

Ministers wife, the Cameroonian military has appointed new commanders, sent in armored

vehicles, and created new military units. Of these new military units, their most effective fighting

force is their Israeli-trained Rapid Reaction Forces, a group of armed forces equipped with

assault and sniper rifles, 50mm heavy machine guns and 105mm cannon and mortars. Even so, in

northern Cameroon, Boko Haram has pushed countless villages into unstable situations. Until the

Cameroonian military can diminish the power of Boko Haram, it is unlikely that peace will

return to the far north region of Cameroon. Boko Haram is no longer able to kill and kidnap in

Cameroon as it did last year, and the overall situation has improvedbut there is still work to be

done. If Cameroon wishes to fully eradicate the Boko Haram threat, they should partner with

their neighbors and continue to strengthen their defensive units in order to re-establish stability in

the northern villages of Cameroon.

If unified as one strong force, MNJTF has the power of completely eliminating the threat

of extremist terrorist organizations. Thus, the African Union encourages every country to

continue working together and join forces with the ultimate goal of eradicating Boko Haram.

Engaging with Boko Haram, however, also comes with its own dangers. In a Boko

Haram released video in January 2015, Boko Harams key spokesman Sheikh Abu Musab al-

Barnawi warned that We only fight those who fight us, (Matfess, Hilary) and urged Chad and

Cameroon not to engage them militarily. Thus, the African Union also advises the MNJTF that

while they need to act as one unified military force in combat, they also must bolster their own

defensive tactics in order to protect their civilian population.


However, since the threat of Boko Haram is most present in Nigeria, the Nigerian

military must be at the forefront of any effort to combat the organization. The African Union

recommends that Nigeria adapts the following strategies to eliminate the terror organization:

continue to combat Boko Haram militarily, start a campaign to integrate the Muslim

communities in northern Nigeria, and work to end the human rights violations present in the

Nigerian Armed Force.

Since the African Union committed 7,500 troops to combat Boko Haram in January of

2015, Boko Harams territory has shrunk dramatically. As a result of being forced largely

underground, Boko Haram has transitioned into a strategy of bombing targets rather than open

conflict with military personnel. In order to handle these hit and run attacks on civilians, it is

now more important than ever that the Nigerian Armed Forces are properly equipped,

specifically with ammunition. It is imperative that the government allocates sufficient resources

to its armed forces in order to raise both effectiveness and morale. Tackling corruption in the

armed forces is particularly important. Officers should be audited more closely to prevent

embezzlement from the military budget.

Integrating the various tribal, predominantly Muslim communities in northern

Nigeria is of the utmost importance for Nigeria, not only to combat Boko Haram, but also to

foster a greater sense of national unity. The recent election of President Muhammadu Buhari, a

Muslim, could signal a positive shift in relations between economically disenfranchised Muslims

in the north, and the federal government. Overall, complete integration can only be accomplished

over the long term, but it is nonetheless essential for the nation of Nigeria as a whole.

Nigerias long history of human rights violations keeps countries like the United

States from being able to offer sophisticated arms and money as aid. These human rights
violations mostly manifest themselves in the organization of the military. Reports indicate that

the military is mismanaged; in 2013, more civilians were killed by the military than by Boko

Haram. The African Union urges Nigeria to accept aid from the United States. In the United

States, the U.S Department Of States International Military and Education Training (IMET) has

been taking steps to help Nigeria in their fight against Boko Haram. However, Nigerian

reluctance to accept further U.S. training with its requirements for fiscal accountability and

transparency has inhibited the programs expansion in the past. (Campbell, J.) Since this

program could greatly benefit both the problems in Nigerias military and the power that Nigeria

has over Boko Haram, the African Union believes that Nigeria should accept it.

UNITED NATIONS

The United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights declared that,

Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings...We are all equally entitled to our human

rights without discrimination. The UN Human Rights Council echoes this statement by stating

that they are, responsible for strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights

around the globe and for addressing situations of human rights violations and make

recommendations on them. [United Nations] Overtime the United Nations has reinforced these

ideals by establishing precedents and developing the responsibility to protect. As stipulated in

the Outcome Document of 2005, the international community is obligated to apply appropriate

diplomatic and humanitarian methods to protect states. This obligation is substantiated by the

UN Charter, Chapter 7, in which Articles 39 through 42 describe the extent to which the Security

Council can implement targeted measures once the existence of a threat to peace and security is

determined. After a threat is identified, the Council can take reasonable diplomatic measures to

enforce peace. Ultimately the United Nations bears the responsibility to tenaciously defend
individuals rights; as delineated in the International Bill of Human Rights, the goal is, ...to

consolidate world peace through the contribution of the UN towards the liberation of individuals

from unjustified oppression. The mutually reinforcing aims of counter-terrorism efforts and

the protection of human rights are reflected through the collaborative efforts of regional

organizations and committees established within the UN. The United Nations maintains the

established precedent that the ultimate goal of building sustainable states is achieved through the

reinforcement of rule of law, respect for human rights and the strengthening of jurisprudence.

[UN Counter Terrorism]

Currently, the Global community is working to develop a plan to combat the terrorism

efforts committed by Boko Haram in West Africa. The UN is working to eradicate the large

number of human rights violations and is focusing on the cultural traditions that have contributed

to Boko Harams gender-based violence, such as female genital mutilation, child marriage and

abuse of widows. Often times, women are forcibly converted to Islam and used as sex slaves for

Boko Haram militants. Although Christian women are the main targets of the group, Muslim

women have been attacked for un-Islamic practices, such as for not wearing a hijab or for

holding jobs. [World Report] Boko Haram has also discouraged thousands of children,

especially girls, from attending school by threatening to burn down secular schools and kill the

teachers that teach in these schools, calling them a plot against Islam. Large discrepancies in

school attendance rate for girls between northern and southern Nigeria can be attributed to these

threats, as the attacks are mostly in northern Nigeria and attendance rate for girls is lowest in the

north. These threats came to life when 300 girls were kidnapped from the Chibok Government

Girls Secondary School by Boko Haram in the state of Borno on April 14, 2014. Massive
protests spread across the world as the hashtag #BringBackOurGirls trended worldwide on

Twitter. [Blanchard]

Despite the obvious need to address these concerns, the exorbitant amount of human

rights violations the Nigerian government has committed need to be addressed prior to promising

aid or contributions to the counter terrorism cause. In Nigerian law, there is a lack of legal

recognition for rape within marriage, so women and girls married off to Boko Haram members

have their rights taken away as a result. There is even an implied legal backing to an assault of

wives in Section 6 (Nigerian Criminal Code) and Section 55 (Nigerian Penal Code). Sexual

violence against men is also unaddressed as government forces are known to use sexual violence

to harass alleged Boko Haram members detained in detention centers. Nigerian forces have been

known to arrest, detain, torture, and extrajudicially kill those suspected of being members or

supporters of Boko Haram. They are also known to destroy homes and properties in towns that

were thought to have hid Boko Haram militants. [World Report] The Nigerian police force is

known for being extremely corrupt, as they have routinely taken bribes from victims to

investigate crimes and from suspects to drop investigations. The failure of the EFCC (Economic

and Financial Crimes Commission) and the ICPC (Independent Corrupt Practices and Other

Related Offences Commission) to prosecute senior politicians credibly implicated in corruption

corruption charges have also increased public discontent. The failure of the Nigerian government

to hold perpetrators of these crimes accountable contributes to public dissent and disunity.

[McCoy]

Nigeria must commit to specific agreements to reform and develop a sustainable

government; first, they must adopt resolutions to investigate crimes committed within the

government in regards to corruption and war crimes charges. To further this, the Nigerian
military and police forces, such as the joint civilian task force, need to be reformed so that deaths

in custody are minimized and fundamental human rights violations are not committed while

suspects are detained. Extrajudicial killings and torture also need to be eliminated, and the rule of

law ideology should be enforced within their legislative system. Arbitrary arrests also need to be

limited, and unlawful detention should eradicated as a method of combating terrorism. [Human

Rights Council] Ultimately, the UN will provide support and aid once these requirements are

met; the UN can not counteract terrorism by supporting a government which commits human

rights violations of their own. Outside of internal government issues, Nigeria should implement

investigations into Boko Harams war crimes and humanitarian violations; the killing of

civilians, abductions, forced marriage, rape and sexual slavery, the recruitment of child soldiers

and target of civilian areas all need to be brought to light before the international community.

While the Nigerian government develops and reforms internally, the UN will contribute to the

investigations into war crimes committed. [UN Counter Terrorism]

To promote these reforms, the Human Rights Council, and thus the High Commissioner,

can work alongside the Special Rapporteur to promote human rights within the region; the

implementation of reforms for gender equality, education, public health support, improved prison

conditions and legal reform will be a basis for action. By improving the Nigerian Police Force,

schools can better be protected, the amount of human trafficking can be monitored and limited,

and civilians can be better protected. The UN office on Drugs and Crime, notably the terrorism

prevention branch, will enhance actions by collaborating with the Counter Terrorism committee

to implement these protocols. Through the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, the

coordination and cooperation among States in combating crimes that might be connected with
terrorism will be the primary basis for enforcing reforms alongside these committees and

organizations. [UN Counter Terrorism]

Boko Haram is one of the most well funded and supported terrorist groups in the world,

and many experts agree that cutting off the funding of Boko Haram would cripple the

organization and limit their influence. While the origin of funding is murky by nature of their

being a terrorist conglomerate, many experts agree that it stems from a large majority of places

including other terrorist conglomerates, private funders of terrorism, weapons trafficking, the

vast human trafficking market run out of Nigeria, and the taxes they collect from the Northern

Nigerian people they intimidate. [Zenn] Of these, the biggest supporter of Boko Harams

finances is the monopoly they have over the illegal smuggling and organized crime in Nigeria.

This is extraordinarily profitable because Nigeria is the hub for smuggling illicit items in and out

of West Africa as well as human trafficking, and organized crime rings pay taxes to Boko Haram

to operate on their turf. [McCoy]

In terms of cutting off their sources of income the UN must advocate for a multifaceted

approach. The first part of these efforts needs to attack the human trafficking market in Nigeria.

The first way to do that is through training the Nigerian Police Force (NPF) in being able

recognize and deal with human trafficking. The NPF is currently experiencing serious

corruption and discipline issues. The United Nations could coordinate, and directly aid in

offering consultation services to NPF management. [UN Counter Terrorism] The ISAFs

involvement in the training of Afghan police could serve as a model for this effort. The Afghan

National Civil Order Police, and their professionalism and success demonstrate the viability of

the ISAF LEA training assistance model (bringing in experts to aid in the design and

implementation of training services). The NPF would also ideally help to protect and stop
Northern Nigerians from paying taxes to Boko Haram. Boko Haram also collects a tax on other

criminals for allowing criminal entities to operate in their territory. The NPF would also crack

down on these other illegal activities in order to limit crime while limiting the funding going to

Boko Haram. Further more, when these police officers start operating at an efficient level they

will act as a deterrent for further terrorist activities focused in Nigeria, and could decrease the

funding that other terrorist groups allocate to Boko Haram. [McCoy] On a macro level, we

would suggest that the UN aid in the efforts put forth by the World Bank and Nigerian National

Risk Assessment Secretariat (NNRAS) to train the different Nigerian financial organizations in

the prevention money laundering. We would ask the UN to financially aid the NNRAS in the

continued training and cracking down on money laundering. [Itua]

The United Nations is well-equipped to deal with this issue in a military/security context

because it brings to the table the ability to unite many world powers in a concerted effort.

However, the United Nations is also severely limited in its ability to directly affect the events

unfolding in Nigeria, especially since Boko Haram is not a recognized, established state. With

these strengths and weaknesses in mind, the United Nations should act to encourage

military/security/ISR intervention by individual countries and groups of countries, and

coordinate these efforts to form a more cohesive front against Boko Haram. Motivating major

world powers to act against Boko Haram remains a challenge, as there is no strong, short-term

motive for such an intervention. Moreover, the United States, in particular, has been engaged in

several conflicts in the recent past, making the public suspicious of any efforts to deploy military

force abroad. With this context in mind, we are of the opinion that if military interventions are to

be effective, they must be coordinated in such a way that they work towards a grand, strategic

goal. The United Nations could facilitate this type of cooperation by creating a neutral ad-hoc
forum for force contributors to discuss and coordinate their operations. Regarding security/ISR

assistance, much of this work would be focused on reforming the internal structure of the

Nigerian government, as it is currently facing serious corruption, inventory management, and

equipment maintenance issues. For example, the Nigerian Army has a varied, and often poorly-

maintained inventory of equipment coming from a variety of sources. Supporting countries could

work with the Nigerian Armys command and administrative staff to standardize the issuance of

equipment to personnel, and replace outdated or uncommon items with modern stock, whose

replacement parts can be procured in a timely and cost-effective manner. One example of such a

program could be to take the existing, non-standardized stock from the Nigerian Army, and give

them a standardized arms and equipment inventory in return.

NGOS

Non governmental organizations play a crucial role in alleviating the stressors that caused

Boko Haram to rise in Nigeria. Citizens of Nigeria have many grievances which the government

has not addressed effectively, thus allowing Boko Haram to gain traction and influence. One

such grievance is the significant economic divide between the northern and southern regions of

Nigeria. Seventy-two percent of the northern population lives in poverty, compared to twenty-

seven percent of the southern population. {Sergie, Mohammed Aly, and Toni Johnson.

Boko}

Boko Harams recent high-profile attacks have driven away investment from the region.

As a result, northern Nigeria- already an impoverished area that is a far less appealing market to

investors than the prosperous and stable South- has experienced a significant drop in Foreign

Direct Investment (FDI). Although financial data for northern Nigeria is scarce, financial data for

Nigeria overall showed a drop in foreign investment from 4.62 billion dollars in the first half of
2013 to 1.75 billion dollars in the second half of 2015 [CITE Trading Economics]. This drop in

FDI only exacerbated the economic woes of a region that has faced the collapse of state-

promoted industry, power, and infrastructure.

Furthermore, as Boko Haram drove people away from their homes, huge swaths of fertile

land were left abandoned. There is tremendous agricultural and economic potential in these

abandoned fields. Food constitutes 17.8% of Nigerian imports, compared to the world on

average, for which food constitutes 8.1% of all imports [CITE The World Bank]. Nigeria

spends 8.3 billion a year to import food that commercial farmers could easily grow in vacant,

arable, northern Nigerian fields [CITE Observatory of Economic Complexity]. However, a

historic lack of investment in agriculture and infrastructure in northern Nigeria has resulted in

farmers turning to small-scale subsistence farming. Unfortunately, Boko Harams activities have

driven these farmers away from their fields and stripped them of their source of livelihood.

Organizations like the One Acre Fund (OAF) and Biodiversity International help to

enable a transition from subsistence to commercial farmers. This transition has four steps:

providing financing for farms, farm co-ops, and farm inputs, distributing seed and fertilizer,

training in modern agricultural techniques, and market facilitation to maximize profits from

harvest sales. Each step in the transition is necessary for the next. Without funding or farm

inputs, farmers cant buy fertilizer or seeds. Without training, farmers wont have the necessary

productivity to pay back loans, and so on. Co-ops constitute one particularly important step of

the process. Data shows that "[a]ccess to farm inputs is one of the major challenges facing rural

farmers in Nigeria [CITE Julius, Ajah, Dr.]. Small-scale farmers participating in co-ops can

pool their purchasing power to purchase materials for a discounted price. Co-ops also foster

community unity and help farmers network amongst themselves. Overall, the four-step transition
process has produced great success for other developing countries. OAFs 2,343 full-time staff

managed to serve 203,600 families in East Africa, and its programs created a 57% increase in

farm income. [CITE One Acre Fund].

Another grievance of the Nigerian people is the unequal distribution of wealth across the

country. Microfinancing is one popular, successful way of addressing economic disparities in the

developing world. This strategy would work especially well in Nigeria, because conventional

banks do not finance the small-scale operations that make up ninety-five percent of Nigerian

businesses. The Central Bank of Nigeria started an initiative to encourage the implementation of

microfinancing, but microfinance banks are distributed unequally between the North and South.

Over seventy-five percent of microfinance banks are located in the south of Nigeria, leaving less

than twenty-five percent located in the North, despite northern Nigerias much higher poverty

rate. {Acha, Ikechukwu A. "Microfinance ...}

Several challenges block microfinance banks from opening in northern Nigeria, the most

important of which is religion. The majority of the northern population follows the Islamic faith,

which encourages followers to obey Sharia or Islamic law. Sharia forbids Muslims from

engaging in riba, or usury, gharar, uncertainty and excess risk, and maisir, gambling. These

restrictions prevent followers of Islam from using services like microfinancing.

In order to provide northern Nigerians with the benefits of microfinancing while

simultaneously respecting the limitations of the populations faith, NGOs should provide Islamic

banking and microfinancing options, which do not violate Sharia law. There are four main, viable

options for Islamic financing: musyarakah, qardhul hasan, mudarabah, and murabahah.

Musyarakah is a partnership between the financier and the borrower in which the financier

provides funds for use in the borrowers business, and in exchange, the financier will share the
profits in a predetermined ratio. Additionally, the losses will be equally shared. In qardhul hasan,

the funds are provided through zakat, the required Islamic donation of charity, and the borrowers

do have to repay the small loan. Mudarabah is a loan in which the profits of the business will be

shared, but in most cases the financier will bear the burden of any losses. Murabahah is different,

as in this option the financier buys the actual item the business needs, and the business purchases

it from the financier in a series of pre-determined payments that result in a profit made for the

financier. {Sakai, Minako. Community Development}. To ensure that the people will trust

and use a new banking service, NGOs can explain the service to trusted community members

and religious leaders, who can then further spread the message to the community.

Another issue that Nigerians face is the lack of education for females. In northern

Nigeria, where Boko Haram has taken over the most land, only four percent of teenage girls

complete secondary school, and over half of the girls who complete secondary school are

married off by age sixteen. Teenage girls usually have the responsibility to do household chores

and help their mothers run the home life. As such, these girls do not get much time to themselves

without the presence of their families, and, more specifically, men. In addition, these girls deal

with violence, unwanted marriage and pregnancy, and limited access to health and education

services {CITE "Nigeria." Girl Hub.}.

One successful model organization that works to combat the aforementioned issues is

The Girl Effect. The Girl Effect provides girls with a safe space to meet other girls, learn from

role models, and attend workshops dealing with literacy, health, and leadership. Most

importantly, these safe spaces are established and facilitated by members of the community,

which is especially important in the areas of northern Nigeria controlled by Boko Haram, where

outside influences (specifically Western influence) are wiped out. In addition, The Girl Effect
works closely with local faith leaders, who are often the most trusted authority figures in the

community. These faith leaders have enormous influence, and coordinating with them can ensure

not only the establishment of safe spaces, but also the safety of the girls and NGO workers

{CITE "Nigeria." Girl Hub.} .

Other NGOs working on girls education should seek to follow the example set by The

Girl Effect, especially in terms of the level of cooperation between the organization and local

community leaders. For example, The Girl Effect allows individual communities to design and

implement safe spaces that are specifically tailored to the needs of that community. Other NGOs

should also recognize the value of working with community leaders in northern Nigeria to

further the empowerment and education of women. Without support from the community, NGO

workers may face greater danger from Boko Haram, and any programs established by these

workers will likely suffer major setbacks.

Another model organization is the Womens Technology Empowerment Center (W.TEC),

which works with women in the 20-35 age demographic in southern Nigeria. W.TEC teaches

women self-sufficiency by offering literacy and technology courses. These courses provide

women with the skills necessary for careers in computer engineering, computer programming,

system analytics, computer hardware, network specialization, and designing. Nigeria ranks 112th

out of 144 in nations ready for information and communication technology (ICT), but the

country shows great potential in the ICT field , so there is a sizeable demand for employees with

the skills necessary for these jobs {McKinsey Global Institute}. W.TEC provides courses that

teach these skills, and after completion of the courses, women can pursue either freelance

technology jobs or other jobs in the technology field. These jobs become a primary source of

income for women, thus giving them a way out of the vicious cycle of oppression caused by lack
of education and poverty. However, because W.TEC operates solely in southern Nigeria, women

in northern Nigeria do not have the opportunity to escape this cycle. Going forward, W.TEC and

other NGOs with similar programs should expand their efforts to northern Nigeria.

Recommendations

Four step process for improving agriculture in northern Nigeria

o Finance farms, farm co-ops, and farm inputs

o Provide access to seeds and fertilizer

o Train in modern agricultural methods.

o Market facilitation to maximize profits for newly commercial farmers.

Microfinance

o Islamic microfinance banks should be set up throughout northern Nigeria,

offering the Muslim impoverished population the services of musyarakah,

qardhul hasan, mudarabah, and murabahah. The services should be made

available to the small businesses.

o Trusted members of the individual communities should be educated in the Islamic

banking services, and how they do not violate Sharia law, so that the members of

the community will be more receptive to the opportunities they provide.

Have safe spaces run by faith leaders

W.TEC should expand to northern Nigeria and teach women technology courses to help

them establish their own source of income.