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Pirelli Cables Australia Ltd and Pirelli Cables New Zealand resistance to abrasion is required for adverse installation
Ltd are part of the Pirelli worldwide group, a leader in cable conditions, but such sheaths are not recommended
manufacture and technology innovation. in areas of fire risk.

This manual contains technical information on a wide Where protection against termites and other boring
variety of commonly used medium voltage power cables insects is required, cables can be supplied with a
manufactured to Australian Standard AS/NZS 1429.1 and covering of Nylon 12, or with two helically applied
IEC 60502. Full constructional and technical details are brass or stainless steel tapes. Alternatively Pirelli
given for Pirelli Cables standard range of MV power cables offer Termitex covering as a protection against
cables. Other constructions and variants are available to termites. For protection against rodents, Pirelli Cables
special order. recommend the use of armour, or steel tapes. Brass or
copper tapes only provide limited protection against
For normal industrial applications XLPE insulation is
rodents, and specifiers need to be aware of the risk
normally recommended, but for situations where the cable
for each installation.
may be continuously subject to wet conditions, the well
proven resistance to such environments of Pirelli EPR Pirelli Cables offers a choice of two standard screen sizes
compound offers additional security. Both insulation for different earth fault requirements for EPR and XLPE
systems have been assessed for long term resistance cables. For systems with small earth fault levels a light
to water under the two year UNIPEDE test regime and duty screen is offered for protection based on the screens
successfully met the criteria. Pirelli EPR compound having a nominal short-circuit rating of 3 kA for one
has also met the requirements of more onerous long second. For systems with high fault levels, a heavy-duty
term tests. screen is available with a nominal short-circuit rating of
10 kA for one second.
The standard oversheath supplied is BLACK 90 PVC
(5V-90) or a combination of layers of PVC and HDPE to i.) Light-duty Screened Cables are for use in circuits
AS/NZS 1429.1, AS/NZS 4026 and AS/NZS 3808. For protected by fast acting devices such as HRC fuses or
situations where limiting the emission of smoke and systems having low I2t earth fault values.
corrosive gases from cables affected by fire is desirable, ii.) Heavy-duty Screened Cables are designed to carry
the use of Pirelli LSOH sheath to AS/NZS 3808 is high earth fault currents comparable with system
recommended. These cables are constructionally and symmetrical fault currents. They are designed for supply
dimensionally the same as AS/NZS 1429.1 cables and systems having high I2t earth fault values.
employ the same insulation systems but with LSOH
For three core cables one third of the required screening
sheaths. The tabulated data in this technical manual is
is nominated for each core, the fault current being
valid irrespective of sheathing option.
assumed to be shared by all screens. The one-second
High-density polyethylene sheath (HDPE) can be supplied earth fault current ratings are given in the data sheets for
where greater impermeability to moisture and greater each of the medium voltage XLPE and EPR cables.



These standard screens can be varied to suit individual DESIGNATIONS

system fault requirements. Each cable type is identified by a reference type
designation for ease of reference and a full order
All cables may be requested with a graphite coating on
designation which fully identifies each cable and should
the sheath to act as an electrode for on-site testing of
be used on order documentation. Cables are metre
the sheath.
marked for ease of installation and inventory control.
Pirelli Cables have many alternative solutions to meet the
All cables are listed with the voltage rating for which the
demanding problems faced by utilities and contractors
cable is designed, expressed in the form Uo/U, where Uo
in power transmission. The company provides a cable
is the nominal voltage between conductor(s) and earth
design service capable of servicing your requirements for
and U is the nominal voltage between phase conductors.
power cable specification. Pirelli innovation has led to new
products including: RECOMMENDED USE
The cables described in this technical manual are
New concepts for protection of cable from termites
designed to be used for the supply of electrical energy
backed by sponsored CSIRO research.
in fixed installations up to the indicated rated voltage at
Alternative solutions to armour for protection of cables
a nominal power frequency in the range 49Hz to 61Hz.
from impact damage.
EPR COMPACT medium voltage cables have been Cables to AS/NZS 1429.1, AS/NZS 4026 and IEC 60502
developed for cost-effective replacement of networks are intended for use either installed in air, directly buried
using existing ductwork. These cables have been designed in the ground or in ducts. Cables with LSOH sheath have
to optimise electrical and mechanical properties in improved fire performance when installed in air and are
dimensionally smaller cables. This has been accomplished primarily intended for such locations. Reasonable
through use of the EPRotenax Premium Performance protection against mechanical damage should be
insulation system, which combines maximum current provided.
carrying capacity with a rugged outer sheath and
Cables in this technical manual are not specifically
sufficient insulation thickness to deliver the same reliable
designed for use as self-supporting aerial cables, as
service as the paper cables being replaced.
submarine cables, where exposure to excessive heat or
corrosive products or solvent substances is involved. In
case of any doubt concerning the suitability of a particular
cable type for a particular use, guidance should be sought
through our Sales and Service.




Cables should be selected and used such that the The standard cable finishes are adequate for normal
product does not present an unacceptable risk or danger environmental conditions. However, there are many
to life or property when used in its intended manner. installations where conditions are much more onerous than
normal and some brief notes for protection of cables
Cables should be selected so that they are suitable for
against hostile environments are given below. Once the type
the operating environment conditions e.g. use in petro-
of protective covering to meet environmental conditions
chemical works, need for fire performance, the need for
has been decided, it is generally possible taking voltage
protection against attack by rodents, termites, etc,
and current ratings into account, to arrive at the type of
equipment classification and any other external influences
cable insulation to be used.
which may exist.
They should also be selected according to the appropriate
Polymeric and elastomeric cables are not compatible with
rated voltage and the cross-sectional area of every
hydrocarbon oils and organic solvents. Such oils and
conductor such that its current carrying capacity is not
solvents particularly at elevated temperatures are absorbed
less than the maximum sustained current which would
by the insulation and sheathing materials leading to swelling
normally flow through it, and the short circuit current rating
and resultant damage.
of conductor and screen is adequate for the prospective
short circuit and time for which it persists. Semi-conductive components on high voltage cables may
lose their conductive properties. It follows that where
In addition, consideration should be given to other relevant
polymeric and elastomeric cables are used in locations
factors, such as:
where exposure to hydrocarbon oils and organic solvents
voltage drop requirements is likely, a lead sheath is required. The most satisfactory
operating characteristics of connected equipment protection for the lead sheath would be a high density
economics polyethylene sheath with steel wire armour.

For casual contact with oil spills a Nitrile or CSP rubber

sheath can be used.

PVC sheaths offer good protection against chemical

attack. Specifiers should contact Pirelli Cables for
recommendations regarding the protection of cables
against harsh chemical environments.




Special constructions are necessary to resist boring 1. Slight exposure to impact and to tensile stresses.
insects such as termites, as all cables with normal finishes The application of a high density polyethylene sheath can
are susceptible to their attack. If cables are installed in give appreciable added mechanical protection to cables
locations where termite attack is likely, protection may take with the normal PVC sheath. This method is suitable for
the form of one of the following: single and multi-core cables.

Two helically applied brass tapes, the upper one 2. Moderate exposure to Impact and to tensile stresses.
overlapping the gap in the lower one, may be incorporated Single core cables can be armoured with non-ferrous
into the cable design. In the case of armoured cable the armour wire, usually hard drawn aluminium. For multicore
brass tapes may be applied under the bedding of the cables a single layer of galvanised steel wire armour
armour. For unarmoured cable the brass tapes can be is recommended. The steel wire is necessary if there
applied over the normal PVC or other extruded sheath is likely to be a moderate tensile stress applied to the
followed by a PVC sheath over the brass tapes. cable during pulling in or during service. Steel wire
armoured cables offer good protection against rugged
A nylon jacket may be applied over the PVC or other
installation conditions.
extruded sheath followed by a sacrificial layer of extruded
PVC over the nylon to protect it from damage during 3. Severe exposure to impact and tensile stresses.
installation. The double wire armour finish offers a very high level of
New Termitex technology incorporated into the cable protection against mechanical damage whether it be
design, for long term protection. impact or longitudinal tensile stress such as in subsidence
areas and submarine installations on an uneven sea floor.
Chemical treatment of the backfill is no longer recom-
mended because of damage to the environment and the 4. Polymeric protection against impact. Pirelli Cables
health risk. developed AIRBAG, which provides enhanced
mechanical/impact protection keeping the handling and
The teredo worm is prevalent in tropical, subtropical and
installation characteristics of unprotected cables.
temperate oceans and estuaries. Protection is usually
attained by incorporating two brass tapes under the EXPOSURE TO ULTRA VIOLET RADIATION

armour of all submarine cables. Pirelli Cables has special materials designed to prevent
UV degradation when exposed to sunlight. To be sure the
In areas liable to attack by rodents, galvanised steel wire
correct material is used it is necessary to state at the time
armour provides an effective barrier. A layer of Nylon
of enquiry and ordering that the cable will be exposed
covering under the armour provides additional protection
to sunlight.
from boring insects. Pirelli Cables have expertise in
designing cables to resist boring insect and rodent attack.
Please call the Sales and Service number for advice.



FIRE SITUATIONS Flame propagation (cable bunches) when tested

The performance of a cable in a fire situation can be a installed in defined bunches on a vertical ladder, the
major factor in the choice of cable type. When correctly cables should not propagate flame more than a limited
selected, located and installed cables do not present a distance from the point of application of a ribbon burner
fire hazard but in the case of fire initiated elsewhere, flame front. Such cables meet AS/NZS 1660.5.1 and
cables provide a source of fuel and a possible means of IEC 332 Part 3 and are often called reduced propagation.
propagating a fire along its length.
Three categories exist in AS/NZS 1660.5.1 according to
Additionally cables can contribute to the emission of the volume of combustible material tested, Category A
smoke and noxious gases injurious to equipment and (7 l/m), Category B (3.5 l/m) and Category C (1.5 l/m). It
human health. Evolution of smoke can reduce visibility, should however be noted that propagation of fire is often
which can cause panic and create serious problems in a function of installation conditions and appropriate care
evacuating personnel. The presence of acid gas in the should be taken to ensure that the test category chosen
smoke can result in corrosion damage of electronic and is representative of. the actual installed condition.
other equipment and will cause intense irritation to the
Low smoke zero halogen cables have controlled limits
eyes and lungs.
on smoke evolution when cable samples are burnt in a
Cables manufactured from PVC and some other closed 3m cube smoke chamber and controlled limits on
traditional materials when exposed to fire will produce acidic and corrosive gases when subject to material
dense black smoke and harmful fumes and may pyrolysis in a tube furnace. Such cables meet AS/NZS
propagate fire when installed in bundles. Where these 1660.5.2 (IEC 1034) for smoke emission and AS/NZS
factors are of concern, the use of LSOH sheathed cables 1660.5.4 (IEC 754-2) for deter-mination of degree of acidity
is recommended. by measurement of pH and conductivity and are often
called LSOH.
On the basis of standards in current use, cables can be
divided into the following categories in relation to their By nature of their typical intended use the MV power
behaviour in the presence of fire: cables of this type may be used where the performance
of the cable in case of fire is important, either for limitation
Flame propagation (single cable) when tested singly,
of the propagation of flame along cable bunches or the
the cable should self-extinguish within a short period of
limitation of smoke and corrosive gas emissions.
time and within a short distance from the point of
application of a Bunsen burner flame. Such cables meet Reduced flame propagation variants of all cables in
AS/NZS 1660.5.6 and IEC 332 Part 1 and are often called this technical manual can be supplied LSOH sheaths for
flame retardant. Such cables will not necessarily prevent situations where limiting the emission of smoke and
propagation along bunches of cables installed together corrosive gas from the cables if affected by fire is desirable.
on vertical racks and exposed to a large-scale fire source.



VOLTAGE RATING exceeding 8 hours on any occasion and total duration of

It is important to know whether the system to which the earth faults in any year not exceeding 125 hours.
cable is connected is classified as earthed or unearthed.
Category C system which does not fall into Categories
Supply authority systems are generally, though not always,
A and B.
earthed design. Mining systems are usually the unearthed
design. Pirelli Cables products are suitable for voltages
that are commonly used in Australia. Voltage is usually Max System Voltage Min Rated (Phase to Earth) Voltage of Cable
(Um) kV (UO) kV
expressed in the form U0/U and Um. Category A & B Category C
3.6 1.9 3.8
U0 is the rms power frequency voltage between phase
7.2 3.8 6.35
and earth. 12.0 6.35 12.7
24.0 12.7 19
U is the rms power frequency voltage between phases. 36.0 19 -
Note: If an earth fault is not automatically and promptly isolated, the extra
Um is the maximum continuous rms power frequency
stresses on the cable insulation during the fault reduce the life of the
voltage between any two phases for which the cable is cable to a certain degree. If the system is expected to be operated fairly
often with a permanent earth fault, it may be advisable to classify the
designed. It excludes momentary variations due to fault system in Category C.
conditions or sudden disconnection of large loads.
CABLE VOLTAGES The current ratings indicated in this manual have been
Rated Voltages of Cables Max Continuous based on the calculation procedures as recommended
General Cables Mining Cables Operating Voltage
in IEC 60287 and the following assumptions. Rating factors
kV kV kV
should be applied to cover any variation.

1.9/3.3 3.3/3.3 3.6 Max. continuous conductor temp. = 40C

3.8/6.6 6.6/6.6 7.2 Ambient air temperature = 90C
6.35/11 11/11 12
Ambient ground temperature = 25C
12.7/22 22/22 24
19/33 33/33 36 Depth of laying = 0.8m
38/66 72 Thermal resistivity of soil = 1.2C.m/W
The selection of standard cables for particular supply Balanced load, comprising either a single three core
systems depends on the system voltage and earthing cable or three single core cables, in trefoil formation
arrangements. touching throughout, with the screens bonded at both
ends of the route.
Category A system in which any phase conductor that
Installation conditions:
comes in contact with earth or an earth conductor is
1) Direct Buried:
disconnected from the system within 1 minute.
Cables are installed direct in the ground, with
Category B system which, under fault conditions, is suitable compacted backfill
operated for a short time with one phase earthed, not



2) Buried Singleway Ducts: The fault ratings for the conductors and the metallic
Cables are installed with one cable per duct screens are provided for a time period of 1 second. When
3) In Free Air: other times (t) between 0.2 and 5 seconds are required,
Cables installed shielded from direct sunlight and the appropriate rating may be obtained by multiplying the
with a minimum clearance from any vertical wall of 1 second rating by the factor: 1/t
0.3xCable Dia. and 0.5xCable Dia. for single and
The ratings for the screens are based upon the traditional
three core cables respectively to ensure free air
adiabatic method, which provides a substantial safety
margin when account is taken of the heat loss occurring
In order to select the appropriate cable for a given in practice. The non-adiabatic method to IEC standards
application, consideration must be given to the nature of can be used according to AS/NZS 1429.1 when agreed
the installation. It is not possible to provide a definitive between the purchaser and supplier. This can provide
guide to specifying the correct cable type for every substantial systems savings.
situation, this choice must be made by the specifier
Short circuit capacity that is related to the energy
and/or installer based upon a knowledge of the
expended during a short circuit. It is equated to the mass
installation, applicable regulations and the characteristics
x specified heat capacity x temperature change in the
of available cable designs. General guidance on the use
conductor. Two types of conditions have to be considered
of cable types included has been given above, but for
symmetrical and earth short circuit currents. Various
further information and guidance it is recommended
cable designs have different nominated maximum
to make reference to the appropriate cable standard
temperatures after short circuit, depending usually on the
(e.g. AS/NZS 1429.1 or AS/NZS 4026).
type of insulation and sheathing, and these temperatures
TEMPERATURE LIMITS should not be exceeded.
In respect of thermal effects the temperature limit given
Economics important criteria related to cable economics
for each cable type is the maximum temperature due to
are the initial system cost and annual cost of losses.
any combination of the heating effect of current in the
Economics are generally considered on a present value
conductors and ambient conditions. All insulation and
calculation based on initial cost and discounted cost of
sheathing materials become stiffer as their temperature
losses. Data provided in the tables assists specifiers to
is lowered and due regard has been taken of this factor
estimate purchase and running costs.
in the guidance on minimum installation temperature.

The materials used for these cables are compatible with

temperatures of 90C for continuous operation and 250C
for short circuit conditions of up to 5 seconds.



CABLE INSTALLATION The radius is related to the inner surface of the cable and
It is recommended that all cables described by this not the axis.
manual be installed in accordance with the Electricity
The recommendation for installation allows for the cable
Supply Authority Specifications or Regulations, Wiring
to be pulled under tension. Where cables are placed in
Rules or and any other appropriate national regulations
position adjacent to joints and terminations and the
or legislation.
bending is carefully controlled, the controlled bending
In installing cables, care should be taken to ensure that radius as given in the data tables may be used. Sidewall
the ambient and cable temperature has been above 0C Bearing Pressures need to be considered also.
for the previous 24 hours to avoid the risk of cracking of
the oversheath.
Recommended duct sizes are given in the following table:
For groups of parallel single core circuits, the cables should
Nominal Internal Duct Diameter (mm) Cable Diameter (mm)
be installed in trefoil touching formation as hereunder: 100 Up to 65
A A 125 Over 65, up to 90
i) Two conductors per phase. B C C B
150 Over 90, up to 115

ii) Three conductors per phase. B C C B B C
Using a pulling eye on the conductor:
RECOMMENDED MINIMUM Copper 0.07 kN/mm2 of conductor
BENDING RADII Aluminium, Stranded 0.05 kN/mm2 of conductor
It is good practice when planning ducts or trenches to
Using a pulling eye on the Steel Wire Armour:
prescribe a bending radius of 3 metres for 11kV, 22kV and
P = 0.005 D2
33kV cables and 2 metres for cables below 11kV.
Using a Stocking grip:
The following tables set out the recommended minimum
P = 0.0035 D2
bending radii for single or multicore polymeric insulated
Where: P Tension in kN
cables greater than 1.1/1.1kV:
D Cable diameter in mm
Cable Description During Setting at Final
Installation Position or Location
PVC Sheathed helical 18D 12D 1. When considering the use of a stocking grip the tension
copper wire screens should not exceed the values given for a pulling eye on
Nylon Jacketed 30D* 20D*
the conductor(s).
HDPE Sheathed 25D 15D
2. Refer also to Maximum Sidewall Bearing Pressure.
Where: D = Overall diameter of cable in mm.
D* = Diammeter over Nylon jacket component
in mm.


Using bond pulling: Examples:

By this method the cable is tied at intervals to a steel 1. To find out the maximum pulling tension of a 12.7/22kV
hawser which is coiled onto a take-up winch in the normal 240mm2 copper single core PVC sheathed cable based
manner. The hawser would be twice the length of the on its minimum recommended bending radius:
cable being pulled.
First calculate the minimum recommended bending
In this way the pulling load on the cable is kept to a low radius without considering SWBP :
value and risk of damage to the cable is minimised.
= 18 x Cable Diameter
PRESSURE = 729mm

Another factor which can limit the maximum tension that Then calculate the maximum pulling tensions:
a cable can withstand is the sidewall bearing pressure
a) Maximum pulling tension for straight pull:
exerted on a cable in duct bends and elbows. The
T = 0.07 kN/mm2 x 240 mm2
sidewall bearing pressure formula is expressed as:
= 16.8 kN
SWBP = [W2 + (T/(0.0098 x R)) ]2
(equation 1)
b) Maximum pulling tension when taking maximum
as most of the time, [T/(0.0098 x R)]2 >> W2 equation 1
SWBP into consideration.
can therefore be simplified as follows:
From Equation 3 : T = 0.0098 x 0.729 x 1450
~ T/( 0.0098 x R ) (equation 2)
= 10.4 kN
From eqn. 2 => T = 0.0098 x R x SWBP (equation 3)
From eqn. 2 => R = T / (0.0098 x SWBP) (equation 4) We have to select the lesser of the two pulling tensions,
i.e. 10.4kN. In this example, the maximum SWBP dictates
Where: SWBP = sidewall bearing pressure (kg/m)
the maximum pulling tension.
W = weight of cable per unit length (kg/m)
T = cable pulling tension (kN) 2. To find out the minimum bending radius for the same

R = radius of the bend or elbow (m) cable if we do need a pulling tension of 16.8kN:

The recommended maximum SWBP for sheathed cables From Equation 4: R = 16.8 / (0.0098 x 1450)

shall be 1450kg/m. = 1.2m



JOINTS AND TERMINATIONS other aggressive environments. The protective cap should
Whilst jointing and terminating of Medium Voltage not be removed from the ends of the cable until
Polymeric Cables is routine, care is needed to maintain immediately prior to termination or jointing. When the caps
clean working conditions and in ensuring that the have been removed the unprotected ends of the cable
insulation semi-conducting screen is completely removed should not be exposed to moisture.
and properly connected at the stress control areas.
The possibility of damage to moisture seals during handling
Reference should be made to literature for suitable
and installation or during storage of the cable should be
systems available from Pirelli Cables Australia Limited.
considered and where such damage may have occurred,
TESTS AFTER INSTALLATION the seals should be inspected and remade if necessary.
High Voltage d.c. testing of primary insulation is not
recommended and can be detrimental to the cable and
Pirelli Cables offer their customers a full cable design
accessories. AS/NZS 1429.1 describes an a.c. voltage test
service, either to give advice on the selection of the
at power frequency that should be applied for 24 hours
most appropriate cable from this technical manual for a
at the normal operating voltage of the system. A sheath
particular application or to design a specific cable for any
integrity test (e.g. with a 1000 Volt minimum rated
particular installation condition. This service is backed
insulation resistance tester) may be applied between the
by an experienced team of design engineers working
outer-most metallic layer and the earth to identify post-
under a Quality Management System approved to
installation damage, provided the metallic layer is isolated
AS/NZS ISO 9001.
from earth at the joints, terminations, etc.
The Pirelli Cables commitment to new product introduction
SHORT CIRCUIT FORCES and development ensures effective and reliable designs are
When single core cables are installed touching, special developed and assessed in our own research laboratories.
attention should be given to cleating and strapping
Pirelli Cables is also able to offer aerial cables including
arrangements to contain the repulsive forces under short
OPGW, water blocked designs and high voltage cables
circuit conditions. Longitudinal thrust and tensions in
to 400kV. Cable termination and identification systems are
cable conductors may be considerable and may cause
also available as part of the Pirelli systems approach.
buckling of conductors and other damage in a joint or
termination. When cables are installed, provision should
All Pirelli Cables MV power cables are manufactured
be made to accommodate the resulting longitudinal forces
under the Pirelli Quality Management System. This system
on terminations and joints. Sharp bends and fixings at a
has received certification by Quality Assurance Services
bend should be avoided.
that it meets the requirements of AS/NZS ISO 9001.
Care should be exercised during installation to avoid any
damage to cable coverings. This is important in wet or


1.9/3.3kV to 19/33kV, single and three core cables, armoured or unarmoured.

(1) Cables Buried Direct in the Ground:

Variation in ground temperature:
Ground temperature C 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Rating factor 1.11 1.07 1.03 1 0.97 0.93 0.89

Variation in thermal resistivity of soil:

Nominal area of Values of g C m/W
conductor mm2 0.8 0.9 1 1.2 1.5 2 2.5 3
Rating Factors
Single-core cables
up to l50 1.16 1.11 1.07 1.00 0.91 0.81 0.73 0.67
from 185 to 400 1.17 1.12 1.07 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.72 0.66
above 400 1.18 1.13 1.08 1.00 0.90 0.79 0.71 0.65
Three-core cables
up to 16 1.09 1.06 1.04 1.00 0.95 0.87 0.79 0.74
from 25 to 150 1.14 1.10 1.07 1.00 0.93 0.84 0.76 0.70
from 185 to 400 1.16 1.11 1.07 1.00 0.92 0.82 0.74 0.68

Variation in Depth of Laying:

*Depth of Laying Rating Factors

m Up to 300 mm2 Above 300 mm2
0.8 1 1
1 0.98 0.97
1.25 0.96 0.95
1.5 0.95 0.94
1.75 0.94 0.92
2 0.92 0.90
2.5 0.91 0.89
3.0 or more 0.90 0.88
*Measured to centre of cable or trefoil group of cables.



Group Rating Factors for circuits of three single core cables,
in Trefoil touching, horizontal formation.

Number of Circuit Spacing metres

Voltage Range of Cables Circuits Touching 0.15* 0.30 0.45 0.60
From 1.9/3.3kV 2 0.78 0.81 0.85 0.88 0.90
to 12.7/22kV 3 0.66 0.71 0.76 0.80 0.83
4 0.60 0.65 0.72 0.76 0.80
19/33kV 2 0.79 0.81 0.85 0.88 0.90
3 0.67 0.71 0.76 0.80 0.83
4 0.62 0.65 0.72 0.76 0.80

Group Rating Factors for three core cables,

in horizontal formation.

Number of Group Spacing metres

Voltage Range of Cables Cables in Group Touching 0.15* 0.30 0.45 0.60
From 1.9/3.3kV 2 0.80 0.85 0.89 0.90 0.92
to 12.7/22kV 3 0.69 0.75 0.80 0.84 0.86
4 0.63 0.70 0.77 0.80 0.84
19/33kV 2 0.80 0.83 0.87 0.89 0.91
3 0.70 0.73 0.78 0.82 0.85
4 0.64 0.68 0.74 0.78 0.82
*These spacings may not be possible for some of the larger diameter cables.

(2) Cables in Singleway Ducts, Buried Direct in the Ground.

Variation in ground temperature:

Ground temperature C 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Rating factor 1.11 1.07 1.03 1 0.97 0.93 0.89

Variation in thermal resistivity of soil:

Nominal area of Values of g C m/W
conductor mm2 0.8 0.9 1 1.2 1.5 2 2.5 3
Rating Factors
Single-core cables
up to l50 1.10 1.07 1.05 1.00 0.94 0.87 0.81 0.75
from 185 to 400 1.11 1.08 1.06 1.00 0.94 0.86 0.79 0.73
above 400 1.13 1.09 1.06 1.00 0.93 0.84 0.77 0.70
Three-core cables
up to 16 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.00 0.97 0.92 0.87 0.83
from 25 to 150 1.07 1.05 1.03 1.00 0.96 0.90 0.85 0.78
from 185 to 400 1.09 1.06 1.04 1.00 0.95 0.87 0.82 0.76



Variation in Depth of Laying:

*Depth of Laying Rating Factors

m Single Core Multi Core
0.8 1 1
1 0.98 0.99
1.25 0.95 0.97
1.5 0.93 0.96
1.75 0.92 0.95
2 0.90 0.94
2.5 0.89 0.93
3.0 or more 0.88 0.92
*Measured to centre of duct or trefoil group of ducts.

Group Rating Factors for single core cables in single way ducts,
laid in Trefoil touching, horizontal formation.

Number of Circuit Spacing metres

Voltage Range of Cables Circuits Toucing 0.45 0.6
From 1.9/3.3kV 2 0.85 0.88 0.99
to 12.7/22kV 3 0.75 0.80 0.83
4 0.70 0.76 0.80
19/33kV 2 0.85 0.88 0.90
3 0.76 0.80 0.83
4 0.71 0.76 0.80


Group Rating Factors for three core cables in singleway ducts,

in horizontal formation.

Number of Group Spacing metres

Voltage Range of Cables Ducts in Group Toucing 0.30 0.45 0.6
From 1.9/3.3kV 2 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.90
to 12.7/22kV 3 0.80 0.84 0.87 0.84
4 0.75 0.81 0.84 0.80
19/33kV 2 0.87 0.89 0.92 0.93
3 0.78 0.82 0.85 0.87
4 0.73 0.78 0.82 0.85



(3) Cables Installed in Free Air.

Variation in ambient air temperature:

Ambient air temperature C 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Rating factor 1.26 1.20 1.15 1.10 1.05 1.00 0.94 0.88

Grouping of cables in air.

Derating is not necessary if the following minimum clearance between adjacent circuits can be maintained:

1) The horizontal clearance is not less than twice the diameter of an individual cable.
2) The vertical clearance is not less than four times the diameter of an individual cable.
3) Where the number of circuits is more than three, they are installed in a horizontal plane.



AS1018 Partial discharge measurements.

AS1026 Impregnated paper insulated cables for electricity supply at working voltages up to and including 33
kV (metric units).

AS1125 Conductors in insulated electric cables and flexible cords.

AS/NZS 1429.1 Polymeric insulated electric cables for working voltages 1.9/3.3 (3.6)kV up to and including 19/33 (36)kV.

AS/NZS1660 Methods of test for electric cables, cords and conductors.

AS1931 High voltage testing techniques.

AS/NZS2857 Timber drums for insulated electric cables and bare conductors.

AS2893 Electric cables Lead and lead alloy sheaths Composition

AS/NZS3008 Electrical installations selection of cables.

AS/NZS 3808 Insulating and sheathing materials for electric cables

AS3863 Galvanized mild steel wire for armouring cables

AS3983 Metal drums for insulated electric cables and bare conductors

AS/NZS 4026 Electric cables For underground residential distribution systems

IEC 60287 Electric cables Calculation of the current rating

IEC 60949 Calculation of thermally permissible short-circuit currents, taking into account non-adiabatic
heating effects

IEC 60986 Guide to the short-circuit temperature limits of electric cables with a rated voltage from 1.8/3 (3.6)kV to
18/30 (36)kV

IEC 60502-2 Power cables with extruded insulation and their accessories for rated voltages from 1kV (Um = 1.2kV)
up to 30 kV (Um = 36 kV) - Part 2: Cables for rated voltages from 6kV (Um = 7.2kV) up to 30kV (Um = 36kV)