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Name: Omar McNeil

ID No.: 1306130
Design of experiments Assignment I
University of Technology
Question 1
(a) (i) Is there a relationship between the number of mistakes made by each
technician and the required work schedule

(ii) H0 = 1 = 2 = 3 = 4
H1 = 1 2 3 4

(iii) Yij = + i + ij
where Yij is the response
is the grand mean
i is the treatment mean for the level
ij is the error

(iv)

T Ti2
Technician 56 45 32 20 45 198 39,204
A
Technician 90 13 4 9 10 126 15,876
B
Technician 19 59 17 22 17 134 17,956
C
Technician 33 37 40 78 34 222 49,284
D
680 122,320
SST = ( Ti2 / ri) - T2 / N
= (122,320 / 5) - (680)2 / 20
= 24,464 - (462,400/20)
= 24,464 - 23,120
= 1344
SSTOT = ( Yij2) - T2 / N
= [562 + 452 + 322 + 202 + 452 + 902 + 132 + 42 + 92 + 102 + 192
+ 592 + 172 + 222 +
172 + 332 + 372 + 402 + 782 + 342] - (680)2 / 20
= 33,278 23,120
= 10,158
SS = SSTOT - SST
= 10,158 - 1,344
= 8,814
dfT = t - 1
=4-1
=3
df = N - t
= 20 - 4
= 16

MST = SST/dfT
= 1,344/ 3
= 448
MS = SS/ df
= 8,814/ 16
= 550.9

(v) F = MST/ MS
= 448/ 550.9
= 0.81

= 0.01
ftable = F(, dfT, df)
Acceptan
ce zone
= F(0.01, 3, 16) Rejection
zone

= 5.29 0.81 5.29

Decision: Accept H0
: Reject H1

(vi) Based on the results of the ANOVA calculation, the null hypothesis was
accepted. Therefore, there is a relationship between the number of
consecutive weeks worked and the number of mistakes made by each
technician
(b) (i) H0 = 1 = 2 = 3
H 1 = 1 2 3

(ii)

T Ti2
Iron X 987 1090 864 575 3516 12,362,2
56
Iron Y 493 497 456 657 2103 4,422,60
9
Iron Z 970 905 891 - 2766 7,650,75
6
8,385 24,435,621
2 2
SSTOT = ( Yij ) - T / N
= [9872 + 10902 + 8642 + 5752 + 4932 + 4972 + 4562 + 6572 +
9702 + 9052 + 8912] -
(8,385)/ 12
= 6,922,839 5,859,018.75
= 1,063,820.25
SST = ( Ti2 / ri) - T2 / N
= (24,435,621 / 4) 5,859,018.75
= 6,108,905.25 5,859,018.75
= 249,886.5
SS = SSTOT - SST
= 1,063,820.25 - 249,886.5
= 813,933.75

(iii) dfT = t - 1
=3-1
=2
df = N - t
= 12 - 3
=9
MST = SST/dfT
= 249,886.5/ 2
= 124,943.25

MS = SS/ df
= 813,933.75/ 9
= 90,437.083

F = MST/MSE
= 124,943.25/ 90,437.083
= 1.4

Source df SS MS F

SST 2 249,886.5 124,943. 8.02


25
SSE 9 813,933.7 90,437.0
5 83
SSTOT 11 1,063,820
.25

(iv) = 0.01
ftable = F(, dfT, df)
= F(0.01, 2, 9)
= 8.02 Acceptan
ce zone

Decision: Accept H0 Rejection


zone

: Reject H1 1.4 8.02


Question 2
H0 = 1 = 2 = 3
H1 = 1 2 3

T Ti2
Method 25 210 208 250 254 260 198 299 1929 3,721,0
1 0 41
Method 96 99 93 89 98 93 97 96 761 579,12
2 1
Method 79 74 70 60 65 64 89 88 589 346,92
3 1
3279 4,647,083
SSTOT = ( Yij2) - T2 / N
= [2502 + 2102 + 2082 + 2502 + 2542 + 2602 + 1982 + 2992 + 962 + 992 +
93 + 892 + 982 + 932 + 972 +
2

962 + 792 + 742 + 702 + 602 + 652 + 642 + 892 + 882] - (3279)2 / 24
= 589,753 447,993.38
= 141,759.62
SST = ( Ti2 / ri) - T2 / N
= (4,647,083 / 8) - 447,993.38
= 580,885.38 - 447,993.38
= 132,893
SS = SSTOT - SST
= 141,759.62 - 132,892
= 8,867.62

dfT = t - 1
=31
=2
df = N - t
= 24 3
= 21
MST = SST/dfT
= 132,892/ 2
= 66,446
MS = SS/ df
= 8,867.62/ 21
= 422.26

F = MST/ MS
= 66,446/ 422.26
= 157.36

Source df SS MS F
= 0.01
SST 2 132,892 66,446 5.780
ftable = F(, dfT, df) SSE 21 8,867.62 422.26
= F(0.01, 2, 21)
SSTOT 23 141,759.
= 5.780 62

Decision: Reject H0
: Accept H1

Acceptan
ce zone
Rejection
zone

5.780

157.36
Question 3

1.
The expected values of the errors are zero
The variance of all errors are equal to each other
The errors are independent
They are normally distributed

2. (a)

T Ti2
Type 1 79. 529. 280,476.1
9 68.1 59.4 57.8 79.3 67.2 61.8 56.1 6 6
Type 2 88. 536. 288,046.8
4 59.0 60.8 61.8 63.7 49.9 94.7 58.4 7 9
Type 3 81. 658. 433,753.9
3
75.6 91.4 92.7 85.8 85.6 76.9 69.3 6 6
1724 1,002,277.01
.9
SSTOT = ( Yij2) - T2 / N
= [79.92 + 68.12 + 59.42 + 57.82 + 79.32 + 67.22 + 61.82 + 56.12 + 88.42 +
59.02 + 60.82 + 61.82 + 63.72
+ 49.92 + 94.72 + 58.42 + 81.32 + 75.62 + 91.42 + 92.72 + 85.82 + 85.62 +
76.9 + 69.32] - (1724.9)2 / 24
2

= 128,076.79 123,970.0004
= 4,106.79
SST = ( Ti2 / ri) - T2 / N
= (1,002,277.01 / 8) - 123,970.0004
= 125,284.63 - 123,970.0004
= 1,314.63
SS = SSTOT - SST
= 4,106.79 1,314.63
= 2,792.16
dfT = t - 1
=31
=2
df = N - t
= 24 3
= 21

MST = SST/dfT
= 1,314.63/ 2
= 657.315
MS = SS/ df
= 2,792.16/ 21
= 132.96

F = MST/ MS
= 657.315/ 132.96
= 4.94

(b) Source df SS MS F

SST 2 123,970.0 657.315 3.4668


004
SSE 21 2,792.16 132.96

SSTOT 23 126,762.1
604
(c)

Type
79.9 68.1 59.4 57.8 79.3 67.2 61.8 56.1
1
Type
88.4 59 60.8 61.8 63.7 49.9 94.7 58.4
2
Type
81.3 75.6 91.4 92.7 85.8 85.6 76.9 69.3
3

Anova: Single
Factor

SUMMARY
Avera Varian
Groups Count Sum ge ce
86.011
Type 1 8 529.6 66.2 43
67.087 247.41
Type 2 8 536.7 5 84
65.450
Type 3 8 658.6 82.325 71

ANOVA
Source of P-
Variation SS df MS F value F crit
Between 1314.6 657.31 4.9436 0.0174 5.7804
Groups 26 2 29 83 02 16
2792.1 132.96
Within Groups 64 21 02

4106.7
Total 9 23
(d)

Between-Subjects Factors

Value Label N

Phosphorescent_Coatings 1 Type1 8

2 Type2 8

3 Type3 8

Descriptive Statistics
Dependent Variable: Duration_of_glow

Phosphorescent_Coatings Mean Std. Deviation N

Type1 66.200 9.2742 8


Type2 67.087 15.7295 8
Type3 82.325 8.0902 8
Total 71.871 13.3625 24

Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variancesa


Dependent Variable: Duration_of_glow

F df1 df2 Sig.

1.938 2 21 .169

Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of


the dependent variable is equal across groups.
a. Design: Intercept + Phosphorescent_Coatings

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects


Dependent Variable: Duration_of_glow

Type III Sum of


Source Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
a
Corrected Model 1314.626 2 657.313 4.944 .017
Intercept 123970.000 1 123970.000 932.384 .000
Phosphorescent_Coatings 1314.626 2 657.313 4.944 .017
Error 2792.164 21 132.960
Total 128076.790 24
Corrected Total 4106.790 23

a. R Squared = .320 (Adjusted R Squared = .255)

(e)

Y11 Y12 Y13


79.9 88.4 81.3
68.1 59.0 75.6
59.4 60.8 91.4
57.8 61.8 92.7
79.3 63.7 85.8
67.2 49.9 85.6
61.8 94.7 76.9
56.1 58.4 69.3
1 . 2 . 3 .

( Y11)/ n1 ( Y12)/ n2 ( Y13)/ n3

1 . = 529.6/8 2 . = 536.7/8 3 . = 658.6/8


= 66.2 = 67.08 =
82.325

Yij i . Predicted values ij = Yij - i .


79.9 66.2 13.7
68.1 66.2 1.9
59.4 66.2 -6.8
57.8 66.2 -8.4
79.3 66.2 13.1
67.2 66.2 1
61.8 66.2 -4.4
56.1 66.2 -10.1
88.4 67.08 21.32
59.0 67.08 -8.08
60.8 67.08 -6.28
61.8 67.08 -5.28
63.7 67.08 -3.38
49.9 67.08 -17.18
94.7 67.08 27.62
58.4 67.08 -8.68
81.3 82.325 -1.025
75.6 82.325 -6.725
91.4 82.325 9.075
92.7 82.325 10.375
85.8 82.325 3.475
85.6 82.325 3.275
76.9 82.325 -5.425
69.3 82.325 -13.025
Total 0.06

(f)
H0 = 1 = 2 = 3
H1 = 1 2 3

= 0.05
ftable = F(, dfT, df)
= F(0.05, 2, 21)
= 3.4668

Decision: Reject H0
: Accept H1 Acceptan
ce zone
Rejection
zone

3.4668

4.94

Conclusion: At 0.05 level of significance, there is a difference in effectiveness


of the phosphorescent coatings.
Question 4

A music teacher is trying to determine if the amount of practice hours put in on 3


different instruments affects the players preference and skill level. The music
teacher would like to know if some instruments require less skill/ practice time. The
instruments and hours are as follows: -

Guitar: 2 4 1 3
Piano: 8 2 3 6
Violin: 7 9 0.5 10

Is there a relationship between the amount of hours played and the skill level of a
player of that particular instrument?

Single One Way ANOVA model


Yij = i + i + ij