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Digital Design Guide

Digital Video for Professional AV Systems

3RD EDITION

New Updated Edition


Includes Extensive 4K Digital Video Reference Materials
Extron Digital Design Guide
Over the past decade, the AV industry has evolved through a major technological transition. Analog video has given way to digital
video technologies for the modern AV systems used in organizations worldwide to facilitate communication and information
sharing. As a leading manufacturer of products engineered for the commercial AV market, Extron has an extensive history with
the development of product solutions and technologies for digital video system integration. We are pleased to be offering the AV
industrys most complete portfolio of products for switching and distribution, signal processing, signal extension, streaming over
networks, and more.

This Digital Design Guide is an essential resource for the latest digital video formats and technologies, as well as principles for
formulating effective approaches to system design. It offers guidance in addressing common AV design challenges, from reliably
transmitting digital video over long distances, to successfully managing EDID and HDCP throughout a system, and accommodating
the newest 4K sources and displays. Ultimately, the Guide aims to provide a solid technical and practical foundation for successfully
designing systems that fully satisfy an end users expectations for performance, reliability, and serving as an integral aspect of the
facility or organizations core operations.

Extron Commitment to Technology and Product Development


At Extron, we maintain a very extensive R&D facility and a highly talented engineering staff, with a constant focus on emerging
technologies, and a continual dedication to creating AV solutions that satisfy the needs of our customers. Among our greatest
priorities today is delivering new products that make it easier for integrators to successfully design high performance 4K video
systems. Every year, we bring more products to the pro AV marketplace than any other manufacturer, and our engineers are
continually working on a long list of exciting products in the pipeline. But our industry-leading R&D is only part of the story. Extron
maintains world-class, high capacity manufacturing facilities that are capable of satisfying market demands in a very timely manner.

Were very pleased to be offering the most comprehensive range of professional AV technology solutions. Only Extron can provide
all the products and solutions you need for designing AV systems to suit any application, from a basic switching system with a single
display, all the way up to large-scale AV distribution installations for an entire university or corporate campus. We can even provide
the means for you to integrate AV between locations around the world.

Every product from Extron has been extensively designed and engineered specifically for professional AV integration, with very high
reliability, longevity, and performance. Weve included a host of features and capabilities to make it straightforward and efficient for
designing, configuring, and commissioning systems, and ensuring that they always function at their best for your clients. Weve
also built our products for ruggedness and dependability in 24/7, mission-critical applications. Most importantly, we back each and
every one of our products with a complete satisfaction guarantee and a host of dedicated support services unmatched by any other
manufacturer in the professional AV industry.

Extron Worldwide Sales Offices

USA West USA East Europe Middle East South Africa

India Asia China Japan Korea


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Digital Video for Professional AV Systems

Introduction to Digital Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2


Understanding 4K and UHD Video Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Digital Video Signal Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Anatomy of a Digital Video Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Understanding EDID - Extended Display Identification Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
DRM for the AV Professional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
System Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Extron Support Services for AV System Designers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Digital System Designs

Boardroom with Videoconferencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54


Divisible Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Training Room with Wireless Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Meeting Room with Lecture Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Collaborative Meeting Room . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Executive Briefing Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Campus Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Corporate Auditorium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Extron Digital Video Product Solutions

DTP Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
XTP Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Extenders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Distribution Amplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Switchers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Matrix Switchers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Scalers & Signal Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
AV to USB Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Streaming AV Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
EDID Management & Test Generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Architectural Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Cables & Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

Glossary

Digital AV Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149


www.extron.com 1
Introduction to Digital Video

A successful digital AV systems today are designed with a digital turn results from a solid understanding of digital
AV system design signal infrastructure to support the digitally- video fundamentals, and the ability to formulate
based video formats widely prevalent in AV effective design strategies to ensure optimal
results from a solid
applications. These formats, including HDMI and performance and a fully satisfied end user. The
understanding of digital DisplayPort, are mainstays in projectors and flat- Extron Digital Design Guide was created to help
video fundamentals, panel displays, as well as computers, Blu-ray enhance your understanding and awareness
and the ability to Disc players, media players, and mobile devices toward this objective.
including tablets, smartphones, and laptops.
formulate effective
A Brief Overview of Digital AV Systems
design strategies. The prevalence of digital video is coinciding Digital Video Formats
with fast-paced technological advancements, The common digital video formats in use today
particularly in relevance to IT. Software and include the following:
mobile-driven technologies and applications,
including unified communications and HDMI The format commonly associated with
collaboration, are bringing many new possibilities consumer devices. HDMI is the most prevalent
for communicating and sharing content in interface standard in both consumer and
enterprises and other organizations. As a result, commercial AV applications.
there is the potential for new opportunities as well
DisplayPort An interface standard used in
as challenges for professional AV integrators.
PCs, Macs, computer monitors, commercial
displays, and some televisions.
Nonetheless, AV systems continue to be essential
for optimizing communication through audience
DVI The predecessor to HDMI, DVI is found
presentations, conferencing, collaboration, on monitors, PCs, and graphics cards.
digital signage, network monitoring and control,
entertainment, visualization, and numerous other SDI A family of professional digital video
applications that depend on reliable, high quality formats and digital video interface standards
video and audio. This is always contingent on for broadcast, production, cinema, and
a successful digital AV system design, which in medical applications.

Figure 1-1. AV systems include signal distribution and processing between sources and
destinations.

Flat-Panel Display
Desktop PC

Tablet Smartphone
AV Distribution Monitor
& Processing

Blu-ray Player
Projector

Media Player
Lecture Capture

Video Camera Videoconferencing

2 Extron Digital Design Guide


Figure 1-2. 4K is the new frontier for AV presentations, delivering four times as many pixels AV can be transmitted
available in 1080p video.
and distributed over
3840
1920 1920 video cables, twisted
pair cable, fiber optics,
IP networks, and
through any of a number

1080
of wireless technologies.

2160
1080
AV Sources and Destinations Proper selection and design of an AV signal
PCs, Macs, and Blu-ray or DVD players are the infrastructure is one of the most critical aspects of
sources traditionally associated with AV systems. a successful system design. Later in this Guide,
Tablets and smartphones are also popular since well delve into further detail on that topic.
they provide a convenient way to deliver AV
content. Other source devices include cameras, Challenges in Digital Video Integration
document cameras, videoconferencing codecs, Historically, there have been a number of well-
media players, and set-top boxes. known issues and challenges in successfully
integrating digital video into AV systems and
Typical AV systems may include display devices ensuring reliable, consistent image display
such as projectors, flat-panel displays, and and source switching. Digital video signals are
desktop displays. Additional AV destinations susceptible to signal losses and jitter over long
may also be present, such as videoconferencing cable runs. Careful considerations are necessary
codecs, video recording and lecture capture when passing signals through multiple devices en
systems, and media servers. route to the displays, because signal losses and
jitter can inhibit proper image display on-screen.
Distribution, Processing, and Infrastructure When a new connection or switch occurs, digital
Commercial AV installations require a means video devices require two-way signal handshaking
of distributing signals between sources and between them for EDID - Extended Display
destinations, and signal processing to ensure Identification Data and HDCP - High-Definition
compatibility. See Figure 1-1. Also essential is Content Protection. This handshaking may result
a dependable infrastructure for distributing AV in noticeable latency issues when switching
signals throughout a room, between rooms and between sources, resulting in objectionable
floors in a building, across a campus, or over vast delays of up to several seconds as the devices
geographical regions. AV can be transmitted and renegotiate the handshaking between them.
distributed over video cables, twisted pair cable,
fiber optics, IP networks, and through any of a Fortunately, technologies and fundamental
number of wireless technologies. understanding of digital video signals have
evolved to the point that system performance
www.extron.com 3
Introduction to Digital Video

AV integrators and and reliability have greatly improved. With Other technologies have made it easier to deliver
system designers are a combination of advanced digital signal AV content wirelessly or to stream it over IP
processing and some good practices in planning networks. Evolutions of all these technologies
faced with another
for digital video, a system can be highly reliable inevitably lead to greater demands on pro AV
challenge: keeping and deliver robust performance with very high integrators to provision systems that will support
up with the constant image quality. In this Guide, youll learn about the newest video formats and source devices,
and rapid evolution of several Extron digital video technologies that while addressing specific end user needs
allow extension of digital video signals over long for communication and collaboration in their
video and computing
distances, provide the ability to distribute signals organizations. As a result, system integrators
technologies, and the in large or complex systems without degradation, need to continually identify new opportunities and
inevitable end user and ensure very good system performance with use cases for AV, and also ensure that systems
demand to support nearly instantaneous source switching. designed today are capable of supporting new
developments that may come tomorrow.
them in AV systems.
Constant Evolution of Technologies
AV integrators and system designers are faced Support for Legacy Analog Video
with another challenge: keeping up with the The pro AV industry has largely transitioned away
constant and rapid evolution of video and from analog video and the legacy formats that
computing technologies, and the inevitable end had been predominant for decades in computers,
user demand to support them in AV systems. VCRs, monitors, and projectors. Digital video is
New mobile devices continue to emerge, as well now the essential bridge for interfacing todays
as new software applications for communication sources and displays into AV presentation
and collaboration. Parallel developments are systems. Despite this, many end users and
occurring in video technologies including the organizations continue to require support for
ability to deliver higher resolutions such as 4K, as legacy devices that cannot readily be replaced by
illustrated in Figure 1-2, along with advancements newer equipment or technology. This is especially
in color depth, dynamic range, and frame rates. relevant to vertical markets such as education.
Display technologies have also evolved with Extron offers a wide variety of products designed
notable enhancements in resolution, color fidelity, to easily integrate analog video-based devices
durability, aesthetics, and more. into an all-digital video signal infrastructure.

AV systems vary widely


in scale and scope,
from basic switching
systems for small
meeting rooms, to
larger-scale switching
and processing for
auditoriums, building-
wide signal distribution,
and interconnecting
AV systems across
campuses.

4 Extron Digital Design Guide


Successful System Design is Key Extron Digital Video Products and An AV system can
An AV system can be as simple as a connection Technologies be as simple as a
between a PC and a monitor, or as complex as When it comes to digital AV switching,
connection between
a system that distributes AV content throughout distribution, and processing, Extron is a total
a facility or an entire campus. AV systems can system solutions provider, offering all the a PC and a monitor,
even span distant endpoints located thousands products and technologies you need for a fully or as complex as a
of miles or kilometers apart by utilizing wide area functional, high performance AV system. From distribution system
networks - WANs or the public Internet. No matter 4K to HD and legacy analog, and all mediums
throughout a facility or
how basic or elaborate the system may be, an AV for AV distribution video cables, twisted pair,
system design is successful only if it fully satisfies fiber optics, streaming, and wireless Extron an entire campus.
an end users expectations for performance, offers the most comprehensive family of product
reliability, and perhaps most importantly, how the solutions for professional AV integration. All
AV system benefits an enterprise or organizations Extron products are fully backed with a 100%
functional requirements. customer satisfaction guarantee.

A major portion of this Guide is devoted to system Extron abides by a core philosophy
design. The following is a brief overview of the of never compromising when it
most important areas to consider when designing comes to quality and performance.
an AV system: Every product is the result of
extensive product planning, R&D, testing,
Developing a complete scope of work validation, and quality assurance. We back all
Asking key questions about the intended line- our products with an unmatched commitment to
of-business functions, as a starting point in serving our customers with dedicated S3 support
defining AV needs and use cases
services before, during, and after the sale. Extron
Identifying the general requirements for the
maintains a full staff of engineers and customer
AV system, including equipment, size, scale,
and the possible need for future-proofing or support professionals at our offices worldwide
expansion and in the field, a wealth of technical resources
Selecting the right AV signal infrastructure and online and in our Design Guides including this
products Digital Design Guide, system design support
Creating effective system design strategies for services, training and certification programs, and
handling digital video signals and formats much more.

www.extron.com 5
Understanding 4K and UHD Video Signals

A 4K video signal with 4K Video Resolutions for 4K digital cinema projectors, which is referred
a full 60 Hz frame 4K display systems have been available for nearly to as 4K DCI. This resolution maintains the
a decade to support high-end applications such same aspect ratio as the 2K DCI resolution of
rate, 4:4:4 chroma
as digital cinema, advanced visualization in 2048x1080. Projectors supporting 4K DCI were
subsampling, and scientific research and medical imaging, and some of the first 4K display systems to appear on
10-bit color requires immersive environments from military simulation the market. The television industry adopted the
a data rate of to themed attractions. Recently, 4K displays UHD resolution of 3840x2160, which maintains
have become widely available at accessible price the same 16:9 aspect ratio of 1080p HD video.
22.28 Gbps.
points, and the benefits of higher resolution and
greater pixel density are increasingly desired in HDMI
more traditional AV installations. The HDMI 1.4a specification, released in 2009,
specified a maximum data rate of 10.2Gbps.
Data Rates for 4K and UHD Video It can support 4K or UHD resolutions with 8-bit
Signals color at 24 Hz, 25 Hz, or 30 Hz frame rates
The primary factors that affect the bandwidth over a single HDMI cable. Reducing chroma
required for a video signal are the resolution, frame subsampling to 4:2:0 for a UHD 60Hz signal
rate, color bit depth, and chroma subsampling. results in a bandwidth that falls within the limits of
4K video resolutions include 4096x2160 and HDMI1.4a. However, the specification does not
UHD - Ultra High Definition, or 3840x2160. As include support for 4:2:0 color sampling.
can be seen in Figure 2-1, 4K is four times the
resolution of a full HD 1080p signal and has four The HDMI 2.0 specification, released in 2013,
times the number of pixels. Moving this amount increases the data rate to 18 Gbps for a 60Hz
of data requires significant bandwidth as shown maximum 4K/UHD frame rate over a single
in Table 2-1. A 4K video signal with a full 60 Hz HDMI cable at 8-bit color or up to 30Hz at 10-bit
frame rate, 4:4:4 chroma subsampling, and color. HDMI 2.0 also adds support for 4:2:0 color
10-bit color requires a data rate of 22.28 Gbps. sampling. The luminance, Y of a Y Cr Cb signal,
with 4:2:0 color sampling is divided among two
Bandwidth Capabilities of Current TMDS channels, and the chrominance, Cb and
Digital Video Signal Formats Cr, signals are combined onto a single TMDS
In 2005, the Digital Cinema Initiatives - DCI channel. This enables a UHD 4:2:0 signal with
established a standard resolution of 4096x2160 a 60Hz frame rate to be sent at the same data
rate as a 30Hz UHD 4:4:4 signal. However, both
Figure 2-1. Video Resolutions from 1080p through 4K
the source and the display must support this
2K
2048 x 1080
4K DCI mode of operation in order for the signal to pass
4096 x 2160
successfully.
HD 1080
1920 x 1080 WQXGA
2560 x 1600 DisplayPort
4K UHD
3840 x 2160
DisplayPort data rates are also increasing to
improve support for 4K video at a 60Hz frame
QXGA rate. With a 10.8Gbps data rate, DisplayPort 1.1a
2048 x 1536
supports an 8-bit UHD signal at a 30Hz frame
rate over a single cable. In 2009, DisplayPort1.2
doubled the data rate to 21.6Gbps, enabling
a 3840x2160 signal with reduced blanking at
60 Hz, 10-bit color depth, and 4:4:4 chroma
subsampling over a single cable. A further
4:3 16:9 16:10 17:9
update to the DisplayPort specification in 2014,
6 Extron Digital Design Guide
Table 2-1. Bandwidth Requirements for 4K and UHD Video Signals DisplayPortis
CHROMA
RESOLUTION FRAME RATE
SUBSAMPLING
PIXEL CLOCK 8-BIT COLOR 10-BIT COLOR well-suited for 4K
720p / 1080i 60 Hz 4:4:4 74.25 MHz 2.23 Gbps 2.78 Gbps applications that
1080p / 2K 60 Hz 4:4:4 148.5 MHz 4.46 Gbps 5.57 Gbps
require high frame
4K / UHD 30 Hz 4:4:4 297 MHz 8.91 Gbps 11.14 Gbps
4K / UHD 60 Hz 4:2:0 297 MHz 8.91 Gbps1 11.14 Gbps rates, accurate color
4K / UHD 60 Hz 4:4:4 594 MHz 17.82 Gbps 22.28 Gbps
rendition, and the
1
4:2:0 color sampling support was added to HDMI 2.0. It is not supported in previous versions of the HDMI specification. ability to show a very
version 1.3, provides even higher data rates in a system. This could be multiple monitors, high level of image
up to 32.4 Gbps. DisplayPortis well-suited for streaming encoders, video processors, recording detail.
4K applications that require high frame rates, devices, or connections to an additional signal
accurate color rendition, and the ability to show a distribution system. When this occurs, system
very high level of image detail. designers must address the resolutions that are
supported by such a wide range of destination
3G-SDI devices.
The limited bandwidth of 3G-SDI does not enable
a single cable solution for transmitting 4K or UHD Historically, it was relatively easy to deploy
video. With a maximum 2.97Gbps data rate, systems designed around 720p, 1080i, or
multiple lanes are required based on current 1080p resolutions. The aspect ratio control and
standards. Some manufacturers are beginning to scaling between these resolutions did not require
offer SDI products that operate at 6 or 12Gbps. extensive up or down conversion. With the
However, formal SMPTE standards supporting introduction of 4K and UHD video into todays
these data rates are still pending. The capabilities system designs, a certain level of care must be
to carry 4K/UHD signals using the various exercised in order to ensure that all signals can be
transport standards are summarized in Table 2-2. successfully routed to all destinations.

System Design and Integration 4K vs. UHD


Challenges With the introduction of 4K video into the
Supporting Multiple Resolutions vernacular of end-users, system designers
Based on the applications and desired need to understand which version of video they
functionality specified by technology users, it are actually requesting. References to quad
is very common to have multiple destinations HD, UHD, or even 2160p are likely indicative

Table 2-2. Video Formats and 4K Support


VIDEO INTERFACE
BANDWIDTH COLOR SAMPLING UHD @ 30 Hz UHD @ 60 Hz
STANDARD
1 cable, 8-bit, 3840x2160 2 cables, 8-bit, 1920x2160
HDMI 1.4 10.2 Gbps 4:4:4
4 cables, 10-bit, 1920x1080 4 cables, 10-bit, 1920x1080
HDMI 2.0 18.0 Gbps 4:2:0 n/a 1 cable, 10-bit, 3840x2160
1 cable, 8-bit, 3840x2160
HDMI 2.0 18.0 Gbps 4:4:4 1 cable, 10-bit, 3840x2160
2 cables, 10-bit, 1920x2160
2 cables, 8-bit, 1920x2160
DisplayPort 1.1 10.8 Gbps 4:4:4 1 cable, 8-bit, 3840x2160
4 cables, 10-bit, 1920x1080
DisplayPort 1.2 21.6 Gbps 4:4:4 1 cable, 16-bit, 3840x2160 1 cable, 10-bit, 3840x21601

DisplayPort 1.3 32.4 Gbps 4:4:4 1 cable, 16-bit, 3840x2160 1 cable, 12-bit, 3840x2160

HD-SDI 1.44 Gbps 4:2:2 4 cables, 10-bit, 1920x1080 n/a

3G-SDI 2.97 Gbps 4:2:2 n/a 4 cables, 10-bit, 1920x1080

1
This is a VESA-specific timing with reduced blanking. It is distinct from the SMPTE UHD video timing.

www.extron.com 7
Understanding 4K and UHD Video Signals

Reducing the color of the resolution achieved by using four 1080p 4K video signal at 60 Hz with a data rate below
encoding to 4:2:0 quadrants to achieve an overall resolution of 10 Gbps. However, it is important to note that
3840x2160. The cinematic-based variation reduced chroma subsampling may compromise
allows a 4K video
is four quadrants of 2K which equates to an fine pixel and line details in computer imagery
signal at 60 Hz with a overall resolution of 4096x2160. The Society such as computer-aided design drawings
data rate below of Motion Picture and Television Engineers - or maps. Additionally, many commercial AV
10 Gbps. SMPTE has stepped in to clarify things a little products do not support 4K signals at 4:2:0 and
by using UHDTV1 to represent a signal with at 60 Hz frame rate.
least 3840x2160 active pixels and UHDTV2 to
indicate 7680x4320. This is the 8K resolution Two Cables/Pathways
that is currently in the research and development The dual cable/pathway solution is an interesting
stages. option that allows for higher frame rates, such
as 60Hz, and increased color depth. However,
These differences between 4K and UHD could finding sources and destinations that are
lead to aspect ratio and display compatibility compatible with this unique resolution can be
challenges as well as impact to the EDID challenging. In order to support this method
management scheme for the overall system. of distribution, all products in the signal chain
must be able to pass either a 1920x2160 or a
Extending 4K and UHD Signals over 2048x2160 signal. Two of these signals, basically
Long Distances left and right halves, are then integrated together
In order to extend, switch, or distribute a 4K or by the display to create a 4K/UHD image.
UHD signal, system designers must consider the
sources, destinations, and distances involved. Four Cables/Pathways
For intermediate distances, 100meters (328feet) The most common method for supporting 4K/
or less, twisted pair distribution is an easy and UHD video with high frame rates in professional
economical option. When longer distances are AV systems involves the use of four parallel
necessary, fiber optics or streaming technologies signals. By using four 1920x1080 or 2048x1080
are available. Depending on the products signals, the overall 4K/UHD signal is handled in
selected, there are essentially three distribution quadrants. This allows for frame rates of 60 Hz
topologies that could be applied. or greater while still maintaining excellent color
depth. In broadcast applications, this is the
One Cable/Pathway dominant method of signal distribution due to the
To use a single cable or pathway, the design fixed raster size of SDI signals. When using this
solution must be compatible with a 3840x2160 or method, the timing between the paths becomes
a 4096x2160 video signal. Due to the bandwidth important. Distribution and processing devices
requirements and limitations of readily available must be able to maintain a level of synchronization
transport schemes, the frame rate will be that prevents image artifacts from occurring when
limited to 30 Hz when using long HDMI cables, the four quadrants are composited together by
or extending video signals over fiber optics or the destination device.
twisted pair. Current technologies only allow for
data rates up to about 10 Gbps. These limitations 4K Sources and Displays
wont be addressed by recently ratified standards The available sources and displays capable of
such as HDMI 2.0, or similar, until new chipsets 4K or UHD video are growing at a remarkable
from integrated circuit - IC manufacturers become pace. They use a variety of signal formats and
more widely available within the supply chain. connectivity. 4K displays typically support a
single HDMI 1.4a connector to provide UHD
Reducing the color encoding to 4:2:0 allows a 3840x2160 resolution at 30 Hz or 4K 4096x2160
8 Extron Digital Design Guide
at 24 Hz and 8-bit color depth. As of late 2014, Scalable HDCP-compliant videowall processors Extron 4K video
availability of displays with HDMI 2.0 inputs is are optimized for use with 4K displays, windowing solutions provide
limited to select consumer-grade 4K televisions large numbers of standard definition, high
high-performance
that can support 4K or UHD at 60 Hz and 8-bit definition, and UHD sources across displays with
color depth, over a single HDMI cable. resolutions up to 3840x2160 or greater signal extension,
routing, and
In professional 4K AV systems, the display should Stream 4K material with low latency and visually distribution for 4K
be chosen to match the needs of the application. lossless quality
and UHD digital video
The requirements for the system may fall within
the HDMI 1.4a capabilities, enabling a single Media players for playback of film and video signals.
wire solution. More demanding applications, productions prepared for Ultra HD and digital
such as medical imaging or simulation displays, cinema 4K resolution displays
require deep color and higher frame rates.
Professional grade media players, displays, and For assistance designing your 4K system, please
projectors overcome the limitation of HDMI1.4a contact your local Extron Customer Support
by combining two or four DisplayPort, HDMI/DVI, representative. An Extron Applications Engineer
or 3G-SDI signals to achieve deep-color UHD will be assigned to your project and will work with
and 4K resolutions running at a full 60Hz frame you to ensure your complete satisfaction.
rate. Additionally, they often provide upscaling of
1080p signals to 4K resolutions. Conclusion
The introduction of new display devices intended
Extron 4K Solutions for 4K/UHD video is outpacing standards
Extron 4K video solutions provide high- development. Since there is no connectivity
performance signal extension, routing, and standard for 4K/UHD signals, the transport
distribution for 4K and UHD digital video signals. method, frame rates, and color encoding
The wide variety of 4K product solutions include scheme dictate the required number and types
scalers, videowall processors, streaming of connections. Looking beyond the physical
encoders and decoders, media players, and fiber connections, other factors include pixel clocks,
optic and twisted pair signal distribution products. data rates, active pixel counts, sampling
Extron 4K solutions support an extensive list of schemes, and more.
displays and do not limit your designs to a short
list of certified displays. By increasing your knowledge of the technology
and understanding as the governing bodies of the
Support extensive range of displays, AV industry establish and evolve the standards,
projectors, and sources from a wide variety you will be able to design and deploy open
of manufacturers architecture systems that do not reduce your
design options to a single distribution scheme.
Extron's Vector 4K scaling engine delivers the
power and precision required to manage the high Understanding product capabilities while
pixel counts of today's 4K displays and content. becoming educated on the technology is the best
practice to ensure that your systems meet the
Extend, switch, and distribute 4K and UHD rigorous demands of a 4K or UHD application.
video over shielded CATx and fiber optic cabling.

XTP DTP 24 cable achieves full transmission


distance up to 330feet (100meters) at 4K and
UHD resolutions without cable length restrictions
www.extron.com 9
Digital Video Signal Formats

Each digital video The video equipment marketplace is dominated scheme for video known as TMDS - Transition-
format has its own by high resolution flat-panel displays, and Minimized Differential Signaling. A TMDS link
LCD and DLP projectors. These displays are consists of three serial data channels, one for
technical advantages
natively digital in their design, construction, and each color red, blue, and green plus a fourth
as well as unique operation. Similarly, the sources that drive these channel carrying a pixel rate clock which provides
capabilities to meet displays, including computers, Blu-ray players, the timing reference that keeps the three color
specific integration media players, and cameras, are inherently digital channels synchronized. All TMDS data and clock
devices. lines are differential, or balanced, and are carried
requirements within
on twisted pairs within DVI and HDMI cable
the AV industry. There are several standard signal formats in use assemblies. See Figure 3-1.
for digital video transmission between sources
and displays. These include: To support different resolution requirements, the
DVI specification provides for one or two video
DVI - Digital Visual Interface
HDMI - High-Definition Multimedia Interface links per connector, commonly known as single
DisplayPort link or dual link, respectively. The maximum pixel
S DI - Serial Digital Interface, a family of rate for single link DVI is 165 MHz, corresponding
professional video formats that includes SDI, to a data rate of 4.95 Gbps. This is more than
HD-SDI, and 3G-SDI
sufficient for WUXGA 1920x1200 and HDTV
1080p/60, with a color depth of 8 bits per color.
DVI and SDI have been in use for many years Higher resolutions and greater color depths can
while HDMI and DisplayPort are somewhat newer. be supported by use of dual link DVI, which
All except for DVI are regularly updated through handles pixel rates up to 330 MHz and resolutions
their respective standards revision processes. as high as 3840x2400.
Each digital video format has its own technical
advantages as well as unique capabilities to meet The DVI specification also provides for additional
specific integration requirements within the AV lines of communication which are essential in
industry. Lets take a look at each one in some achieving successful DVI transmission between
detail. devices. The DDC - Display Data Channel
is a serial connection for EDID and HDCP
DVI - Digital Visual Interface communication, which are detailed in subsequent
DVI and HDMI are based on a common signaling sections of this Guide.

Figure 3-1. Whats going through the DVI and HDMI connections?

CH 0

CH 1

CH 2

DVI Connector Clock


One TMDS Character

DVI TMDS video data lines (CH 0, CH 1, CH 2) are essentially digitized versions of the
blue, green, and red color lines of analog RGBHV video
HDMI adds support for YCBCR component video format using CH 0, CH 1, and CH 2
TMDS encoding transmits a 10-bit character for every 8 bits of video data to reduce EMI
and aid clock recovery
DVI and HDMI 1.x transmit TMDS clock at the character rate (110 of data rate). HDMI 2.0
transmits higher resolutions using a TMDS clock at 14 character rate (140 of data rate).
HDMI Connector

10 Extron Digital Design Guide


DVI-I Dual Link DVI-D Dual Link DVI-I Single Link DVI-D Single Link The HPD - Hot Plug
analog and digital digital only analog and digital digital only
Detect pin allows a
video source, such as a
Table 3-1. DVI Pin Configurations computer, to detect the
PIN FUNCTION PIN FUNCTION PIN FUNCTION
initial connection of a
1 TMDS Data2- 9 TMDS Data1- 17 TMDS Data0-
2 TMDS Data2+ 10 TMDS Data1+ 18 TMDS Data0+ display and begin data
3 TMDS Data2/4 Shield 11 TMDS Data1/3 Shield 19 TMDS Data0/5 Shield communications without
4 TMDS Data4- 12 TMDS Data3- 20 TMDS Data5-
user intervention.
5 TMDS Data4+ 13 TMDS Data3+ 21 TMDS Data5+
6 DDC Clock [SCL] 14 +5 V Power 22 TMDS Clock Shield
7 DDC Data [SDA] 15 Ground (for +5 V) 23 TMDS Clock+
8 Analog Vertical Sync 16 VGA
Hot - VESA
Plug Detect 24 TMDS Clock-
DVI-I Dual
E-DDCLink
host assignment DVI-D Dual Link
DVI-I Single Link DVI-D Single Link
analog andAnalog
digital GND Return: digital only analog and digital digital only
C1 Analog Red C5 C3 Analog Blue
(Analog R, G, B)
C2 Analog Green -- -- C4 Analog Horizontal Sync

HDMI
The HPD - Hot Plug Detect pin allows a video
type A
HDMI - High Definition Multimedia
source, such as a computer, to detect the Interface
initial connection of a display and begin data The HDMI format incorporates the TMDS video
communications without user intervention. The functionality of DVI and extends TMDS to
DVI specification describes several different pin carry digital audio and control information. By
DisplayPort
configurations: DVI-D, with pins for digital signals
source-side consolidating high definition video, audio, and

only, and DVI-I, which adds pins for analog control into a single, compact connector, HDMI
RGBHV, and can carry both analog and digital has been very successful in the consumer audio/
video. Each of these configurations is offered video market.
VGA - VESA
in versions supporting single link or dual link E-DDC host assignment

DVI signals, thus totaling four available types of The most common HDMI connector, found in the
connectors. See Table 3-1. vast majority of displays and source devices,
is the 19-pin Type A, illustrated in Table 3-2,
DVI is a royalty-free standard originated by
the DDWG - Digital Display Working Group. HDMI
type A
Version1.0 of the DVI specification was released
in April 1999, and there have been no subsequent
revisions since then. Despite the lack of technical
updates, many AV professionals prefer DVI
Table 3-2. HDMI Pin Configurations
because the physical connector is more secure
PIN FUNCTION PIN FUNCTION
and less prone to inadvertent disconnection. DisplayPort
1 11
TMDS Data2+ source-side TMDS Clock Shield
Some AV equipment manufacturers, including 2 TMDS Data2 Shield 12 TMDS Clock-
Extron, accommodate this preference by offering 3 TMDS Data2- 13 CEC
a number of products with DVI connectors that 4 TMDS Data1+ 14 HEAC Data-
are compatible with HDMI capabilities such as 5 TMDS Data1 Shield 15 SCL

embedded audio, enhanced color depth, and 6 TMDS Data1- 16 SDA


7 TMDS Data0 17 DDC/CEC Ground
component color space.
8 TMDS Data0 Shield 18 +5 V Power
9 TMDS Data0- Hot Plug Detect /
19
10 TMDS Clock+ HEAC Data+

www.extron.com 11
Digital Video Signal Formats

InfoFrame data which contains a single TMDS link plus DDC Figure 3-2. InfoFrame data formats and content
formats and content and HPD lines. A 5 volt power supply line is are specified by the Consumer Electronics
also provided. In addition, HDMI connectors Association in standard CEA-861. The six types
are specified by the
incorporate the CEC - Consumer Electronics of InfoFrame data are summarized in Table 3-3.
Consumer Electronics Control line, which is used for integrated control
Association in of multiple devices within an AV system. CEC Support for YCBCR 4:2:2 and YCBCR 4:4:4
standard CEA-861. control protocols tend to be proprietary to each digital component color spaces in addition
equipment manufacturer, and there is limited CEC to RGB 4:4:4, along with support for limited
compatibility between manufacturers. However, range (16-235 for 8 bits) quantization typical of
there are implementation guidelines for CEC consumer and broadcast-oriented video, and
and manufacturers have worked together to full range (0-255 for 8 bits) quantization used in
standardize control across their products. computer video.

The HDMI specification and licensing is T he use of HDCP encryption for content
administered by HDMI Licensing, LLC. In contrast protection
to DVI, the HDMI specification has evolved
through several standards revisions. Version1.0 The use of CEC for control of connected AV
of the HDMI specification was released in components
December 2002. HDMI 1.0 incorporated all of the
functions of the DVI TMDS interface, with added HDMI versions 1.1 and 1.2, released in May
features including: 2004 and August 2005, respectively, were
incremental in nature and did not introduce major
The definition of Data Island Periods within the new features.
horizontal and vertical video blanking intervals to
transport up to 8 channels of PCM digital audio, HDMI 1.3 was released in June 2006.
as well as metadata known as InfoFrames. See Compared to previous versions, HDMI 1.3

Figure 3-2. Simplified Structure of One Frame Table 3-3. HDMI InfoFrames
of TMDS Video InfoFrame data formats and content are specified by the Consumer Electronics Association in
standard CEA-861.

HDMI adds vertical Data Island Vertical


Periods containing audio and Blanking Types of InfoFrame Data
InfoFrame packets Period
Used by product manufacturers to transport information not
Vendor Specific Information
HDMI adds defined elsewhere
horizontal
Data Island
Periods Describes the properties of the video being transmitted, including
containing
Active Video Data Active Auxiliary Video Information
Lines color space, chroma sampling, resolution, 3D format, etc.
audio and
InfoFrame
packets Source Product Description Data such as the name and product type of the video source

Horizontal
Describes the properties of the audio being transmitted, including
Blanking Active Pixels Audio sampling rate, number of channels, encoding format, speaker
Period mapping, etc.

TMDS retains timing parameters such as horizontal Describes compression properties of the video being transmitted,
sync, vertical sync, and blanking intervals from analog MPEG Source
such as bit rate and frame type (I, B, or P)
RGB video. For DVI, no data is transmitted during the
vertical and horizontal blanking intervals. On the other Provides for carrying metadata originally intended to be broadcast
hand, HDMI takes advantage of the blanking intervals to NTSC VBI during NTSC vertical blanking intervals, such as timecodes and
transmit Data Island Periods containing embedded audio closed captions
and metadata such as CEA InfoFrames. This enables
extended capabilities and functions with new revisions
of the HDMI standard.

12 Extron Digital Design Guide


specified a twofold increase in the maximum specification called for the wires to be a twisted HDMI 2.0 was released
TMDS single link clock rate to 340 MHz, pair within the cable. The new specification in September 2013 and
corresponding to 10.2 Gbps. The increased also called for new connector Types D and
specifies a maximum
bandwidth of HDMI 1.3 enabled up to 16bits per E, both of which would carry all the signals of
color also known as Deep Color, an extended the TypeA connector. Type D connectors, also TMDS data rate of
color space, the latest high resolution surround known as HDMI Micro Connectors, are even 18 Gbps and 600 MHz
sound audio formats for Blu-ray Disc, and smaller than the compact Type C. HDMI TypeD maximum pixel clock.
video resolutions up to WQXGA 2560x1600. connectors are comparable in size to USBMicro
Version 1.3 also mandated the inclusion of connectors, and are commonly found in tablets,
High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection or smartphones, cameras, and other mobile
HDCP, a digital rights management scheme that devices. Type E connectors are intended for
prevents the copying of digital video and audio automotive applications.
content. In addition, a smaller Type C connector
was introduced, also known as the HDMI Mini HDMI 1.4 did not define any increase in the
Connector. Type C connectors can be found in maximum TMDS clock rate, which remained
some cameras and laptops. at 340 MHz, but new video formats were
added. These included new 4K video formats
For more information about HDMI 2.0, refer to
HDMI 1.4 was released in May 2009. It added at 30 frames per second, as well as formats for HDMI 2.0: Specification Overview & Frequently
two new communication channels: the HDMI transmitting stereoscopic 3D video. Asked Questions at www.extron.com/hdmi20faq.

Ethernet Channel, or HEC, and the Audio Return


Channel, or ARC. HDMI Ethernet enabled The content protection mechanism remained
standard IP communication for connected largely unchanged for HDMI 1.4. The specification
devices. This allowed AV components to be referenced HDCP revision 1.4, released in
networked, and to access advanced services July 2009. The main difference between
over the Internet. Integrating Ethernet inside the HDCP1.4 and HDCP 1.3 is in the definition of
HDMI cable potentially eliminated the need for hot plug detection. HDCP 1.4 referred to a hot
Ethernet switches and cables to IP-capable AV plug detect state called HDCP_HPD, whereas
components. The Audio Return Channel enabled earlier versions referred to the physical HPD line.
a digital audio signal to be sent from the sink, or Otherwise, HDCP 1.4 operations, encryption
destination device, such as a flatpanel display, algorithms, and restrictions on signal distribution
back to the source device. This replaced the need remained identical to the existing HDCP 1.3
for a separate digital audio cable connection. standard. The major changes embodied in HDCP
2.0, released in October 2008, were not adopted
To carry these channels, HDMI 1.4 specified a in HDMI1.4. HDCP and its specification revisions
new pin to be activated in the connector. While will be explored later in further detail.
the physical dimensions of the existing HDMI
Type A connector were still the same, the new HDMI 2.0, the current version, was released
standard called for a utility signal on pin 14, in September 2013, and specifies a maximum
which had been unconnected in earlier HDMI TMDS data rate of 18 Gbps and 600 MHz
versions. This utility signal and the existing Hot maximum pixel clock. This enables transmission
Plug Detect - HPD signal on pin 19 were to carry of 4K video at 60 frames per second, with
both the HEC and the ARC. Together, pins 14 8-bit color and 4:4:4 chroma subsampling. The
and 19 are called the HDMI Ethernet and Audio increased data rate also allows transmission of up
Return Channel, or HEAC. Older HDMI cables to two independent video streams and up to four
do not support HEAC functions since pin 14 is audio streams. Additionally, HDMI2.0 increases
unconnected. Pins 14 and 19 carry high-speed the maximum number of audio channels from
differential HEC data, so therefore the HDMI 1.4 8 to 32 per stream, and supports a 1536 kHz
www.extron.com 13
Digital Video Signal Formats

Many advanced Table 3-4. HDMI Version Summary

HDMI capabilities, SUPPORTED


FEATURE
HDMI 1.0
DEC 2002
HDMI 1.1
MAY 2004
HDMI 1.2
AUG 2005
HDMI 1.3
JUN 2006
HDMI 1.4
MAY 2009
HDMI 2.0
SEP 2013

such as higher video Max TMDS Data


4.95 Gbps 4.95 Gbps 4.95 Gbps 10.2 Gbps 10.2 Gbps 18 Gbps
Rate
resolutions, Deep Max Pixel Clock 165 MHz 165 MHz 165 MHz 340 MHz 340 MHz 600 MHz

Color, high bit rate, 2-ch to 8-ch 2-ch to 8-ch 2-ch to 8-ch
2-ch to 8-ch 2-ch to 8-ch 2-ch to 32-ch
Audio PCM, PCM, PCM,
and lossless audio are PCM PCM PCM
bitstream bitstream bitstream
Color Depth
optional, and therefore (Bits per Pixel)
24 24 24 24, 30, 36, 48 24, 30, 36, 48 24, 30, 36, 48

may not be completely Color Space


RGB, YCBCR RGB, YCBCR RGB, YCBCR
RGB, YCBCR
xvYCC, others
RGB, YCBCR
xvYCC, others
RGB, YCBCR
xvYCC, others
implemented by all 480p/60 up to 480p/60 up to 480p/60 up to
480p/60 480p/60
up to up to 480p/60
products that claim Video Resolution
1080p/60
and
1080p/60
and
1080p/60
and
1080p/60 4K/30 up to
and and 4K/60
1920x1200 1920x1200 1920x1200
compliance with the 2560x1600 2560x1600
3D Video No No No No Yes Yes
standard.
Audio Return
No No No No Yes Yes
Channel
HDMI Ethernet
No No No No Yes Yes
Channel
Max Number of
1 1 1 1 1 2
Video Streams
Max Number of
1 1 1 1 1 4
Audio Streams

Gray text denotes optionally supported features.

audio sampling rate. Other new video features not be completely implemented by all products
include support for resolutions with wider aspect that claim compliance with the standard. Each
ratios such as 2560x1080 (2.37:1), and YCBCR version of HDMI adds new features, but most of
4:2:0 chroma subsampling. The use of YCBCR these features are not requirements, resulting in
4:2:0 cuts TMDS data rate requirements in half products with various, and possibly incomplete or
as compared with 4:4:4. For example, 4K/60 at incompatible, implementations of HDMI features.
12 bits per color requires 26.73 Gbps at 4:4:4, Video system designers need to be aware that
and cannot be transported over HDMI 2.0; compatibility with a particular version of HDMI
but 4:2:0 chroma subsampling reduces the does not mean that a product is capable of all
data rate to 13.37 Gbps, which is within the the features associated with that specification. If
18 Gbps capability of HDMI 2.0. Furthermore, a particular feature is necessary, such as 48bit
4K/60 at 8 bits per color and 4:2:0 requires color, the designer will need to verify compatibility
only 9.41Gbps, which is within the 10.2 Gbps with all components in the signal path.
capability of HDMI 1.4. This creates the possibility
for some HDMI 1.4 distribution equipment to In January 2012, the HDMI organization
transport 4K/60 8-bit 4:2:0 video, but only if both began actively enforcing the HDMI Adopted
the source and display are capable of HDMI 2.0. Trademark and Logo Usage Guidelines to
address longstanding market confusion about
Table 3-4 summarizes the required and optional HDMI compatibility. The guidelines required the
features of the various versions of HDMI. removal of any numeric reference to a particular
version of the HDMI standard, eliminating
Many advanced HDMI capabilities, such as higher possible implications of performance that may
video resolutions, Deep Color, high bit rate, and not be supported by the product. For example,
lossless audio are optional, and therefore may HDMI2.0 cannot be used to market a product.
14 Extron Digital Design Guide
The new requirement called for manufacturers Originally, dual mode DisplayPort adapters VESA introduced a
to promote only the supported HDMI features were limited to a maximum TMDS clock rate Type 2 dualmode
on a product-by-product basis. The only way of 165 MHz to match the available capability
DisplayPort adapter
to ensure that a product you are considering of HDMI. Since the HDMI standard has been
will support the HDMI features you need is to updated for high data rates, VESA introduced standard in January
carefully review the manufacturers specifications, a Type 2 dualmode adapter standard in 2013 with a maximum
Dual Link or contact
DVI-D aDual
representative.
Link DVI-I Single Link January2013 with a maximum TMDS clock rate
DVI-D Single Link TMDS clock rate of
and digital digital only analog and digital digital only
of 300MHz. This enabled support for HDMI1.4
300 MHz.
DisplayPort video resolutions such as 4K/30 or 1080p 3D
DisplayPort is a digital interface between sources at 60 Hz. Type 2 DisplayPort adapters would
and displays that is positioned as an alternative be backwards compatible with older Type 1
to HDMI for PC equipment manufacturers. dualmode DisplayPort sources, but be limited
DisplayPort uses a digital video transmission to a maximum TMDS clock rate of 165MHz. To
scheme that differs from TMDS and is therefore achieve the 300 MHz maximum TMDS clock rate,
not directly compatible with HDMI and DVI. The both the dualmode DisplayPort source and the
20-pin DisplayPort connector is illustrated in adapter must be Type 2 enabled.
Table 3-5. It can be used to pass HDMI signals,
provided that the device already supports DisplayPort video and audio signals are carried
HDMI. For example, if a video source only has on four lanes of differential wires, with each
a DisplayPort connector, but also has HDMI lane running at 1.62, 2.7, 5.4, or 8.1 Gbps
VGA - VESA
signaling capability, then
E-DDC host it is possible
assignment to use a for a maximum data rate of 32.4 Gbps. See
DisplayPort-to-HDMI adapter to connect the Figure3-3 for further information. DisplayPort is
source to an HDMI-equipped display. Such capable of supporting Deep Color, multi-channel
DisplayPort connections, referred to as dual- high resolution audio, and video resolutions up
mode or multi-mode, are symbolized by the to 5128x2880. Analogous to the DDC channel
HDMI
DisplayPort logo andtype
twoA plus signs to indicate for HDMI, DisplayPort connectors provide for a
this capability. differential AUX channel for EDID communication.
DisplayPort Connector
In addition, DisplayPort may incorporate HDCP

DisplayPort
source-side Figure 3-3. Whats going through the DisplayPort connection?

Lane 0

Lane 1
Table 3-5. DisplayPort Pin Configuration
(Source-Side) Lane 2

PIN FUNCTION PIN FUNCTION Lane 3


1 ML_Lane 0 (p) 11 GND 64-bit Micro 64-bit Micro
Packet Packet
2 GND 12 ML_Lane 3 (n)
3 ML_Lane 0 (n) 13 GND DisplayPort transmits video using up to four data lanes at rates of 1.62, 2.7, 5.4, or
4 ML_Lane 1 (p) 14 GND 8.1 Gbps per lane
1, 2, or 4 lanes may be active at the same time
5 GND 15 AUX CH (p)
Timing is recovered from each lanes data, eliminating a separate clock line
6 ML_Lane 1 (n) 16 GND
Video data is arranged into 64-bit Micro Packets. Different resolutions and color
7 ML_Lane 2 (p) 17 AUX CH (n) depths occupy different packet and lane formations.
8 GND 18 Hot Plug Detect Packetized data allows flexibility to add features, such as multiple simultaneous
streams with mixed video resolutions
9 ML_Lane (n) 19 Return
Adjacent lanes transmit packets at staggered intervals to improve noise immunity
10 ML_Lane 3 (p) 20 DP_Power

www.extron.com 15
Digital Video Signal Formats

DisplayPort 1.3 was digital rights management or an alternative capabilities are optional. These include audio
released in September DRM protocol known as DisplayPort Content support, color bit depth greater than 24 bits per
Protection or DPCP. pixel, and support for content protection. Again,
2014 and introduced
the system designer should ensure that all system
the 8.1 Gbps data rate DisplayPort is intended to provide cost savings components will support a desired capability.
per lane, while adding by unifying the interface signals for both internal
support for HDCP 2.2, and external connections within a device, such SDI - Serial Digital Interface
as the connection between the motherboard and SDI is a set of video standards, defined by the
and 4:2:0 chroma
display on a laptop PC. The Video Electronics Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
subsampling. Standards Association - VESA released the initial or SMPTE, for serial transmission of video and
version 1.0 of the DisplayPort standard in 2006, audio over standard RG59 or RG6 coaxial cable.
and then version 1.1 in 2007. DisplayPort1.2 was See Table 3-6. SDI standards encompass a variety
released in 2009 and introduced the 5.4Gbps of data rates from 270Mbps to 2.97Gbps. SDI
data rate per lane, multiple independent video connections are primarily utilized on professional
streams, the Mini DisplayPort connector, and broadcast and video production equipment, and
support for 3840x2160 at 60 Hz, with 4:4:4 can also appear in devices used in live events,
1
 his is a VESA-specific timing with
T
reduced blanking. It is distinct from
chroma subsampling and 30bit color depth.1 rental and staging, medical imaging, digital
the SMPTE UHD video timing. cinema, and telepresence cameras and video
The most recent revision, DisplayPort 1.3, was recording. An SDI-based video infrastructure
released in September2014 and introduces the can be useful for AV signal distribution, due to
8.1 Gbps data rate per lane, while adding support the benefits of inexpensive or existing cabling,
for HDCP 2.2, and 4:2:0 chroma subsampling. ease of termination, and transmission distance
As with HDMI, some DisplayPort features and capabilities up to 330 feet (100 meters) for

Table 3-6. SMPTE - Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers SDI Standards
DATA VIDEO COLOR COAX
STANDARD NAME
RATE FORMAT ENCODING DISTANCE
SMPTE 259M-C SDI 270 Mbps 480i, 576i 4:2:2 YCBCR 300 meters

SMPTE 292M HD-SDI 1.485 Gbps 720p, 1080i, 1080p/30 4:2:2 YCBCR 100 meters

SMPTE 372M Dual Link HD-SDI 2.97 Gbps 1080p/60, 2K various 100 meters

SMPTE 424M 3G-SDI 2.97 Gbps 1080p/60, 2K various 100 meters

Figure 3-4. Whats going through the SDI connection?

Ancillary Data SAV Active Video EAV

Active Video Data End of Active Blanking / Audio Start of Active Video Data End of Active Blanking / Audio
Video, Line Active Video Video, Line
Number, CRC Number, CRC
One Line of Video

SDI is truly serial. The SDI cable has one physical connection at both ends.
No separate clock line is available timing is recovered from the transmitted data
Data rates can be 270 Mbps for SDI, 1.485 Gbps for HD-SDI, or 2.97 Gbps for 3G-SDI
SAV and EAV packets bookend each line of active video data. These packets contain
unique bit patterns and are used for timing reference, line numbering, and error checking.
Default color space is 4:2:2 YCBCR. 3G-SDI adds support for 4:4:4 YCBCR and 4:4:4 RGB.

16 Extron Digital Design Guide


HDSDI and 3G-SDI. SDI is strictly a serial, one- chosen carefully since they can have a dramatic AV systems are
way protocol for video, audio, and ancillary data impact on system cost and performance. often comprised of
such as time, closed captioning, date stamps, Depending on the video formats to be converted,
components that
or GPS coordinates. There are no provisions active electronic converters may be required,
for other auxiliary communications. Refer to or low-cost mechanical adapters may suffice. incorporate a diverse
Figure3-4 for further information. Table 3-7 summarizes the requirements to mix of video formats.
convert between VGA, DVI, HDMI, DisplayPort, It is often necessary to
Video Format Compatibility and SDI video formats. Table 3-8 summarizes
convert between these
AV systems are often comprised of components the capabilities of some commonly encountered
that incorporate a diverse mix of video formats. digital video formats in terms of their maximum various formats to
It is often necessary to convert between these data rate, video resolution, audio channels, and achieve desired system
various formats to achieve desired system content protection protocol. functionality.
functionality. Such format conversions must be

Table 3-7. Converting Between Video Signal Formats


VGA DVI-I DVI-D HDMI DisplayPort SDI
Mechanical Electronic Electronic Electronic Electronic
VGA Compatible
Adapter Conversion3 Conversion3 Conversion3 Conversion3
Mechanical Mechanical Dual-mode Electronic
DVI-I Compatible
Adapter4 Adapter2,4 Adapter1,2,4 Conversion3
Mechanical Dual-mode Electronic
DVI-D Compatible
Adapter2 Adapter1,2 Conversion3
Dual-mode Electronic
HDMI Compatible
Adapter1,2 Conversion3
Electronic
DisplayPort Compatible
Conversion3

SDI Compatible

Notes:
1
Simple adapters only work for devices supporting dual-mode DisplayPort
2
No audio unless specifically supported by device manufacturer
3
Interfacing these signal types requires active electronic format conversion
4
Simple adapters only work for digital portion of DVI-I connector

Table 3-8. Capabilities of Digital Video Formats


MAX
DIGITAL VIDEO MAX DATA MAX MAX COLOR MAX AUDIO CONTENT
EFFECTIVE
FORMAT RATE1 RESOLUTION3 DEPTH3 CHANNELS PROTECTION
DATA RATE2
DVI 1.0 Single
4.95 Gbps 3.96 Gbps 1920x1200/60 24 bits N/A HDCP
Link
DVI 1.0 Dual Link 9.9 Gbps 7.92 Gbps 2560x1600/60 48 bits N/A HDCP
HDMI 1.4 10.2 Gbps 8.16 Gbps 4K/30 48 bits 8 HDCP
HDMI 2.0 18 Gbps 14.4 Gbps 4K/60 48 bits 32 HDCP
DisplayPort 1.2 21.6 Gbps 17.28 Gbps 4K/60 48 bits 8 HDCP/DPCP
DisplayPort 1.3 32.4 Gbps 25.92 Gbps 5120x2880/60 48 bits 8 HDCP/DPCP
1080p/60,
3G-SDI 2.97 Gbps 2.97 Gbps 36 bits 32 N/A
2K/60

Notes:
Max data rate includes overhead for transmission encoding. This is the actual data rate that equipment and cables
1

must accommodate.
For DVI, HDMI and DisplayPort, the effective data rate is 20% lower because the transmission encoding process adds
2

2 bits of overhead for every 8 bits of data.


Max resolution and max color depth may not be achievable together, if the data rate required is greater than the
3

maximum data rate. For example, 4K/60 at 48-bit RGB color requires a data rate of 35.64 Gbps. This is greater than
the maximum data rate for both HDMI 2.0 and DisplayPort 1.3, and therefore is not achievable with those formats over
a single link.

www.extron.com 17
Digital Video Signal Formats

With advancing Emerging Formats Type C connector. The USB Type C connector
technology and With advancing technology and increasing video specification takes advantage of the abundance
traffic on IP networks come new mechanisms and of pins by allowing the SuperSpeed and auxiliary
increasing video traffic
interfaces for video transport, many of which will SBU - sideband use pins to be reassigned to
on IP networks come gain importance and impact in professional AV. perform alternate functions, such as sending
new mechanisms Some of these emerging interfaces were originally analog audio to a pair of headphones or
and interfaces for created for transporting general digital data, and supporting other formats including DisplayPort,
have evolved into specialized mechanisms for Thunderbolt, MHL, and superMHL. See Table
video transport, many
digital video. 3-9 for a summary of USB pinouts.
of which will gain
importance and impact Universal Serial Bus - USB Following the introduction of USB 3.1, USB 3.0
in professional AV. USB is a ubiquitous digital data interface used has been retroactively renamed USB 3.1 Gen 1
for connecting and powering devices. Since the with a maximum 5 Gbps data throughput, while
introduction of USB 1.0 in the 1990s, USB data USB 3.1 Gen 2 specifies up to 10 Gbps data
throughput capability has grown from the original rate capability.
1.5 Mbps to 480 Mbps for USB 2.0, 5 Gbps for
USB 3.0, and 10 Gbps for USB 3.1. Whereas USB device connectivity includes AV equipment
earlier versions up to USB 2.0 had one data lane, such as cameras and touchpanel displays. The
only half-duplex operation was possible. USB USB video device class - UVC specification
3.0 introduced separate SuperSpeed transmit defines the interfacing of still-image and video
and receive data lanes to enable bidirectional, cameras and other video sources to a computer.
full-duplex operation. To maintain backward UVC devices are natively supported by
compatibility, USB 3.0 Type A connectors have Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and several UNIX
SuperSpeed pins in addition to a full set of USB variants. Software driver installation is typically
2.0 pins. Concurrent with USB 3.1, a smaller, not necessary. UVC supports uncompressed
reversible USB Type C connector specification video, as well as compressed formats such as
was introduced. Reversibility requires that MJPEG, MPEG2, and H.264. The latest UVC
pins be duplicated on each edge of a USB specification is version 1.5.

Table 3-9. USB Pinouts


USB 2.0 TYPE A USB 3.0 TYPE A USB TYPE C

PIN FUNCTION PIN FUNCTION PIN FUNCTION PIN FUNCTION


1 +5 VBUS 1 +5 VBUS A1 GND B1 GND
2 Data- 2 Data- A2 SSTX1+ B2 SSTX2+
3 Data+ 3 Data+ A3 SSTX1- B3 SSTX2-
4 GND 4 GND A4 +5 VBUS B4 +5 VBUS
5 SSRX- A5 CC1 B5 CC2

6 SSRX+ A6 Data1+ B6 Data2+


7 GND_DRAIN A7 Data1- B7 Data2-
8 SSTX- A8 SBU1 B8 SBU2
9 SSTX+ A9 +5 VBUS B9 +5 VBUS
A10 SSRX2- B10 SSRX1-
A11 SSRX2+ B11 SSRX1+
A12 GND B12 GND

18 Extron Digital Design Guide


Thunderbolt Please refer to the Extron AV Streaming Design Wi-Fi based collaboration
Thunderbolt was introduced by Intel in 2009. It

Guide as a reference for learning more about the solutions are popular
is intended to connect computers to a wide range technologies, challenges, and applications for
of external devices including high speed storage distributing AV over IP networks.
because of the wide
drives and video displays. Each Thunderbolt availability of the
connection consists of four lanes, two for transmit Wireless Interfaces underlying networking
and two for receive, with 10 Gbps per lane. The Solutions for transmitting video wirelessly may be and compression
Thunderbolt connector is physically identical to a divided into two broad categories:
Mini DisplayPort connector and the Thunderbolt
technologies.
data interface is a hybrid of PCI Express - PCIe W
 ireless extender solutions A source
and DisplayPort protocols. Thunderbolt allows video signal such as HDMI is converted to a
daisy-chaining up to six devices. A DisplayPort modulated RF signal for wireless transmission
equipped display may be directly connected to to a receiver connected to a display.
a Thunderbolt interface on a computer, or as the
final device in a Thunderbolt chain. C
 ollaboration solutions A computing
device such as a PC, smart phone, or tablet
Thunderbolt 1 is the initial version of the interface encodes and transmits video content over a
technology and supports DisplayPort 1.1a. WiFi network to a gateway connected to a
Thunderbolt 2 is a subsequent revision that allows display.
an aggregate 20 Gbps transmit and a 20 Gbps
receive channel, plus support for DisplayPort 1.2. In general, wireless extender solutions can work
Thunderbolt 3 is the latest version and allows up with more types of video sources because
to 40 Gbps transmit and 40 Gbps receive. It runs a computing device is not required. Video
over a USB Type C interface and can carry two performance parameters such as frame rate, The Extron AV Streaming Design Guide
4K/60 video signals. resolution, and latency are generally better than provides technical reference data and real-
world system designs that illustrate practical
Wi-Fi because the entire bandwidth is dedicated and effective AV streaming applications
Streaming Over IP Networks to video, so there is little need for compression. using Extron streaming products.

The reach and capability of IP networking For example, the WirelessHD standard operates
technology continues to grow and encompass in the 60 GHz band with data rates up to
many aspects of business and industry, 25Gbps. In contrast, the data rates achievable
including professional AV. With IP networking with Wi-Fi are much lower, and bandwidth is
infrastructure already in place at enterprises and shared between video and other traffic on the
other organizations, it may be advantageous to network. Video compression is necessary to
transport AV signals over IP networks. Lower accommodate the lower data rates.
overall cost may be realized, especially in large-
scale systems, along with enhanced functionality Wi-Fi based collaboration solutions are popular
because of the great reach of IP networks. because of the wide availability of the underlying
Applications of video transmission over IP include: networking and compression technologies.
Expanding
 AV content distribution to PCs, tablets, and smart phones already have
computer desktops and mobile devices Wi-Fi built-in, and can be loaded with software
D
 igital signage to perform video compression, so the gateway
V
 ideo recording and playback is the only hardware required for Wi-Fi based
Long-distance
 video distribution over wide video. With the mobile device acting as the
geographic areas transmitter, these collaboration systems are less
physically cumbersome to use in presentation
There are many considerations when planning environments, since no cable or external
to integrate streaming AV with IP networking. transmitter device needs to be attached. Software
www.extron.com 19
Digital Video Signal Formats

When implementing Table 3-10. Wireless Video Interfaces

wireless video WIRELESS


INTERFACE
FREQUENCY
BAND
COMPUTING
HARDWARE REQUIRED
UNCOMPRESSED
VIDEO
connections, the AV AirPlay Wi-Fi Apple products No

professional should Chromecast Wi-Fi PC, tablet, smartphone No


Miracast Wi-Fi PC, tablet, smartphone No
consider the following: WiDi Wi-Fi Intel-equipped products No
Wi-Fi,
Range WiGig PC, tablet, smartphone Yes

60 GHz
RF interference UWB 3.1 10.6 GHz None Yes

Network availability WHDI 5 GHz None Yes


WirelessHD 60 GHz None Yes


Regulatory issues
Interoperability
Software requirements
Security running on the presenters device may encode factors including RF interference, the presence
and transmit using many different protocols and of many devices accessing the network, and the
formats depending on the particular chosen density and reliability of Wi-Fi access points. A
solution. These include Apple AirPlay and other

Wi-Fi Direct connection between a mobile device
proprietary protocols. See Table 3-10 for more and the base unit may provide more consistent
information. reliability than the house network.

When implementing wireless video connections, Regulatory issues Most wireless AV products
the AV professional should consider the following: designed for short-range applications operate
at low power in typically unlicensed RF bands.
Range The specified range between the But licensing requirements and frequency band
wireless transmitter and receiver must be allocations are ultimately defined by regional
suitable for the application. Intervening walls or government regulations. Such regulations will
other obstructions between the transmitter and affect a wireless products suitability and legal
receiver will degrade the usable range, especially status to operate.
at higher frequencies. Operation at the 60GHz
band requires direct line of sight, without any Interoperability Professional AV installations
obstructions between receiver and transmitter. often require switching multiple sources among
multiple displays, or several rooms with similar AV
RF interference When deciding on installing systems may be located in close proximity. The
a particular wireless video technology, potential ability of a particular wireless video transmission
sources of RF interference in the frequency band technology to fit such requirements may be
of operation must be assessed. For example, an important consideration. How a wireless
the popularity and ubiquity of Wi-Fi frequently video solution will be integrated with other AV
leads to situations where multiple, independent switching and distribution systems may need
networks are operating simultaneously, to be considered, as well as how the proposed
particularly in dense urban environments. The wireless video system will impact any existing
wireless video technology should be designed wireless data or video systems.
to deliver optimal performance under conditions
with RFinterference. Software requirements Wi-Fi based video
transmission solutions may require installing
Network availability For Wi-Fi based systems, proprietary software on end users devices. The
the available bandwidth can be unpredictable operation, management, and features of this
and fluctuate greatly. This is caused by several software must be of sufficient quality to achieve
20 Extron Digital Design Guide
end-user satisfaction. Additionally, devices owned superMHL With their increasing
by the organization usually require IT department superMHL is the successor to the MHL standard, processing power and
approval before applications can be installed. intended for future-generation mobile devices
graphics capability,
and other products. superMHL will be capable
Security End-user organizations have specific of supporting 8K video resolution, delivered over there is increasing
requirements for network security and authorizing a proprietary interface. It can also deliver 4K/60 demand to use
access to network resources. A successful video at 4:4:4 over USB Type C. smartphones and
wireless video implementation must be able to
tablets as video
provide the necessary level of security established Micro HDMI
by IT policy. The Micro HDMI Type D connector contains all sources in professional
19 pins of the standard HDMI Type A connector. AV systems.
Video Formats for Mobile Devices A passive adapter cable can be used to connect
There is increasing demand to use smartphones a mobile device equipped with this connector
and tablets as video sources in professional AV directly to an HDMI sink without the need for
systems. Not all smartphones or tablets are electronic signal conversion.
equipped with wired video output capability. For
mobile devices that have video output, a variety of Mobility DisplayPort - MyDP
connection types may be encountered. VESA introduced the Mobility DisplayPort -
MyDP in 2012 for use by mobile devices. MyDP
Apple 30-Pin Connector is essentially a single DisplayPort lane with an
Older iPhone and iPad devices are equipped with additional connection for AUX/HPD. Like MHL,
a proprietary 30-pin dock connector with various MyDP signals are typically multiplexed with the
functions including video output capability for USB signals of a mobile device. When the USB
some models. Adapters are available to provide port of the mobile device is placed in MyDP
HDMI or VGA video output. mode, a DisplayPort sink may be connected
using a passive cable.
Apple Lightning Connector
Table 3-11. Mobile Video Formats
Introduced in 2012, the Apple Lightning
connector replaces the 30-pin dock connector MOBILE VIDEO INTERFACE CONNECTOR COMPATIBILITY
for iPhone and iPad devices with a smaller 8-pin,
reversible connector that can provide an HDMI or Proprietary 30-pin Adapters for HDMI
Apple Dock
connector and VGA
VGA output signal when appropriate proprietary
adapters are used.
Proprietary reversible Adapters for HDMI
Apple Lightning
8-pin connector and VGA
Mobile High Definition Link - MHL
The MHL Consortium introduced the MHL Active adapters for
USB Micro Type B
standard in 2008 for use in mobile devices. MHL
USB Type C
HDMI, DisplayPort,
and VGA
MHL is based on TMDS signaling, but reduces
the required pin count by combining the three Proprietary superMHL Active adapters for
TMDS video channels to one channel, removing superMHL connector HDMI, DisplayPort,
USB Type C and VGA
the clock channel, and combining the control
channels to one channel. In doing so, MHL
signals can be multiplexed with the USB signals Micro HDMI HDMI Type D Passive HDMI cable

of a mobile device, thus eliminating the need for


Active adapters for
a dedicated video output port. MHL signals must Mobility HDMI and VGA
USB Micro Type B
be actively converted to HDMI since the formats DisplayPort Passive cable for
DisplayPort
are not directly compatible.
www.extron.com 21
Anatomy of a Digital Video Signal

Being familiar Digital video signals have specific performance period in order to completely reconstruct the
with digital signal and timing requirements that must be maintained original transmission. However, this becomes
throughout the entire signal path. Being familiar increasingly difficult as the signal swing is
characteristics, with digital signal characteristics, how they decreased and as timing becomes less accurate.
how they may be may be degraded in real-world installations, Rise and fall times, signal swing, and timing
degraded in real- and knowing how to minimize the causes and accuracy are all subject to degradation in digital
world installations, counteract the effects of signal degradation signal transmission caused by cable attenuation,
are keys to a successful installation. Therefore, cable capacitance, impedance mismatch, noise
and knowing how to knowledge of signal conditioning requirements interference, crosstalk, and so forth. It is important
minimize the causes for digital signals is essential, and must be to quantify the amount of signal degradation so
and counteract the understood accordingly before designing a that standards for signal integrity can be defined.
effects of signal digital-based AV system.
If the signal is degraded beyond the receivers
degradation are All standard digital video signal formats, ability to distinguish high and low signal values
keys to a successful including SDI, DVI, HDMI, and DisplayPort are with correct timing, the receivers output abruptly
installation. synchronous, that is, the value of a synchronous becomes incoherent, and the signal disappears.
digital signal may change only at specific intervals This is known as the cliff effect. In contrast,
determined by a reference signal known as the for analog transmission, the receivers output
clock. Digital video signals are binary in nature gradually degrades as the signal worsens, but
the signal value can be either a "high" or a "low" remains at least intelligible long into its degraded
level. See Figure 4-1. The amount of time it takes state.
for a digital signal to transition from low to high
is known as the rise time, and the time it takes One of the key contributors to timing errors is
for the signal to transition from high to low is jitter. Jitter is defined as the variation of the clock
known as the fall time. The difference between period in relation to the reference clock signal.
the high and the low values of the signal level is Jitter can occur over long lengths of low quality
called the signal swing. The minimum allowable cable, or through the cumulative effect caused
time interval between transitions is known as the by cascading several digital devices between the
clock period. source and the destination.

Because it is binary, a digital signal is fundamentally Eye diagrams are useful in quantifying digital
robust, since a receiver only needs to distinguish signal integrity. They can be produced on an
between high and low levels for each clock oscilloscope by sampling a series of digital pulses
in succession, and overlaying the samples on the
oscilloscope display. See Figure 4-2.
Figure 4-1. Digital Data Parameters
The resulting diagram displays the aggregated
Clock Period Clock Period levels and timing characteristics of the signal
High
Level being transmitted, as illustrated in Figure 4-3.
The open, eye-shaped regions between the

Signal
waveforms give the eye diagram its name. To
Swing determine whether the value of the signal is high
or low, the signal should be captured at intervals
Low corresponding to the midpoints within these
Level
regions. These intervals are also the midpoints
Rise Fall in time between signal transitions. The smaller
Time Time
the opening of the eye, the more difficult it is
22 Extron Digital Design Guide
Low
Nivel
Basso
Niedriger
Niveau
Low
Level
bajo
livello
Pegel
bas
Level

Rise Fall Tiempo


Tempo
Temps
Anstiegs-

Risede Temps
Tiempo
Tempo

Fall de
Abfall-
Time Time de subida

monte
diTime
zeit
rise de
descente

diTime
bajada
zeit
rise

Figure 4-2. An eye diagram is formed by repeated sampling of a digital signal. Signal conditioning can
be applied within digital
video equipment via
features such as input
signal equalization and
output signal reclocking.
These advanced
features provide
compensation for losses
experienced throughout
the signal chain.

Figure 4-3. Eye Diagram Parameters

Clock Period
Signal Level turn impacts the relative timing between the video
Uncertainty Periodo
Cycle

deldhorloge
period
Taktperiode
Clock Period
Signalpegel
Signal
IncertidumbreLevel
Incertitude
Incertezza
en
lie
del
data lines. The signals carried by these internal
reloj


Schwankung
Uncertainty
el
au nivel
livello
niveaudedu
del la seal
segnale
signal
wire pairs may interfere with each other due to
Usable Minimum
Signal Eye Opening
Mask
coupling effects.
Swing
Amplitude
Swing
Amplitud

Nutzbare
Usabledel Minimalde
Mscara
Ouverture
Maschera
Minimum

de
utilisable
segnale

la seal
Signal-
Signal geffnetes
con
apertura
Eye en
apertura
il de
Opening

Augendiagramm
ojos
ad
minimum
occhio
mnima
Mask
-
utilizzabile
du
utilizable

signal
gre
Swing
Signal Level
There may also be external sources of interference

Uncertainty
in the form of adjacent cables, or nearby electrical
Incertidumbre
elau
nivel
Signalpegel
Signal
Incertitude
Incertezza

livellode
niveau
Timing Jitter/Uncertainty

la
deldu
en
Level
lie
del

seal
Schwankung
Uncertainty
segnale
signalJitter/Uncertainty
Timing
equipment such as motors or even fluorescent
lighting. The compromised eye pattern in
Temblor
/
Gigue
Jitter
Timing dedel
de
incertidumbre
Incertitude
Incertezza
Schwankung
Figure4-4
sincronizacin/
timing/
temps/
Zeittakt-Jitter/
Jitter/Uncertainty Temblor
/
Gigue
Jitter
Timing shows
dedel
de temps/ the resulting distortion caused
sincronizacin/
timing/
Zeittakt-Jitter/
Jitter/Uncertainty
incertidumbre
Incertitude
Incertezza
Schwankung
to accurately determine the signal value. Digital by attenuation losses, interference, and skew-
video format specifications include the requisite related timing errors from long cable lengths. The
values for eye openings as minimum standards resulting waveform encroaches on the limit mask,
for signal integrity. These values can be overlaid which potentially leads to erratic images, or no
onto eye diagrams as a reference or limit mask image displayed at all.
when making signal quality measurements.
Signal conditioning can be applied within digital
Maintaining Digital Signal Integrity video equipment via features such as input signal
A clean digital signal path is crucial for signal equalization and output signal reclocking. These
integrity. Cable lengths should not exceed the advanced features provide compensation for
driving capability of digital signal sources, as cable losses experienced throughout the signal chain.
capacitance and attenuation will degrade signal It is important to note that such losses are not
rise and fall times as well as amplitude, as cable limited to the signal path, but may also be related
length increases. Since standard DVI, HDMI, to the source device itself. The direct signal
and DisplayPort cables are made up internally of output from the source device is often assumed
twisted pairs of wires, skew is introduced at long to be good, but this is not always the case.
cable lengths due to the variations in twist rates Awareness of this is key to managing the integrity
of individual wire pairs in the cabling, which in of the overall system.
www.extron.com 23
Anatomy of a Digital Video Signal

Clock and data


Figure 4-4. Fail Figure 4-5. Pass
recovery circuitry
can remove jitter
and restore clock
timing, resulting in a
measurable opening of
the signal eye pattern.

Assessing signal integrity using a standardized minimum eye opening mask.

In situations where long cable lengths are As video resolutions and associated signal
unavoidable, active cable equalizers can be frequencies increase, the signal becomes more
deployed to restore signal integrity and extend and more susceptible to discontinuities along
drive distances. Active equalizers are designed the cable. Such discontinuities cause reflections
to compensate for the effects of long cable runs. which will degrade the signal. Therefore, the
Special amplifiers and filters matched to cable bend radii of cables should be kept as large as
losses restore signal swing as well as rise and possible, and cable splices, joiners, or gender
fall times. Clock and data recovery circuitry can changers should be avoided. Figure 4-6 depicts
remove jitter and restore clock timing, resulting in the substantial degradation that can be caused
a measurable opening of the signal eye pattern. by simply inserting a coupler between two cables.
Figure 4-5 shows the result of signal conditioning In this example, the eye diagram shows the result
applied by an Extron twisted pair extender to of a 1920x1200 source signal passing through
the distorted eye pattern in Figure 4-4. Signal a 6 foot (1.8 m) HDMI cable, then through an
conditioning features including input equalization HDMI female-to-female coupler, and finally an
and output reclocking are common to many additional 6 foot HDMI cable. This emphasizes
Extron digital product solutions. the importance of proper design considerations

Figure 4-6. Substantial signal degradation caused by simply inserting an HDMI coupler.

HDMI
Female-to-Female
Adapter

6 ft (1.8 m) 6 ft (1.8 m)
HDMI Cable HDMI Cable

24 Extron Digital Design Guide


for management of all high resolution digital Fortunately, products and solutions are available System interconnects
signals. System interconnects should be kept that offer the flexibility to address specific system should be kept to a
to a minimum and signal distribution equipment needs. A popular alternative to standard cable
minimum and signal
should always feature signal conditioning assemblies is to use an active transmitter and
capabilities to best accommodate specific design receiver pair to send digital signals over standard distribution equipment
challenges that may compromise digital video shielded CATx twisted pair or fiber optic cable. should always feature
signal integrity. This approach provides a means to conveniently signal conditioning
route cabling through walls and within furniture,
capabilities.
Solutions for Extending Digital the convenience of field terminating connectors,
VideoSignals and the ability to send signals over extended
The customized nature of professional AV distances.
systems usually presents many digital video
distribution challenges to the integrator, including CATx twisted pair cable offers a cost-effective,
the need to send signals over significant easily installed and terminated option for digital
distances. Extron offers a variety of products signal transmission distances up to 330 feet
for specific digital video formats to help meet (100meters). Fiber optic cable is also easy to
infrastructure-related requirements. For example, install and terminate, and is ideal for much longer
most installations call for cable runs of 35 feet distance transmission requirements up to several
(11 m) or beyond, and also require that cables be miles or kilometers. Fiber optics is important for
managed within walls and up into ceiling spaces. applications where security or outside electrical
This can be a problem with standard digital cable interference are of concern. CATx and fiber optic
assemblies, since the connectors are often too cables are far more suitable for pulling through
large to conveniently run through conduits and conduit than cable assemblies, as illustrated in The ABCs of Digital Video Signals is
an Extron white paper that offers an
raceways, as illustrated in Figure 4-7. Additionally, Figure 4-7. introduction to digital video signals and
terminating HDMI and DVI cables in the field is formats, eye diagrams, and the importance
of digital video signal conditioning.
difficult with very few tools available. Even when For some specific AV applications, digital video
this is possible, most standard cable assemblies content can be transmitted wirelessly and
offer insufficient performance to send signals over streamed over IP networks. All of the available
significant distances. options for distributing AV will be further detailed
in the section "System Design Considerations"
on page 39.

Figure 4-7. Running HDMI, twisted pair, and fiber optic cable through conduit.

1" Conduit

HDMI cable with 4 CATx twisted pair Fiber optic cables


Type A connector cables can transmit (6-strand)
4 HDMI signals Each cable can transmit
6 HDMI signals

www.extron.com 25
Understanding EDID - Extended Display Identification Data

EDID data exchange What is EDID? redefining three of the VGA connector pins as a
is a standardized EDID - Extended Display Identification Data serial bus in the form of the DDC - Display Data
exchange is a standardized means for a display Channel. This allowed for much more information
means for a display
to communicate its capabilities to a source to be exchanged, so that EDID and other forms
to communicate device. The premise of this communications is for of communication were possible between the
its capabilities to a the display to relay its operational characteristics, source and the display.
source device. such as its native resolution, to the attached
source, and then allow the source to generate The original DDC protocol defined 128 bytes
the necessary video characteristics to match of data to be sent from the display to the video
the needs of the display. This maximizes source, with data formatting defined by the EDID
functional compatibility between devices without specification.
requiring a user to configure them manually, thus
reducing the potential for incorrect settings and As display types and capabilities increased,
adjustments that could compromise the quality 128bytes became insufficient, and both EDID
of the displayed images and overall reliability of and DDC were extended so that multiple 128-
the system. byte data blocks could be exchanged. This is
known as E-EDID and has been implemented
Control over the video format and resolution in many consumer devices. In fact, the CEA -
at each connection is crucial to successfully Consumer Electronics Association has defined
designing and implementing a digital AV system. its own EDID extensions to cover additional video
To establish this control, it is necessary to formats and to support advanced multi-channel
understand EDID operating principles and how audio capabilities.
EDID is implemented in the components that
make up the AV system. What EDID Information is Exchanged
Table 5-1 Between Display and Source?
EDID Development History Where is EDID Utilized? The base EDID information of a display is
EDID Defines the data
structures sent from a Generally, the source device will be a desktop or conveyed within a 128-byte data structure that
video display to a source
over E-DDC lines to
laptop PC, but provisions are in place for many contains pertinent manufacturer and operation-
describe its capabilities other devices, including HDTV receivers and related data. See Table 5-2. The current EDID
EDID 1.0 Defined original DVRs, Blu-ray Disc players, tablets, smartphones, version defines the structure as follows:
128-byte data structure
(Deprecated) and even gaming consoles, to read EDID and
EDID 1.1 Defined some output video accordingly. Originally developed Vendor/Product Identification Block The first
alternative uses for
space in data structure for use between devices with analog VGA ports, 18 bytes identify the display manufacturer and
(Deprecated)
EDID is now implemented for DVI, HDMI, and product, including serial number and date of
EDID 1.2 Defined some
alternative uses for DisplayPort. manufacture.
space in data structure
(Deprecated)
EDID 1.3 Current definitions for History EDID Structure Version and Revision The
128-byte EDID data
fields EDID was developed by VESA - the Video next two bytes identify the version and revision of
EDID 2.0 Introduced new Electronics Standards Association, with the EDID data within the structure.
256-byte data structure
version1.0 introduced in 1994 within version 1.0
E-EDID Defined optional
additional 128-byte of the DDC standard. See Table 5-1. Basic Display Parameters and Features
extension blocks for
EDID 1.3, incorporated The next five bytes define characteristics such
EDID 2.0 as optional
extensions
Prior to the development of EDID, pins on the as whether the display accepts analog or digital
DisplayID Introduced variable VGA connector were sometimes used to define inputs, sync types, maximum horizontal and
length data structure monitor capabilities. These ID bit pins carried vertical size of the display, gamma transfer
either high or low values to define different screen characteristics, power management capabilities,
resolutions. VESA extended this scheme by color space, and default video timing.
26 Extron Digital Design Guide
Color Characteristics The next 10 bytes define EDID Communication Protocol, Step by Signals passing
the RGB color space conversion technique to be Step through the DDC are
used by the display. The protocol for establishing the exchange of
separate from the
EDID is standardized by VESA as the DDC
Established Timings The next three bytes - Display Data Channel, which is based on TMDS lines that carry
define the VESA-established resolutions or I2C, a standard serial bus protocol for two-way video and audio.
timings that are supported by the display. For the communication in many types of electronic
first two bytes, each bit represents a timing such devices. The DDC specifies three pins on the
as 640x480 at 60Hz. The last of the three bytes HDMI or DVI connectors for signal transmission
defines the manufacturers reserved timings. and data exchange, including the SDA - serial
data line and SCL - serial clock line for I2C, and a
Standard Timing Identification The next +5 volt supply from the source.1 Signals passing
16bytes define eight additional video resolutions through the DDC are separate from the TMDS
supported by the display. These resolutions must lines that carry video and audio.
adhere to standard VESA defined timings.
1. Initial source connection A source device
Detailed Timing Descriptions The next is connected to the sink a common term for
1
DisplayPort supports DDC but
does not utilize the I2C bus for
72bytes are organized into four 18-byte blocks a display or other video destination and is transmitting DDC signals or
that describe additional video resolutions in detail, powered up. Per the DDC specification, the EDID between devices. Instead,
it translates the I2C bus into a
so that custom video timings or resolutions can be source supplies +5 volts to the sink. This powers designated auxiliary channel at the
supported. The first of the four blocks is intended the sinks EDID circuitry so that EDID exchange source and sink connections.
to describe the displays preferred video timing.
The timing data can be structured according to
the VESA GTF - Generalized Timing Formula or
Table 5-2. EDID File Structure
CVT - Coordinated Video Timings standards.
Address
Subsequent blocks may contain additional timing Data General Description
(Decimal)
descriptions or a display description including the 0-7 Header Constant fixed pattern
model name and serial number. 8-9 Manufacturer ID
10-11 Product ID Code
Display product identification
Extension Flag EDID versions 1.3 and higher 12-15 Serial Number

allow for additional 128-byte blocks of data 16-17 Manufacture Date


18 EDID Version #
to describe enhanced capabilities. This byte EDID version information
19 EDID Revision #
indicates the number of additional extension
20 Video Input Type
blocks available. Various structures for these Basic display parameters: video input
21 Horizontal Size (cm)
type (analog or digital), display size, power
extension blocks have been defined, including 22 Vertical Size (cm) management, sync, color space, and
DIEXT - Display Information Extension, 23 Display Gamma
timing capabilities and preferences are
reported here
VTBEXT - Video Timing Block Extension, and 24 Supported Features

LSEXT - Localized String Extension. But the 25-34 Color Characteristics Color space definition

most prevalent extension is CEA-861, which 35-36 Established Timings Supported


37 Manufacturer's Reserved Timing
was defined to support advanced capabilities
38-53 EDID Standard Timings Supported
of consumer devices incorporating HDMI. The Timing information for all resolutions
54-71 Detailed Timing Descriptor Block 1
significance of the CEA-861 extension is that it supported by the display are reported here
72-89 Detailed Timing Descriptor Block 2
aims to address previous operational disparities 90-107 Detailed Timing Descriptor Block 3
experienced with integrating consumer-based 108-125 Detailed Timing Descriptor Block 4
display devices into computer-based commercial Number of (optional) 128-byte extension
126 Extension Flag
blocks to follow
AV systems, by allowing for proper conveyance of
127 Checksum
EDID information between devices.
www.extron.com 27
Understanding EDID - Extended Display Identification Data

HDMI and DVI can take place without the need to fully power 4. Transmission of EDID to the source The
specifications require the display. sink receives the command and responds by
sending its EDID to the source through the DDC.
successful EDID
2. Acknowledgement of source connection
communication before and handshaking Once the sinks EDID 5. Source video output based on EDID
a source will output its circuitry is powered up, it signals confirmation The source reads the data within the EDID and
video. of the connection by driving the HPD - Hot Plug responds accordingly by sending its video output
Detect signal from low to high. The HPD pin is to the sink at the preferred resolution, refresh rate,
separate from the DDC and its +5 volt supply line. and color space. The preferred resolution may be
overridden if the user selects an alternate output
3. Request for EDID from the sink When the resolution that complies with the supported video
source has received an HPD high signal, it then timings in the EDID.
sends a command requesting the sinks EDID via
the DDC. 6. HDMI sinks and sources such as consumer
televisions and Blu-ray Disc players For
HDMI sink devices, the EDID usually contains
one or more extension data blocks providing
Figure 5-1. EDID Exchange compatible timings relevant to DTV, as well as
supported audio formats, speaker allocation, and
Display is Connected
if present, lip sync delay. The source detects the
Just got hooked up. presence of these extension blocks via a flag in
Understanding EDID is an Extron white Its time to assert myself.
Zzz... the primary EDID block, and then requests them
paper that offers an in-depth look into the
operational process and pitfalls users may from the sink.
encounter when integrating EDID-reliant
source and display devices.
Initial Connection
The HPD and EDID handshake process is
illustrated in Figure 5-1. It is important to mention
HPD goes HIGH
here that HDMI and DVI specifications require
I sense a disturbance in the
video output linesHPD went successful EDID communication before a source
from LOW to HIGH so it means
something changed at my will output its video. EDID communication, in turn,
output port. I must investigate!
is dependent on successful HPD handshaking.
HPD

Display drives
HPD signal high Additionally, for HDCP-encrypted content, EDID
EDID Exchange communication must be completed first before

My name is Elsie Dee


HDCP authentication can occur. Exchange of
Tell me about yourself
so Ill know what
signals to generate.
I was born on
I prefer to display 1080p/60 and I
information for HDCP occurs over the same DDC
can play stereo audio. Heres a
list of other video resolutions that lines for EDID exchange. We'll discuss HDCP in-
I can handle: 720p, WXGA
depth in the following section.

DDC lines active EDID Issues


Display devices can have various levels of
Video Output
EDID implementation and, in some cases, they
The user commanded me to may lack EDID information altogether. Such
generate 720p, so thats what
youll get. This video is inconsistencies can cause operational issues
protected content, so next lets
exchange HDCP Keys ranging from overscan and resolution problems,
to the display device not displaying the source
Video and DDC lines active content at all.

28 Extron Digital Design Guide


The following are examples of some potential integration, since the ability to switch digital video EDID communication
issues with EDID communications, along with the signals is a necessity. problems can arise
possible causes:
from inconsistencies in
Problem
Problem An image is shown, but the source resolution the implementation of
No image is shown on the display. does not match that of the display, or the colors HPD signaling between
are incorrect. devices.
Possible Cause
The source device, such as a PC graphics card, Possible Causes
or laptop, cannot read the EDID information A source device cannot read the EDID
from the display. As a result, in some cases the information, so it defaults to a standard resolution
source will not output any video signal. There and color space, such as 640x480 and RGB. If
can be many reasons for the inability to read the user subsequently attempts to manually
EDID, including poor connections, damaged set the resolution to match the display, some
components, or incompatibilities between source graphics card drivers may still enforce the lower
and display. default resolution, and create a scrolling or
panning desktop without actually changing the
Problem video resolution.
The display loses the image when a new source
has been selected. The source device is able to read the EDID
information, but limits the output resolution
Possible Causes to XGA 1024x768 or 720p, resolutions most
This has been a common occurrence with VGA displays can accommodate, to ensure a usable
sources, due to the lack of hot plug detection. image and reducing the likelihood of no image
being displayed. However, if this does not match
While hot plug detection is supported for DVI, the native resolution the display, fonts will likely
HDMI, and DisplayPort, EDID communication appear to be abnormally large, small, or fuzzy.
problems can arise from inconsistencies in
the implementation of HPD signaling between The source device is connected to multiple
devices from different manufacturers. This displays with different native resolutions using
frequently becomes an issue for professional a distribution amplifier or matrix switcher. Since

Figure 5-2. Graphics formatted for 720p are likely to appear fuzzy when scaled up on a native
1080p display.
Native 720p Native 1080p
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www.extron.com 29
Understanding EDID - Extended Display Identification Data

The necessity to the source device can only read EDID from one Extron EDID Emulation is a feature of
switch, distribute, display, its output will be mismatched in resolution many Extron products, including switchers,
with other displays, resulting in less than optimal distribution amplifiers, matrix switchers, and
and route signals
image quality, or no image displayed at all. This signal processors. It maintains constant EDID
from sources to issue is a common occurrence in professional communication with source devices by providing
displays presents systems when digital video signals need to be pre-stored EDID information for various signal
a considerable distributed or routed to multiple displays. Such a resolutions. A user can select the desired signal
scenario is illustrated in Figure 5-2. resolution, and then the corresponding EDID
challenge in terms of
block is conveyed to all attached source devices.
ensuring proper EDID There are many other possible issues related This EDID information is constantly available to
communications. to EDID communications. Please refer to the the sources, even in a switching application where
Extron white paper, EDID: A Guide to Identifying inputs are regularly selected and deselected. The
and Resolving Common Issues, for detailed output of the sources should ideally match the
information on EDID issues encountered in the native resolution of the intended display device.
field, and guidance on resolving them. Having
a good understanding of these issues will help Extron EDID Minder is an advanced,
facilitate successful planning for managing EDID Extronexclusive technology for EDID
in a system design. management. It encompasses EDID Emulation,
but also incorporates an additional level of
Tools for Viewing EDID Content intelligence. Extron products with EDID Minder
Free software, including Extron EDID Manager
can communicate with the display device, and
and Monitor Asset Manager from EnTech, are automatically capture and store EDID information
available for viewing the contents of an EDID. from the display. This is illustrated in Figure 5-3.
Monitor Asset Manager should be used on a PC This captured information can then be used as the
running Windows 7 or higher. Examining an EDID reference EDID for the sources. EDID Minder is a
EDID: A Guide to Identifying and Resolving
Common Issues is an Extron white paper is usually the best way to determine a display's standard feature in Extron extenders, switchers,
that offers a clear explanation of common preferred and compatible resolutions, as well as distribution amplifiers, matrix switchers, and
EDID-related issues, and suggested
guidelines for resolving them. other attributes such as audio formats. signal processors.

EDID Solutions
AV systems typically comprise several remotely
located displays and often include multiple
Figure 5-3. EDID Minder Communications
source devices. It is important to realize this can
potentially contribute to EDID-related issues. The Here is my native
resolution and vertical
necessity to switch, distribute, and route signals refresh rate.

from sources to displays presents a considerable Video EDID

challenge in terms of ensuring proper EDID


OK, sending video
Output
communications and therefore reliable system to fit your format.

operation.
Video
Input
Extron products include features to help prevent EDID Minder
Laptop
or solve many EDID-related problems by properly
Video
managing EDID communications between Input
EDID Minder
sources and displays in AV systems. These Tablet

features provide automatic and continuous EDID Video


Input
management with source devices, ensuring Blu-ray Player EDID Minder
proper power-up and reliable output of content.
30 Extron Digital Design Guide
The functional role of a given product as a EDID Minder Configuration Proper EDID
distribution amplifier, switcher, or matrix switcher EDID Minder can easily be configured through management within
determines the complexity of EDID Minder an intuitive user interface provided with Extron
the system is crucial to
implementation. Matrix switching represents the PCS - Product Configuration Software, as
most difficult EDID management scenario, with well as XTP System Configuration Software. consistent and reliable
simultaneous EDID communications required From a single screen, you can view EDID from operation.
for multiple inputs and outputs. The displays all connected displays, as well as a library of
connected to the outputs are very likely to be of preconfigured EDID. Each EDID selection is
different models and native resolutions. The EDID depicted as a display-shaped icon with the
information between them is different and needs preferred video timing and audio format. For a
to be conveyed to the source devices. Proper matrix switcher, an additional feature allows you
EDID management within the system is crucial to to select EDID for multiple connected displays,
consistent and reliable operation. and then view a list of common video timings
between them.
Extron matrix switchers, in particular, offer
extensive EDID management capabilities by To assign an EDID to the inputs, it's as easy as
allowing the capture and storage of EDID from clicking on the icon for the EDID you want to use,
attached displays for communication to individual and then selecting one or more available inputs
or all input devices. Additionally, the EDID by clicking on the appropriate checkboxes.
can be modified by issuing commands to the With the PCS or XTP software, setting up
switcher, enabling the user to address specific EDID communication is always intuitive and
input and output connections that may have straightforward, whether you're working with an
unique resolution, refresh rate, and color space extender, switcher, distribution amplifier, matrix
requirements. This powerful convenience feature switcher, an entire XTP System or DTP System,
delivers flexibility in design to the integrator, helps or the many other Extron products equipped with
ensure consistent and reliable image display, and EDID Minder.
makes system operation virtually transparent to
the end user.

EDID Minder is intuitive to set up with Extron XTP System Configuration Software.
www.extron.com 31
DRM for the AV Professional

Users should be made What is DRM? familiar adage of Just because one can, doesnt
aware of the potential DRM - digital rights management is used by mean one should is fully appropriate in this case.
owners and holders of IP - intellectual property
issues that may arise
to enforce restrictions on the use of their HDCP-compliant systems are increasingly being
from inadvertent copyrighted content. requested by customers and integrators alike.
public display of This type of system could be used to show
private-use, content- In the AV industry, DRM is used to secure digital protected content in public spaces. Therefore,
music and video content to prevent unauthorized users should be made aware of the potential
protected materials.
playback or copying. For digital video content issues that may arise from inadvertent public
protection, the most prevalent DRM systems display of content-protected materials intended
are HDCP - High-bandwidth Digital Content only for private use. During system commissioning
Protection and AACS - Advanced Access and training, the integrator should consider
Content System. HDCP is an encryption protocol educating system operators, and even include
applied to digital interfaces including HDMI, discussion of DRM and content protection within
DVI, and DisplayPort. AACS is a standard for system documentation. Of course, this is not
encrypting high definition optical discs that also as much of an issue for residential installations,
works in conjunction with HDCP. where the entire system is generally intended for
personal use.
DRM exists to protect the rights of content
creators and owners to receive compensation DRM for Video Two Separate Protocols
for their original ideas and subsequently bringing That Work Together
them to market. Movies and music are the HDCP
most recognized source content within the AV HDCP is designed to prevent unauthorized
industry that is impacted by DRM enforcement. access of protected video content and to enforce
An individual who purchased a copy-protected restrictions on authorized playback. HDCP-
Bluray Disc or DVD, for example, is entitled enabled video sources, such as Bluray Disc
to utilize that disc only within a personal-use players, PCs, and other digital media devices
1
 ommon examples of repeaters
C
environment, which extends to the home or always undergo a three-step process to protect
are switchers, distribution
amplifiers, and matrix switchers. other private viewing locale. For that movie to the video from unauthorized access:
be played in a public space, additional licensing
requirements must first be met. If that licensing 1. Authentication. The video source determines
Multiple display system in a public space
environment. has not been obtained, significant fines can be that all devices connected to its outputs are
levied against the offender. These fines may very authorized and able to receive encrypted video.
well extend to the owner of the installed system. This is accomplished by means of an initial
authorization handshake protocol, whereby
AV systems in public spaces are the center of our cryptographic public keys, a KSV - Key Selection
industry, with installations taking place on a daily Vector, and encrypted messages are exchanged
basis. It is for this reason that DRM considerations between the source and the downstream devices
must be made and addressed at the earliest point connected to its outputs.
of system design. The time when needs are being
assessed for an AV integration project is also the The HDCP 1.4 specification calls for a maximum
time to determine the functional requirements of of 127 simultaneous devices connected
a given system. This is when the sales engineer downstream from the source, and up to seven
should ask the right questions and inform the allowable levels of repeater devices1 between the
prospective customer on the legalities involved source and the display also known as the sink.
with personal-use devices and material being The source uses the initial handshake protocol to
used in public and commercial spaces. The old, determine that these system size restrictions are
32 Extron Digital Design Guide
not violated. HDCP version 1.4 is currently the nearly instantaneous switching between HDCP- HDCP 2.0 replaces
most widely implemented specification. As will encrypted sources. the specialized 56-bit
soon be discussed, HDCP 2.0 further restricts
HDCP 1.x encryption
the maximum allowable number of simultaneous Until the introduction of HDCP 2.0, the basic
devices and repeater levels. protocol of HDCP had not changed substantially. scheme with two
The only major differences between HDCP standard algorithms
2. Content Encryption. After the source versions 1.0 through 1.4 is in the types of physical from the data security
authenticates that all downstream devices are AV connections. HDCP version 1.0 applied
industry.
HDCP-compliant and in good standing, and that to the DVI interface. Version 1.1 incorporated
no system size restrictions are violated, the source HDMI, and support for DisplayPort was added
sends encrypted video downstream. The source for version1.3. With the release of version 2.0
will then periodically change the encryption key in October 2008, HDCP became interface-
for the video as an additional security measure. independent, and can be applied to any two-
way digital transmission between sources and
3. Renewability. Since HDCP relies on digital displays, wired or wireless, compressed or
encryption using secret keys, the system can uncompressed. See Table 6-1.
be circumvented if the secret keys residing in
HDCP-licensed products fall into the wrong HDCP 2.0 calls for many other important
hands. Therefore, a means has to be established changes. It adds a locality check to the
to revoke any compromised keys. The HDCP authentication protocol, to ensure that only
administration authority, Digital Content devices nearby will be able to receive protected
Protection, LLP can add a list of public keys of content. Furthermore, HDCP 2.0 replaces the
compromised products to video content such as specialized 56-bit HDCP 1.x encryption scheme
Blu-ray Disc. Video sources will read this data, with two standard algorithms from the data
store it in non-volatile memory, and compare the security industry: for authentication, an RSA
public keys of any downstream devices against system with 1024 and 3072-bit keys; and for
this revocation list. If any key matches, no video content encryption, a 128-bit AES - Advanced
will be transmitted. Encryption System. In addition, the maximum
number of connected devices is reduced to 32,
Figures 6-1 and 6-2 on the following pages
provide a step-by-step illustration of the
Table 6-1. Comparing Major HDCP Revisions
communications that occur between devices
within an HDCP-based system. HDCP 1.x HDCP 2.x
Authentication:
Data security industry standard RSA
The multi-step process of HDCP authentication Specialized 56-bit
1024 and 3072-bit asymmetric system
symmetric system used
Encryption Method
can take several seconds to complete. This is a for both authentication Video encryption:
and video encryption Data security industry standard
primary reason for the perceived sluggishness AES 128-bit symmetric system
of some digital video systems, especially during Applicable Interfaces DVI, HDMI, DisplayPort Any two-way digital interface
startup and when video signals are switched
Maximum Downstream
< 128 < 32
or re-routed, requiring HDCP re-authentication. Receivers for Each Transmitter

The best switching performance can be realized Maximum Repeater Levels for
<7 <4
Each Transmitter
in HDCP-compatible video equipment built
Specification defines conversion
to minimize re-authentication through careful Backward Compatibility N/A
mechanism for interfacing with HDCP 1.x
internal design and proper deployment of HDCP Content flagged as high value (e.g. 4K
High Value Content
N/A movies) may be restricted for display only
processing components. Extron switchers Indentification
on connections protected by HDCP 2.1+
feature KeyMinder, an exclusive technology Explicitly specified with new locality
Wireless Support Not specified
check requirement
for HDCP key management that enables fast,
www.extron.com 33
DRM for the AV Professional

HDCP specifications Figure 6-1. Phase 1: Communication process between source and sink devices in an
HDCP-based system.
define total
supported device Initial Key Exchange

counts, maximum Heres my public key Heres my public key


Aksv: 101101... Bksv: 01100...
repeater levels, and You have 100 ms
to get through this Remember this number
An: 010011...
Im not a repeater

timing expectations
Data Transmitting
for system-wide
communications Calculate Shared Secret Keys

exchange.
Your public key checks Now I can compute the
out. Now I can compute secret key Km from our
the secret key Km from our public keys*:
public keys*: 1110100... 1110100...

* Km and Km are computed using each devices private key along with the public keys of both
devices. This is a special calculation that results in matching Km=Km IF all the keys are valid.

Encrypt a Message Using Secret Key

Now I can use MY Now I can use MY secret


secret key Km to key Km to encrypt An to
encrypt An to form a form a message RO:
message RO: 0000110... 0000110...

Receiver Demonstrates Secret Key Knowledge

Here is an encrypted
message RO:
0000110...

Data Transmitting

Initial Authentication

Your encrypted message


matches mine, and you
gave it to me in less than
100 ms

Transmit Video

OK, here is your encrypted video:


1111111100 0011001101
1011100010 100000001
0001111000 000100000
1111000100 0011000100
0111110110 1011000010...

Data Transmitting

34 Extron Digital Design Guide


Figure 6-2. Phase 2: Communication process between source, repeater, and sink An AV device with
devices in an HDCP-based system.
digital video inputs
Initial Key Exchange must support HDCP,
REPEATER!? You HDCP
if a user expects to
Heres my Heres my public
have 5 seconds to
tell me whos
public key
Aksv: 101101...
key Bksv: 001100...
Im a REPEATER
Tx
connect a PC to it
downstream
HDCP
Rx and play commercial
HDCP
Blu-ray Discs or other
Tx
protected content.

Repeater Performs Initial Authentication with Connected Devices


Downstream Device Keys are Collected

HDCP
Tx
Phase 1
Authentication
Procedure Phase 1
HDCP
Authentication
Rx
Procedure

HDCP
Tx

Repeater Reports Key List and Topology

Here are the keys of


downstream devices: HDCP
0010011... Tx

0001100...
Here is how they are connected: HDCP
Data Rx
Transmitting Sink
Sink
Repeater HDCP
Sink Tx
Sink

Transmitter Validates Connections

You were ready to give me downstream HDCP


info in less than 5 seconds. Tx
The downstream device keys havent
been revoked. HDCP
There are less than 128 total Rx
downstream devices.
There are less than 7 levels of HDCP
repeaters connected downstream. Tx

Repeater Authentication Complete

OK, here is your


OK, here is your encrypted video:
encrypted video: HDCP 0110001100
1111111100 Tx 0011011110
0011001101 1110000010
1011100010 0001101110...
Separately
1000000001... HDCP Encrypted Data
Rx Transmitting
Data OK, here is your
Transmitting encrypted video:
HDCP 1111111100
Tx 1011100010
0001111000
1111000100...

www.extron.com 35
DRM for the AV Professional

The HDCP licensing and the maximum level of repeaters is reduced to unauthorized copying of commercial Blu-ray Disc
agreement does not four. As a result of all these changes, HDCP 2.0 is and DVD, respectively, and both systems have
not directly backward compatible with HDCP1.x. mechanisms for revoking compromised players.
allow for analog video
The new specification provides for conversion AACS offers greater protection than CSS in the
outputs on repeater or between HDCP 1.x and HDCP 2.0 to support following areas:
display devices. mixed AV systems with devices that comply with
both versions. AACS employs AES 128-bit encryption, while
CSS implements 40-bit encryption
HDCP 2.1 was released in July 2011 and
introduced a mechanism for identifying high-valued AACS allows for the revocation of individual
content as Type 1, such as movies or videos Bluray Disc players, whereas CSS can only
in 4K. In a network with mixed HDCP1.x and revoke entire models of DVD players
HDCP 2.x equipment, content flagged as Type 1
will be restricted for processing and display only AACS encrypts the digital outputs of Blu-ray
on equipment capable of HDCP 2.1 or higher. Disc players with HDCP

HDCP 2.2 was released in October 2012 to AACS provides for the elimination of
update and strengthen the authentication and analog video outputs on Blu-ray Disc players
locality check procedures introduced in HDCP2.0 manufactured after 2013
and subsequently carried over to HDCP 2.1.
The final AACS specification includes a provision
AACS for making authorized copies of Blu-ray Discs,
Introduction to HDCP 2.2 is an Extron white AACS is the DRM standard adopted for Bluray whereby a recording device can connect to
paper that provides a foundational primer
on HDCP 2.2 and earlier HDCP 1.x versions,
Disc. AACS is designed to protect Blu-ray Internet servers at the AACS LA - AACS Licensing
including their relation to 4K video and HDMI. Disc content, similar to the way that the CSS - Administrator to obtain electronic permission to
Content Scramble System protects commercial make a legitimate copy of protected content.
DVDs, but with additional features. Both AACS
and CSS encrypt the video data on-disc, so that Analog Outputs
only authorized players can read the content. The HDCP licensing agreement does not allow
See Table 6-2. Both AACS and CSS prevent for analog video outputs on repeater or display
devices, but does not restrict analog outputs for
Table 6-2. Differences Between CSS and AACS Encryption sources. Nonetheless, this does not preclude
separate agreements that would prevent analog
DVDs (CSS) Blu-ray Discs (AACS)
outputs on source devices. Such agreements
Encryption Method
Specialized 40-bit stream Data security industry-standard AES could be negotiated on an ad hoc basis between
cipher 128-bit symmetric system
content providers and hardware makers.
All players in a model
Player Revocation Individual players can be revoked
range are revoked
Hidden disc lead-in area The May 2008 United States FCC - Federal
Encrypted volume ID prevents bit-for-bit
Disc Copy Prevention prevents bit-for-bit disc
copy
disc copy Communications Commission decision to grant

Macrovision applied at HDCP applied at digital outputs limited capability to disable analog outputs for
Output Signal Scrambling
analog outputs Macrovision applied at analog outputs premium pay-per-view is one example. The AACS
Authorized copies are possible by licensing agreement, however, is very specific
connecting to AACS LA server and
Managed Disc Copying No provisions about analog outputs and provides for several
obtaining permission (details to be
finalized)
measures to control them. Blu-ray Disc titles that
Players manufactured after 2010 may not
have high definition analog outputs support AACS have usage rules data embedded
Analog Sunset No provisions
Players manufactured after 2013 may not in them that allow the content producer to
have any analog outputs
limit the analog output resolution by invoking
36 Extron Digital Design Guide
SELECTABLE HDCP AUTHORIZATION
In professional AV systems, there is often a need to incorporate However, if an HDCP-compliant switcher is connected between
sources, displays, and other devices that differ in their HDCP the same computer and the codec, the codec may receive no
capabilities. For example, some computers encrypt with HDCP by video. In this scenario, the computer senses an HDCP-compliant
default, even when the video content does not require encryption, downstream device and encrypts the video accordingly, whereas
while videoconferencing codecs, streaming and recording systems, the switcher will not send video to the codec, since the codec is not
and other equipment normally do not support HDCP decryption, HDCPcompliant.
see Figure 6-3.
A useful feature for professional digital video switching equipment
In the case of a direct connection between the always-encrypting is the capability to selectively disable HDCP authorization at any
computer and the videoconferencing codec, the computer may be input. This will always allow content not requiring encryption to be
induced to send unencrypted video if the content does not actually successfully transmitted to codecs and other non-HDCP compliant
require encryption. This is because it is able to sense that the sink equipment. As a result of disabling HDCP authorization, encrypted
device is not HDCP-compliant. content will never be passed from the source to the switcher.

Figure 6-3
Some computers and tablets encrypt the video output by default as a general policy, even if
the content to be displayed does not require HDCP encryption. Connecting such a source
through an HDCP-compliant switcher to a non-HDCP capable sink device such as a VC
codec or video capture equipment can result in no video.

I cant send you


I always encrypt
any video because But its just a
my output
the input signal is spreadsheet
whether or not
encrypted and you
the content
are not
requires it
HDCP-compliant

Encrypted HDMI No Video

HDCP-Compliant Non-HDCP compliant sink


Source output switcher (e.g. VC Codec)
encrypted by default
HDCP Authorized

Extron switching products such as the IN1608 are HDCP-compliant with selectable HDCP
authorization at digital video inputs. By de-authorizing HDCP at the switcher, a connected
video source that encrypts its output by default may send unencrypted video if the content
does not actually require HDCP.

Not HDCP
Removing HDCP
compliant? OK,
authorization at this
Ill show
input disables HDCP
unprotected
communications
content ONLY!

Unencrypted Unencrypted
HDMI HDMI

HDCP-Compliant Non-HDCP compliant sink


No encryption for switcher (e.g. VC Codec)
unprotected content
HDCP Authorized

www.extron.com 37
DRM for the AV Professional

In the case of the ICT - Image Constraint Token, or even to used to restrict the allowable viewing duration of
protected HD video disable the analog outputs entirely by invoking rented video content and the ability to transfer
the DOT - Digital Only Token. The AACS license the video to different devices. In the case of
streams or downloads, agreement also provided for an analog sunset protected HD video streams or downloads,
HDCP support is for newly manufactured Blu-ray Disc players, HDCP support is required on any device that is
required on any device such that models manufactured after 2010 could playing the video.
that is playing the only include standard definition analog outputs,
and after 2013, no Blu-ray Disc players were Therefore, a display with digital video inputs must
video. manufactured with any analog outputs. support HDCP, if a user expects to connect a
computer to it and play streamed or downloaded
Computers commercial HD content.
There are numerous DRM schemes for
computers. The computer industry is a major Conclusion
source of innovation for content creation, as well Any AV system that is intended to support
as for unauthorized reproduction of that content. playback of protected video content, such as
Computer DRM methods have been devised Blu-ray Disc and consumer-purchased HD
to protect software, digital music, digital video, video downloads, must be compliant with the
digital books, games, etc. The present discussion associated DRM. Since DRM implementations
will be limited to video content played on a such as HDCP and AACS are meant to legally
computer and the associated DRM schemes restrict what the end user can do with protected
therein. These DRM schemes are mainly for content, it is important that the AV professional
preventing unauthorized access of protected informs the end user of these restrictions at the
DRM for the AV Professional is an Extron commercial video such as Blu-ray Discs or outset. Such restrictions include a maximum
white paper that introduces the two
downloaded movies or TV shows. number of simultaneous displays for content-
prevalent DRM protocols in use AACS for
protecting digital source content, and HDCP protected video playback, disallowing recording
for securing digital video interfaces.
The same AACS and HDCP restrictions apply or copying, and disabling analog outputs. For
for PC Blu-ray Disc playback as for standalone example, an AV system may have the capability
players. Thus, a PC must be equipped with to distribute HDMI video to 16 displays and
an output capable of HDCP encryption. An AV provide video recording. These functions will
device with digital video inputs must support always be available when a PC with HDMI output
HDCP, if a user expects to connect such a PC to is delivering PowerPoint presentations and other
it and play commercial Blu-ray Discs. non-protected material. But once a protected
Blu-ray Disc is inserted into the PC for playback,
The market for downloading or streaming of HDCP and AACS restrictions may disable output
commercial video content is crowded with to the recorder and any displays that are not
companies and products. Current market players HDCP compliant.
include Amazon, Apple, Google, Netflix, Hulu,
and Vudu. These companies offer a plethora of Since many large-scale AV systems can display
options for the end user. Movies or TV shows can video on a large number of displays, and provide
be rented or purchased, some in high definition, video recording capabilities, end users of such
but many at lower definition. The video may be systems must be made aware that some system
either streamed or stored locally to a computer, functions may not be available when playing
mobile device, networked set-top receiver, DRM-protected content. If the AV system is to
Bluray Disc player, video game console, or be installed in a public setting, then the end user
smart TV connected to the Internet. The one must be informed of the restrictions associated
constant among all these different options is the with copy-protected material intended only for
existence of DRM for protected content, which is private use.
38 Extron Digital Design Guide
System Design Considerations

Until now, we have been focusing on the distributing signals, and ensuring a fully functional Good system design
principles and concepts of digital video, including system to the clients satisfaction. A system that practice always begins
formats, the elementary nature of the signals, fails to satisfy the end user can result in project
with a clearly defined
and proper management of EDID and HDCP delays, expensive system redesigns, and possibly
throughout the system. In this section, theoretical even structural modifications. needs assessment.
principles will be put into practice, in the context
of real-world considerations for designing AV It is essential that you document a summary of
systems. the project that fully describes the needs and
expectations of the client. This document, also
The key to any successful system design, known as a scope of work, should be written
whether for a single room or an entire facility, in a manner that is easy to comprehend for all
is based on understanding the requirements stakeholders, including non-technical personnel
and expectations of the end user, and then fully and executives that authorize the AV technology
satisfying them. A good design is streamlined and investment. Both the integrator or system
efficient, delivered on-time and within budget, designer, and customer should review and sign
and yields maximum reliability, performance, and off on this document to verify mutual agreement
cost savings. Another important consequence on the projects overview and objectives. When
of a good system design is a final walk-through possible, the client should engage all relevant
with the client that affirms complete customer partners in reviewing the scope of work, including
satisfaction. technology managers, AV technicians, and those
who will be managing or supporting the systems.
Assessing Functional Requirements and
Creating a Scope of Work Needs Assessment
Good system design practice always begins with The first meeting with your customer is the ideal
a clearly defined needs assessment. It is always opportunity for a general assessment of the facility,
important to fully ascertain how the end user the organization, and how the client intends to
intends to use AV technology in the environment use AV technology. Usually, the approach is to
or facility. Defining user needs is a vital first step first begin with some basic questions, and then
in eventually specifying all of the equipment, delve into a more specific inquiry into the intended
signal format, network, and signal distribution installations and applications. This is an important
requirements. The ultimate goal is to create step toward further defining the technical aspects
effective design strategies for managing and of the system design. The information you gather

An important first step in AV system design is a meeting with the end user to assess the essential AV
application needs.
www.extron.com 39
System Design Considerations

The information you during the needs assessment phase will allow Once you have covered the basics, you can then
gather during the you to create your scope of work, and then proceed with more detailed questions to get a
proceed to the in-depth documentation for the better understanding of how AV will be used in
needs assessment
system design or design-bid specification. the facility.
phase will allow you to
create your scope of General overview What is the nature of the AV distribution and transmission What are
work. business or organization? What is the type of the specific types of spaces where AV is to be
environment into which AV technology will be installed? Will there ever be a desire to share
used? a presentation among multiple areas? How
much flexibility is the client expecting in terms of
Functional overview What are the specific distributing or broadcasting AV content between
functions of the business or organization? rooms or spaces?
Could AV systems be beneficial or important
to these functions? You should be aware that Networking Are there plans for
more businesses are prioritizing their technology teleconferencing, unified communications, AV
investments in direct relevance to their line-of- recording, distance learning, or collaboration?
business requirements. This is a great opportunity Is there an expectation for playing AV content
to inform the client on potential use cases relating from files on a network share? Will support be
to the objectives of the business. necessary for tablets or BYOD - Bring Your Own
Device? Some involvement with IT is highly likely,
Intended system users Who will be and depending on the resources at your firm, it
accessing the AV systems? Will senior or C-level may be necessary to consult networking, data
executives have systems in their offices or center, and communications expertise.
locations? Who will be the general audiences for
viewing AV content? Answers to these questions Information-specific applications Does
are key to identifying user interfaces, expectations the company plan to incorporate business
for system performance, architectural and intelligence, big data, analytics, digital signage,
aesthetic considerations, and a starting point in social media, or other data-driven operations
defining the scope and scale for distributing AV into AV systems? If so, there will very likely be
within and between rooms in the facility. the display of dashboard screens populated with

Collaboration environments such as small meeting rooms and huddle spaces are now popular in many organizations, with ideal opportunities
for AV integration.
40 Extron Digital Design Guide
detailed text and graphs for visualizing data. This be supported. AV access points can be provided AV access points
may necessitate considerations for ergonomics, at a meeting table, wall, lectern, podium, can be provided at a
text legibility, and other human factors in regard credenza, or many other types of furniture.
meeting table, wall,
to viewing and display locations. You can also opt for supporting wireless AV
connections from mobile devices. lectern, podium,
Future plans Are there plans for expanding credenza, or many
the AV systems? Is the client expecting the Owner-Furnished Equipment and other types of furniture.
systems to support 4K and other new or LegacyDevices
emerging technologies? Ask the client about any existing AV equipment
to be included in the system. In educational
Identify AV Sources and Destinations institutions there is frequently the need to support
Having completed your general needs older PCs, VCRs, and specialized equipment
assessment, now is the time to identify the AV with analog video outputs. For enterprises and
equipment based on the room or presentation other organizations, end users often have a
space, and the intended application. The goal desire to preserve technology investments in
at this stage is to have a good idea of the videoconferencing and streaming products that
quantities, types, and locations of source and may lack digital video interfaces or are limited
destination devices, and also any possible areas in the resolutions supported. Be sure that you
for connecting temporary AV devices or systems. are fully aware of any OFE equipment to be
This will be the basis for defining the switching integrated into a new installation, and identify any
capacity requirements based on I/O counts within compatibility issues that may arise due to video
each room and throughout the facility, as well as formats, HDCP, EDID, or other factors.
distances over which AV signals will need to be
distributed. AV Destinations
Identify the type and quantity of displays based
AV Source Devices on the size of the room, viewing locations,
For each room or presentation space designated and the specific AV application. The choice of
for AV, identify and document the sources that whether to select a flat-panel display or projector
will be part of the system, such as PCs, Bluray is usually dictated by the desired screen size and
Disc or DVD players, document cameras, viewing environment. Larger LCD flat panels up
media players, and cable or satellite TV set-top to 100inches and more are increasingly being
units. If the presentation space is to include favored over projectors due to their inherent
videoconferencing or lecture capture, youll brightness and better suitability for areas with
need to specify codecs and video or streaming significant ambient lighting. However, projectors
recorders, unless the intention is to use software are still a necessity for large venues. They may
or cloud-based solutions. Youll also need to also be a more cost-friendly alternative to flat
identify the locations and quantities of cameras panels, especially in environments where ambient
in the rooms. lighting can be controlled.

Guest and Presenter Devices An optional feature for both flat panels and
Guests and presenters often bring their laptops projectors is pen or touch interactivity for
and tablets into boardrooms, meeting rooms, annotation and whiteboard applications.
huddle spaces, classrooms, auditoriums, and Some displays also support wireless content
other locations for collaboration and presentation presentation and annotation from mobile apps.
on a display. Be sure to inquire about locations
where guest devices are to be brought into AV LED displays are mostly associated with
systems, as well as the number of participants to large outdoor signage installations. However,
www.extron.com 41
System Design Considerations

AV system reliability is with recent advancements allowing dramatic design, and can vary widely in terms of input and
largely dependent on reductions in pixel pitch below 2 mm, LED output capacity, features, flexibility, and cost.
displays are becoming popular for indoor AV
a well-designed AV
display applications. Local AV Switching
signal infrastructure. For an individual room or presentation space, the
It is always important to be aware of human type and size of the switcher will be determined
factors when considering the size, quantity, by the equipment in the system, guest or
location, and type of display. The Extron presenter devices to be supported, and whether
Videowall Systems Design Guide offers an there will be connections to additional rooms or a
explanation of human as well as environmental central equipment closet. In many cases, a single-
factors, display and font size considerations, output switcher will suffice. Switchers with two
and other essential topics relating to the user or more simultaneous outputs are also available
experience of an AV system. The discussions for multiple displays. In applications requiring
are specific to videowalls but apply equally to AV separate presentation of content on two or more
systems in general. displays, or supporting videoconferencing or
lecture capture, a matrix switcher provides the
Centralizing or Sharing Sources and flexibility of routing multiple inputs to multiple
Destinations outputs.
Media players, digital signage players, and
streaming media recording and playback Central AV Routing and Distribution
The Extron Videowall Systems Design Guide
is an invaluable technical reference for systems often serve multiple locations in a facility, A matrix switcher is essential in a central
designing videowall systems, with several
real-world designs illustrating practical
and therefore are usually installed in a central equipment rack for supporting sources in the
videowall applications. equipment rack or closet. It may be beneficial to rack and the various destinations to be served
centralize sources such as cable and satellite TV in the facility, as well as AV from rooms and other
receivers, and share them among several rooms, locations. Once you have determined the number
particularly if it is known that they will not be used of inputs and outputs required for the matrix
frequently. Installing a farm of videoconferencing switcher, it is generally good practice to add at
codecs in a central equipment rack or closet least 10 percent to these totals to allow for future
may be much more cost-effective than individual modifications. If any specific system expansion
room systems that will only be used periodically. plans have been identified by the client, then you
Consolidating sources can also save valuable should ensure that they can be accommodated
space in rooms. by the matrix switcher and in your system design.

In some facilities such as schools and In addition to the number of inputs and outputs,
courthouses, it is common to share displays there are several other important considerations
and AV equipment by installing them on portable when selecting the right switcher or matrix
carts. A cart is rolled into a room as needed, and switcher for your system design. Well explore
often connected into an AV system through a these further in subsequent discussions on signal
floor box or wallplate. processing and managing digital video signals.

Define AV Switching and Distribution Define the AV Signal Infrastructure


Requirements AV system reliability is largely dependent on a well-
Having identified the quantities and locations of designed AV signal infrastructure that ensures
source and destination devices, now is the time fully reliable transport of digital video signals from
to assess the switching capacities necessary for the sources to AV switching and distribution
the AV systems. AV switching and distribution is components, and ultimately to the destinations.
one of the most essential elements in any system As discussed in the section Anatomy of a
42 Extron Digital Design Guide
Table 7-1. Digital Video Transmission Mediums

TRANSMISSION TRANSMISSION DISTANCE AV SIGNALS TYPICAL


NOTES
MEDIUM CAPABILITY SUPPORTED APPLICATIONS
Standard video cables Nominally up to 15 feet Video and embedded Direct device Sometimes installed behind
(5meters); cables available audio connections in racks, walls but can be difficult to
with higher length ratings credenzas, lecterns, pull through conduit
conference tables, desks,
Active equalizer allows and other furniture Not easily terminated in the
cable lengths up to 200 feet field
(60meters)

Twisted pair Up to 100 meters (330 feet) Video, embedded Point-to-point signal Economical, easy to install in
audio, stereo audio, extension conduit, easy to terminate in
IR and RS-232 the field
control, Ethernet, AV distribution within a
USB room, between rooms, Shielded twisted pair cable
and between floors highly recommended. Extron
XTP DTP 24 shielded twisted
pair cable specifically
engineered for optimum
high resolution digital video
transmission.

Fiber optics Up to 2 kilometers (1.25miles) Video, embedded AV distribution between Economical, easy to install in
over multimode fiber audio, stereo audio, rooms, floors, buildings, conduit, easy to terminate in
return audio, IR and large venues, or across the field
Up to 30 kilometers RS-232 control, USB campuses
(18.75miles) over singlemode Fiber optic cable should
fiber Organizations with be considered if there is
requirements for secure a requirement for future-
AV communications proofing your AV design.
OM4-type multimode cable
Installation in sensitive or provides data throughput up
hazardous environments to 25 Gigabits per second.

IP networks No theoretical limitations Video, embedded AV distribution to Offers all the conveniences
worldwide AV distribution audio, stereo audio, computer desktops of integration onto standard
possible! return audio, RS-232 and mobile devices, IP networks
control, USB recording AV
presentations, Easily scalable, especially
on-demand video with standards-compliant
playback streaming formats

AV transmission across Often implemented in


geographical regions via conjunction with video
wide area networks and compression, such as
over the Internet H.264, JPEG 2000, or a
proprietary format

Wireless Wireless extenders varies Video, embedded Convenient extension of Wireless collaboration
depending on the specific audio HDMI from a source to systems are ideal for the
technology and vendor, a display, especially in small meeting rooms or
the rated transmission scenarios where a wired huddle spaces that are
capabilities, and the installation is difficult or increasingly popular in
installation environment not feasible enterprises, education, and
other organizations
Wireless collaboration Wireless connection
systems typical of laptops and tablets Some wireless systems
transmission distance for collaborative employ video compression
limits associated with Wi-Fi applications, AV and/or limit frame rates to
technologies or specific presentations, and 30 Hz to reduce bandwidth
wireless protocols such as screen sharing on mobile
AirPlay and Miracast devices

www.extron.com 43
System Design Considerations

A shielded twisted pair Digital Video Signal, digital video signals with The choice of which medium to employ in your
cable construction substantial losses may result in degraded system AV system design may be influenced by the
performance with visible artifacts, intermittent cable plant in place at the facility, or planned
ensures reliable
display, or complete failure. Ensuring maximum for a new construction site. Depending on the
system performance system reliability requires good system design circumstances at the site, AV-specific cable may
by providing important practices that include selection of the proper be pulled by the integrator or a subcontractor.
protection against media and equipment for transmitting AV signals, It is also possible that youll need to coordinate
and using cables within their length limits. Another with IT, data communications, or low voltage
potential EMI and
important consideration is to provide signal paths contractors to procure installation of structured
EMF sources as well with a minimum of cascaded devices and patch cable for your system design, particularly in new
as alien crosstalk in points. construction installations.
bundled cables.
AV Cabling If there is an abundance of so-called dark
Standard cable assemblies for digital video, or unused fiber throughout a building, then it
including HDMI, DVI, and DisplayPort are may be cost-effective to go with a fiber-based
usually sufficient for desktop PCs and relatively AV installation everywhere. While fiber optic
short connections from a source or switcher endpoints and switchers are more expensive
to a display. However, they are generally not than their twisted pair counterparts, the ability
suitable for the considerable distances needed to avoid the considerable costs associated with
for structured cable installation in moderate pulling cables and terminations could make up
to large-sized rooms, or for distributing signals much of the difference. Furthermore, in large-
between rooms and floors in a building. For this scale AV distribution systems throughout a
reason, AV signals need to be transmitted with building or facility, fiber optics offers a lower total
extenders that allow transport over significant cost of ownership than installing twisted pair, due
runs of twisted pair or fiber optic cable. A typical to reduced expenses related to cabling, energy
facility-wide AV signal infrastructure is based on consumption, and keeping equipment cool. The
standard and twisted pair connections within a dark fiber should ideally be multimode OM4,
The Extron Fiber Optic Design Guide is an
essential technical reference aimed at room, twisted pair or fiber optic cable between since it offers the most future-proofing for your
assisting AV professionals in developing the
a central equipment location and the rooms, and system design.
necessary expertise to employ fiber optic
technology in AV systems. fiber optic cable to connect between buildings or
even campuses. For twisted pair structured cable, it is highly
recommended that shielded CATx cable, such as
In addition to standard video and structured CAT 6a, CAT 7, or Extron XTP DTP 24 cable be
cabling, streaming over IP networks and wireless specified for AV system applications. A shielded
transmission are options for transporting AV cable construction ensures reliable system
signals in certain use cases. Table 7-1 provides a performance by providing important protection
detailed summary of the transmission mediums against potential EMI and EMF sources as well
available for professional AV systems, with their as alien crosstalk in bundled cables. Extron
typical applications. XTP DTP24 cable is specifically designed and
guaranteed for the multi-gigabit data rates of
While transmission distance may be the most todays digital video signals, compared to third-
obvious factor in determining whether to employ party data cables that provide varying levels of
a twisted pair or fiber infrastructure in rooms or construction quality and performance.
throughout a facility, the table shows that there
are several other important considerations that AV Endpoints
relate to the nature of the facility, or the intended Twisted pair and fiber optic AV extension
applications. systems always have endpoint devices, including
44 Extron Digital Design Guide
regeneration technology designed to compensate Switching and
for signal losses entering a device. This provides distribution devices
high quality signal paths and ensures consistent
often include
and reliable system operation. However, digital
video signal integrity will be compromised if signal reclocking
a signal passes through too many switching and regeneration
devices as well as patch points such as wallplate technology designed
couplers and patch panels.
to compensate for
As a recommended system design practice, AV signal losses.
Walls are popular user access locations for connecting
presentation devices into an AV system. signal paths should include as few switching
devices and patch points as possible. In
a transmitter near the source, and a receiver a typical scenario, a path includes a local
situated close to a display or other destination. switcher in a room and a matrix switcher in
They can be used in a point-to-point extension the central equipment closet. Additionally,
application from a source to a display, or in large- always select a switcher or matrix switcher with
scale systems with twisted pair or fiber optic signal reconditioning, which will further ensure
switching and distribution. high quality signals passing through it. Extron
switchers and matrix switchers include signal
It is important to define all locations where an reclocking and regeneration technology at the
AV endpoint device is needed, and ensure that inputs and outputs.
power and sufficient space will be available for
them. Endpoint devices are available in standard Network Access
tabletop form factors as well as wallplate models Many if not most AV devices can be connected
for providing AV access points on walls, in into a network for system control, Internet access,
floor boxes, or on furniture such as lecterns. network shares, or even printing. You or your
For Europe and other markets outside North client will need to coordinate with IT operations
America, Extron offers specific floor box twisted and possibly the data communications contractor
pair extenders for these regions. to procure network drops, IP addresses, potential
bandwidth loads, QoS - Quality of Service
Transmitting devices are commonly installed in provisioning, or VLAN or subnet configurations
rooms to provide convenient AV access for guest for AV-specific network traffic. This is similarly
presenters. They are also frequently installed important for any equipment such as projectors,
in equipment racks for transmitting AV signals tablets, laptops, wireless AV extenders, and
from sources or a switcher. Many switchers and wireless presentation systems with a need
matrix switchers combine local and AV extender for WiFi access to the central network. Youll
connections, providing internal signal conversion also need to be aware of any possible security
and avoiding the need for separate endpoint issues, Wi-Fi technologies and network protocols
devices in the rack. supported by the devices, and be sure that
everything in the AV system will conform to IT
AV Signal Paths policies.
As youre defining the signal paths in your system
design, be aware of the number of devices, Scaling and Signal Processing
switchers, and connection points through which An ideal system design will include all sources
signals must traverse on their way from a source and destinations with matching video formats
to a destination. Switching and distribution the same interfaces at all inputs and outputs, and
devices often include signal reclocking and resolutions from the sources matching the native
www.extron.com 45
System Design Considerations

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR 4K VIDEO


Among the newest challenges facing system designers is figuring specifications include support for 4K at 60 Hz, it is still common to
out how to implement AV systems that support 4K signals. While deliver 4K/60 content over two or four HDMI or DisplayPort 1080p
4K video has been available for over a decade in specialized links, since the technology to extend and distribute 4K at 60 Hz
applications such as visualization, there has recently been a is still evolving. Table 7-2 summarizes 4K support capabilities for
substantial proliferation of 4K flat-panel displays and projectors. New HDMI, DisplayPort, and SDI as of late 2015. For in-depth information
applications and use cases for 4K video presentations are emerging about 4K technologies and distribution, a white paper is available for
within the pro AV industry, such as multi-party videoconferencing and download at www.extron.com/4kpaper.
digital signage. The potential benefits are numerous from a display
with four times the number of pixels for 1080p. Future-Proofing a System Design
Standards, technologies, and product solutions are continuing
4K video is associated with two resolutions. The Digital Cinema to be developed for 4K video. If designing a new system with a
Initiatives - DCI established 4096x2160 as the standard resolution for fiber optics-based infrastructure, be sure to specify OM4-rated
4K digital cinema projectors. The consumer electronics industry has multimode cable, which provides more than enough headroom for
adopted the Ultra High Definition - UHD resolution of 3840x2160, accommodating the very high data rates necessary for 4K at 60 Hz
which maintains the same 16:9 aspect ratio of 1080p HD video. and color bit depths well beyond 8-bit.

The promotion of 4K displays is especially prominent in the Extron Products Support 4K


consumer electronics industry. Therefore, it is possible that you will Extron provides a wide variety of 4K ready product solutions,
be asked about the ability to support 4K in a system design, or including scalers, videowall processors, streaming encoders and
whether you can provide adequate future-proofing to accommodate decoders, media players, and fiber optic and twisted pair signal
4K and whatever else may come in the future. distribution products. Look for the 4K/UHD or 4K/UHD Ready logo.

Designing an AV system today for 4K is certainly possible. However,


as part of your needs assessment process, you should ask how the
client wants to use 4K in the system. The ability to support 4K varies
depending on the video format, the clients intended applications for Products displaying the 4K/UHD logo are available today, and
4K, and the availability of signal extenders and distribution equipment integrate easily into a wide range of 4K and UHD environments.
to transmit 4K video signals within an AV infrastructure.
Products displaying the 4K/UHD Ready logo provide a future-ready
Video Interfaces Supporting 4K upgrade path for new formats with higher resolutions such as
4K video signal transmission is available for HDMI, DisplayPort, 4K and UHD video. For more information about Extron products
and SDI. 4K signals at 30 Hz can be distributed throughout an supporting 4K, please visit www.extron.com/4k.
AV system over a single cable. While the HDMI and DisplayPort

Table 7-2. Video Formats and 4K Support


VIDEO INTERFACE
BANDWIDTH COLOR SAMPLING UHD @ 30 Hz UHD @ 60 Hz
STANDARD
1 cable, 8-bit, 3840x2160 2 cables, 8-bit, 1920x2160
HDMI 1.4 10.2 Gbps 4:4:4
4 cables, 10-bit, 1920x1080 4 cables, 10-bit, 1920x1080
HDMI 2.0 18.0 Gbps 4:2:0 n/a 1 cable, 10-bit, 3840x2160
1 cable, 8-bit, 3840x2160
HDMI 2.0 18.0 Gbps 4:4:4 1 cable, 10-bit, 3840x2160
2 cables, 10-bit, 1920x2160
2 cables, 8-bit, 1920x2160
DisplayPort 1.1 10.8 Gbps 4:4:4 1 cable, 8-bit, 3840x2160
4 cables, 10-bit, 1920x1080
DisplayPort 1.2 21.6 Gbps 4:4:4 1 cable, 16-bit, 3840x2160 1 cable, 10-bit, 3840x21601

DisplayPort 1.3 32.4 Gbps 4:4:4 1 cable, 16-bit, 3840x2160 1 cable, 12-bit, 3840x2160

HD-SDI 1.44 Gbps 4:2:2 4 cables, 10-bit, 1920x1080 n/a

3G-SDI 2.97 Gbps 4:2:2 n/a 4 cables, 10-bit, 1920x1080

1
This is a VESA-specific timing with reduced blanking. It is distinct from the SMPTE UHD video timing.

46 Extron Digital Design Guide


resolutions of the displays. This scenario leads beneficial for streaming applications, providing
to a system without the need for scaling or other a moderate resolution image ideal for mobile
signal processing. devices, while fully preserving important visual
details of the original source content.
Such a system design approach is certainly
possible, especially if all sources happen to be Scalers and signal processors frequently include
set to deliver 1080p video through their HDMI an integrated switcher, and usually offer multiple
outputs to the displays, all of them at 1920x1080 inputs that accept both digital and analog video
native resolutions. However, the reality is that sources. Some matrix switchers also include
many systems will include a variety of sources signal processing capabilities with independent
delivering various output resolutions. While 1080p scaling at the outputs. Scalers can be found in Distributing 4K and UHD Signals in
Professional Environments provides an
may be the most common, there may be high a wide variety of input configurations including introduction to 4K technology and standards,
resolution laptops and PCs with 2560x1600 single input, single output units. Additionally, the relevant design challenges, and practical
system design solutions.
output, for example. There is also the possibility of
supporting legacy PC sources with analog VGA
DEVELOP AN EDID STRATEGY IN YOUR SYSTEM DESIGN
interfaces, and potentially VCRs, older document
Every AV integrator has engineering standards in place to provide guidelines for system
cameras, and other equipment without digital design. An EDID strategy section should be incorporated within these standards
video outputs. Additionally, professional video to address EDID management. A well thought-out, documented EDID strategy
equipment and some medical devices have applied in the early design stages is a very important step in ensuring reliable system
3G-SDI outputs, an interface that can be found in performance with quality image display. Additionally, implementing a sound EDID
strategy can greatly reduce the potential for on-site issues during installation and
large-venue projectors but much less frequently
commissioning.
in other displays.
The following are key points to consider when designing a system:
At the other end, while 1920x1080 is the most Identify destination resolution requirements. The native or preferred display
common native resolution for a display, projectors resolution will determine the EDID setting. For systems that incorporate multiple
with 1920x1200 resolution are popular, and display devices, EDID for the highest common resolution should be selected.

you will frequently encounter XGA and SXGA Identify audio application needs. EDID management applies to audio as well as
projectors in classrooms, courtrooms, and video. Two-channel audio is used for most sound reinforcement applications. If there
is a need to support surround sound, select pre-stored EDID that includes multi-
other environments. Computer monitors are
channel audio formats. If the pre-stored EDID tables do not support a specific format
available in a variety of native resolutions as well, that is needed, such as multi-channel high resolution audio, it will be necessary to
such as 1440x900, 1600x900, 1920x1200, capture EDID from the surround sound processor.
and 2560x1600. All this spells out the potential Identify special EDID requirements. Support for 3D video necessitates use of EDID
necessity for signal processing to scale signals from a 3D-compatible display device. Many professional displays do not support
up or down in resolution, manage mismatches audio, so EDID management with audio support will be necessary if sound system
playback is required.
in aspect ratio between the source content and
display, convert analog formats to digital, and Identify where EDID is being provided to each source device. A system design
may include several AV system components that manage EDID. To ensure the most
more. High quality upscaling and downscaling is
consistent and reliable system operation, always apply EDID management from the
a critical factor in properly conveying visual details device nearest the source.
of the original imagery.
Design systems with EDID management to every source. The system design
should include AV devices that provide active EDID management to every source
Scaling and signal processing are also device. This will ensure robust system operation and reliable video output from the
important when optimizing source signals for sources, especially in systems with switching and distribution.

videoconferencing codecs and streaming media Determine whether multiple EDID settings should be used. In most AV systems,
systems. Some codecs do not accept 1080p a common EDID setting can be used for all sources. However, a specific EDID may
be required for some source devices. For example, a system with 1080p sources
source signals at 60 Hz and require a frame
and displays includes a videoconference codec that only supports 720p output, or
rate reduction to 30 Hz, downscaling to 720p, the system needs a specific surround sound format from a Blu-ray Disc player.
or both. High quality downscaling can be very
www.extron.com 47
System Design Considerations

some twisted pair and fiber optic receivers


DESIGNING AV SYSTEMS FOR SIMPLIFIED INTEGRATION include scaling to optimize the output resolution
A well-executed AV system design not only ensures solid reliability and performance, for a specific display.
but also streamlined system installation. This makes the integration process efficient,
provides valuable time and cost savings, simplifies troubleshooting, expedites system
commissioning, and greatly increases the likelihood of a successful walk-through and
There are many system design approaches
final handover to the client. and strategies when deciding where and how
to incorporate signal processing and manage
A key contributing factor is the selection of AV products that are intuitive for conversion between video formats. Some of
integrators to set up, configure, and validate system performance. Extron has a
these will be explored later in the Guide as we
longstanding reputation for engineering a wide range of convenience-oriented design
features into its AV products, all with the aim of making it easy for integrators to
look at several digital video system designs.
expedite their installations and deliver high quality AV systems to their customers.
Managing EDID, HDCP, and InfoFrames
Setup and Configuration Reliable and dependable system performance
Extron AV switchers, matrix switchers, and signal processors are equipped with a
always begins with proper EDID communication
variety of options for user-friendly setup and configuration. These may include front
panel controls, a built-in Web interface, on-screen menus, and configuration apps. An
and HDCP authentication between sources,
integrator is likely to favor a specific method depending on the application and how displays, and AV devices in between. It is
the system is installed. Regardless of the approach taken, all user interfaces have therefore critical that you plan for handling EDID
been designed to be readily accessible and easy to comprehend. A good AV product and HDCP throughout your system design. This is
design fully accounts for the user experience of the integrator and end user.
generally accomplished by providing high quality
System Status and Signal Validation
signal paths for maintaining signal integrity, and
The ability to validate system operation is important for commissioning purposes the use of EDID and HDCP tools and features
and troubleshooting. A wide range of Extron products include LEDs that allow in scaling, signal processing, switching, and
easy verification of signal presence, audio and video format, HDCP, input selection, distribution equipment.
connection at every twisted pair and fiber optic port, and even whether the
device is powered up. Status indicators and parameters can be found within the
front panel LCD readout, on-screen menus, configuration apps, and the built-in
EDID
Web pages. In addition, many Extron products provide a full-screen green signal A source will deliver a properly formatted video
whenever HDCP-encrypted content is sent to a non-compliant destination, such as output if it has successfully received the EDID of
a videoconferencing codec. Together, these indicators allow quick and easy visual the destination device. This is straightforward in
assessment of operational status throughout a system.
a simple source-display connection, but some
planning and management is necessary in a more
elaborate AV system. The key here is to select
AV switching, distribution, and signal processing
products with EDID setup and configuration
features, such as Extron EDID Minder and
EDIDEmulation. EDID Minder captures EDID from
the display connected to the devices output,
which can then be relayed to sources connected
to the inputs. Extron EDID Emulation provides
Many Extron products include convenient status LEDs on the front panel for verifying signal pre-stored EDID at a variety of video formats, any
presence and HDCP authentication. Some products also include LED indicators for audio and of which can be selected and communicated to
video formats.
a source device.

EDID management features help maintain active


EDID communication at an AV devices inputs
and outputs. This not only ensures reliable
image display and system performance, but also
contributes to fast source switching by avoiding
48 Extron Digital Design Guide
any latency associated with renegotiating a new to be deactivated, so that nonencrypted content Figure 7-1. 3D video frame
structures for the mandatory
EDID handshake when a new source is switched. can be passed successfully. Any copy-protected
3D formats in HDMI 1.4a.
content continues to be encrypted over the PC
A successful system design always includes or tablets digital video output. See page 37 for
effective, well thought-out strategies for EDID further information.
communication between all devices. Further L
information is available in the sidebar on page 47. HDMI InfoFrames
InfoFrames are metadata within an HDMI signal
HDCP that can be used to identify a source device and its R
If there is a source delivering HDCP-encrypted content. InfoFrames are essentially the opposite
content, then all AV devices in the signal path of EDID in that the data is communicated from Frame Packing
Left and right images are stacked
must be HDCP compliant. The vast majority a source to a display, and contains information with blanking into extended
video frames.
of AV products available today with HDMI or describing attributes of the source. While EDID
DisplayPort interfaces are HDCP compliant, specifies an ideal resolution, refresh rate, and
including displays as well as AV distribution and color space of the device, InfoFrames can
processing devices. The requirement for HDCP provide information about the content, such as
L R
compliance applies to all devices in the signal the HDMI 3D video format, chroma subsampling
Side by Side
chain between source and destination, from mode, and color depth. In applications with Deep Left and right images are downsampled
horizontally, and then combined into
large matrix switchers to switchers, distribution Color content, or 3D playback from Bluray Disc, standard HD video frames.

amplifiers, and even cable equalizers. communication of InfoFrame data is important


to ensure proper system performance. A
L
When switching between HDCP-encrypted display uses InfoFrame data to configure itself
sources, a potential latency can occur as for receiving and processing the specific video R
HDCP authorization is re-established with a format from the source. Top and Bottom
Left and right images are downsampled
newly switched source. In professional AV vertically, and then combined into
standard HD video frames.
systems, the expectation is that switching will If such applications will be important in your
be fast and immediately responsive. Extron system design, then be sure that the devices
switching and distribution products incorporate you select for your AV system design support
Extron Key Minder, a technology feature that InfoFrames for 3D video or Deep Color
continuously manages HDCP key authorization applications. This can often be confirmed by
for devices connected to them. Key Minder, in checking for HDMI 3D video and Deep Color
combination with EDIDMinder, ensures quick, compatibility in the product specifications.
professional-quality source switching for smooth,
worry-free system operation. Some information about HDMI 3D formats is
provided in Figure 7-1 and Table 7-3. 3D video in
Content protection is not necessary for most AV system design requires special considerations
types of PC content, including presentation beyond the scope of this Guide.
slides, documents, and other media. However,
some computers as well as tablets may always Table 7-3. Mandatory 3D Formats as Defined in HDMI 1.4a
deliver an encrypted output when connected to HDMI 3D FORMAT 3D LEFT / RIGHT IMAGE FORMAT HDMI TRANSMISSION RATE
an HDCP-compliant device, even if the content 1080p @ 24-25 Hz 1080p @ 48-50 Hz
Frame Packing
is not copy-protected. This will be a problem in 720p @ 50-60 Hz 720p @ 100-120 Hz
1080i @ 50-60 Hz, reduced 1080i @ 50-60 Hz
a system when encrypted video is delivered to a Side by Side
horizontally to 960 pixels (standard broadcast format)
display, plus a videoconferencing codec or other 720p @ 50-60 Hz 1080p @ 24 Hz,
720p @ 50-60 Hz1080p @ 24 Hz
product that does not support HDCP. Extron Top and Bottom reduced vertically to 360 or
(standard broadcast format)
540 pixels
distribution and switching products include a
The HDMI 1.4a specification includes several optional 3D video formats.
convenient feature that allows HDCP authorization
www.extron.com 49
Extron Support Services for AV System Designers

When you choose Many AV systems include advanced switching Support Staff and Resources
to register your AV and processing products that necessitate a Extron customer support resources are available
certain level of expertise and dedicated vendor worldwide 24 hours a day, seven days a week,
project with us,
support. Depending on the intended application, through our online resources and a toll-free
youll benefit from system designs can often include switching, hotline for live personnel assistance. We have
personalized design processing, and interfacing scenarios that a comprehensive staff of Application Engineers,
assistance and have can be complex and difficult to clearly define. Senior Application Engineers, and other personnel
Extron recognizes these challenges with a full based at our West Coast and East Coast USA
all your system design
commitment to backing its product solutions with headquarters, our regional headquarters in
or product-specific premium customer support and training. Extrons Europe and Asia, and local offices around the
questions answered. dedication to technical and sales assistance is world. We also have a field staff of Systems
unmatched in the AV industry, and is based on Design Engineers and Consultant Application
a corporate philosophy known as S3 - Service, Engineers worldwide. From customer service to
Support and Solutions. in-depth technical support, Extron personnel are
always ready and willing to assist.
Extron Project Registration Program
The Extron Project Registration Program is Training and Certifications
specifically geared toward assisting system Extron Institute offers training and certifications
designers. When you choose to register your AV focused around Extron products as well as
project with us, youll benefit from personalized current and emerging technologies relevant
design assistance and have all your system to the professional AV industry. The program
design or product-specific questions answered. includes training through our Web site plus
As a key part of the program, well review your instructor-led training programs at Extron facilities
project and evaluate the equipment to verify and other select locations worldwide. Extron
suitability and compatibility. Well also offer Institute training is continuously maintained and
recommendations as appropriate if there can be updated with the latest products, technologies,
a more cost-effective solution for your system and trends. A significant portion of the training
design. is devoted to digital AV signals and integration

Extron Institute
50 Extron Digital Design Guide
in system designs. Certification programs are online technical library, including white papers, A comprehensive
available for XTP Systems and Extron control

best practices guides, technical articles, an online technical library
systems. Both programs are widely recognized extensive technical glossary, and a series of
is available at
and respected throughout the pro AV industry. convenient interactive calculators for quantifying
and converting audio and video units and www.extron.com,
Online Resources measurements. We also offer a series of Design including white
A wealth of online resources are available at Guides with detailed, in-depth technical primers, papers, best practices
Extron.com, with thorough and complete product system design examples, and a catalog of Extron
guides, technical
information, plus downloadable cut sheets, products. In addition to this Digital Design Guide,
manuals, specifications, A&E specifications additional guides are available for fiber optics, articles, an extensive
or consultant descriptions, diagrams, detailed AV streaming, control systems, architectural technical glossary, and
product photos, Autodesk Revit 3D files, and products, and videowall systems. Extron a series of convenient
much more. Youll also find a wide variety of also publishes AV Systems Design, a journal
interactive calculators
informational and instructional videos about our specifically dedicated to system designers. In
products, system builder tools and configurators, each issue youll find technical discussions and for quantifying and
and a library of case studies and customer articles on timely subjects of interest, plus case converting audio
success stories. We also offer a dedicated studies, in-depth information on key Extron and video units and
Extron Insider site where youll have access to products, and more.
measurements.
convenient online ordering, price lists, up-to-date
information on pricing and product availability, Many of the online technical resources are
order status, and more. available in printed versions. They are available
on request by submitting a form online, or by
Technical Resources contacting your Extron Customer Support
Also available at Extron.com is a comprehensive Representative.

Extron Design Guides

Extron XTP Systems Configurator


www.extron.com 51
Notes

52 Extron Digital Design Guide


Digital System Designs
Commercial AV presentation system designs run the gamut from In many new digital system designs, there is a need to support
small collaboration spaces, classrooms, and conference room legacy analog sources as well as future devices and technologies.
systems, to large-scale AV distribution systems spanning a campus,
stadium, or even over wide geographical regions. The following AV system designs represent a cross-section of
typical AV environments and applications. Detailed system drawings
Rarely if ever is a commercial presentation system limited to a single depict the sources and displays that usually need to be supported,
source, such as a laptop or Blu-ray Disc player, and a single display, the signal flows between them, and a recommended approach
connected with one HDMI cable. Even the smallest AV system to distributing, extending, and processing signals for an effective
design generally includes a variety of signal types and resolutions. system design.

Boardroom with Collaborative Meeting


Videoconferencing - pg. 54 Room - pg. 62

Executive Briefing
Divisible Classroom - pg. 56 Center - pg. 64

Training Room with Wireless


Extension - pg. 58 Campus Technology - pg. 66

Meeting Room with Lecture


Capture - pg. 60 Corporate Auditorium - pg. 68

www.extron.com 53
Boardroom with Videoconferencing

System Design Solution


Display System
Two wall-mounted 60 inch flat-panel displays, to be mounted
48inches (120 cm) AFF - Above Finished Floor, adjacent to each
other on the front wall. The displays should be the latest models
with ultra-thin bezels, for consistency with the sleek appearance and
styling of the boardroom.

Sources and Connectivity


At the conference table, there will be two locations for connecting
laptops. Each location will provide one DisplayPort cable, one HDMI
cable, and one VGA cable. The cables are to be connected to an
Extron DTP T DSW 333, which will extend signals over a shielded
CATx cable to a matrix switcher in the credenza. There will be a
Blu-ray player, cable TV receiver, and videoconferencing codec
Overview
in the credenza, all rackmounted with the matrix switcher. Two
A corporate boardroom will be used for executive meetings and presentations.
The system will need to be capable of displaying digital as well as legacy pantiltzoom - PTZ cameras will be installed, one on the front wall
analog sources in a high quality, professional manner. Consideration for and the other on the rear wall. Video outputs from the cameras will
future sources of different types will need to be incorporated into the design, be extended to the codec via shielded CATx cables using Extron
including 4K and the latest mobile devices. It is also very important that the DTPT HWP 4K 231 D transmitters on the walls, and
system be reliable and simple for top-level executives to operate.
DTPHDMI4K 230Rx receivers close to the codec in the rack.

Needs Assessment Switching System


Staffing The system will be operated by company board An Extron DTP CrossPoint 86 4K IPCP MA matrix switcher will
members, executive staff, and managers. manage video and audio source selection and distribution. The matrix
Based on the proposed layout and configuration of
switcher includes two DTP inputs for receiving signals from the
the meeting table and seating, the viewing distance DTP T DSW 333 units at the table. The sources and codec in the
range will be between 6 and 18 feet (1.8 and rack will be connected to the matrix switcher's local HDMI inputs
5.5meters) from a seated position. and outputs. The DTP CrossPoint also features two DTP outputs
Display Two identical wall mounted flat-panel displays which will be for extending signals to the two wall-mounted displays
Requirements located adjacent to each other on the front wall, for via Extron DTP R HWP 4K 231 D wallplate receivers behind each
viewing two separate sources simultaneously. The
twin displays will be used for videoconferencing,
display. Two separate sources may be shown simultaneously on the
collaboration, comparing document revisions, and two displays.
other applications.
Computer Sources There will be two table locations for connecting Audio System
laptops and mobile devices, each with a single The DTP CrossPoint 4K will facilitate audio source selection with
analog and two digital inputs capable of 4K audio embedding and de-embedding as needed. The builtin
resolution. The cables are to be extended through
100watt, 70 volt amplifier is to power six Extron SI 26CT distributed
the tabletop surface.
ceiling speakers. The integrated DSP of the DTPCrossPointwill be
Videoconferencing A single codec will be provided with two wall- used to manage program audio and route audio mixes to the amplifier
mounted pan-tilt-zoom HD cameras.
output. The DSP will also be linked to an Extron DMP128C DSP
Other Sources The equipment rack in the credenza will house a over the DMP digital audio expansion port. The DMP 128 C will
Blu-ray player and a cable TV receiver.
provide additional DSP capabilities, including AEC - acoustic echo
Audio The system must support program audio playback cancellation and automixing for six table microphones.
Requirements of all sources in the system, including an executive's
laptop or mobile device.
Control System
Control A simple-to-use control interface is an absolute An Extron TLP Pro 1020T 10 inch TouchLink touchpanel, situated
Requirements necessity for executives to power the system on and
off, select an input source for each display, initiate a on the table will serve as the control interface for the system. A
videoconferencing session, adjust volume levels, and specially designed and customized GUI will provide a simple-to-use
more. The interface should be provided in the form and intuitive control interface for a range of video and audio functions,
of a tabletop touchscreen. particularly videoconferencing. System control is to be provided by
the IPCP Pro 350 control processor built into DTP CrossPoint, which
can easily be configured to integrate the entire AV system.

54 Extron Digital Design Guide


Table
Extron
DTP T DSW 4K 333
Transmitter
POWER 1 2 3 SIG LINK REMOTE
12V OVER DTP
--A MAX AUDIO HDBT
RS-232 IR CONTACT IN TALLY OUT RS-232

INPUTS RGB HDMI DP OUT DTP Tx Rx G Tx Rx 1 2 3 G 1 2 3 +V Tx Rx G

Display Display
CATx Cable HDMI RS-232 HDMI RS-232
Audio VGA HDMI DisplayPort up to 330' (100 m)

Extron
DTP T DSW 4K 333 Extron Extron
Transmitter DTP R HWP 4K 231 D DTP R HWP 4K 231 D

RS-232

RS-232
Tx Rx G Tx Rx

Tx Rx G Tx Rx
OVER DTP

OVER DTP
Receiver Receiver

IR

IR
HDMI OUT HDMI OUT

POWER 1 2 3 SIG LINK REMOTE


12V OVER DTP
--A MAX AUDIO HDBT
RS-232 IR CONTACT IN TALLY OUT RS-232

INPUTS RGB HDMI DP OUT DTP Tx Rx G Tx Rx 1 2 3 G 1 2 3 +V Tx Rx G

CATx Cable CATx Cable CATx Cable


Audio VGA HDMI DisplayPort up to 330' (100 m) up to 230' (70 m) up to 230' (70 m)

Doc
Extron
TLP Pro 1020T
Laptop PC DVD VCR Tuner 123
Cam

Display Volume
Ethernet
10" Tabletop
Tuner
On
Channel Presets
1 2 3

TouchLink Pro
Off

4 5 6
TCP/IP
Touchpanel
Mute Mute

Room
Control
7 8 9
Last
More
Network
Screen 0 Enter Presets

Ethernet
Lighting Help December 15, 2013 - 7:58 AM
System Audio

Ethernet
Off Control

Ethernet

Extron DTP CROSSPOINT 86 4K COM 1 COM 2 COM 3 DIGITAL I/O


LAN 1 70V

DTP CrossPoint 86 4K
DMP EXPANSION

AUDIO OUTPUTS
+48V

AUDIO INPUTS

AMP OUTPUT
L R L R L R 1
CONTROL

Tx Rx G RTS CTS Tx Rx G Tx Rx G 1 2 3 4 G 1 L R L R
1 3 5 1 3 1 3
MIC/LINE

LINK
2

IPCP MA
IR/SERIAL RELAYS eBUS
1 2 1 2 C 3 4 C +V +S -S G L 2 R L 4 R L 6 R 2 4 L 2 R L 4 R
R 3
4
S G S G PWR OUT = 6W LAN 2 LAN 3 EXP CLASS 2 WIRING

Scaling Presentation Matrix 1 2 3A 4A 3B


RS-232 IR

4B 4 5
RS-232 IR

6
RESET
Tx Rx G Tx Rx Tx Rx G Tx Rx
OUTPUTS

SIG LINK OVER TP SIG LINK


S/PDIF SIG LINK OVER TP SIG LINK
OUT
XTP RS-232 IR XTP XTP RS-232 IR XTP
HDBT HDBT

REMOTE
DTP OUT Tx Rx G Tx Rx OUT DTP DTP OUT Tx Rx G Tx Rx OUT DTP Tx Rx G
HDBT HDBT

100-240V ~
RS-232 IR
--A MAX

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Tx Rx G Tx Rx 8
INPUTS

INPUTS
SIG LINK SIG LINK
OVER TP
XTP XTP
RS-232 IR

50-60 Hz DTP DTP


IN Tx Rx G Tx Rx IN

HDMI
CATV Tuner DMP Expansion
PUSH PUSH

POWER GUIDE MENU RES 480 480p 720p 1080i 1080p DIRECTV HD

Audio
SELECT
DIRECTV

IR

HDMI HDMI
STANDBY/ON
PQLS HDMI OPEN/CLOSE FL OFF

USB

IR
Blu-ray Player
1 2 3

1 2 3 LAN

HDMI HDMI Audio Audio VTC CODEC


Extron
DTP HDMI
4K 230 Rx
Receiver Extron
SI 26CT
Two-Way Ceiling
OVER DTP
RS-232 IR

Tx Rx G Tx Rx DTP HDMI 230 Rx


Speakers
SIG LINK OUTPUTS
POWER
12V AUDIO
0.7A MAX L R

DTP IN

OVER DTP
RS-232 IR

CATx Cable Tx Rx G Tx Rx DTP HDMI 230 Rx


up to 230'
(70 m) POWER
12V
SIG LINK OUTPUTS
AUDIO
0.7A MAX L R

DTP IN

AUDIO IN

Extron
Extron HDMI IN

DTP HDMI Table


DTP T HWP 4K 230 Rx Microphones
4K 231 D CATx Cable Receiver
Transmitter up to 230'
(70 m)
HDMI
~ --A MAX 1 2 3 4 9 10 DMP 128 C 1 2 3 4
MIC/LINE INPUTS

DIGITAL I/O
OUTPUTS

1 2 3 4 5 G 6 7 8 9 10 G
AUDIO IN MIC +48V

Extron
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8 11 12 5 6 7 8 RS-232
REMOTE

RESET
HDMI IN

DTP T HWP
5 6 7 8
50/60 Hz 11 12 13 14 15 G 16 17 18 19 20 G Tx Rx G EXP LAN

4K 231 D Extron
Camera Transmitter Table DMP 128 C
Microphones Digital Matrix
HDMI Processor

Camera

www.extron.com 55
Divisible Classroom

System Design Solution


Display System
A ceiling-mounted projector and a ceiling-mounted motorized screen
are to be installed in each partitioned room. The screens shall be
84inches wide (210 cm), and the bottoms of the image areas are to
be 40 inches (100 cm) AFF. The aspect ratio of the screens will match
that of the projectors. The native resolution of the projectors is to be
3840x2160, resulting in a 16:9 aspect ratio.

Sources and Connectivity


Two lectern-mounted laptop source input locations will be provided.
Each location will provide one HDMI, one DisplayPort, and
one VGA cable. The cables are to be connected to Extron
DTP T DSW 4K 333 switching transmitters in the lecterns. Each
transmitter will extend signals over a shielded CATx cable to the
Overview
matrix switcher in the central equipment rack. Two Blu-ray players
A corporate classroom will be used for training, seminars, and presentations.
The system needs to be capable of displaying both digital and analog source and two cable TV receivers will also be housed in the rack.
types in a high quality, professional manner. There will be a divider wall to
split the room into two classrooms for separate meetings. Resources in Switching System
each room will be exclusive to each other when the rooms are separated, An Extron DTP CrossPoint 84 4K IPCP MA matrix switcher will
and shared when the rooms are combined. It is also very important that the
provide management of video and audio source selection and
system be reliable and simple to operate, regardless of which mode the room
is configured. distribution. The DTP inputs will receive signals from the two lectern
transmitters, while the two DTP outputs will be used to extend
signals to the two projectors via shielded CATx cables and Extron
Needs Assessment DTPHDMI4K 230Rx and DTPHDMI4K 330Rx receivers. Each
Staffing The system will be operated by corporate training receiver is to be securely mounted above the projector in a workman-
staff, Human Resources, and managers.
like manner. By using independent outputs on the DTP CrossPoint,
Sources There will be a lectern for each divided room space. each room can display an independent source. When the two
The lectern will have one HDMI, one DisplayPort,
rooms are combined, the matrix can provide the same output to
and one analog VGA input available to the presenter.
Inputs will be capable of supporting signals up to 4K. both projectors, or separate content to each projector at the user's
Cables will be extended through the lectern work discretion.
surface. In a central equipment area, there will be
two cable TV receivers and two Blu-ray players. Audio System
Display Each divided room will have a ceiling-mounted The DTP CrossPoint 84 will facilitate audio source selection with
Requirements projector. A motorized retractable screen will be audio embedding and de-embedding as needed. The integrated
located along each rooms front wall. The projectors
will operate independently of each other in order
100 watt, 70 volt amplifier will power six Extron SI 26CT distributed
to display separate content per room, or the same ceiling loudspeakers for one of the partitioned rooms. An external
content if the rooms are combined. Extron XPA 2001-70V mono 70 volt amplifier will provide 200watts
Audio The two divided room spaces will have separate amplification to six SI 26CT loudspeakers in the other room. The
Requirements distributed audio systems that can function audio input signal will come from one of the analog audio outputs of
independently or together depending on room the DTPCrossPoint. Its integrated digital signal processor is to be
configuration. Each video source will provide stereo
used for audio source switching, mixing, and routing to the outputs,
audio. Additionally, each lectern will have a wired
gooseneck microphone for voice lift within the as well as processing for the program source inputs and lectern
respective rooms. microphones.
Control The user interface should be a simple-to-use GUI.
Requirements Each lectern should have a control surface that Control System
provides the ability to power the system on and An Extron TLP Pro 720M 7 inch TouchLink touchpanel will be
off, select an input source, adjust volume level,
and control a Blu-ray player and cable TV receiver. surface-mounted into each of the two lecterns, and serve as a
The end user has requested the ability to provide primary control interface for the system. The two TLP Pro 720M
secondary points of control from mobile devices. touchpanels easily integrate into the built-in Gigabit Ethernet switch
of the DTP CrossPoint. Specifying Extron LinkLicense with the
DTP CrossPoint will allow a specially customized GUI for each of
the touchpanels, as well as master control GUIs on staff iPads.
The control system will be provided by the DTP CrossPoint, and
will provide control of source selection, audio volume levels, the
motorized screens, the Blu-ray players, and selecting TV channels.
56 Extron Digital Design Guide
Room A Lectern Room A
Extron
DTP T DSW 4K 333 Extron Audio
Transmitter SI 26CT
Two-Way Ceiling
Speakers
POWER 1 2 3 SIG LINK REMOTE
12V OVER DTP
--A MAX AUDIO HDBT
RS-232 IR CONTACT IN TALLY OUT RS-232

Screen Control
INPUTS RGB HDMI DP OUT DTP Tx Rx G Tx Rx 1 2 3 G 1 2 3 +V Tx Rx G

Projector
Extron
TLP Pro 720M
Doc
Laptop PC DVD VCR Tuner 123
Cam

Audio VGA HDMI DisplayPort Display


Tuner
Volume

7" Wall Mount


On
Channel Presets
1 2 3
Off

4 5 6
Mute Mute

TouchLink Pro
Room
7 8 9
Control Last
More
Screen 0 Enter Presets

Touchpanel
Lighting Help December 15, 2013 - 7:58 AM
System Audio
Off Control

Extron
iPad

TCP/IP RS-232 HDMI


Network

OVER DTP
RS-232 IR

Tx Rx G Tx Rx DTP HDMI 2 30 Rx

iPad CATx Cable


up to 330' (100 m)
POWER
12V
SIG LINK OUTPUTS
AUDIO Extron
DTP HDMI 4K 230 Rx
0.7A MAX L R

DTP IN
Receiver
Audio
Microphone
CATx Cable
up to 230' (70 m) Relay

Ethernet

Ethernet
Extron
DTP CrossPoint
84 4K IPCP MA
Scaling Presentation Matrix
with LinkLicense
RS-232 IR COM 1 COM 2 COM 3 DIGITAL I/O 70V
DTP CROSSPOINT 84 4K

LAN 1

AMP OUTPUT
1

CONTROL
1 2 3A 4A 3B Tx Rx G Tx Rx 4B 4
OUTPUTS

Tx Rx G RTS CTS Tx Rx G Tx Rx G 1 2 3 4 G
REMOTE
SIG LINK
OVER TP
SIG LINK S/PDIF
XTP XTP OUT IR/SERIAL RELAYS DIGITAL I/O
RS-232 IR RESET Tx Rx G R 1 2 1 2 C 3 4 C +V +V D -S +S

DTP OUT Tx Rx G Tx Rx OUT DTP LAN 2 LAN 3 CLASS 2 WIRING


HDBT S G S G PWR OUT = 6W
HDBT

100-240V ~ -- A MAX
RS-232 IR

DMP EXPANSION

AUDIO OUTPUTS
AUDIO INPUTS
+48V
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 L R L R L R L R L R
1 1 3
INPUTS

1 3 5 1 3
SIG LINK
OVER TP SIG LINK
2 MIC/LINE
LINK

XTP XTP
RS-232 IR L 2 R L 4 R L 6 R 2 4 L 2 R L 4 R
3
4
DTP DTP
50-60 Hz IN Tx Rx G Tx Rx IN EXP

HDMI HDMI

Audio Audio
Ethernet

PUSH PUSH

DIRECTV HD

CATV Tuner
POWER GUIDE MENU RES 480 480p 720p 1080i 1080p

SELECT
DIRECTV

STANDBY/ON
PQLS HDMI OPEN/CLOSE FL OFF
Blu-ray Player
USB

PUSH PUSH Extron


CATV Tuner XPA 2001-70V
POWER GUIDE MENU RES 480 480p 720p 1080i 1080p DIRECTV HD
SELECT
DIRECTV

Amplifier
100-240V 0.5A, 50-60Hz XPA 2001-70V
ATTENUATION HPF INPUTS REMOTE 70 V OUTPUT

Blu-ray Player
10V 50mA
STANDBY

12 10 8
L (SUMMED) R
14 6 G
STANDBY/ON
LIMITER/PROTECT 80 Hz
PQLS HDMI OPEN/CLOSE FL OFF 18 4
26 2
SIGNAL 0 OFF

USB V C G CLASS 2 WIRING

Equipment Rack

Microphone Audio
CATx Cable Extron
up to 330' (100 m) SI 26CT Relay
iPad Two-Way Ceiling
Speakers
iPad

Doc Projector
Audio
Laptop PC DVD VCR Tuner 123
Cam

Display

On

Off
1 2 3
Tuner
Channel Presets
Volume

Screen Control
4 5 6
Mute Mute

Room
7 8 9
Control Last
More
Screen 0 Enter Presets

Lighting Help December 15, 2013 - 7:58 AM


System Audio
Off Control

Extron

Extron
TLP Pro 720M RS-232 HDMI
7" Wall Mount TouchLink
Extron Pro Touchpanel
DTP T DSW 4K 333
Transmitter OVER DTP
IR
RS-232

POWER 1 2 3 SIG LINK REMOTE


12V OVER DTP
--A MAX AUDIO HDBT Tx Rx G Tx Rx
RS-232 IR CONTACT IN TALLY OUT RS-232 DTP HDMI 2 30 Rx

INPUTS RGB HDMI DP OUT DTP Tx Rx G Tx Rx 1 2 3 G 1 2 3 +V Tx Rx G POWER


12V
SIG LINK OUTPUTS
AUDIO
Extron
DTP HDMI 4K 330 Rx
0.7A MAX L R

DTP IN
Receiver
CATx Cable
up to 330' (100 m)
Audio VGA HDMI DisplayPort

Room B Lectern Room B

www.extron.com 57
Training Room with Wireless Extension

System Design Solution


Display System
A 65 inch flat-panel display will provide sufficient viewing coverage
for groups of 5 to 10 training attendees, and is to be equipped with
integrated loudspeakers. A single HDMI connection will be used for
the AV system. The display is to be installed on a portable cart.

Sources and Connectivity


An owner-furnished PC with HDMI output, and a Blu-ray player will
be installed in the lectern. HDMI and VGA cables will be provided for
connectivity to the presenter's laptop. They will be accessible through
an Extron Cable Cubby 1200 Cable Access Enclosure, mounted on
the lectern work surface, to provide a professional appearance while
keeping cables organized when not in use.

Overview Switching System


A pharmaceutical company is transitioning to regional training facilities, and
needs to quickly get multiple rooms online in leased Class A flexible office An Extron IN1606 Scaling Presentation Switcher will be the
parks around the country. The AV presentation systems should support cornerstone of the system, and is to be installed within the lectern
a company-provided host computer, a laptop connection for traveling together with the sources. The IN1606 provides fast, reliable source
presenters, and a Blu-ray player for video-based training provided by the selection, while delivering high performance scaling for optimal image
Human Resources department. The systems should be easy to use and
display. Built-in EDID, HDCP, and aspect ratio management features
provide a common user interface, so that traveling presenters will always be
familiar with the AV controls, regardless of the office or geographic location. together will ensure dependable operation whenever a new laptop is
connected into the system. The IN1606 allows ample opportunities
for future system expansion, such as the addition of a confidence
Needs Assessment monitor on the lectern, or incorporating wireless microphones.
Staffing The system will be operated by corporate training
staff and Human Resources. Signal Distribution
Sources Each system will include a resident PC and a Blu-ray An Extron eLink 100 Wireless Extender for HDMI will be used to
player. Laptop connections are to be provided with connect the HDMI output of the IN1606 to the flat-panel display.
HDMI, VGA, and audio cables. The eLink 100 is particularly ideal for the very short time frame of this
Display A flat-panel display is to be mounted on a mobile installation, in that it allows a quick and efficient connectivity solution,
Requirements cart, to minimize impact to the facility and expedite while delivering the performance of a cabled infrastructure. With a
system implementation.
wireless AV interface from the IN1606 to the display, the only building
Audio The system needs to support program audio from infrastructure requirement is AC power.
Requirements the sources. For convenience, the loudspeakers
integrated into the flat-panel display should suffice
for sound reinforcement, given the anticipated sizes
Audio System
of the rooms. The IN1606 will provide source switching for HDMI and its embedded
audio content. Analog PC audio can be digitized along with the
Control The intended application calls for a simple yet
Requirements intuitive user interface for powering the system on analog video, and then embedded onto the HDMI output. The
and off, selecting the source to be displayed, and eLink100 then transmits HDMI with embedded audio to the display,
adjusting the volume level. The user interface should which finally delivers the audio through its integrated loudspeakers.
be universally applied to each system installed
With the IN1606, the system is easily expandable to support a larger
throughout the regional training facilities, to ensure a
consistent user experience for traveling instructors. audience or room in the future, by adding an amplifier such as the
Extron XPA 1002 two channel 200 watt amplifier, and dedicated
Facility Limitations The time period between facility handover to the
occupant and the initial training seminars is less than loudspeakers such as the Extron SM 26 SpeedMount two-way
30 days. The integrator must deliver an installed surface mount speakers.
turnkey solution in just a matter of days. There is little
time available for installing a cabled infrastructure to Control System
support the system. Additionally, since this is leased
space, the occupant would like the ability to reuse The Extron TLP Pro 520M 5 inch TouchLink Touchpanel, in
the system, should they elect to move to a new conjunction with an Extron IPCP Pro 250 control processor will be
facility in the future. used to enable control of system power, source selection, the Blu-ray
player, and volume level. Once created and finalized, the custom GUI
will be duplicated to the same systems in the other regional offices.
The TLPPro 520M will be surface-mounted into the lectern work
surface, to allow easy access for the presenter.
58 Extron Digital Design Guide
WiFi 1 2 3 4

PC

Extron
Ethernet
TLP Pro 520M Ethernet
Doc
Laptop PC DVD VCR Tuner 123
Cam

TCP/IP
Display Volume
Tuner
On
Channel Presets

5" Wall Mount


1 2 3
Off

Network
4 5 6
Mute Mute

Room
7 8 9

TouchLink Pro
Control Last
More
Screen 0 Enter Presets

Laptop
Lighting Help December 15, 2013 - 7:58 AM
System Audio
Off Control

Touchpanel Extron

esc
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15 F16 F17 F18 F19

~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + page
= /

HDMI
` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 - = delete
fn home
up
clear
*

{ } | page
-
Q W E R T Y U I O P [ ] \
delete end
down 7 8 9
tab

: +
caps lock
A S D F G H J K L ; return
4 5 6
caps lock
< > ?
shift
Z X C V B N M , . / shift
1 2 3

alt

0 .
control option command command option control enter

Extron
IPCP Pro 250
COM 1 COM 2 DIGITAL I/O
IPCP PRO 250

HDMI Tx Rx G RTS CTS Tx Rx G 1 2 3 4 G

IP Link Pro
POWER VOL RELAYS eBUS IR/S
12V
--A MAX V C G 1 2 C +V +S -S G

PWR OUT = 6W S G LAN

Control Processor
Blu-ray Player
IR
HDMI STANDBY/ON
PQLS HDMI OPEN/CLOSE FL OFF

USB

Audio

Ethernet
VGA
Laptop

100-240V ~ 50/60 Hz INPUTS IN1606 OUTPUTS AUDIO INPUTS OUTPUTS REMOTE


-- A MAX 1 3 5 A

L 1 R L 3 R L 5 R 1 1 2 LAN
CONFIGURABLE
+48V MIC/LINE
2 4 HDMI 6 HDMI B HDMI
L 2 R L 4 R L 6 R 2
VARIABLE
L R RESET RS-232

+48V
Tx Rx G

Extron HDMI
IN1606 Extron
Scaling Presentation
Switcher HDMI IN IR OUT eLink 100 T
Wireless HDMI
Transmitter

Wireless up to 145' (45 m)

Display
HDMI

HDMI
5V
1.5A MAX
POWER HDMI OUT

Extron
eLink 100 R
Wireless HDMI
Receiver

www.extron.com 59
Meeting Room with Lecture Capture

System Design Solution


Display System
A ceiling-mounted 1080p projector and motorized screen will be used
to display content from either the resident PC or a presenter's laptop.

Sources and Connectivity


The customer-furnished PC connects directly to the switching
and recording system via HDMI and analog audio. An Extron
CableCubby 1200 will be installed at the meeting table for
presenters to connect their laptops through an HDMI cable.
The Cable Cubby 1200 will also accommodate an Extron
USBExtenderAAP Rx for presenters to use a USB flash drive as
the destination for recording the meetings. The wall-mounted HD-SDI
camera will connect directly to the switching and recording system,
to deliver a video feed of the presenter at the front of the room. The
Overview
HDMI output to the projector will be extended from the credenza, via
A company is looking to upgrade a series of meeting rooms in order to capture
video of the attendees as well as computer-based content, so that they an Extron DTP HDMI 4K 230 Tx transmitter, a DTPHDMI4K 230 Rx
can record and play back the information discussed during their impromptu receiver, and a single shielded CATx cable.
meetings. This ensures that any employees out of the office will be able to
catch up on any information presented during their absence. Switching and Recording System
The Extron SMP 351 3G-SDI presentation capture recorder is a
Needs Assessment single-box solution that enables the connection of multiple digital
Staffing The system will be operated by meeting attendees. video signals, as well as support for an SDI camera feed. When the
SMP351 is connected to a network, users can specify a network
Sources Each meeting room will include a resident PC with
location for recording their impromptu meetings, and manage
HDMI video output, and an HDMI connection point
for a laptop. A wall-mounted PTZ camera is needed recorded sessions using the Extron Streaming Content Manager
in order to record the presenter and participants. software. Alternatively, it supports USB flash storage for local
Display The room typically supports 25 to 35 employees. recordings. In the event that the company has a meeting that exceeds
Requirements Based on the number of average attendees, a front the capacity of a single meeting room, the SMP 351 will also support
projection system is appropriate to ensure that the live streaming to overflow areas.
image will be viewable from the rear of the room.
Audio The resident PC will deliver analog stereo audio. For Audio System
Requirements the laptop connection, the audio will be embedded The SMP 351 incorporates high-quality audio processing that allows
with the HDMI output. Due to the overall sizes of the
for mixing audio sources, audio embedding and de-embedding,
rooms, a wireless microphone will be provided for
the meeting leader, as well as sound reinforcement and more. In addition to these functions, it provides an analog audio
to ensure that all participants will clearly hear the output to an Extron XPA 2001-70V 200watt 70 volt amplifier, which
presentation. will power a series of Extron SI 26CT distributed ceiling loudspeakers
Control The meeting presenter should have the ability to for in-room voice and program audio amplification.
Requirements power the system on and off, select the source to be
displayed, and start or stop the AV recording. The Control System
user experience of the presenter should be identical
regardless of which room is being used. To achieve By using an Extron TLP Pro 1220 TG 12 inch TouchLink Touchpanel
this, it is suggested that a common graphical user and a user-friendly GUI for the system, the meeting leader will be
interface be used for all meeting rooms upgraded for able to control source selection, start and stop a recording, adjust
AV recording.
audio system volume, and ensure that the system powers on and off
Special To support the impromptu nature of the meetings, appropriately. The tabletop touchpanel can also be used as a video
Requirements the system needs to allow the option to save confidence monitor by connecting it to one of the available HDMI
recordings to a USB flash drive. A USB port should
be easily accessible within the meeting room. In the outputs of the SMP 351. Control of the complete system will be
event that a USB flash drive is not used, the meeting accomplished with an Extron IPCP Pro 250 control processor. By
is to be recorded to a network location. Additionally, configuring the SMP351 and its digital I/O ports, the unit will be set to
to adhere to company policies, a visual indicator trigger an Extron IPL T PC1 controller once a recording starts, which
should be illuminated to ensure meeting attendees
are aware the meeting is being recorded. will then power the recording indicator light.

60 Extron Digital Design Guide


100-240V 0.5A, 50-60Hz XPA 2001-70V

Extron
ATTENUATION HPF INPUTS REMOTE 70 V OUTPUT
10V 50mA

STANDBY
12 10 8
L (SUMMED) R

XPA 2001-70V Extron


14 6 G
LIMITER/PROTECT 80 Hz
18 4
26 2
SIGNAL 0 OFF

Power Amplifier
V C G CLASS 2 WIRING

SI 26 CT
Audio Two-Way Ceiling Speakers
CATx Cable
up to 230' (70 m)
SIG LINK
Extron
DTP HDMI 4K 230 Rx
OUTPUTS
POWER
12V AUDIO
0.7A MAX L R

DTP IN
Receiver
Projector
HDMI

Power

Extron 100-120VAC 50/60Hz


COM
US
LISTED 17TT

Recording
AUDIO/VIDEO

IPL T PC1
APPARATUS

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Extron Extron


TX RX +5V

Indicator
LAN

AC Power
INPUT IR

INPUTS SIG LINK OVER DTP

Light DTP HDMI 4K 230 Tx SMP 351 3G-SDI


POWER
AUDIO

Controller
12V RS-232 IR
IN S G
POWER OUTPUT 12A MAX 0.7A MAX
12A MAX
Planning Preparation Training Evaluation DTP OUT Tx Rx G Tx Rx
Transmitter
Contact Closure Streaming Media
Needs Analysis Student Selection Instructor Observation Student
HDMI Processor
Proposal & Estimate Instructor Selection Evaluation Presentations 100-240V --A MAX SMP 351
AUDIO 3 5 OUTPUTS
HDMI HDMI B-Y

INPUTS-CH B
INPUTS-CH A
MOUSE / LOOPOUT
Course Schedule Text Selection Questionnaire Student Evaluations KEYBOARD 1
L R 3G/HD/SDI LAN
1 DIGITAL I/O REMOTE 4
USB STORAGE RS-232 L R L AUDIO R L AUDIO R RESET
2
Program Briefing Instructor Briefing Student Feedback Course Review
2 R-Y VID
1 2 3 4 G Tx Rx G /Y HDMI HDMI
50-60 Hz

HD-SDI HDMI
USB
RS-232 Ethernet
PTZ Camera
COM 1 COM 2 DIGITAL I/O
IPCP PRO 250
Extron
Extron POWER
Tx Rx G RTS CTS

VOL
Tx Rx G

RELAYS
1 2 3

eBUS
4 G

IR/S IPCP Pro 250


USB Extender Tx
POWER
12V

IP Link Pro Control


12V --A MAX V C G 1 2 C +V +S - S G
--A MAX
OUTPUT
INPUT

HOST
Twisted Pair Extender PWR OUT = 6W S G LAN
Processor
Facility
POWER STANDBY
LAN
Ethernet

CATx TCP/IP Ethernet


Cable Network
Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4

Planning Preparation Training Evaluation

Needs Analysis

Proposal & Estimate


Student Selection

Instructor Selection
Instructor Observation

Evaluation
Student

Presentations
HDMI
Course Schedule Text Selection Questionnaire Student Evaluations

Program Briefing Instructor Briefing Student Feedback Course Review

Audio

Audio Extron SCM


PC Streaming
Content
Extron Manager
Cable Cubby 1200 Wireless Receiver
Cable Access Enclosure
HDMI
HDMI
HUB ACTIVITY

1 3 HOST LINK

1 3
2 4
2 4 125 VAC. 50-60 Hz 12A MAX

USB EXTENDER AAP Rx

Laptop Extron Wireless


USB Extender Ethernet/PoE Lapel
AAP Rx Microphone

USB Stick

Monday, December 16, 2013 7:04 AM


Extron
TLP Pro 1220TG
Contacts Sources
Name + -
Andrew
Beth Training
Charlie
David
Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4
12" Tabletop
TouchLink Pro
Ervin
Planning Preparation Training Evaluation
Frank
Greg

Touchpanel
Needs Analysis Student Selection Instructor Observation Student

Harold Proposal & Estimate Instructor Selection Evaluation Presentations

Kevin Course Schedule Text Selection Questionnaire Student Evaluations

Mike Program Briefing Instructor Briefing Student Feedback Course Review

Andrew Full
(800) 633 - 9876 Screen
Privacy

HDMI

www.extron.com 61
Collaborative Meeting Room

System Design Solution


Display System
A 65 inch flat-panel display will provide the ideal balance of size
versus price for each meeting room. This will provide adequate image
sizes for all meeting attendees to view the content, regardless of their
seating position within the room. The direct-view nature of a flat-panel
display ensures that the images can be seen regardless of lighting
conditions within the room. Each display is to be equipped with
builtin loudspeakers.

Sources and Connectivity


The customer-furnished PC will be installed below the table in each
room. The analog video and audio outputs will connect directly to the
switching system. In order to accommodate BYOD - bring your own
devices, each room system is to include an Extron ShareLink 200
Overview
wireless presentation gateway to support mobile devices such as
The Vice President of Technology for a large organization has mandated that
existing meeting spaces be updated to accommodate collaboration among tablets and smartphones. Extron "Show Me" cables will be installed
small groups of users, in order to solve the challenge with finding places to in an Extron Cable Cubby 500 cable access enclosure to allow any
hold ad hoc collaborative meetings. presenter to connect to the system via HDMI and analog VGA. This
will provide an easy-to-use option for participants with laptops, and
Needs Assessment also a failsafe option should a wireless video connection not succeed.
Staffing Employees are part of cross-functional teams and
meet as needed in order to collaborate on projects. Switching System
Most employees use desktop computers but also By using the Extron MPS 601 media presentation switcher as part
have tablets for mobile access to information. The of an Extron TeamWork collaboration system, each room is able
executive management team relies on a mix of
laptops and tablets.
to support HDMI and analog VGA sources. The MPS 601 digitizes
incoming analog RGB video and provides an HDMI output for the
Sources The meeting rooms currently have a dedicated PC display. The compact and efficient TeamWork system, together with
with analog VGA output. Each room must be able
to support mobile devices through either a wired or the ShareLink 200 will expand capabilities for end users, reduce
wireless connection. installation time, and provide a standardized deployment that can
easily be duplicated to every collaboration meeting room throughout
Display Each meeting room can accommodate groups of
Requirements 3-6 people. The majority of meeting rooms have the organization. Furthermore, the MPS601 and media player can be
windows with shades to control the ambient light in conveniently mounted beneath the table surface with the Extron
the space. Based on the small group sizes, a flat- UTS 100 under-table shelf system.
panel display is desired. It should be wall-mounted
and include integrated loudspeakers.
Audio System
Audio In order to update as many rooms as possible, no In addition to switching video signals, the MPS 601 can digitize
Requirements budget has been allocated for audio systems. Given
incoming analog audio and embed onto the HDMI output. The audio
the small group sizes, the integrated loudspeakers of
the displays should suffice for sound reinforcement. can be assigned to any video input. The flat-panel display will provide
sound reinforcement through its integrated loudspeakers.
Control The meeting rooms will be dedicated exclusively
Requirements to localized collaboration among employees. The
control system should control power for the display Control System
and allow for selecting between the wireless and A simple button control interface will provide all necessary user
wired inputs. With the limited budget available, a functions of the system. The Extron CCR 30 contact closure
simple pushbutton-style control interface should be
considered.
remote mounts to the surface of the meeting table, and its styling
complements the Cable Cubby 500 enclosure. Each of the three
Facility Limitations None of the meeting rooms have space for
dedicated equipment racks. All equipment should pushbuttons has an LED ring light to provide visual indication to the
be capable of being mounted to fixed furniture within user, and a custom laser-etched label to identify its function. The
each area. buttons are to be wired for powering the display on or off via an
Extron PC 101 power controller, and for selecting the ShareLink 200
or the resident PC on the MPS 601. To select a laptop connected into
the system, the user simply presses the button on the appropriate
Show Me cable.

62 Extron Digital Design Guide


ON/OFF WIRELESS PC
Extron
CCR 30
Contact Closure Remote
with Three LED Switches Extron
PC 101
AC Power Controller
10A MAX
SE
RE T TALLY CONTACT

PC 101
10

OUTPUT
1 +V IN

10A MAX
INPUT
TO

PR
ES
S

BREAKER 100-240 ~ 50-60Hz 100-240 ~ 50-60Hz 1 G

PWR PWR
IN OUT TALLY IN CONTACT OUT
+ - + - 1 G 2 G 3 G 1 G 2 G 3 G

Contact Closure

12V
Tally

12V

Smartphone

Tablet Laptop

Wireless

ShareLink 200 AUDIO VGA OUT HDMI OUT


Extron
ShareLink 200
POWER
OUT

Wireless Collaboration
USB
Gateway
LAN / PoE 5V
1.3A MAX

Audio
WiFi 1 2 3 4
HDMI

VGA INPUTS OUTPUT


MPS 601
1
A 3 5 HDMI
C G T C G T C G T +V
POWER
Extron
1 3 5
12V RGBHV
0.5A MAX
CONTACT IN / TALLY OUT REMOTE
2 4 HDMI 6 HDMI 2 4 6 RS-232
MPS 601
Media Presentation
B C G T C G T C G T Tx Rx G
PC Switcher
Contact Closure/Tally

MODEL 80

VGA Show Me Cable

HDMI Show Me Cables


HDMI
FLAT PANEL

Display

www.extron.com 63
Executive Briefing Center

System Design Solution


Display System
Each area has one or more wall-mounted LCD monitors. They are
sized for maximum content legibility from the average audience
position. For common areas such as the lobby, this equates to
50inch displays. The larger meeting rooms will be equipped with
70inch displays. Multiple monitors in the meeting rooms will better
facilitate videoconferencing applications, with the capability to display
far-end participants and presentation content on separate displays.

Sources and Connectivity


The meeting and conference rooms will be equipped with a resident
PC, Blu-ray player, and two high definition PTZ cameras. Extron
Cable Cubby 600 enclosures will be installed at the meeting tables,
each to be populated with cable connectivity to accommodate
Overview
presenters with laptops and mobile devices. Videoconferencing
An advanced technology company has identified the need for multiple AV
presentation systems to support its new executive briefing center. The center codecs and 4K media players will reside in the equipment room with
includes a lobby, a meeting room, a dining area, an executive anteroom, local connection to the central switching system.
and an executive conference room. The company aims to use AV to deliver
carefully orchestrated presentations with eye-catching imagery to reinforce its Switching System
corporate image to visitors, business clients, and investors.
An Extron XTP II CrossPoint 3200 modular matrix switcher will
reside in a centralized equipment room and provide AV switching
Needs Assessment throughout the facility. It is to be populated with a mix of video,
Staffing The meeting and conference room systems in this XTP fiber, XTP twisted pair boards to accommodate source devices
facility will be operated by executives and clients. in the equipment rack, and sources and displays located throughout
Tech support staff will have remote system access the building.
as necessary.
General Each room system must be designed to function Signal Distribution
Requirements autonomously, yet have the capability to tie back
A variety of Extron XTP transmitters and scaling receivers will be
to the main distribution system in order to provide
overflow meeting capabilities. used to manage signal distribution to and from the XTP CrossPoint
matrix switcher. Their ability to extend video, audio, control,
Sources The meeting and conference rooms will have fixed
sources as well as flexible inputs for laptops and
and Ethernet long distances over a single cable is ideal for this
tablets. They will be equipped for videoconferencing environment. The use of 4K scaling fiber optic receivers at each flat
with two cameras. Digital signage players are panel location ensures consistently optimal image presentation from a
needed to deliver content in areas where employees variety of source formats.
or guests gather.
Display There will be significant ambient lighting throughout Audio System
Requirements all areas. All displays must provide enough
The audio system is to be managed via several Extron
brightness so that dimming of the lights is not
necessary in order to view the images. Displays DMP128CAT digital signal processors. They will be used for
should be appropriately sized so that content can be mixing and processing wireless and table microphones, and for
discerned from the farthest seating positions in the AEC processing in conferencing applications. The DMP 128 CAT is
rooms. For the meeting and conference rooms, dual
equipped for Dante audio networking, which will provide an efficient
displays should be used to support high resolution
content together with HD camera feeds. means of distributing audio channels between rooms for background
music and overflow meetings. Extron XTRA Series power amplifiers
Audio Program audio and voice reinforcement are required
Requirements for the meeting and conference rooms, with will be used throughout the facility, with distributed and program audio
table and wireless microphones. In the common in the meeting and conference rooms.
areas, a sufficient quantity of overhead distributed
loudspeakers are desired to ensure uniform Control System
coverage and reasonable sound pressure levels. The displays in the common areas are scheduled to turn on and off
Control The meeting and conference rooms should have a to coincide with the operating hours of the facility. This is managed
Requirements tabletop touchscreen with an intuitive GUI for easy through the Extron IPCP Pro 550 control processor. Multiple Extron
access to essential AV functions. The control system TLP Pro Series TouchLink Touchpanels will be utilized throughout
is to be configured so that the touchpanels receive
the facility to provide localized access for control within the various
active status feedback from centralized equipment
in the control of source routing, videoconferencing spaces. Touchpanel form factors and sizes will vary based on the
functions, and digital signage media playback. location and intended users and AV functions.

64 Extron Digital Design Guide


Lobby
Meeting Room
Blu-ray Player Ethernet Display
Ethernet Extron
TLP Pro 520M
Doc
Laptop PC DVD VCR Tuner 123
Cam

Display Volume
Tuner
On
Channel Presets
1 2 3
Off

4 5 6
Mute Mute

5" Wall Mount TouchLink Pro


Room
7 8 9
Control Last
More
STANDBY/ON Screen 0 Enter Presets

PQLS HDMI OPEN/CLOSE FL OFF


System Audio

Ethernet
Lighting Help December 15, 2013 - 7:58 AM
Off Control

IR Touchpanel
USB

Extron

HDMI Display
Extron Ethernet
XTP T HDMI POWER
12V
0.7A MAX
INPUTS
AUDIO
ON
AUDIO
L R
OVER XTP
RS-232 IR
SIG LINK

RESET
IR
Transmitter HDMI
XTP T HDMI
LOOP THRU
OFF
+ + Tx Rx G Tx Rx XTP OUT LAN HDMI

POWER
12V
--A MAX
XTP IN OVER XTP
RS-232 IR
AUDIO
ON
AUDIO
L R
OUTPUTS RELAYS
1 2
REMOTE
RS-232 RESET
Extron IR
Ethernet SIG LINK LAN Tx Rx G Tx Rx
OFF
HDMI S/PDIF Tx Rx G
XTP SFR HDMI
HD 4K
Fiber Receiver POWER
12V
--A MAX
XTP IN OVER XTP
RS-232 IR ON
AUDIO AUDIO
L R
OUTPUTS RELAYS
1 2
REMOTE
RS-232 RESET Extron
Audio XTP SFR
OFF
SIG LINK LAN Tx Rx G Tx Rx HDMI S/PDIF Tx Rx G

VGA
Display Fiber HD 4K
PC Receiver
Extron POWER
12V
--A MAX
INPUTS
AUDIO
OVER XTP
RS-232 IR
SIG LINK

RESET

XTP T VGA UNIVERSAL LOOP THRU


XTP T VGA
Tx Rx G Tx Rx XTP OUT LAN

Ethernet
Extron Transmitter
Extron
Cable XTP T USW 103 Dining Area
Cubby 600 Switcher/Transmitter IR
HDMI Extron
POWER
1 2 3
SIG LINK OVER XTP REMOTE

Ethernet
Extron
12V

TLP Pro 520M


Doc

AUDIO
Laptop PC DVD VCR Tuner 123
Cam

1.0 A MAX RS-232 IR CONTACT RS-232 R Display Volume


Tuner
On
Channel Presets

VGA
1 2 3

RGB HDMI HDMI POWER XTP IN OVER XTP OUTPUTS RELAYS REMOTE Off

INPUTS XTP OUT LAN Tx Rx G Tx Rx 1 2 3 G Tx Rx G 12V AUDIO AUDIO 4 5 6

XTP SFR
Mute Mute
RS-232 IR RS-232

5" Wall Mount TouchLink Pro


--A MAX ON L R 1 2 RESET 7 8 9
Room
Control Last
More
Screen 0 Enter Presets

OFF System Audio


HDMI
Lighting
S/PDIF
Help December 15, 2013 - 7:58 AM

SIG LINK LAN Tx Rx G Tx Rx Tx Rx G Off Control

HDMI Touchpanel
HD 4K
Extron

Display
AUDIO

HDMI Fiber Receiver Ethernet


COMPUTER

Ethernet
Camera
Extron IR
XTP T HDMI POWER
12V
0.7A MAX
INPUTS
AUDIO
ON
AUDIO
L R
OVER XTP
RS-232 IR
SIG LINK

RESET

Transmitter HDMI
XTP T HDMI
LOOP THRU
OFF
+ + Tx Rx G Tx Rx XTP OUT LAN
HDMI
HDMI
CATx Cable
POWER
12V
--A MAX
XTP IN OVER XTP
RS-232 IR ON
AUDIO AUDIO
L R
OUTPUTS RELAYS
1 2
REMOTE
RS-232 RESET Extron
Extron XTP SFR
OFF
SIG LINK LAN Tx Rx G Tx Rx HDMI S/PDIF Tx Rx G

Camera
XTP T HDMI POWER
12V
0.7A MAX
INPUTS
AUDIO
ON
AUDIO
L R
OVER XTP
RS-232 IR
SIG LINK

RESET
Extron Fiber HD 4K
Audio Receiver
Doc
Laptop PC DVD VCR Tuner

Transmitter
123
Cam

TLP Pro 1020T


XTP T HDMI OFF
HDMI LOOP THRU + + Tx Rx G Tx Rx XTP OUT Display Volume
LAN Tuner
On
Channel Presets
1 2 3

HDMI
Off

10" Tabletop TouchLink


4 5 6
Mute Mute

Extron
Room
7 8 9
Control Last 100-240V 0.5A MAX, 50-60Hz XPA 1002 Plus

Pro Touchpanel Ethernet


More
Screen 0 Enter Presets
ATTENUATION INPUTS REMOTE 8 / 4 OUTPUTS

XPA 1002 Plus


System Audio
Lighting Help December 15, 2013 - 7:58 AM
1 2 1 2 1 2 10V 50mA 1 2

Table Microphones
Off Control

STANDBY
12 10 8 12 10 8
14 6 14 6 G
LIMITER/PROTECT 18 4 4

Power Amplifier
26 2 2
SIGNAL

0 0
V C G CLASS 2 WIRING

Wireless Microphones Audio


Ethernet Ethernet
Dante
Audio Extron
Network
SI 28
Extron 100-240V ~ --A MAX 1 2 3 4 9 10 DMP 128 C AT 1 2 3 4

Surface Mount
MIC/LINE INPUTS

AT

DMP 128 C AT
DIGITAL I/O

Speakers
OUTPUTS

1 2 3 4 5 G 6 7 8 9 10 G
MIC +48V 1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8 11 12 5 6 7 8 RS-232
REMOTE

RESET

Digital Matrix Processor 50/60 Hz 5 6 7 8 11 12 13 14 15 G 16 17 18 19 20 G Tx Rx G EXP LAN

Extron
IPCP Pro 550
Executive Conference Room IP Link Pro Control Processor
100-240V ~ 50-60Hz
1 2 1 2 3 7 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 PWR OUT = 12W
IPCP PRO 550

Display
+ - + - Tx Rx G Tx Rx G Tx Rx G Tx Rx G RTS CTS S G S G S G S G + V +S -S G
SWITCHED 12 VDC eBUS

Blu-ray Player
LAN

Ethernet
40W MAX TOTAL

3 4 4 5 6 8 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 G

Ethernet 5A MAX
+ - + -
12 VDC
Tx Rx G Tx Rx G Tx Rx G Tx Rx G RTS CTS
COM
S G S G S G
IR/SERIAL
S G
RELAYS FLEX I/O

Ethernet
STANDBY/ON
PQLS HDMI OPEN/CLOSE FL OFF

AV Control
IR Network
USB

HDMI IR
Extron
XTP T HDMI POWER
12V
0.7A MAX
INPUTS
AUDIO
ON
AUDIO
L R
OVER XTP
RS-232 IR
SIG LINK

RESET
HDMI
Transmitter Extron
XTP T HDMI OFF
HDMI LOOP THRU + + Tx Rx G Tx Rx XTP OUT LAN POWER XTP IN OVER XTP OUTPUTS RELAYS REMOTE
12V AUDIO AUDIO
--A MAX RS-232 IR ON L R 1 2 RS-232 RESET

SIG LINK LAN Tx Rx G Tx Rx


OFF
HDMI S/PDIF Tx Rx G

XTP SFR
Ethernet HD 4K
Fiber Receiver
INPUTS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Audio Display
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
CATx Cable
VGA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 CONTROL I/O

PC Ethernet
ENTER PRESET VIEW ESC VIDEO AUDIO

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 CONFIG
1 3

Extron POWER
12V
--A MAX
INPUTS
AUDIO
OVER XTP
RS-232 IR
SIG LINK

RESET
OUTPUTS 2 4
POWER

XTP T VGA UNIVERSAL LOOP THRU


XTP T VGA
Tx Rx G Tx Rx XTP OUT LAN

IR
Extron Transmitter
Extron HDMI
Cable XTP T USW 103 Ethernet
Cubby 600
POWER
12V
XTP IN OVER XTP
AUDIO AUDIO
OUTPUTS RELAYS REMOTE
Extron
Switcher/Transmitter
--A MAX RS-232 IR ON L R 1 2 RS-232 RESET

OVER XTP REMOTE


SIG LINK LAN Tx Rx G Tx Rx
OFF
HDMI S/PDIF Tx Rx G

XTP SFR
HD 4K
POWER SIG LINK
12V 1 2 3
AUDIO
1.0 A MAX RS-232 IR CONTACT RS-232 R

XTP CrossPoint 3200


VGA
INPUTS RGB HDMI HDMI XTP OUT LAN

Receiver
Tx Rx G Tx Rx 1 2 3 G Tx Rx G

Fiber
XTP SERIES DIGITAL MATRIX SWITCHER

Extron
HDMI
XTP II CrossPoint 3200
AUDIO

HDMI Modular Digital HDMI HDMI


Matrix Switcher
COMPUTER

CATx Cable Display 1

HDMI
Ethernet Ethernet Videoconferencing
Codecs HDMI 1

Camera Extron Media Players


IR
XTP T HDMI POWER
12V
0.7A MAX
INPUTS
AUDIO
ON
AUDIO
L R
OVER XTP
RS-232 IR
SIG LINK

RESET

Transmitter HDMI
XTP T HDMI
LOOP THRU
OFF
+ + Tx Rx G Tx Rx XTP OUT LAN
HDMI
HDMI POWER
12V
--A MAX
XTP IN
RS-232
OVER XTP
IR ON
AUDIO AUDIO
L R
OUTPUTS RELAYS
1 2
REMOTE
RS-232 RESET Extron Executive Anteroom
SIG LINK LAN Tx Rx G Tx Rx
OFF
HDMI S/PDIF Tx Rx G

XTP SFR
HD 4K Ethernet
Extron
Extron Receiver TLP Pro 520M
Doc
Laptop PC DVD VCR Tuner 123
Cam

Fiber
Display Volume

Camera
Tuner
On
Channel Presets
1 2 3
Off

4 5 6

XTP T HDMI 5" Wall Mount TouchLink Pro


Mute Mute

Room
7 8 9
Control Last
SIG LINK More
POWER INPUTS 0 Enter Presets

OVER XTP
Screen

12V AUDIO AUDIO


0.7A MAX ON L R RS-232 IR RESET
Lighting Help December 15, 2013 - 7:58 AM
System
Off
Audio
Control

Transmitter HDMI
XTP T HDMI
LOOP THRU
OFF
+ + Tx Rx G Tx Rx XTP OUT LAN
Extron
Touchpanel
HDMI
CATx Cable
Display
Extron Monday, December 16, 2013 7:04 AM
Ethernet
TLP Pro 1220TG
Contacts Sources 800.633.9876
Name + -
Andrew Key Menu Delete

Table Microphones
Beth 1 2
ABC
3
DEF

Charlie Video Window


4 5 6

12" Tabletop TouchLink


GHI JKL MNO

David
Ervin
7
PQRS
8 TUV WXYZ
9
Frank 0

IR
Greg

Pro Touchpanel
End Call
Call

Wireless Microphones
Full
Harold Screen
Privacy

Kevin
Mike
Andrew
(800) 633 - 9876
Enter Zoom
In

Zoom
Out
Near
End

Far
End
Camera Display
123

Presets
Ethernet
HDMI
Audio
POWER
12V
--A MAX
XTP IN
RS-232
OVER XTP
IR ON
AUDIO AUDIO