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# Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto

Compendium of extra-curricular
Assignments for the
Machine Elements II course

## Eng. Paulo Manuel Salgado Tavares de Castro Filipe Giesteira up201306293

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Machine Elements course II
Some important Notes:

- Even though this is a mechanical element course for Portuguese native speaker (that eventually can
be adapted for international students), this document will be entirely written in English. The two main
reasons for that are: Promote best information trading with the international students that are always
welcomed at FEUP; and a purely language exercise and practice for the author.

- All the results given must be critical checked and the author doesnt take any responsibility for any
inconvenience that those hypothetically errors may create.

- There will be mentioned some spreadsheets Texas Nspire based programs used to automate the
resolution process (of this exercise and of the exercise given by the professor in the exam). If
anyone would like to check the code or simple use them the author would be truly happy to provide
them.

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Machine Elements course II
Contents

## A1 Curved Beams Elevation hook as a practical example...............................................6

A1.1 Theoretical approach............................................................................................... 6
A1.2 FEA approach.......................................................................................................... 7
A2 Thick Cylinders............................................................................................................. 9
A2.1 Compound Cylinders assembled with zero radial shrinkage allowance..................9
A2.1.1 -Theoretical approach.......................................................................................... 9
A2.1.2 FEA approach................................................................................................. 11
A2.2 Ratio of Hoop Stress/internal pressure Distribution function of a K=a/b parameter
........................................................................................................................................ 17

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Machine Elements course II
Figure 1- Image adpated by the author from R. Uddanwadiker, "Stress Analysis of Crane
Hook and Validation by Photo-Elasticity," Engineering, Vol. 3 No. 9, 2011, pp. 935-941. doi:
10.4236/eng.2011.39115.'................................................................................................... 7
Figure 2- Scheme of the contact pressure created by the application of an internal
pressure on the inner cylinder............................................................................................ 10
Figure 3- Aspect of a spreadsheet program based for computing stresses on a compound
cylinder assembled with null shrinkage allowance.............................................................11
Figure 4- Aspect and dimension of the two metal rings used to model the compound
cylinder. The dimensions used were exactly the same of the EJ. Hearn problem. Left outer
steel cylinder ; and Right- inner brass cylinder..................................................................12
Figure 5- Assembly of the inner and outer disk..................................................................12
Figure 6- Plot of the first principle stress, equal in this case to the hoop stress.................13
Figure 7- Plot of the third principle stress, equal is this case to the radial stress...............14

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Machine Elements course II
A1 Curved Beams Elevation hook as a practical example

This first work consists simply on the analysis of a hook by any FEA software available. The hook
geometry was based on an exercise proposed by Shigley on his book Mechanical Engineering Design, 9 th
edition. The original problem was integrally copied and is as follows:

## The dimensions in the

international System
are:

R =50.8 mm

Rout =152.40

F=22241 N

First of all we are going to approach this problem by the theory of the curved beams, and then we
are going to explore the FEA potential.

## A1.1 Theoretical approach

The general expression that models the flexion problem of curved beams can appear of essentially
two different ways, depending on the literature used:

M f ( y e)
xx = Assuming the notation and coordinates system bellow
Ae (R y )

There have been developed tables with the values from (e,R) for a wide range of normal sections. The
following table was extracted from the Machine Elements course II study material, by Professor Paulo

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Machine Elements course II

R
Figure 1- Image adpated by the
"Stress Analysis of Crane Hook
and Validation by Photo-
Elasticity," Engineering, Vol. 3
No. 9, 2011, pp. 935-941. doi:
x 10.4236/eng.2011.39115.'

From the previous expressions the normal stress can finally be computed from:

{
M ( ye) M f ( ye)
xx = f xx =
Ae( R y ) Ae(R y)

{
M f ( ye)
h 101.6 101.6 xx = [ N / m m2 ]
e=R e=0.0508+ Ae(R y )
r 2 152.4
ln o
ri
ln( 50.8 ) e=[mm ]
R=[ mm ]
h 101.6 2
R=r i + R=0.0508+ A=[m m ]
2 2
A=hb A=

Mf y
xx =K t
I zz

## A1.2 FEA approach

The software that will be used for now on, for a matter of consistence, will be the simulation add-in
from the SolidWorks software. Each software has its advantages and disadvantages, and for a beginner

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Machine Elements course II
student like me on the FEA world, a less controllable software can be a really help. So, if the FEA software
wont be mentioned, one may assume that the SolidWorks software was used.

In order to gradually try to approximate the boundary conditions used, several models will be used.
Going from the simple one, to the most real one.

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Machine Elements course II
The first model used was a quarter
of a cylindrical disk. The concentrated
force, was substituted by a distributed
shear force, to eliminate local deformations
and stress concentration. The boundary
conditions used were symmetrical
conditions. A feature given by the
SolidWorks itself. The normal stress in the
yy direction was similar to the stress
predicted by the theoretical approach. A
comparative plot from the two cases were

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Machine Elements course II
A2 Thick Cylinders

## A2.1 Compound Cylinders assembled with zero radial shrinkage allowance

This assignment is based on a problem proposed by EJ.Hearn on his book An Introduction to the
Mechanics of Elastic and Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials, 3r Edition, chapter 10,
exercise 10.17. The original exercise header is as follows:

The main idea is to determine the internal pressure based on a contact pressure given, and compute
all the most important stresses points along the radial coordinate.

Since there is no shrinkage allowance, a different approach to what was seen on the theoretical
classes must be taken. The static analysis will be conducted separately from the inner and outer cylinder.
This happens because the contact pressure is naturally, a function of the internal pressure applied on the
inner cylinder. However, for the case of finite shrinkage allowance:

## the contact pressure (

PC ) was computed using the Lam equations considering it independent of

## the internal pressure (

PC of assembling).

When the internal pressure is applied the contact pressure of assembly decreases and the contact
pressure due to the internal pressure increases in the same magnitude.
That is why on the case of finite shrinkage allowance, the component of the contact pressure

## function of the internal pressure (designated from now on by

PC ) is not considered and and a

## A2.1.1 -Theoretical approach

Data organization:

## Outer Cylinder Inner Cylinder Dimensions

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Machine Elements course II
Eout =207 GPa E =100 GPa a=0,025 m

## v out =0,28 v =0,33 b=0,050 m

c=0,075 m

Notation used:

t B out
hoop stressthe point B of the outer cylinder

## The contact pressure

PC is determined by the compatibility of
Figure 2- Scheme of the contact
pressure created by the application
the radial strain of each cylinder on the contact interface. From the
of an internal pressure on the inner
Generalized Hook Law we can write: cylinder.

1 1
t v out ( r l ) = [ t v out ( r l ) ]
[ ]
E out B out
E Bout B B

## Considering the case of open-ended cylinder,

l =0 , and from the following scheme we can state that

r = r =PC
B B out

1 1
[ t +v out PC ] = [ t + v PC ]
E out Bout
E B (1)

t t

and B out
are calculated directly from the Lam Equations:

2 2 2
Pi (b + a ) PC 2b
t = 2 2
2 2 (2)
Pi Internal Pressure ; P c external pressure
B
b a b a

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Machine Elements course II
PC (c2 +b 2) P o (2 c 2)
t = 2 2 (3) Pc Internal Pressure ; Po external pressure=0
B out
c 2b 2 c b

## Solving the system of equations (1), (2) and (3) comes:

{
1 1
+v out PC ] = [ t + v PC ]
E out [ t Bout
E B

Pi ( b2 +a2 ) PC (2 b2 )
t = 2 2 , Pi , t , t
Solve B
b 2a2 b a B Bout

P (c2 +b 2) P (2 c 2)
t = C 2 2 o2 2
B out
c b c b

## Syntax from TexasNspire CAS

Note only that in this particularly situation, the contact pressure was given instead of the internal
pressure. However the resolution will always consist of calculating three of these variables

Pi , PC , t , t
( B B out
)

## Figure 3- Aspect of a spreadsheet program based for computing stresses on a compound .

cylinder assembled with null shrinkage allowance

Input
Output
Cell

The remaining stresses (radial stresses and hoop stress on the point C) can be computed by:

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Machine Elements course II
PC 2 b 2 Po (c2 +b 2)
t = 2 2
C
c b c 2b2

r =Pi r =P C r =Po
A ; B ; C

l =0
(assumption used to derive the Contact pressure equation)

## A2.1.2 FEA approach

As we could verify in the theoretical classes, the stress distribution is essentially independent of the
axial length of the cylinder. From this knowledge, the element used to model the compound cylinder

## behavior when it is applied an internal pressure (

Pi ) was a thin disk, as is illustrated bellow. In order to

prove this assumption, a constant stress pattern must be observed through the axial length of the disk.

For the modeling process, simulation add-in of the SolidWorks software was used. The finite
element analysis given by this specific software, allows less control of the meshing geometric construction.
However, it is considered by many the best start point for students beginning their journey on the FEA.

First a 3D Cad drawing was made for the inner and outer ring, each one made of different materials.
A 2D simplification could have been done (there is actually a SolidWorks option to run the static analysis
of a 3D based solid with axisymmetric simplifications), however the stress independency of the axial length
couldnt have been checked. The aspects of the 3-D models used were:

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Machine Elements course II
Figure 4- Aspect and dimension of the two metal rings used to model the compound cylinder. The dimensions
used were exactly the same of the EJ. Hearn problem. Left outer steel cylinder ; and Right- inner brass
cylinder.

Figure 5- Assembly of
the inner and outer disk.

After correctly assemble the metal disks, a static study was run.

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Machine Elements course II
a roller/slider boundary condition (fixed
displacements on blue) was applied on the
quarter of a ring as shown below. This
conditions only allows translations on the plane
surface.

bounded.

## The mesh parameters used were standard and

they are shown on the following table:

## Note the discontinuity on the interface

between the two disks (blue-
green transition). The simulation results are similar to
those calculated theoretically.

## Figure 6- Plot of the

first principle
stress, equal in this
case to the hoop
stress.
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Machine Elements course II
Figure - Plot of the third principle stress, equal is this case to the radial stress.

Note the smooth radial stress transition expected by the theoretical approach. The results
obtained are also according to what was expected, with a null radial tension on the outer
surface. Since there is no external pressure.

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Machine Elements course II
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Machine Elements course II
One aspect worth mention is
the stress obtained on the
interface between the two
rings. This stress is probably
due to the bonded component
condition.

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Machine Elements course II
A2.2 Ratio of Hoop Stress/internal pressure Distribution function of a K=a/b parameter

From the Lam equations for thick cylinders a general dimensionless expression for
the hoop stress can be easily derived. The basic assumptions are that on the thick simple
cylinder will be only applied an internal pressure, and the external pressure will be null. If
the cylinder is open-ended or closed is irrelevant for this specific case.

The notation used will be congruent with the notation used until now. The hoop
stress on a thick cylinder can be computed as follows:
2
a Pi 2
t a2 b2
t= 2
b a
2( )
1+
b
r
2 Pi b a ( )
= 2 2 1+ 2
r

t 2 2

=
k
Pi k 2 1 ( )
b
1+ 2
r
A

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Machine Elements course II