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# Name: Omar McNeil

ID No.: 1306130
Design of experiments Assignment I
University of Technology
Question 1
(a) (i) Is there a relationship between the number of mistakes made by each
technician and the required work schedule

(ii) H0 = 1 = 2 = 3 = 4
H1 = 1 2 3 4

(iii) Yij = + i + ij
where Yij is the response
is the grand mean
i is the treatment mean for the level
ij is the error

(iv)

T Ti2
Technician 56 45 32 20 45 198 39,204
A
Technician 90 13 4 9 10 126 15,876
B
Technician 19 59 17 22 17 134 17,956
C
Technician 33 37 40 78 34 222 49,284
D
680 122,320
SST = ( Ti2 / ri) - T2 / N
= (122,320 / 5) - (680)2 / 20
= 24,464 - (462,400/20)
= 24,464 - 23,120
= 1344
SSTOT = ( Yij2) - T2 / N
= [562 + 452 + 322 + 202 + 452 + 902 + 132 + 42 + 92 + 102 + 192
+ 592 + 172 + 222 +
172 + 332 + 372 + 402 + 782 + 342] - (680)2 / 20
= 33,278 23,120
= 10,158
SS = SSTOT - SST
= 10,158 - 1,344
= 8,814
dfT = t - 1
=4-1
=3
df = N - t
= 20 - 4
= 16

MST = SST/dfT
= 1,344/ 3
= 448
MS = SS/ df
= 8,814/ 16
= 550.9

(v) F = MST/ MS
= 448/ 550.9
= 0.81

= 0.01
ftable = F(, dfT, df)
Acceptan
ce zone
= F(0.01, 3, 16) Rejection
zone

## = 5.29 0.81 5.29

Decision: Accept H0
: Reject H1

(vi) Based on the results of the ANOVA calculation, the null hypothesis was
accepted. Therefore, there is a relationship between the number of
consecutive weeks worked and the number of mistakes made by each
technician
(b) (i) H0 = 1 = 2 = 3
H 1 = 1 2 3

(ii)

T Ti2
Iron X 987 1090 864 575 3516 12,362,2
56
Iron Y 493 497 456 657 2103 4,422,60
9
Iron Z 970 905 891 - 2766 7,650,75
6
8,385 24,435,621
2 2
SSTOT = ( Yij ) - T / N
= [9872 + 10902 + 8642 + 5752 + 4932 + 4972 + 4562 + 6572 +
9702 + 9052 + 8912] -
(8,385)/ 12
= 6,922,839 5,859,018.75
= 1,063,820.25
SST = ( Ti2 / ri) - T2 / N
= (24,435,621 / 4) 5,859,018.75
= 6,108,905.25 5,859,018.75
= 249,886.5
SS = SSTOT - SST
= 1,063,820.25 - 249,886.5
= 813,933.75

(iii) dfT = t - 1
=3-1
=2
df = N - t
= 12 - 3
=9
MST = SST/dfT
= 249,886.5/ 2
= 124,943.25

MS = SS/ df
= 813,933.75/ 9
= 90,437.083

F = MST/MSE
= 124,943.25/ 90,437.083
= 1.4

Source df SS MS F

## SST 2 249,886.5 124,943. 8.02

25
SSE 9 813,933.7 90,437.0
5 83
SSTOT 11 1,063,820
.25

(iv) = 0.01
ftable = F(, dfT, df)
= F(0.01, 2, 9)
= 8.02 Acceptan
ce zone

zone

## : Reject H1 1.4 8.02

Question 2
H0 = 1 = 2 = 3
H1 = 1 2 3

T Ti2
Method 25 210 208 250 254 260 198 299 1929 3,721,0
1 0 41
Method 96 99 93 89 98 93 97 96 761 579,12
2 1
Method 79 74 70 60 65 64 89 88 589 346,92
3 1
3279 4,647,083
SSTOT = ( Yij2) - T2 / N
= [2502 + 2102 + 2082 + 2502 + 2542 + 2602 + 1982 + 2992 + 962 + 992 +
93 + 892 + 982 + 932 + 972 +
2

962 + 792 + 742 + 702 + 602 + 652 + 642 + 892 + 882] - (3279)2 / 24
= 589,753 447,993.38
= 141,759.62
SST = ( Ti2 / ri) - T2 / N
= (4,647,083 / 8) - 447,993.38
= 580,885.38 - 447,993.38
= 132,893
SS = SSTOT - SST
= 141,759.62 - 132,892
= 8,867.62

dfT = t - 1
=31
=2
df = N - t
= 24 3
= 21
MST = SST/dfT
= 132,892/ 2
= 66,446
MS = SS/ df
= 8,867.62/ 21
= 422.26

F = MST/ MS
= 66,446/ 422.26
= 157.36

Source df SS MS F
= 0.01
SST 2 132,892 66,446 5.780
ftable = F(, dfT, df) SSE 21 8,867.62 422.26
= F(0.01, 2, 21)
SSTOT 23 141,759.
= 5.780 62

Decision: Reject H0
: Accept H1

Acceptan
ce zone
Rejection
zone

5.780

157.36
Question 3

1.
The expected values of the errors are zero
The variance of all errors are equal to each other
The errors are independent
They are normally distributed

2. (a)

T Ti2
Type 1 79. 529. 280,476.1
9 68.1 59.4 57.8 79.3 67.2 61.8 56.1 6 6
Type 2 88. 536. 288,046.8
4 59.0 60.8 61.8 63.7 49.9 94.7 58.4 7 9
Type 3 81. 658. 433,753.9
3
75.6 91.4 92.7 85.8 85.6 76.9 69.3 6 6
1724 1,002,277.01
.9
SSTOT = ( Yij2) - T2 / N
= [79.92 + 68.12 + 59.42 + 57.82 + 79.32 + 67.22 + 61.82 + 56.12 + 88.42 +
59.02 + 60.82 + 61.82 + 63.72
+ 49.92 + 94.72 + 58.42 + 81.32 + 75.62 + 91.42 + 92.72 + 85.82 + 85.62 +
76.9 + 69.32] - (1724.9)2 / 24
2

= 128,076.79 123,970.0004
= 4,106.79
SST = ( Ti2 / ri) - T2 / N
= (1,002,277.01 / 8) - 123,970.0004
= 125,284.63 - 123,970.0004
= 1,314.63
SS = SSTOT - SST
= 4,106.79 1,314.63
= 2,792.16
dfT = t - 1
=31
=2
df = N - t
= 24 3
= 21

MST = SST/dfT
= 1,314.63/ 2
= 657.315
MS = SS/ df
= 2,792.16/ 21
= 132.96

F = MST/ MS
= 657.315/ 132.96
= 4.94

(b) Source df SS MS F

## SST 2 123,970.0 657.315 3.4668

004
SSE 21 2,792.16 132.96

SSTOT 23 126,762.1
604
(c)

Type
79.9 68.1 59.4 57.8 79.3 67.2 61.8 56.1
1
Type
88.4 59 60.8 61.8 63.7 49.9 94.7 58.4
2
Type
81.3 75.6 91.4 92.7 85.8 85.6 76.9 69.3
3

Anova: Single
Factor

SUMMARY
Avera Varian
Groups Count Sum ge ce
86.011
Type 1 8 529.6 66.2 43
67.087 247.41
Type 2 8 536.7 5 84
65.450
Type 3 8 658.6 82.325 71

ANOVA
Source of P-
Variation SS df MS F value F crit
Between 1314.6 657.31 4.9436 0.0174 5.7804
Groups 26 2 29 83 02 16
2792.1 132.96
Within Groups 64 21 02

4106.7
Total 9 23
(d)

Between-Subjects Factors

Value Label N

Phosphorescent_Coatings 1 Type1 8

2 Type2 8

3 Type3 8

Descriptive Statistics
Dependent Variable: Duration_of_glow

## Type1 66.200 9.2742 8

Type2 67.087 15.7295 8
Type3 82.325 8.0902 8
Total 71.871 13.3625 24

## Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variancesa

Dependent Variable: Duration_of_glow

1.938 2 21 .169

## Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of

the dependent variable is equal across groups.
a. Design: Intercept + Phosphorescent_Coatings

## Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable: Duration_of_glow

## Type III Sum of

Source Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
a
Corrected Model 1314.626 2 657.313 4.944 .017
Intercept 123970.000 1 123970.000 932.384 .000
Phosphorescent_Coatings 1314.626 2 657.313 4.944 .017
Error 2792.164 21 132.960
Total 128076.790 24
Corrected Total 4106.790 23

(e)

79.9 88.4 81.3
68.1 59.0 75.6
59.4 60.8 91.4
57.8 61.8 92.7
79.3 63.7 85.8
67.2 49.9 85.6
61.8 94.7 76.9
56.1 58.4 69.3
1 . 2 . 3 .

= 66.2 = 67.08 =
82.325

## Yij i . Predicted values ij = Yij - i .

79.9 66.2 13.7
68.1 66.2 1.9
59.4 66.2 -6.8
57.8 66.2 -8.4
79.3 66.2 13.1
67.2 66.2 1
61.8 66.2 -4.4
56.1 66.2 -10.1
88.4 67.08 21.32
59.0 67.08 -8.08
60.8 67.08 -6.28
61.8 67.08 -5.28
63.7 67.08 -3.38
49.9 67.08 -17.18
94.7 67.08 27.62
58.4 67.08 -8.68
81.3 82.325 -1.025
75.6 82.325 -6.725
91.4 82.325 9.075
92.7 82.325 10.375
85.8 82.325 3.475
85.6 82.325 3.275
76.9 82.325 -5.425
69.3 82.325 -13.025
Total 0.06

(f)
H0 = 1 = 2 = 3
H1 = 1 2 3

= 0.05
ftable = F(, dfT, df)
= F(0.05, 2, 21)
= 3.4668

Decision: Reject H0
: Accept H1 Acceptan
ce zone
Rejection
zone

3.4668

4.94

## Conclusion: At 0.05 level of significance, there is a difference in effectiveness

of the phosphorescent coatings.
Question 4

## A music teacher is trying to determine if the amount of practice hours put in on 3

different instruments affects the players preference and skill level. The music
teacher would like to know if some instruments require less skill/ practice time. The
instruments and hours are as follows: -

Guitar: 2 4 1 3
Piano: 8 2 3 6
Violin: 7 9 0.5 10

Is there a relationship between the amount of hours played and the skill level of a
player of that particular instrument?

Yij = i + i + ij