Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

Textbook & Related AISC Articles

ENCE 710 Salmon & Johnson Chapter 12 Combined Bending and


Axial Load
Advanced Steel Structures
Chapter C Design for Stability (1) Direct (2) Alternate

Design of Beam-Columns Appendix 1 - Inelastic Analysis and Design

& Lateral Bracing Design Appendix 6 Stability Bracing for Columns and Beams

C. C. Fu, Ph.D., P.E. Appendix 7 Alternative Methods of Design for Stability


(Effective length & First-order analysis methods)
Civil and Environmental Engineering Department
University of Maryland Appendix 8 Approximate Second-order Analysis
2

Single Curvature without End Translation


Combined Bending and Axial Load
Failure modes: M z ,max M 0 Pymax M 0 B1
Axial tension and bending; failure usually by yielding

Axial compression and bending about one axis; failure by


instability in the plane of bending without twisting B1
Cm
Axial compression and bending about the strong axis; 1
failure by lateral-torsional buckling
Axial compression and biaxial bending-torsionally stiff
Pu
2
Pu
section; failure by instability in one of the principal Pe E /( KL / r ) 2
directions
Axial compression and biaxial bending-thin-wall open
section; failure by combined twisting and bending
Axial compression, biaxial bending, and torsion; failure
by combined twisting and bending
3 4
C-A-8.1

5 6

Comparison of theoretical Cm with AISC


Primary plus secondary bending straight line approximation by end
moment by end moments moments only, without joint translation

7 8
Beam-column with sidesway Interaction EquationCase 1, No Instability

Exact nominal strength


interaction relationship for
typical wide-flange sections
(including residual stress)
compared with interaction
equationCase 1, no
instability

9 10

Contours on strength interaction surface for


Interaction EquationCase 2, Instability in the
short members where instability does not occur
Plane of Bending

Exact nominal
strength interaction
curves for typical wide-
flange sections
(including residual
stress) compared with
interaction equation
Case 2, instability in the
plane of bending

11 12
Compression Member Combined Bending and Axial Load
End restraints and effective lengths Table C-A- Doubly and Singly Symmetric Members in Flexure
7.1 (S&J Figure 6.9.5) and Compression
Alignment chart (S&J Figure 6.9.4) Pu
Pu 8 M ux

M uy
1.0 (H1-1a)
For 0.2 c Pn 9 b M nx b M ny
Sidesway inhibited (braced frame) Figure C-A-7.1 c Pn
Sidesway uninhibited (moment frame) Figure C-A-7.2 M ux M uy
1.0 (H1-1b)
Pu Pu

For 0.2
Compact/Noncompact/Slender for compression c Pn 2c Pn b M nx b M ny

element Table B4.1
Unsymmetric and Other Members in Flexure and
Chapter E Design of Members for Compression
Flexural buckling w/o slender elements
Compression
(H2-1)
Torsional &flexural-torsional buckling w/o slender
fa f f
elements bw bz 1.0
Fa Fbw Fbz
Members w/slender elements
13 14

Beam-column for Examples


12.10.1 and 12.14.1. Methods of Second-order Analysis
Amplified FirstOrder Elastic Analysis (Section C-A8 )

15
Fig. C-A-8.1 Moment amplification 16
Second-Order Analysis by Amplified Second-Order Analysis by Amplified
First-Order Elastic Analysis First-Order Elastic Analysis (cont.)
2nd-order flexural strength Mr B1 is an amplifier to account for second order
(A8-1) effects caused by displacement between
M r B1 M nt B2 M lt
2nd-order axial strength Pr brace points (P-)
B2 is an amplifier to account for second order
Pr Pnt B2 Plt

(A8-2)
effects caused by displacements of braced
where points (P-)
Cm
B1 1 (A8-3)
1 Pr If B11.05, it is conservative that
Pe1
Mr=B2(Mnt+Mlt)
B2
1
Pnt
1 (A8-6)
1
Pe 2
17 18

Second-Order Analysis by Amplified Cm: coefficient assuming no lateral


First-Order Elastic Analysis (cont.) translation of the frame
For beam-columns not subject to transverse loading
Cm is a coefficient assuming no lateral translation of
Equation (A8-5)
frame (no transverse loading)
For beam-columns subject to transverse loading:
C m 0.6 0.4( M 1 ) (A8-4)
M2 analysis or conservatively as 1
Pe1 is the elastic critical buckling resistance with zero
sidesway 2 EI
Pe1 C-A-8-2
K1 L 2 (A8-5)
Pe2 is the elastic critical buckling resistance for the
story 2 EI
For moment frames Pe 2

K 2 L 2
HL
For all types Pe 2 RM (A8-7)
H
19 20
Cm: coefficient assuming no lateral Summation of
translation of the frame (cont.) forces acting
C-A-8-1
on all columns
in one story of
a multistory
building frame

21 22

Lowest portion of single-bay multistory Forces from first-order elastic analyses


unbraced frame for Example 12.11.1 under factored loadsExample 12.11.1

23 24
Stability Analysis Structure Approach (1)
Any method that considers the Elastic Analysis Design requirement in
influence of second-order effects
(including P- and P- effects), Section C2.2
flexural, shear and axial Second-order drift/first-order drift 1.5
deformation, geometric
imperfections, and member Appendix 7, or by the Direct Analysis
stiffness reduction due to residual Method of Chapter C.
stresses on the stability of the
structure and its elements Second-order drift/first-order drift >1.5 -
Appendix 7 Effective Length the Direct Analysis Method of Chapter C.
Method & First-order Analysis
Method (2nd order/1st order drift Simplified method (see handout)
1.5)
Appendix 8 Traditional Second-
order Analysis Method
25 26

Structure Approach (2) System Stability Design Requirements


Inelastic Analysis Appendix 1 Braced-Frame and Shear-Wall Systems
Effective length, K=1 for compression
Moment redistribution compact beams and members
girders Moment-Frame Systems K and Fe for
Local buckling compact section defined in columns and beam-columns specified in
Section C2 (also for knee-braced frame)
Table B4.1 or as modified in Appendix 1
Gravity Framing Systems K=1 where P-
Section 1.4. effects due to loads on the gravity columns
Stability and second-order effects shall be transferred to the lateral load resisting
First-order inelastic analysis or a plastic mechanism analysis systems
Continuous beams, braced frames and moment frame Combined Systems (also for Eccentrically
Second-order inelastic analysis braced frame systems)
27 28
Stability Bracing for Columns and Beams Portal Frame w/ Slant Column
Two general types of Leaning Column Design

bracing systems 1.4


1.2

Relative brace
1
Ratio
0.8
0.6

Nodal brace 0.4 Factored Plastic Analysis


0.2 Alignment Chart Analysis
0 Direct Anlysis

Columns Appendix
W W W W W W
1 1 1 1 1 1

0
x
5
0
x
6
0
x
6
0
x
7
0
x
8
0
x
1

6, Section 6.2
4 0 8 7 8 0
0

Columns

Beams Appendix 6, (1) 2nd order plastic analysis with unfactored loads (PA).
Section 6.3 (2) 2nd order plastic analysis with factored loads and a
reduced stiffness properties 0.9EI and 0.9EA (FPA).
(3) 2nd order elastic analysis with factored loads (ELM).
29 (4) 2nd order elastic analysis with factored loads including 30

Multi-Story Frame
Multi-Story Ratio Comparison

2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2 Factored Plastic
Ratio 1 Analysis
0.8
0.6 Effective Length
0.4 Method
0.2 Direct Analysis
0 W
1
W
1
W
1
W
1
W
1
W
1
W
1
W
1
Method
2 0 0 0 0 0 2 2
x x x x x x x x
5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2
8 4 9 5 9 3 6 2

Columns

(1) 2nd order plastic analysis with unfactored loads (PA).


(2) 2nd order plastic analysis with factored loads and a
reduced stiffness properties 0.9EI and 0.9EA (FPA).
(3) 2nd order elastic analysis with factored loads (ELM).
(4) 2nd order elastic analysis with factored loads including 31 32