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Lipids are heterogenous group of compounds related to fatty acis either actual or
potential and are insoluble in water though soluble in other solvents like ether
,chloroform and benzene and chemically are esters of fatty acid and some alcohols.

Clinical significance of lipids.

Artherosclerosis disease is charactersed by accumulation o cholesterol and other

lipids under tunica intima and leading to breakdown of endothelial lining.This leads
to narrowing of the arteries ,clotting of blood (thrombosis)and dislodgement of clot
which may obstruct coronary blood vessels and lead to embolism.this occurs when
there is increased plasma cholesterol level.

Artherosclerosis affect arterial blood vessels.its inflammatory response in walls of

rteries due to accumulation of macrophage white blood cells and promoted by low
density lipoprotein without adequate removal of fats and cholesterol fro
macrophage by functional high density lipoproteins.

Incidence of hyperlipedemia increases after menopause.Arteriosclerosis

increases due to effect of changed metabolism of lipis after menopause .

In menopause the ovaries nolonger secrete progestrerone in appreciabe quantities

and estrogen is formed in small amounts.uterus and vagina gradually become

Birth control pill contains progesterone and oestrogen.This synthetic hormones

prevent ovulation and thus prevent pregnancy.

High level of progesterone inhibits secretion of FSH and LH hence no new egg
follicles are developed and hence no ovulation occur. E.g triple :Tri-cyclen contains
norgestimate which mimics progesterone and ethynyl estradiol which mimics
estrogen .

The triple bond ethyne group on steroids allow for oral administration.
Implants contains levonorgestrel hormone similar to progestrerone made by
ovaries ,

Implants release levonorgestrel to blood stream,bloodstream carries the hormone

to pituitary gland and pituitary gland then stops ovaries fromdevelloping eggs.

Levonogestrel keep sperm from entering the uterus by thickening the cervical
mucus and thinning lining of uterus.

Long term injection Depo-provera contains depo-medroxyprogesterone

acetate.This hormone causes ovulation to cease by decreasing the
folliclestimulating hormone and lutenizing hormone.
Pancreatitis- the inflammation of the pancrease results from excessively high
level of fats in the blood .most often it results when gallstones blocks the bile ducts
and pancreatic enzymes are activated in the pancreatic ducts,causing the
pancrease tissue and duct to be digested.When the concentration of cholesterol is
too high in the bile ,it precipitates in form of gallstones. This painful condition leads
to nutritional deficiencies because pancreatic enzymes are essential for food
digestion in small intestines.

Diabetes mellitus-results from hyposecretion or hypoactivity of insulin. In

hypoglycemic state lipolysis (breakdown of fats) occur to make glucose available.

When sugars cannot be used as cellular fuel ,more fats are mobilized resulting in
high fatty acid level in blood. (lipidemia) . in severe cases of diabetes mellitus ,blood
level of fatty acids and their metabolites rise. The fatty acid metabolites collectively
known as ketone bodies are organic acids and when the accumulate in blood ,the
blood ph drops resulting in Ketoacidosis ,severe ketoacidosis is life
threatening.If untreated it disrupts the heart ctivity and oxygen transport and
severe depression of the nervous system leads to coma and death.

Fat soluble vitamins A,D,E,K bind to ingested lipids and are absorbed along with
their digestion products. Anything that interferes with fat absorption also interferes
with the uptake of fat soluble vitamins.
Steroid hormones from cholesterol i.e adrenorcorticoids(corticosteroids
,corticoids) :

a)Glucorcoticoids cortisol(hydrocortisone),corticosterone and cortisone are

essential for life regulating mechanisms and response to stress.

Glucorcorticoids helps in gluconeogenesis,lipolysis and stimulating breakdown of

protein,releasing amino aids ,which can be used for synthesis of other proteins.

b)mineralcorticoid aldosterone functions in maintainance of water and electrolyte

balance in the body through the renal tubules.