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Changes of pressure behavior when well is allowed to produce and the different regions

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Semilog analysis

Azeb D Habte

Jan 2017

PDB 3013

UTP

Lesson Content

Semilog plot of pwf versus log(t)

Determination of permeability and skin factor

Early, middle and late time pressure behavior

solutions.

Lesson Outcomes

Apply semilog straight line analysis method to

determine permeability and skin factor from the

middle time drawdown test data.

Estimate wellbore storage coefficient from early

time drawdown test data.

Estimate reservoir volume from late time

drawdown test data.

CO1: To analyze drawdown and build up test using analytical

solutions.

Semilog plot of pwf versus log (t)

Drawdown test

Is conducted by producing a well at a known rate or rates while

measuring changes in bottomhole pressure (BHP) as a function of

time.

drawdown test can be used to establish the outer limits of the

reservoir and to estimate the hydrocarbon volume (reservoir-limit

test).

Drawdown Contd

Ei function solution

Ei -function solution (line-source solution) is first proposed by Matthews and Russell in 1967. It is

based on the following assumptions:

Infinite acting reservoir, i.e., the reservoir is infinite in size.

The well is producing at a constant flow rate.

The reservoir is at a uniform pressure, , when production begins.

The solution has the following form:

70.6 948 2

, = + (1)

t=time, hrs

k=permeability, md

Qo =flow rate, STB/D

=

Logarithmic approximation

For x<0.01, the function has the following logarithmic

approximation:

= ln(1.781) (2)

948 2

where, =

Substituting Eq. 2 into Eq. 1 gives:

(3)

For the bottomhole flowing pressure, i.e., @r= , at any time, Eq. 3 can be

rewritten as:

162.6Qo Bo o kt (4)

p wf pi log 3.23

o ct rw

2

kh

The skin effect

Skin due to damage Skin due to stimulation

(ks > k)

(ks < k)

The skin effect contd

Where

141.2

= (5)

= additional pressure drop due to skin effect

S= skin factor

magnitude of skin effect.

Incorporating skin into the Ei-Function solution

For rw r rs

70.6 948 2

, = + 2

For r > rs

70.6 948 2

, = +

For r=rw

70.6 948 2

= + 2

Log approximation to the Ei-Function

For r=rw

162.6

= 2 3.23 + 0.8686

Determination of permeability and skin factor

Skin and permeability

Skin and permeability contd

2 1

=

log 2 log(1 )

Example 1

A well has been produced at a constant

rate of 250 STB/D. During the flow

period, bottom-hole flowing pressures

were recorded as tabulated below. The

following rock and fluid properties are

known:

=4412 psi h= 69 ft

=0.8 cp =3.9%

=0.198 ft = 17e-6 psi-1

B=1.136 bbl/STB

Solution

= = = 7.65

70 69

1

= 1.151 + 3.23

2

= 1.151 + 3.23

3582 psi 70 0.039 0.8 17 106 0.1982

=6.355

Early, Middle and Late Time Pressure Behavior

Lesson Outcomes

At the end of this topic, students should be able to

Describe two main causes of wellbore storage effect.

Calculate wellbore storage coefficient (C) from early time region (ETR).

Calculate reservoir volume from late time region (LTR).

Typical drawdown test pressure behavior

Early time flow is dominated by

wellbore storage.

Middle time (transient) flow is a

period where the reservoir act as

an infinite. i.e. a semilog plot of

Pwf versus t is a straight line which

can be used to determine

permeability.

Late time flow is a flow period

where the pressure data is

dominated by boundary effects.

Can be used to calculate the size

and shape of the reservoir.

Early time region (ETR) pressure behavior

The time period when surface production is primarily due to fluids

flowing out of the tubing or tubing-casing annulus is called wellbore

storage dominated flow period.

During this period, the reservoir is not producing fluids, and pressure

versus time data do not contain reservoir information.

(fluid expansion/compression) or falling/rising liquid level.

Early time region (ETR) pressure behavior contd

During drawdown During buildup

Early time region (ETR) pressure behavior contd

1/

Falling/rising

fluid level

Early time region (ETR) pressure behavior contd

Falling/rising

fluid level

Effect of wellbore storage on pressure

Example 2: Wellbore storage calculation

The well is 2600 ft deep and has 6.625, 24lb/ft casing (5.921 ID). The bottomhole pressure is 1690 psi. If

the well is filled with water ( = 4 106 1 ). What is the wellbore storage coefficient?

Solution:

For fluid filled wellbore

=

=

2 2

5.921 1

= 2 = = = 0.191 2

2 2 144

3

= 497.154 4 106 = 1.989 103

= 3.542 104

Wellbore storage from pressure transient test data

wellbore is directly proportional to time during

wellbore storage dominated period of the test

(psi)

Unit slope

line

=

24

Where = for drawdown and =

@=0

time, this gives a characteristic straight line of

(hrs)

unit slope.

170000 0.14

(hr)

= (bbl/psi) =

24

Example 3: Wellbore storage calculation from PTT

p=pi-pwf, p=pi-pwf,

Determine wellbore storage coefficient t, hrs psi t, hrs psi

(C) from the data and table below, which 0.0109 24 0.437 648

0.0164 36 0.491 698

were obtained in a pressure drawdown 0.0218 47 0.546 744

test on an oil well. 0.0273 58 1.09 1048

0.0328 70 1.64 1172

q=500 STB/D rw=0.3 ft 0.0382 81 2.18 1232

0.0437 92 2.73 1266

=0.2 h=56 ft

0.0491 103 3.28 1288

=0.8 cp Bo=1.2 RB/STB 0.0546 114 3.82 1304

Ct=1e-5 psi-1 Pi=3000 psia 0.109 215 4.37 1316

0.164 307 4.91 1326

0.218 389 5.46 1335

0.273 464 6.55 1349

0.328 531 8.74 1370

0.382 592 10.9 1386

0.437 648 16.4 1413

0.491 698

Example 3: Wellbore storage calculation from PTT

10000 . .

= =

1000 = . /

p, psi

100

(0.045 hrs, 100 psi)

10

1

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

, hrs

Middle time region (MTR) pressure behavior

During this period, the reservoir is producing fluids, and pressure

versus time data contains reservoir information.

The straight line on semilog graph, whose slope is related to effective

permeability of the flowing phase, usually occurs during this period.

The straight line is called the correct semilog straight line

Late time region (LTR) pressure behavior

During this period, the pressure transient encounters

reservoir boundary.

The semilog curve deviates from the straight line established

during the middle-time region.

The bottomhole flowing pressure for a no-flow boundary can

be estimated using:

0.234 162.6

= 2 log + 0.351 + 0.869

Late time region (LTR) pressure behavior contd

Based on late time straight line on Cartesian plot of vs. :

0.234

=

0.234

= ( 3 )

The time to reach pseudo steady-state in a cylindrical

reservoir can be estimated from:

1190 2

= (hr)

Example 4: Reservoir volume calculation from PTT

Table 2: PTT data

t, hr Pwf, psi t, hr Pwf, psi

1.00E-03 4991.26 3.98E-01 4934.4

The data provided in Table 1 and 2 are pertinent to a reservoir

1.58E-03 4987.1 5.01E-01 4933.9

limit test (RLT) conducted in a fully-penetrating oil well 2.00E-03 4984.7 6.31E-01 4932.7

producing at a constant rate. Estimate the pore volume (Vp) of 2.51E-03 4981.8 7.94E-01 4932.4

the reservoir. 3.16E-03 4978.8 1.00E+00 4930.7

Table 1: Rock and fluid properties 3.98E-03 4975.2 1.58E+00 4927.2

5.01E-03 4971.8 2.51E+00 4926.8

q=200 STB/D rw=0.328 ft 6.31E-03 4968 3.16E+00 4925.2

7.94E-03 4965 3.98E+00 4924.9

=0.2 h=30 ft 1.00E-02 4961.4 5.01E+00 4921.9

1.26E-02 4958.5 6.31E+00 4922.2

=0.8 cp Bo=1.25 RB/STB 1.58E-02 4955.5 7.94E+00 4919.1

2.00E-02 4953.1 1.00E+01 4915.5

3.16E-02

4951.2

4948.8

1.26E+01

1.58E+01

4912.7

4909.8

3.98E-02 4948.8 2.00E+01 4904.1

5.01E-02 4945.9 2.51E+01 4897

6.31E-02 4944.8 3.16E+01 4889

7.94E-02 4943.7 3.98E+01 4880

1.00E-01 4942.2 5.01E+01 4868

1.26E-01 4940.7 6.31E+01 4852

1.58E-01 4939.9 7.94E+01 4833

2.00E-01 4939

3.16E-01 4936.4

Example 4: Reservoir volume calculation from PTT

Solution: 5000

4980

Step 1: Plot pwf vs t on a Cartesian graph paper. 4960

Step 2: Calculate the slope (m*) of the straight line at late time. 4940

Step 3: Calculate Vp using the equation

Pwf, psi

4920

4900 (40 hrs,4880 psi)

0.234 3

= = ( ) 4880

(50 hrs,4868 psi)

4860

4840

4820

1.0E-3 1.0E+1 2.0E+1 3.0E+1 4.0E+1 5.0E+1 6.0E+1 7.0E+1 8.0E+1 9.0E+1

t, hrs

4880 4868

= = 1.2 /

40 50

= = 5 = 4.88 106 3

1.2 1 10

= 0.869 106 bbl

ETR, MTR and LTR pressure behavior

0.234 162.6

= 2 log + 0.351 + 0.869

=

24

162.6

= 3.23 + 0.869

2

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