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GPRS and EGPRS


Radio Network Planning
3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Radio Network Planning


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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 2
Objectives
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 3

 By the end of the course, participants know:

 GPRS Session Management,


 TBF Management,
 Location Management,
 System Information Management,
 Cell Selection and Re-selection,
 Power Control and RLC Measurements,
 Coding Scheme and Link Adaptation,
 Radio Resources Re-allocation,
 (E)GPRS Planning Principles,
 (E)GPRS Network Planning,
 Network Evolution Scenarios,
 (E)GPRS QoS Enhancement Features,
 (E)GPRS with GSM Capacity Enhancement Features

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 3
Objectives
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 4

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 4
Table of Contents
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 5

Page
Switch to notes view!
1 Basics 9
1.1 Service Overview GPRS 10
1.2 Service Overview EGPRS 11
1.3 Support of GPRS QoS classes 12
1.3.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 13
1.4 Dual Transfer Mode 14
1.4.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 15
1.5 (E)GPRS MS Multislot Classes 16
1.6 (E)GPRS General Architecture 17
1.7 Alcatel (E)GPRS Architecture 19
1.8 (E)GPRS Protocol Layers (Transmission Plane) 22
1.9 Alcatel (E)GPRS BSS Hardware support 23
1.10 Modulation Technique: 8-PSK only for EGPRS 24
1.11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects 25
1.12 (E)GPRS Radio Blocks Structure 29
1.13 GPRS Channel Coding 31
1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding 34
1.15 Radio Link Adaptation Overview 39
1.16 Automatic ReQuest for repetition (ARQ) 40
1.17 Type-I ARQ mechanism 41
1.18 Type-I ARQ in GPRS 42
1.19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS 43
1.20 (E)GPRS radio physical channel: PDCH Concept 47
1.21 (E)GPRS Multiframe 48
EVOLIUM1.22
BSS -(E)GPRS Logical Channels
GPRS and EGPRS 49
1.23 Master/Slave
Radio Network Planning PDCH concept All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007 51
1.24 Temporary Block Flow 52
1.25 Resources Sharing 54
1.26 MS multiplexing co-ordination 58
1.27 GPRS mobility management (GMM) states for MS 61
1.28 Radio Resource (RR) operating modes for MS 62
1.29 Attach procedure 63
1.30 PDP context activation 65
1.31 Location management 66
1.32 Routing Area 67
1.33 Network Mode of Operation (NMO) 68
1.34 TBF establishment 69
1.35 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 1 phase access 70
1.36 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 2 phases access 72
1.37 DL TBF establishment on CCCH 74
1.38 System information broadcasting on BCCH 75
1.39 System information broadcasting on PBCCH 77
1.40 (E)GPRS Transmission Aspects 80
1.40 TRX Classes Concept 81
1.41 Two Abis Links per BTS 84
2 B9 features 85
2.1 Enhanced Packet Cell Reselection (R4 MSs) 86
2.1.1 Radio Network Impact 87
2.2 Extended Uplink TBF Mode 88
2.2 Radio Network Planning Impact 89
2.3 Enhanced support of E-GPRS (EDGE) in uplink 91
2.3.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 93
2.4 Counter Improvements for Release B9 94
2.4.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 98
2.5 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation 99

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 5
Table of Contents [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 6

Page
Switch to notes view!
2.5.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 101
2.6 2G/3G Inter-working 102
2.6.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 105
2.7 M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing 106
2.7.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 108
2.8 Dynamic Abis allocation 109
2.8.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 110
2.9 Enhanced transmission resource management 111
2.10 RMS_I1 Improvements 112
2.10.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 113
2.11 RMS_I2 Improvements 114
2.11.1 Radio Network Planning Impact 115
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms 116
3.1 Cell Reselection Overview 117
3.2 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, no PBCCH established 121
3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established 123
3.4 Cell reselection execution: NC0 in PTM 130
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode 132
3.6 GPRS redirection 143
3.7 GPRS Power Control: Overview 145
3.8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements 146
3.9 GPRS Power Control: Algorithm 150
3.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control 153
3.11 Link adaptation: UL GPRS Radio Link Control 157
EVOLIUM3.12
BSS -Link adaptation
GPRS and EGPRS in EGPRS: New metrics 160
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3.13 Link
Radio Network adaptation: DL EGPRS Radio
Planning Link Control 161
3.14 EGPRS Link Adaptation Decision 163
3.15 TRX ranking/TRX transmission pool set-up 164
3.16 TRX capability for PS traffic 166
3.17 Radio Resource Allocation: Overview 167
3.18 Radio Resource Allocation: PDCH state 168
3.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs 171
3.20 Radio Resource Allocation: EGPRS TBFs 176
3.21 Radio Resource Allocation: TBF Re-allocation 179
3.22 Radio Resource Allocation: Min_PDCH 180
3.23 Radio Resource Allocation: Fast initial (E)GPRS access 181
4 General (E)GPRS planning principels 182
4.1 Throughput Dependency -> Interference (and Level) 183
4.2 Packet data throughput 184
4.3 Reference performance point 185
4.4 Saturation effect 186
4.5 Cell area and throughput 188
4.6 Throughput <-> C/I 189
5 (E)GPRS Network intoduction 191
5.1 GPRS network planning 192
5.2 GPRS Greenfield planning 193
5.3 GPRS traffic calculation and traffic analysis 195
5.4 GPRS traffic calculationand PS traffic 196
5.5 GPRS traffic calculation and user profile 198
5.6 GPRS traffic calculation and market applications 199
5.7 GPRS traffic calculation and user behavior 200
5.8 Customer questionnaire 201
5.9 Traffic Model (Example) 203
5.10 User mapping 204
5.11 Multi-Service 205

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 6
Table of Contents [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 7

Page
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5.12 QoS per User Application 206
5.13 GPRS traffic calculation 207
5.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods 212
5.15 GPRS traffic calculation result 217
6 (E)GPRS Network design 218
6.1 General 219
6.2 Frequency planning 222
6.3 Throughput 224
6.4 Link budget 225
6.5 Interference analysis on BCCH frequencies 228
6.6 Interference analysis on TCH frequencies 229
6.7 TRX assignment to GPRS service 230
6.8 GPRS Analysis 231
6.9 LA and RA planning 235
6.10 Quality of Service 245
7 Considerabele features to react (E)GPRS target 248
7.1 General 249
7.1 Optimization campaign on parameters 250
7.2 MPDCH 251
7.3 Enhanced PDCH Adaptation & Fast pre-emption 254
7.4 User multiplexing 255
7.5 PDCH Resource Multiplexing 256
7.6 Radio (TBF) Resource Reallocation 257
7.7 Coding Scheme Adaptation 259
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BSSCell
- GPRSReselection
and EGPRS 260
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7.8 GPRS
Radio Network Power Control
Planning 262
7.8 Features on DL TBF establishment and release 263
7.8.1 Delayed DL TBF release 264
7.8.2 Fast Downlink TBF re-establishment process 266
7.8.3 Non-DRX feature 267
8 GPRS introduction into oerational GSM network 268
8.1 General 269
9 GSM Network enhancement features & GPRS 275
9.1 Frequency Hopping 276
9.2 -cell 278
9.3 Dual Band 280
9.4 Concentric cell 283
10 E-GPRS 284
10.1 E-GPRS main differences 285
11 GPRS traffic calculation example 288
11.1 Customer questionnaire (Example) 289
11.2 User and area distribution determination 291
11.3 Traffic demand for CS traffic 292
11.4 Traffic demand for packet traffic 293
11.5 Network capacity calculation 297
11.6 Traffic dimensioning 301

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1 Basics

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 9
1 Basics
1.1 Service Overview GPRS
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 10

 GPRS General Packet Radio Service


 GPRS is a GSM feature
 It has been introduced to provide end-to-end packet-switched (PS)
data transmission between MS users and fixed packet data networks
 GPRS provides efficient utilization of the radio resources:
 multislot operation
 flexible sharing of radio resources between MS
 resources are allocated only when data are transmitted
 Charging is mainly based on data volume transmitted and not on the
connection time

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 10
1 Basics
1.2 Service Overview EGPRS
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 11

 EDGE Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution

 ETSI standardized solution and can be introduced in two ways:


 CS enhancement: Enhanced circuit-switched data or ECSD
 PS enhancement for GPRS  EGPRS
 EGPRS relies on the introduction of 8-PSK (Eight Phase Shift Keying)
modulation technique:
 Same qualities in terms of generating interference on an adjacent
channel as GMSK  makes possible to integrate EDGE channels into
existing frequency plan
 8-PSK Symbol rate = GMSK Symbol rate, but one symbol represents now 3
bits instead of 1 bit in GMSK  increased data rates

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 11
1 Basics
1.3 Support of GPRS QoS classes
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 12

 Four QoS classes (or traffic classes) are defined:


 The conversational class will be very likely dedicated to real-time
conversation. Speech and video conferencing tools are some
examples of such applications
 The streaming class corresponds to a real-time stream and enforces
mainly constraints on jitter. Video streaming or PoC (Push to tak
over Celullar) are typical applications for the streaming traffic class.
 The interactive class corresponds to mainly to traditional Internet
applications like web browsing. Some differentiation can be done
between two services by using the traffic handling priority attribute.
 The background class is typically corresponding to Best Effort
services. Applications that make use of this class might be e-mail
downloading, SMS, or even ftp downloading.

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 PFC procedure
Packet Flow Context (PFC) is a concept introduced starting with R99 3GPP release to ensure that the
BSS is involved in the R99 QoS negotiation. The interest of PFC is to differentiate on the radio
interface the conversational and streaming traffics and to reserve resources for these traffics.
Without the PFC, the BSS only knows the R97/98 QoS parameters (correspond to the interactive and
background R99 QoS classes). It enables to perform admission control and QoS based resource
allocation in the BSS.
R99 QoS is taken into account if the PFC (Packet Flow Context) procedures are supported by the MS,
the BSS and the SGSN. It allows the BSS B9 to handle streaming and interactive traffics and also to
negotiate the QoS parameters.
R97/98 QoS should be also taken into account (OP12) if PFC is not supported by the MS or the SGSN in
order to handle interactive traffics or some specific applications as PoC (Push over Cellular).

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 12
1 Basics
1.3.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 13

 QoS subfeatures are of great interest in traffic-driven networks


(number of sites determined by the traffic to be carried, not by the
coverage per site). They will define the actual traffic shape in the
cell by allocating, in a selective manner, resources for (CS and) PS
calls. Here a traffic capacity gain is expected (higher traffic levels
can be handled with feature activated than without).

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 Radio interface impact


a) Support of PFC feature by RLC/MAC :
- PFC_FEATURE_MODE: this 1 bit field is a part of the R99 extensions in the GPRS_Cell_Options. It is
broadcasted on BCCH (SI13) or PBCCH (PSI1, PSI13 and PSI14) and indicates to the MSs if the network supports
the PFC feature.
- The PFC impact on the one phase access: "If the PFC_FEATURE_MODE is set in the system information and if a
PFC exists for the LLC data to be transferred then the PFI shall be transmitted along with the TLLI of the
mobile station in the RLC extended header during contention resolution. The PFI is not used for contention
resolution but is included to indicate to the network which PFC shall initially be associated with the uplink
TBF.
b) RLC/MAC/ messages impacts:
- PI bit (PFI indicator) is created, it indicates the presence of the optional PFI field:
0 PFI is not present
1 PFI is present if TI field indicates presence of TLLI
The PFI field indicates a PFI coded as it is defined in TS 44.018.
 RLC/MAC messages impacted are:
Packet Resource Request : PFI field is added
(EGPRS) Packet DL ACK/NACK: PFI field is added (if a Channel Request Description is also present)
UL (EGPRS) RLC data blocks : PFI field is added after the TLLI field (see 44.060 10.2.2 and 10.3a.2).
 PFI is included in the following SM messages :
Activate_PDP_Context_Accept,
Activate_Secundary_PDP_Context_Accept,
Modify_PDP_Context_Request (sent by the network) and
Modify_PDP_Context_Accept (in case the request to modify is sent by the MS).
 PFC_FEATURE_MODE is included in the MS_Network_Capability I.E. (which is sent in the Attach_Request and
RA_Update_Request GMM messages).

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 13
1 Basics
1.4 Dual Transfer Mode
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 14

!!!!! B10 FEATURE ONLY !!!!


 This feature allows a dual transfer mode capable MS to use a radio
resource for CS traffic and simultaneously one or several radio
resources for PS traffic.
 Single slot operation DTM MSs are not supported in Alcatel BSS
because the implementation of these MSs is difficult compared to
the throughput expected in PS services. Only multislot operation
DTM MSs are supported.
 In Alcatels implementation, the Gs interface is required to support
DTM to ensure CS paging co-ordination. It avoids the BSS to ensure
the paging co-ordination.
 While in dual transfer mode, the BSS only allocates full rate PDCH to
the MS.
 The dynamic Abis feature allows to simplify the radio resource
allocations. It avoids defining new TBF re-allocation triggers.

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 14
1 Basics
1.4.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 15
!!!!! B10 FEATURE ONLY !!!!
 Some restrictions towards BSS in deploying DTM exist. They are
presented below:
 Half rate
 Support of half rate configurations (one single timeslot encompassing one half
rate circuit channel + one half rate packet channel) was not considered in the
first implementation of DTM.
 Inter-cell handovers
 The number of inter-cell handovers should be minimized for DTM calls, as an
inter-cell HO leads to the re-allocation of the packet session. Therefore,
handover causes having a low priority should be inhibited for the time the MS
is operating in DTM.
 Intra-cell handovers
 The number of intra-cell handovers should be minimized for DTM calls, as an
intra-cell HO leads to the re-allocation of the packet session.
 Hierarchical networks
 As(E)GPRS are preferentially offered in macro cells, the BSS shall ensure that
at least one PDCH can be used in micro cells to re-direct the MS towards the
macro cells. It means that the BSS shall allow a PDCH used by a MS operating in
DTM mode to be shared by other (E)GPRS MS.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 15
1 Basic
1.5 (E)GPRS MS Multislot Classes
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 16

 EGPRS MS is characterized by two multislot classes:


 GPRS multislot class
 EGPRS multislot class
 Typically, EGPRS multislot class < GPRS multislot class
E.g. the multislot class of the mobile can be 3 RXs + 2 TXs (class 6) in pure GPRS
mode and 2 RXs + 1 TX (class 2) in pure EGPRS mode

 Type 1: class 1-12, class 19-29 recognized as class 10


 Type 2: class 13-18, allocation is limited to max. 5+5 timeslots

Multislot
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
Class

RX Timeslots 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 8

TX Timeslots 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 4 6 2 3 4 4 6 8

Sum of
2 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.n.a.
Timeslots
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 MS type
Type 1 are simplex MSs, i.e., without duplexer: they are not able to transmit and receive at the same time
Type 2 are duplex MSs, i.e., with duplexer: they are able to transmit and receive at the same time
 Rx
The maximum number of received time slots that the MS can use per TDMA frame. The receive TS shall be
allocated within window of size Rx, but they do not need to be contiguous. For SIMPLEX MS, no transmitted
TSs shall occur between receive TS within a TDMA frame. This does not take into account the measurement
window (Mx).
 Tx
The maximum number of transmitted time slots that the MS can use per TDMA frame. The transmitted TS
shall be allocated within the window of size Tx, but they do not need to be contiguous. For SIMPLEX MS, no
received TS shall occur between transmit TS within a TDMA frame.
 SUM
The maximum number of transmitted and received time slots (without Mx) per TDMA frame.

 The meaning of Ttb, Tra et Trb changes regarding MS types.


For SIMPLEX MS (type 1):
- Ttb is the minimum time (in time slot) necessary between the Rx and Tx windows.
- Tra is the minimum time between the last Tx window and the first Rx window of the next TDMA in
order to be able to open a measurement window.
- Trb is the same as Tra without opening a measurement window.
For DUPLEX MS (type 2):
- Ttb is the minimum time necessary between 2 Tx windows belonging to different frames.
- Tra is the minimum time necessary between 2 Rx windows belonging to different frames in order to be
able to open a measurement window.
- Trb is the same as Tra without opening a measurement window.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 16
1 Basics
1.6 (E)GPRS General Architecture
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 17

 (E)GPRS defines a network architecture dedicated to packet service


domain, with radio access, which allows service subscriber to send
and receive data in an end-to-end packet transfer mode
 (E)GPRS uses the BSS architecture, but defines a fixed network
(GPRS backbone) which is different from the NSS, and which links
the BSS to PDNs (packet data networks). The BSS is used for both
circuit-switched and (E)GPRS services
 The BSS has 2 clients:
 the MSC, for circuit-switched services (A interface)
 the GPRS backbone network, for GPRS (Gb interface)
 one or more 64 kbit/s channels on one or more 2 Mbit/s links
 Gb interface: Layer 1 specified in GSM 08.14
The protocol stack defined in the stage 2, GSM 03.60

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 17
1 Basics
1.6 (E)GPRS General Architecture [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 18

 (E)GPRS general architecture

A
Interface MSC/VLR PSTN

Circuit Switched services domain


BSS

GPRS
Gb backbone PDN
Interface
Gi
Packet Switched services domain

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 GPRS network = IP network


Note: Additional IP routers might be used to route the information between the GSNs (intra-PLMN
backbone network). All the elements connected to this backbone have private permanent IP
addresses.

 Signaling protocols:
MAP/TCAP/SCCP/MTP on Gr, Gd and Gc (through the SGSN for the latter),
GTP/UDP/IP on Gn, BSSAP+/SCCP/MTP on Gs,
GMM/SM/LLC on Gb/Um.

 Gc: for Network-Requested PDP contexts Activation (the GGSN asks the HLR for SGSN Routing
Information).
 Gs: defines the Network Mode of Operation I. It allows to perform LA + RA combined Location Update,
and PS and CS Paging Coordination.
 Gr: exchange of Subscription Information at Attachment Phase.

 Additional interfaces:
Gf (to the EIR).
Gd to deliver the SMS to the mobiles via the GPRS network (SGSN option and subscriber feature).

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 18
1 Basics
1.7 Alcatel (E)GPRS Architecture
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 19

 Packet Control Unit (PCU) function is defined by the GSM standard:


 controls the (E)GPRS activity in a cell
 handles RLC/MAC functions
 may be either implemented in the BTS, BSC or the SGSN
 Alcatel choice:
 PCU implemented in a new network element, A 9135 MFS (Multi-BSS Fast
Packet Server)
 smooth and cost effective introduction of the GPRS

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 The standard specifies that the PCU function shall be implemented in one of the 3 following entities:
BTS,
BSC,
after the BSC (in the SGSN for instance)
 The implementation of the PCU functions determines the position of the Gb interface. ALCATEL chose
the MFS integration in order to offer a faster implementation inside the BSS as well as an easier
maintenance and supervision.
 MFS: Multi BSS Fast packet Server.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 19
1 Basics
1.7 Alcatel (E)GPRS Architecture [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 20

 Alcatel packet-switched service domain architecture:

Packet domain Other


Gp PLMN
Fire-
BTS BSC MFS SGSN GGSN
wall

Abis Ater Gb Gn Gi
Internet/
Intranet
MS

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 20
1 Basics
1.7 Alcatel (E)GPRS Architecture [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 21

 GPRS backbone is an IP network and is composed of routers:


 Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN), at the same hierarchical level as the
MSC, which is linked to several BSSs. It keeps track of the individual MSs
location and performs security functions and access control
 Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN), which is linked to one or several
data networks, provides interworking with external packet-switched
networks and is connected with SGSNs via an IP-based GPRS backbone
network

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 21
1 Basics
1.8 (E)GPRS Protocol Layers (Transmission Plane)
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 22

www
Application example

World Wide Web

http
Hypertext Transfer
Protocol

TCP
Transmission Control
Protocol
RFC 793

IP IP
Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
RFC 791
RFC 791
relay
SNDCP SNDCP GTP
Subnetwork
Subnetwork GTP GPRS Tunneling
Dependent GPRS Tunneling
Dependent Protocol
Convergence Protocol
Convergence GSM 09.60
Protocol GSM 09.60
Protocol
GSM 04.65
GSM 04.65

LLC LLC UDP UDP


User Datagram User Datagram
Logical Link Control Logical Link Control Protocol Protocol
GSM 04.64 GSM 04.64 RFC 768 RFC 768
or: or:
TCP TCP
RLC relay Transmission Control
Protocol
Transmission Control
Protocol
RFC 793 RFC 793
Radio Link Control
GSM 04.60
RLC BSSGP BSSGP
Radio Link Control
GSM 04.60
BSS GPRS Protocol BSS GPRS Protocol IP IP
Internet Protocol Internet Protocol
GSM 08.18 GSM 08.18
RFC 791 RFC 791
MAC MAC Ethernet Ethernet
Medium Access Medium Access
Control Control NS NS FR FR
GSM 04.60 GSM 04.60 Frame Relay Frame Relay
Network Service Network Service
GSM 08.16 GSM 08.16 or: or:
relay L2-GCH
Physical ATM ATM
Physical L2-GCH Layer 2 GPRS Asynchronous Asynchronous
Link Layer Layer 2 GPRS Channel Transfer Mode Transfer Mode
Link Layer Channel
L1bis L1bis and/or: and/or:
Physical Physical L1-GCH L1-GCH Layer 1bis
Layer 1 GPRS Layer 1 GPRS GSM 08.14
Layer 1bis
GSM 08.14
E1 (PCM30) E1 (PCM30)
RF Layer RF Layer Channel Channel G.703 / G.704 G.703 / G.704

MS Um BTS Abis / Ater MFS Gb SGSN Gn GGSN Gi

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 For the exact purposes of the tracing, please refer to Introduction to GPRS & E-GPRS Quality of
Service Monitoring It can be said from this protocol stacks diagram that after allocation of a GCH by
the BSC to the MFS, the data carried over the GCH are transparent for the BSC.
 The RLC function defines the procedures for segmentation and reassemble of LLC PDUs into RLC/MAC
blocks and, in RLC acknowledged mode of operation, for the Backward Error Correction (BEC)
procedures enabling the selective retransmission of unsuccessfully delivered RLC/MAC blocks. In RLC
acknowledged mode of operation, the RLC function preserves the order of higher layer PDUs provided
to it. The RLC function provides also link adaptation. In EGPRS in RLC acknowledged mode of
operation, the RLC function may provide Incremental Redundancy (IR).
 The MAC function defines the procedures that enable multiple mobile stations to share a common
transmission medium, which may consist of several physical channels. The function may allow a
mobile station to use several physical channels in parallel, i.e., use several time slots within the TDMA
frame. For the mobile station originating access, the MAC function provides the procedures, including
the contention resolution procedures, for the arbitration between multiple mobile stations
simultaneously attempting to access the shared transmission medium. For the mobile station
terminating access, the MAC function provides the procedures for queuing and scheduling of access
attempts.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 22
1 Basics
1.9 Alcatel (E)GPRS BSS Hardware support
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 23

 BTS: Support of EGPRS (EDGE) in all BTS A9100 EVOLIUM Evolution


equipped with TRA transceiver:
 G1 MK2 and G2 with DRFU: GPRS only, CS-1 and CS-2 only
 A9100 EVOLIUM (G3): GPRS only, CS 1-4
 A9100 EVOLIUM Evolution (G4): (E)GPRS, CS 1-4, MCS 1-9

 micro BTS: support of EDGE in micro BTS A9110-E


 Micro BTS A9110 (M4M): GPRS only, CS 1-4
 Micro A9110-E (M5M): (E)GPRS, CS 1-4, MCS 1-9
 BSC A9120 (G2)
 MFS A9135
 TC A9125 (Transcoder)
 G2 and G2.5

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 23
1 Basics
1.10 Modulation Technique: 8-PSK only for EGPRS
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 24

 8-PSK = Phase Shift Keying


 8-PSK is not a constant envelope modulation. Part of the information
is conveyed by the amplitude of the carrier which varies over time

 An 8PSK signal carries three bits per modulated symbol over the radio
path which allows to tripled the data transmission rates

Q
Q
110
111 100
Q
011 111 011 101 t
Q I
010 010 110 dB
000 011 010 001 I
I 000 0
000 100
001 111

I 001 101 PN

110 -20
101
100

(147 bits)

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 GMSK = the Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying belongs to a subset of phase modulations

 8-PSK = 8-state Phase Shift Keying


8-PSK is not a constant envelope modulation. Part of the information is conveyed by the
amplitude of the carrier which varies over time.
An 8-PSK signal carries three bits per modulated symbol over the radio path, which allows to
triple the data transmission rates.
 Modulation gross bit rate
The normal burst is divided into 156.35 symbol periods. A normal burst has a duration of 3/5.2
seconds (577 s). (3GPP TS 05.02).
For GMSK modulation, a symbol is equivalent to a bit (3GPP TS 05.04)
A GMSK burst is composed of 156.35 bits (6 tail bits + 26 training sequence bits + 116 encrypted
bits + 8.25 guard period (bits))
Modulation gross bit rate = (156.35 bits) / (3/5.2 seconds) = 270 Kbit/s
 For 8-PSK modulation, one symbol corresponds to three bits (3GPP TS 05.04).
An 8-PSK burst is composed of 156.35 x 3 = 468.75 bits (18 tail bits + 78 training sequence bits +
348 encrypted bits + 24.75 guard period (bits)).
Modulation gross bit rate = (468.75 bits) / (3/5.2 seconds) = 810 Kbit/s

GMSK 8-PSK
Modulation type Frequency modulation Phase modulation
Channel spacing 200 KHz 200 KHz
Gross bit rate per
270 Kbit/s 810 Kbit/s
carrier
Carrier envelope constant Amplitude varies
Packet radio service GPRS / EGPRS EGPRS
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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 24
1 Basics
1.11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 25

 Nominal output power (PN) of the transmitter represents the


average power during the active burst
 GMSK average power is identical to GMSK peak power
 8-PSK peak power is equal to GMSK peak power but the 8-PSK average
power is lower than the peak power
 8-PSK power < GMSK power
 the difference is called average power decrease (APD) or power
back off

TRA GMSK output power 8-PSK output power


900 MP 45 W / 46.5 dBm 15 W / 41.8 dBm

900 HP 60 W / 47.8 dBm 25 W / 44 dBm


1800 MP 35 W / 45.4 dBm 12 W / 40.8 dBm
1800 HP 60 W / 47.8 dBm 25 W / 44 dBm
900 EDGE+ 45 W / 46.5 dBm 30 W / 44.8 dBm

1800 EDGE+ 35 W / 45.4 dBm 30W / 44.8 dBm

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 G3 TREs are not able to handle the 8-PSK modulation. Only G4 TREs (also called TRA) are EDGE capable.

 The TRA sensitivity is as follows :


GMSK : - 111 dBm.
8-PSK : - 108 dBm for MCS5, - 99 dBm for MCS9.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 25
1 Basics
1.11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 26

OUTPUT PWR  Unbalanced BTS configuration


@ BTS ant.
connector
-8PSK -8PSK  Case 1: BS_TXPWR_MAX=0
= APD = APD APD = 0
 Case 2: BS_TXPWR_MAX<>0

SECTOR
 APD, takes into account the
GMSK BS_TXPWR_MAX and consequently the
8-PSK TRE 1 Effective GMSK Sector Power
 Always 8 PSK pwr GMSK pwr
8-PSK TRE 2
 APD = 0 if 8 PSK pwr > GMSK pwr
 Used by Link Adaptation process

 8-PSK Delta power ( 8-PSK) considers


HP TRE 1 MP TRE 1 HP TRE 1 MP TRE 2 only the GMSK sector power without the
Case 1 Case 2
BS_TXPWR_MAX
LEGEND  8-PSK 3 dB indicates that is a high
ATTENUATION
GMSK LEVELING BS_TXPWR_MAX power TRE
GMSK POWER 8-PSK

8-PSK POWER APD

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 APD: Average Power Decrease


The back-off between average GMSK and 8-PSK output power comes from physics since 8-PSK is a non
constant envelope modulation unlike GMSK.
As a consequence power amplifiers can not be used at their maximum power. This results in a
difference between mean output powers for GMSK and 8-PSK modulations.
 Output power handling
The BTS sets all the TRE which transmit GMSK output powers at the same level which is the minimum
value among the maximum TRE output power in a sector and in a given band.
On a TRE, the maximum GMSK output power is higher than the maximum 8-PSK output power.
An O&M parameter (BS_TXPWR_MAX) allows a static power reduction of the maximum GMSK output
power of the sector.
The TRE transmit power in 8-PSK shall not exceed the GMSK transmit power in the sector.
The BTS determines for each TRE, the difference between the 8-PSK output power of the TRE and the
GMSK output power of the sector (8-PSK delta power).
According to the 8-PSK delta power value, a TRE is called High Power or Medium Power.
When a GCH channel is activated, the BTS sends the 8-PSK delta power to the MFS.
Together with BS_TXPWR_MAX (static power reduction), the 8-PSK delta power allows the MFS to
determine:
- a possible attenuation (BS_TX_PWR) for the 8-PSK DL RLC block emission, in order not to exceed
the GMSK power of the sector (for GMSK DL RLC block, the attenuation is BS_TXPWR_MAX).
- an Average Power Decrease which is the difference between the 8-PSK output power and the GMSK
output power after having taken into account BS_TXPWR_MAX. The Average Power Decrease is
taken into account in the link adaptation tables.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 26
1 Basics
1.11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 27

 Example:
 GSM 900, a mix BTS sector configuration is considered:
 ANc combined with 4 TRA (TRAs = EGPRS capable TRE):
 TRE 1 (BCCH): 60W GMSK (25W in 8-PSK)
 TRE 2..4: 45W GMSK (15W in 8-PSK)
 BS_TXPWR_MAX = 2 dB;
 RESULTS:
 1st step: Output power at BTS antenna connector (after combiner and
duplexer stage):
 TRE 1 GMSK = 43.4 dBm; 8-PSK = 39.6 dBm
 TRE 2..4 GMSK = 42.1 dBm; 8-PSK = 37.4 dBm
 2nd step: LEVELING (BTS automatic GMSK power balancing):
 TRE 1..4 GMSK = 42.1 dBm (Sector GMSK power)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 27
1 Basics
1.11 8-PSK TRA Power Aspects [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 28

 3rd step: 8-PSK Delta computation


 TRE 1 = 42.1 39.6 = 2.5 dB < 3 dB  recognized as HP TRE
 TRE 2..4 = 42.1 37.4 = 4.7 dBm  recognized as MP TREs
 4th step: static attenuation (only on GMSK power)
 TRE 1..4 GMSK = 42.1 2 = 40.1 dBm (Effective GMSK Sector Power)
 5th step: GMSK power 8-PSK power ?
 YES, since 40.1 dBm 39.6 dBm 37.4 dBm  no reduction of 8-PSK power
 6th step: APD computation
 APD TRE 1 (BCCH) = 40.1 39.6 = 0.5 dB
 APD TRE 2..4 = 40.1 37.4 = 2.7 dB

3GPP 05.08 constraint on the transmitted power of BCCH frequency:


BCCH frequency shall usually be transmitted at a constant level. A tolerance has been
introduced with 8-PSK: a fluctuation of up to 2 dB is allowed
 If APD is greater than 2 dB, a static power attenuation should be applied or EGPRS
capability should not be activated on the BCCH TRE

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 Radio Network Planning Impact


Frequency hopping is not recommended for E-GPRS (MCS-1 to MCS-9)
Therefore, the system is allocating a higher priority for the packet-switched traffic for non-hopping
TRX in a cell.
In addition, the non-hopping TRX may benefit from a special radio planning with higher reuse cluster
size, in order to ensure higher C/I conditions and offer better throughputs, both for GPRS and EDGE.
APD should be considered in the A9155 planning tool for the throughput estimation (based on
interference calculation per pixel approach) and also to determine the 8-PSK coverage.
The IR gain should also be considered in the throughput estimation. 3 dB can be taken for the average
IR gain.
PS_PREF_BCCH_TRX is a flag at cell level which indicates whether the operator wishes to allocate
packet on the BCCH TRX with highest priority. Actually, is recommended to activate GPRS/EDGE
traffic on the BCCH TRX due to its high RCS. However the activation of EDGE on the BCCH TRX should
be performed cautiously.
3GPP Rec. 05.08 has defined a constraint on the transmitted power of BCCH frequency. This
frequency shall usually be transmitted at a constant level. A tolerance has been introduced with 8-
PSK: a fluctuation of up to 2 dB is allowed. Depending on the configuration in the BTS, it may happen
that the difference between GMSK and 8-PSK power on the BCCH TRX is greater than 2dB. A possible
solution for this constraint, in case of a BTS (e.g. ANc combined) equipped only with MP TRX (most of
the cases) is presented below: The BCCH MP TRX will be replaced by a HP TRX (to take also
advantage from 8-PSK 25W power and <3dB) BS_TXPWR_MAX will be set to 2 dB The difference
between GMSK and 8-PSK power on BCCH TRX will be: (42.1 2) 39.6 = 0.5 dB which respects the
ETSI constraint. The drawback is that CS and GPRS service may be affected by the GMSK output
power reduction.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 28
1 Basics
1.12 (E)GPRS Radio Blocks Structure
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 29

 In order to be transmitted over the air interface, the LLC data is


segmented at RLC layer into packets, called (E)GPRS radio blocks
 Radio block characteristics:
 a block is the smallest data unit assigned to an user
 one radio block is always entirely assigned to one user; inside a block
there is no multiplexing of different users possible
 the whole information belonging to one radio block is transmitted upon
channel coding, in a certain timeslot over 4 consecutive TDMA frames
 the data amount carried in one (E)GPRS radio block is:
 456 bits in GPRS (GMSK modulation)
 464 bits in EGPRS (GMSK modulation)
 1392 bits in EGPRS (8-PSK modulation)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 29
1 Basics
1.12 (E)GPRS Radio Blocks Structure [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 30

 GPRS Radio Block (data transfer)

MAC header RLC header RLC data block BCS

 MAC header: control fields which are different for uplink and downlink directions
 RLC header: control fields which are different for uplink and downlink directions
 RLC Data Block: bytes from one or more LLC PDUs
 Block Check Sequence (BCS): used for error detection

 EGPRS Radio Block (data transfer)

RLC/MAC header HCS RLC data block 1 RLC data block 2 BCS
only MCS-7/8/9

 RLC/MAC header: control fields which are different for uplink and downlink directions
 RLC Data Field: LLC PDUs bytes; contains one or two RLC data blocks
 Block Check Sequence (BCS): for error detection of the data part
 Header Check Sequence (HCS): for error detection of the header part

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 30
1 Basics
1.13 GPRS Channel Coding
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 31

 Channel coding provides error detection and error correction


 Essential for managing the impairments on the air interface

 Data rates in GPRS on the air interface


 The useful data rates on the air interface depend on the channel coding
procedure
 For (E)GPRS, different channel coding levels are applied depending on
the actual radio conditions

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 31
1 Basics
1.13 GPRS Channel Coding [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 32

 Four different coding schemes, CS-1 to CS-4, are defined for the
GPRS Radio Blocks carrying RLC data, and are applied depending
from the actual radio conditions
 The first step of the channel coding procedure is to add a Block
Check Sequence (BCS) for error detection
 For CS-1 to CS-3, the second step consists of pre-coding USF
(except for CS-1), adding four tail bits and a half rate
convolutional coding for error correction that is punctured to give
the desired coding rate
 For CS-4 there is no coding for error correction
 The most protected mode is CS-1 which is therefore always used for
GPRS signaling (even for EGPRS)

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 32
1 Basics
1.13 GPRS Channel Coding [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 33

GPRS RADIO BLOCK

USF BCS
8 CS-1
rate 1/2 convolutional coding
12 CS-2
GMSK
modulation
14.4 CS-3
puncturing
20 CS-4
Maximum User Payload [kbps]
456 bits Header + Protection
Interleaving of GPRS Radio Block over 4
consecutive TDMAs (4 PDCH)

Scheme Modulation Coding schemes Code Maximum data rate


schemes for RLC data block rate per TS (RLC payload)
[kbps]

CS-4 GMSK No coding 1.00 20.0

Release B8 CS-3 GMSK Half rate convolutional


coding, punctured
0.75 14.4

CS-2 GMSK Half rate convolutional 0.66 12.0


coding, punctured

CS-1 GMSK Half rate convolutional 0.50 8.0


coding

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 33
1 Basics
1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 34

 Nine different coding schemes are defined: MCS-1 to MCS-9


 First step of the EGPRS coding procedure, is to add a Block Check
Sequence (BCS) to each RLC data block, for error detection
 Second step consists of adding six tail bits (TB) and a 1/3 rate
convolutional coding for error correction that is punctured to give
the desired coding rate
 The Pi (puncturing schemes) for each MCS correspond to different
puncturing schemes achieving the same coding rate
 Puncturing is a technique of removing bits in predetermined locations of the
data block after the block has been channel coded
 MCS-9, MCS-8, MCS-7, MCS-4, MCS-3: are possible P1, P2, and P3
 MCS-6, MCS-5, MCS-2, MCS-1: P1 and P2 are possible

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The puncturing process consists of transmitting only some of the coded bits obtained after the rate 1/3
convolutional coding. Depending on the considered puncturing scheme, different coded bits are transmitted.
Therefore, when the receiver receives two versions of the same RLC block sent with two different puncturing
schemes, it obtains additional information leading to an increased decoding probability.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 34
1 Basics
1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 35

 MCSs are divided into 4 different families: A, A, B and C


 Each family has a different basic payload unit:
 37 bytes: family A
 34 bytes: family A (padding)
 28 bytes: family B
 22 bytes: family C
 When switching to MCS-3 or MCS-6 from MCS-8, 3 or 6 padding bytes, are
added to the data bytes

 Within a family different throughputs are achieved by transmitting a


different number of basic payload units within one block
 impact on retransmission
 Offset the GPRS disadvantage on retransmission

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 35
1 Basics
1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 36

MCS-3
8.8 MCS-1
Family A 37 octets 37 octets 37 octets 37 octets

11.2 MCS-2 MCS-6


GMSK MCS-9
14.8 MCS-3
MCS-3

34 +3 octets 34 +3 octets
8.8 x 2 = 17.6 MCS-4
Family A MCS-6
11.2 x 2 = 22.4 MCS-5 padding
34 octets 34 octets 34 octets 34 octets

14.8 x 2 = 29.6 MCS-6 MCS-8

11.2 x 4 = 44.8 MCS-7 MCS-2


8-PSK
28 octets 28 octets 28 octets 28 octets
Family B
padding (MCS-3/6) 54.4 MCS-8
MCS-5
MCS-7
14.8 x 4 = 59.2 MCS-9
MCS-1
22 octets 22 octets
Maximum User Payload [kbit/s] Family C
MCS-4
Header + Protection

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 The main GPRS imperfections are linked to:


the design of the GPRS coding schemes which were designed independently from the others with
their own data unit.
the fact that once the information contained in an radio block has been transmitted with a
certain CS, it is not possible via the Automatic ReQuest for repetition (ARQ) mechanism to
retransmit with another CS.
- This could lead to the release of the TBF and to the establishment of a new one in order to
transmit the LLC frame.
 EGPRS coding schemes have been designed to offset this problem. Four MCS families have been
created with for each of them a basic unit of payload.
This allows the re-segmentation of the RLC data blocks when changing of modulation and coding
schemes (within the same family).
- Example: if one MCS-6 radio block has not been received correctly by the receiver and if
radio conditions have degraded in the meantime, it is possible to re-send the same
information in two radio blocks with MCS-3 (more protection).
The level of protection applied (MCS usage) in case of retransmissions is in line with the radio
conditions.

 The different code rates within a family are achieved by transmitting a different number of payload
units within one radio block. When 4 payload units are transmitted, these are split into 2 separate RLC
blocks (i.e., with separate sequence numbers).

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 36
1 Basics
1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 37

 MCS-9 Example:
EGPRS MCS-9 RADIO BLOCK
3 bits 45 bits 612 bits 612 bits

RLC/MAC RLC Data Block RLC Data Block =


USF HCS E FBI BCS TB E FBI BCS TB
header = 592 bits 592 bits
Rate 1/3 convolutional coding Rate 1/3 convolutional coding

36 bits 135 bits 1836 bits 1836 bits

puncturing puncturing puncturing

SB=8 36 bits 124 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits

P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3

1392 bits

Interleaving of the EGPRS Radio Block over 4 consecutive TDMAs


MCS-9 basic payload unit = 37 bytes = 296 bits
MCS-9 RLC data block = 2 x basic payload unit =2* 296 bits = 592 bits
MCS-9 RLC payload throughput= 592 bits / 10 ms = 59.2 Kbps

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 37
1 Basics
1.14 EGPRS Channel Coding [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 38

Scheme Modulation Coding schemes Code Maximum data rate per TS (RLC
schemes for RLC data block rate payload)
[kbps]

MCS-9 8PSK 1/3 rate convolutional 1.00 59.2


coding, punctured

MCS-8 8PSK 1/3 rate convolutional 0.92 54.4


coding, punctured

MCS-7 8PSK 1/3 rate convolutional 0.76 44.8


coding, punctured

MCS-6 8PSK 1/3 rate convolutional 0.49 29.6


coding, punctured

Uplink MCS-5 8PSK 1/3 rate convolutional 0.37 22.4


coding, punctured
& MCS-4 GMSK 1/3 rate convolutional 1.00 17.6
coding, punctured
Downlink
MCS-3 GMSK 1/3 rate convolutional 0.80 14.8
coding, punctured
transfer
MCS-2 GMSK 1/3 rate convolutional 0.66 11.2
coding, punctured

MCS-1 GMSK 1/3 rate convolutional 0.53 8.8


coding, punctured

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 38
1 Basics
1.15 Radio Link Adaptation Overview
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 39

 (M)CS schemes are dynamically selected based on the quality of the


radio channel, in order to maximize the throughput
 Two different mechanisms exists for GPRS and EGPRS:
 CS Adaptation in case of GPRS TBF mode and
 Link Adaptation (LA) in case of EGPRS TBF mode
 Selection of the most suitable (M)CS is based on measurements
reported by the MS for the downlink path and by the BTS for the
uplink path

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 39
1 Basics
1.16 Automatic ReQuest for repetition (ARQ)
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 40

 In the ARQ method, when the receiver detects the presence of


errors in a received RLC block, it requests and receives a re-
transmission of the same RLC block from the transmitter
 The retransmission can be performed using:
 Type-I ARQ mechanism. This applies for both GPRS and EGPRS mode
 Type-II hybrid ARQ mechanism, also called Incremental Redundancy (IR).
This applies only for DL EGPRS mode
 IR is optional for the BTS, but is mandatory for the EGPRS MS (3GPP
requirement)

B9
!!! ARQ type-II applies for UL and DL EGPRS mode !!!

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 40
1 Basics
1.17 Type-I ARQ mechanism
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 41

 In the selective type-I ARQ mechanism, the receiver discards the


erroneous blocks, and indicates in the acknowledgement messages
the reference of these erroneous blocks for their retransmission.
Then, the sending side has to retransmit the erroneous data RLC
blocks

MS MFS

Uplink RLC data block B1 / PDTCH (1)


The Block 2 has been
Uplink RLC data block B2 / PDTCH (2)
unsuccessfully received
Packet UplinkAck/Nack /PACCH (3)

Uplink RLC data block B2 / PDTCH (4)


MS retransmits the uplink
Uplink RLC data block B3 / PDTCH (5) RLC data block B2

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 With the type 1 ARQ mechanism, the decoding of a re-transmitted RLC block does not use the
previously transmitted versions (not correctly received) of this RLC block. The decoding of a RLC data
block is only based on the current transmission.

 The type 1 ARQ mechanism is always used for the GPRS

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 41
1 Basics
1.18 Type-I ARQ in GPRS
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 42

 GPRS CSs are designed independently from the others with its own basic
payload unit size, so the family concept does not exists in GPRS
 Before its transmission over the radio interface, the LLC frame is segmented
into payload units according to CS that will be used to transmit the radio
block
 In case of erroneous reception, the RLC data block can be retransmitted
only with the same CS (segmentation is not possible)
 If the radio conditions have changed and the coding rate is not appropriate to
them, the receiver will never be able to decode the retransmission of the RLC
data block. This will lead to the release of the TBF and the establishment of a
GPRS DRAWBACK

new one in order to transmit the LLC frame


 In order to avoid this problem, the choice of the CS on the network side has to
be made carefully. This often results in an non-optimized use of the radio
interface, leading to a reduction of network capacity compared with its
theoretical capacity

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 42
1 Basics
1.19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 43

 MCSs have been designed to offset the GPRS disadvantage


 MCS family concept is applied
 In EGPRS, in case of retransmission request (type-I ARQ) for a RLC data
block, the same or a next lower MCS within the same family is used
 The retransmission can be performed with or w/o RLC data segmentation (e.g.
from MCS-9 to MCS-6 w/o, and MCS-6 to MCS-3 with segmentation)
 When one RLC data block is retransmitted with a lower MCS, the coding rate is
decreased by two, but the redundancy transmitted is increased
 That increases the capability to decode the radio block !
 Retransmission operates in connection with the link adaptation
 E.g. if the LA mechanism orders the usage of MCS-5 and the first transmission of
an erroneous RLC block was with MCS-6, the transmission will be performed with
MCS-3. The blocks that are sent for the first time will be transmitted with the
last-ordered MCS

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 43
1 Basics
1.19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 44

 Type-II ARQ (IR) is an efficient combination of 2 techniques:


 Automatic Repeat reQuest : in case of error detection in a received RLC block, a
re-transmission of the same RLC data block is requested
 Forward Error Correction : adds redundant information to the user information at
the transmitter, the receiver uses the info to correct errors causes by radio
disturbances
 In the IR mechanism:
 The information which is sent first results from an initial puncturing scheme
(PS1) applied to the encoded RLC data block
 If an error is detected by the receiver:
 the received message is stored
 selective retransmission of the RLC data block is requested
 a second puncturing scheme (PS2) is applied to the same MCS, by the sender
 the receiver decodes (combines) the resulting message together with the previously
received message(s)
 multiple retransmission can be requested until decoding succeeds

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 The type 2 ARQ mechanism or incremental redundancy (IR) is an ETSI function, mandatory for the EGPRS MS
receiver (downlink path) and optional for the BTS receiver (uplink path). In B8 release, the IR feature is only
available on the downlink path. It is important to notice that the IR feature is always running in the EDGE MS
receiver (except in case of MS memory shortage). The DL incremental redundancy is not used for the signaling
blocks, the GPRS data blocks and the data blocks in RLC unacknowledged mode. It is only used for the EGPRS data
blocks in RLC acknowledged mode.

 In the type II ARQ mechanism (IR):


the first emission of a RLC data block is done using a first puncturing scheme (PS1),
in case of re-transmission of this RLC block, the transmitter uses the same MCS or a MCS of the same family
than the one used for the initial block. On the DL path, depending on the value of the parameter
EN_FULL_IR_DL, re-segmentation of the RLC block may be performed or not,
at the output of the demodulator, the receiver combines the information of soft bits corresponding to the
first transmission of the block and its different re-transmissions, thus increasing the decoding probability of
the RLC block.
Remark : according to the 04.60 (RLC/MAC layers) GSM recommendation, the soft-combining inside the MS
receiver is only performed between an :
- MCSx block and MCSx block (that is the same MCS is used for the re-transmission),
- MCS9 block and an MCS6 block (in that case the RLC data blocks carry the same number of payload
units),
- MCS7 block and an MCS5 block (in that case the RLC data blocks carry the same number of payload
units).

 If the "MS OUT OF MEMORY" field is set by the mobile in the EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack message, the type I ARQ
shall apply in the MS receiver (ARQ without IR). This occurs when the memory for IR operation runs out in the MS
(that is when the memory of the MS is full due to the storage of the different versions of a RLC block not
correctly decoded).

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 44
1 Basics
1.19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 45

 (1) The BSS sends a DL data block


using the puncturing scheme P1 and MS BTS MFS
MCS-6. B1 is not successfully
decoded by the MS. The MS stores Data Block
the received block
 (2) The MS requests a selective puncturing
scheme 1
retransmission of the erroneous Data Block

block, in the next EGPRS Packet DL


Ack/Nack Data Block
Nack

 (3) The MS retransmits the DL data puncturing


block using a new puncturing Data Block scheme 2
scheme P2 and the same MCS-6.
If the block header is correctly
decoded, the MS decodes the data Data Block

making soft combination with the


previous transmission Data Block

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 In the puncturing scheme selection for re-transmission, 2 cases have to be considered:


if the selected MCS has not changed : if all the different punctured versions of the data block have
been sent, the procedure shall start over and PS1 shall be used, followed by PS2, then by PS3 (if
available for the considered MCS), so that the PS selection is cyclic,
if the selected MCS has changed : the PS to be used is indicated by the table below.

Previous MCS New MCS Previous PS New PS


MCS9 MCS6 PS1 or PS3 PS1
PS2 PS2
MCS6 MCS9 PS1 PS3
PS2 PS2
MCS7 MCS5 PS1, PS2 or PS3 PS1
MCS5 MCS7 PS1 or PS2 PS2
All other combinations Any PS1

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 45
1 Basics
1.19 Type-I ARQ in EGPRS [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 46

 B9 release: the IR mechanism is implemented in uplink and


downlink
 This mechanism is associated with link adaptation in order to
provide superior radio efficiency on the air interface
 IR feature is always running in the EGPRS MS receivers, except when
a memory shortage is reported by the MS  the stored packets are
discarded and type-I ARQ is set !
 Parameter for IR activation:
 EN_FULL_IR_DL which enable or disable the RLC data segmentation for
retransmissions
 EN_FULL_IR_DL = disable; e.g. if MCS-5 is ordered by LA, and the first
transmission was with MCS-6 then, the retransmission is performed with MCS-3
(segmentation on the initial RLC data block, ARQ Type-I)
 EN_FULL_IR_DL=enable; even if MCS-5 is ordered, the retransmission is
performed with MCS-6 (no segmentation, ARQ Type-II)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 46
1 Basics
1.20 (E)GPRS radio physical channel: PDCH Concept
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 47

 Packet Data Channel (PDCH)


 (E)GPRS radio access method = GSM TDMA (8 timeslots per carrier)
 One PDCH represents a physical channel (1 timeslot) dedicated to packet
data traffic (GPRS/EDGE), over the radio interface
 PDCH group
 The available PDCHs are grouped into PDCH groups
 One PDCH group contains consecutive timeslots (without TS holes)
belonging to the same TRX, having the same radio configuration
 possible to have hopping and non hopping PDCH groups in one cell
 maximum number of PDCH groups/cell is equal to 16 (equal to maximum
number of TRX / cell)
 16 TRX/cell achieved with help of the B7 feature cell split over 2 BTSs, EVOLIUM BTS

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 47
1 Basics
1.21 (E)GPRS Multiframe
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 48

 12 radio blocks (B0 to B11) form a 52-(E)GPRS multiframe


 The frames 25 and 51 are idle frames and the frames 12 and 38 are
used for the PTCCH

One TDMA frame


= 8 TS (4,615 ms)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

One PDCH

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 47 48 49 50 51

Block B0 Block B1 Block B2 T Block B3 Block B11 X


PTCCH idle

One 52 - multiframe (240 ms)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 48
1 Basics
1.22 (E)GPRS Logical Channels
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 49

 EGPRS is reusing the existing GPRS logical channels


 Packet logical channels are mapped in one physical channel (PDCH)
using the technique of multiframing
 The sharing of the PDCH is done on blocks basis
 PBCCH (Packet Broadcast Control Channel) used for broadcasting
system information (SI)
 PCCCH (Packet Common Control Channel) used to initiate packet
transfer
 PRACH (Packet Random Access Channel)
 PPCH (Packet Paging Channel)
 PAGCH (Packet Access Grant Channel)

!!! MASTER CHANNEL ONLY !!!

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 49
1 Basics
1.22 (E)GPRS Logical Channels [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 50

 PTCH (Packet Traffic Channel) used for user data transmission and
its associated signaling
 PDTCH (Packet Data Traffic Channel) used to carry user data (LLC PDU
segmented is RLC/MAC blocks)
 PACCH (Packet Associated Control Channel)
 Bidirectional channel, dynamically allocated on block basis, used to carry
control data
 In Alcatel BSS is always allocated on one of the PDCHs on which PDTCHs are
allocated
 PTCCH (Packet Timing Advance Control Channel) used for
continuous timing advance mechanism
 Bidirectional channel allocated on the same PDCH as the PACCH

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 50
1 Basics
1.23 Master/Slave PDCH concept
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 51

 A PDCH which carries a PCCCH or/and a PBCCH channel is called


Master PDCH (MPDCH)
 MPDCH which carries the PBCCH is called Primary MPDCH
 Primary MPDCH is the GPRS BCCH
 MPDCH which carries only PCCCH is called Secondary MPCH
 All other PDCHs, active as slaves, are called Slave PDCH (SPDCH)

 B8 release:
 MPDCHs are statically established only on BCCH TRX
 Up to 4 MPDCHs can be supported per cell (max Nb_TS_MPDCH=4)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 51
1 Basics
1.24 Temporary Block Flow
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 52

 The packet data call is a Temporary Block Flow (TBF)


 For a data packet transmission, a temporary physical connection (TBF)
will be set up as an unidirectional link
 Each TBF is unidirectional: Uplink TBF and Downlink TBF for the same
mobile are uncorrelated
 One TBF allocates radio resources on one or more PDCH and comprise a
number of RLC/MAC blocks carrying one or more LLC PDUs
 TBF is only temporary and maintained for the duration of the data
transfer
 Either the mobile or the network can initiate a TBF

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 Temporary Flow Identity (TFI):


Each TBF is assigned a TFI by the MFS.

 Important:
Since B7, it is possible to establish 32 TBFs per PDCH group (See sub-session 2.2 for PDCH group
definition).

 TBF
is a group of blocks dynamically allocated to one MS for one transfer of RLC blocks in one direction
inside one cell.
A Temporary Block Flow is a temporary, unidirectional physical connection across the Um interface,
between one mobile and the BSS. The TBF is established when data units are to be transmitted across
the Um interface and is released as soon as the transmission is completed.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 52
1 Basics
1.24 Temporary Block Flow [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 53

 TFI (Temporary Flow Identity)


 RLC layer
 Each TBF is assigned a TFI by the MFS
 TFI is unique on a given PDCH, in a given direction
 A TBF is addressed by a Temporary Flow Identity (TFI)
 More than 32 TFI values per TRX (PDCH group) for each direction (i.e. DL
and UL)
 TLLI (Temporary Logical Link Identity)
 LLC layer
 The TLLI identifies the logical link between the MS and the SGSN
 The TLLI is allocated by the SGSN to the MS in Standby and Ready states

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 53
1 Basics
1.25 Resources Sharing
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 54

 Two different resource sharing mechanisms exists:


 PDCH multiplexing
 Multislot usage
Allows optimum usage of the available radio resources
 PDCH Multiplexing
 PDCH multiplexing refers to the sharing of one PDCH by more than two users
(TBFs)
 It occurs when there are more requests for PDCH resources than available PDCHs
 A maximum number of UL/DL_TBF can share the same PDCH in UL and DL
direction respectively
 MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH=6; MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH=10
 When a PDCH is shared between an UL GPRS TBF and a DL EGPRS TBF, then the DL
EGPRS shall be limited to GMSK (i.e. MCS-4)  GPRS MS becomes candidate for
radio resource reallocation

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 54
1 Basics
1.25 Resources Sharing [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 55

 Multislot usage
 Refers to the case when 1 user can request at once more than 2 PDCH
resources for the data transmission

 Up to 5 PDCH on different (but consecutive) timeslots on the same


frequency could be allocated to one mobile at the same time (MS
multislot capability)
 B8 & B9 release supports 4+2 slots for Type 1 MS and 5+5 for Type 2 MS

 The PDCH blocks will be consecutively transmitted over the PDCH


only if there is no user multiplexing

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 55
1 Basics
1.25 Resources Sharing [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 56

 PDCH Multiplexing example:


 lets assume that the data for user 1 has a length of 3 blocks (length of
TBF 1=3 blocks) and is transmitted over PDCH #2
 as soon as one block of user 1 was entirely transmitted, another user 2
can use the same PDCH #2 to transmit the blocks of its own TBF of e.g.
length = 4 blocks, followed by the user 3 transmission...
 the blocks of user 1, user 2 and user 3 will not be transmitted in
consecutive order:
 as soon as one block of user 1 is transmitted, another block of user 2 can be
transmitted, continued with a block of the user 3 over the same PDCH #2
 Multislot usage example:
 User 1 has (1+1) and users 2 & user 3 have (3+1) MS multislot capability

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 56
1 Basics
1.25 Resources Sharing [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 57

 PDCH Multiplexing and Multislot Usage example

User 1: Multislot capability


no multislot
capability
TFI = 5
PDCH 1 User 2 User 2 User 3 User 3 User 2 User 2

User 2: User multiplexing


with multislot
capability
PDCH 2 User 1 User 2 User 3 User 1 User 2 User 2
TFI = 9

User multiplexing

PDCH 3 User 3 User 2 User 3 User 3 User 2 User 3


User 3:
with multislot
capability
TFI = 13 Block n n+1 n+2 n+3 n+4 n+5 ...

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 57
1 Basics
1.26 MS multiplexing co-ordination
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 58

 DL TBF (PDTCH and PACCH)


 MS decodes all blocks on its allocated PDCH
 The MS can identify the PDCH blocks intended for it by TFI present on
the RLC block header
 UL TBF (PDTCH and PACCH)
 For an UL TBF, the mobile receives one USF (Uplink State Flag) per
PDCH to be used during the TBF
 If the MS receives its USF on the DL block n of PDCH 5, it can transmit in
UL using the block n+1 of PDCH 5

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 Downlink PDTCH and PACCH blocks multiplexing:


The multiplexing of the different MSs is performed thanks to the TFI which is present in the RLC
block header.
An MS decodes all the blocks of all its allocated PDCHs and keeps the blocks carrying its TFI in the
RLC header.

 Uplink PDTCH and PACCH for a UL TBF:


At UL TBF establishment, a MS receives a USF (Uplink State Flag, 8 values, MAC header) per allocated
PDCH.
If the MS receives its USF on the downlink block n of PDCH I, it can transmit in uplink using the block
n+1 of PDCH i.

 NB: the values of the USF are entirely dedicated to PDTCH and PACCH transfers. See further (MPDCH
and RRBP) The TFI is use in the UL as well: each mobile shall put its TFI in the UL header of the UL
blocks during a UL TBF, as well as in the RLC header of the UL PACCH blocks of a DL TBF. So we can say
that the de-multiplexing of the blocks is achieved by the use of a TFI.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 58
1 Basics
1.26 MS multiplexing co-ordination [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 59

 Uplink PACCH for a DL TBF :


 By the means of the polling mechanism, periodically an UL PACCH block
is allocated during DL transfer, e.g. to allow an MS to request the
establishment of an UL TBF by including a Channel Request description in
a Packet DL Ack/Nack message
 the MS has no USF because it is involved in a DL TBF
 use of the RRBP (Relative Reserved Block Period) field transmitted in
downlink
 RRBP values indicates the number of TDMA frames the MS shall wait before
transmitting its uplink RLC/MAC block
 a special USF value is used: USF = no emission

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 RRBP: Relative Radio Block Period

 Allocation of a PACCH block for the sending of acknowledgements in the UL of blocks received in the
DL:
The MS has no USF because it is involved in a DL TBF
Use of the RRBP field transmitted in the downlink (MAC header) in association with the TFI of the DL
TBF in the RLC header.
At the exact occurrence of the RRBP, a special USF value is used for the UL TBF taking place on the
same PDCH: USF=no emission.

 It is a semi-boolean parameter. The RRBP field of a RLC/LAC block is checked each time by the MS
whose TFI is written in the RLC header.
When S/P is false, no UL PACCH is scheduled.
When the RRBP field is valid, the value gives the number of blocks to wait before sending its PACCH
block in the UL

 S/P is false means MS has to send an acknowledgement message to the MFS.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 59
1 Basics
1.26 MS multiplexing co-ordination [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 60

 Example of a Uplink Block Flow scheduling:

Downlink Uplink
Block TFI USF RRBP
number
Bn TFIa USFj
Bn+1 TFIb USFk PDTCHj
Bn+2 TFIa USFj +3 PDTCHk
Bn+3 TFIb FREE PDTCHj
Bn+4 TFIb No PRACH
Emission
Bn+5 TFIb USFj PACCHa
Bn+6 TFIa USFk PDTCHj

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 60
1 Basics
1.27 GPRS mobility management (GMM) states for MS
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 61

 Idle
 the MS is not attached to the Idle
packet network: paging is not
possible
GPRS GPRS
 Ready attach detach
 the MS location is known with
the cell accuracy Timer
expiry Ready
 Standby
 the MS is attached to the
network: paging is possible Timer PDU transmission
expiry
 the MS location is known with
the RA accuracy
Standby

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 Idle: the MS is not attached to the network: paging is not possible.


 Standby:
the MS is attached to the network: paging is possible.
the MS location is known in the CN with the RA accuracy.
 Ready:
the MS location is known with the cell accuracy.
timer T_READY keeps the MS in the Ready state just after data transfer.
 Packet Idle Mode:
no Temporary Block Flow exists. Upper layers can require the transfer of an LLC PDU which, implicitly, may trigger the
establishment of TBF and transition to packet transfer mode.
the MS listens to the PBCCH and to the paging sub-channel for the paging group the MS belongs to in idle mode. If PCCCH is not
present in the cell, the mobile station listens to the BCCH and to the relevant paging sub-channels.
 Packet Transfer Mode:
In packet transfer mode, the mobile station is allocated radio resource providing a Temporary Block Flow on one or more
physical channels. Continuous transfer of one or more LLC PDUs is possible. Concurrent TBFs may be established in opposite
directions. Transfer of LLC PDUs in RLC acknowledged or RLC unacknowledged mode is provided.
When selecting a new cell, mobile station leaves the packet transfer mode, enters the packet idle mode where it switches to
the new cell, read the system information and may then resume to packet transfer mode in the new cell.
 The timers regulating the transition between states are SGSN timers, not tunable in the BSS. Caution: Idle mode in GPRS and Idle
mode in GSM are two different states.
A GSM MS in Idle mode is attached to a MSC and can be paged
A GPRS MS in Idle mode is NOT attached to a SGSN, so it cannot be paged but can monitor the GPRS information broadcast in
the SI13 of the BCCH.
 Standby is the closest GPRS MS state to Idle GSM.
 The MS state in the SGSN shall be considered apart from the Packet Transfer Mode in the BSS:
MS in Standby mode can be in Packet Transfer Mode.
MS in Ready mode can be in Packet Idle Mode.
 The detach procedure is usually triggered by the MS. Three other types of detach are triggered by the CN:
HLR Detach,
SGSN Detach upon SGSN overload,
SGSN Detach upon timer.
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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 61
1 Basics
1.28 Radio Resource (RR) operating modes for MS
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 62

 Packet Transfer Mode (PTM)


 MS is allocated radio resource on one or more PDCHs for the transfer of
LLC PDUs. Continuous transfer of LLC PDUs is possible
 Packet Idle Mode (PIM)
 No TBF exists and the MS is also not trying to establish an UL TBF

 GMM states versus RR operating modes:

GMM States RR Operating Modes


PTM: TBF opened
GMM Ready
PIM: TBF closed but GMM ready timer is still running
GMM Standby PIM: There is no on-going TBF established and GMM ready
timer is no more running

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 62
1 Basics
1.29 Attach procedure
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 63

 Aim
 to access to GPRS services, a MS must first make its presence known to
the network by performing a GPRS attach to the SGSN
 GPRS attach function is similar to IMSI attach
 MS authentication
 Ciphering key generation
 TLLI allocation (derived from the new P-TMSI)
 Subscriber profile request to the HLR

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 63
1 Basics
1.29 Attach procedure [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 64

 Results
 A logical link between the MS and the SGSN is created
 MS is in Standby state and may activate a PDP context
 MS location is known (RA accuracy)
 MS is available for paging via the SGSN
 Charging information is collected
 Combined GPRS and IMSI attach is possible for class A/B MS

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 64
1 Basics
1.30 PDP context activation
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 65

 Aim
 in order to send and receive GPRS data, the MS must activate the PDP
(Packet Data Protocol) address, which it wants to use
 Results
 the MS is known in the corresponding GGSN (the GGSN knows the SGSN
where the MS is located) and data transmission with external data
network can begin

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 65
1 Basics
1.31 Location management
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 66

MS enters in a new cell

New cell inside the current RA New cell belongs to a new RA New cell belongs to a new LA
MS in Ready state

Cell update RA update RA/LA update

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Radio Network Planning

 When the MS is in Ready State, it performs a Cell Update.


The MS sends any LLC frame in the new cell with its TLLI in the header.
The Cell and RAC information is added by the BSSGP at the programming of the BSSGP frame

 RA Update:
The MS sends an RA Update Request message containing the identity of the MS, the old RAI and the
Update Type. The update type is either enter a new RA or periodical RA update.
The BSS adds the cell global Identity when transferring the message into a BSSGP frame towards the
SGSN.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 66
1 Basics
1.32 Routing Area
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 67

 As total paging is more frequent with GPRS service together with


GSM paging, Routing Area (RA) was defined which may be smaller
than Location Area (LA)
 One RA is a subset of one and only one LA
 RAI (RA Identity) identifies several cells
 The MS location in Standby state is known in the SGSN at the RA level
 The MS is paged in its RA when MT traffic (MS in Standby State) arrives at
the SGSN
 One RA is served by only one SGSN

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 67
1 Basics
1.33 Network Mode of Operation (NMO)
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 68

 Paging Coordination

CS Paging PS Paging
NMO Characteristics
Channel Channel
PCCCH PCCCH - Gs interface
- MPDCH

I CCCH CCCH - Gs interface


- no MPDCH
Packet data channel (not applicable) - Gs interface
CCCH CCCH - no Gs interface
II - no MPDCH
CCCH PCCCH - no Gs interface
- MPDCH
III CCCH CCCH - no Gs interface
- no MPDCH

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

 Since B7, all the possible combinations with the MPDCH are:
NMOIII,
NMOI with MPDCH.

 According to the NMO offered and the packet mode of the MS (Packet Transfer Mode or Packet Idle
Mode), the routing of the PS paging and the CS paging changes.
 The NMO setting is done from the OMC-R via the NETWORK_OPERATION_MODE parameter.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 68
1 Basics
1.34 TBF establishment
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 69

 Several modes of TBF establishment in UL and DL exists:


 In PIM mode
 UL TBF on the CCCH or PCCCH (with primary MPDCH activation)
 DL TBF on the CCCH or PCCCH (with primary MPDCH activation)
 In PTM mode
 UL TBF establishment during a DL TBF on the uplink PACCH
 DL TBF establishment during a UL TBF on the downlink PACCH
 The TBF establishment is performed through two types of access requests:
 One phase access request
 Two phase access request

 B8/B9: The BSS preferentially establishes an EGPRS TBF to an EGPRS MS


provided that an EGPRS Packet Channel request message has been
received and that there are EGRPS resources (i.e. radio resources supported
by an EGPRS capable TRX) available in the cell, otherwise a GPRS TBF will
be established

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 69
1 Basics
1.35 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 1 phase access
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 70

 MS is in PIM mode:

MS (EGPRS Packet) BTS BSC MFS


Channel request
RACH TA calculation
Also PRACH Channel request + TA
Resource
1
The MS
(E)GPRS mode Immediate assignment allocation
switches Immediate assignment TFI, USF, TAI, TA
on the AGCH
assigned Also PAGCH
Packet UL assignment, polling
PDCH Packet UL assignment TFI, USF, TAI
2 PACCH
Packet control Ack
PACCH Resource
RLC data block (TLLI, TFI) activation
PDTCH
3
Packet UL Ack/Nack
PACCH TLLI, TFI

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 70
1 Basics
1.35 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 1 phase access
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 71

 1 allocation of only one PDCH because the multi slot capability of


the MS is not known
 Even if the Packet EGPRS Channel Request provides the MS multislot
class, only one PDCH is allocated
 2 sending of the Packet UL assignment in order to force the MS to
send an acknowledgement (polling mechanism)
 3 contention resolution mechanism :
 suppose two MS send a (EGPRS Packet) Channel Request at the same
time
 each MS sends its TLLI (and TFI)
 the TLLI is present in the acknowledgement from the MFS
 the MS with the wrong TLLI is discarded

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 71
1 Basics
1.36 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 2 phases access
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 72

 MS is in PIM mode:
MS (EGPRS Packet) BTS BSC MFS
Channel request TA calculation
RACH
Also PRACH Channel request + TA

(E)GPRS mode Immediate assignment


Immediate assignment TBF starting time, TA Single block
allocation
AGCH
Also PAGCH
Packet resource request Packet resource request Resource
PACCH TLLI allocation
Packet UL assignment, polling
Packet UL assignment
TFI, USFs, TAI, TLLI
The MS PACCH
switches Packet control Ack
on the PACCH Packet control Ack
Resource
assigned RLC data block activation
PDCHs PDTCH

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 72
1 Basics
1.36 UL TBF establishment on CCCH, 2 phases access [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 73

 2 phases access is necessary when the MS wants either to :


 Use RLC unacknowledged mode
 Give its multislot class
 Give QoS parameters (Peak_Throughput_Class, Radio_Priority)
 Main difference:
 Packet Resource Request message

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 73
1 Basics
1.37 DL TBF establishment on CCCH
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 74

 MS is in PIM mode:

MS BTS BSC MFS


LLC PDU
Resource
allocation
Immediate assignment
Immediate assignment TFI, TAI
1 PDCH PCH
allocated Also PPCH
Packet DL assignment, polling
Packet DL assignment TFI, TAI
PDCH(s)
PACCH
allocated
4 access bursts Packet control Ack TA calculation
Packet control Ack
PACCH
Timing Advance / Power control
TA / PC
PACCH
RLC data block
PDTCH

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 74
1 Basics
1.38 System information broadcasting on BCCH
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 75

 The BCCH indicates if GPRS is supported in the cell:


 SI3/4: GPRS supported or not
SI13 position on BCCH used for GPRS
 SI3: RA_COLOUR (routing area color) field present if GPRS
supported
 If GPRS is supported :
 SI13 is broadcasted on the BCCH
 SI13 broadcast instead of retransmission of SI 1

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

 Note: do not confuse RA_COLOUR and RA Code. The former is used as a flag which has two uses for the
MS entering a new cell:
to know if the GPRS service is supported in the cell (RA_COLOUR has a value different from -1).
to trigger an RA update when the value of the RA_COLOUR changes. It is easy to monitor because it is
broadcast often.
The Routing Area Code is necessary for the RA update procedure (message content).
The SI13 takes the place of a few SI1 occurrences.

All Rights Reserved 2007, Alcatel-Lucent


3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 75
1 Basics
1.38 System information broadcasting on BCCH [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 76

 SI 13 content (non exhaustive):


 RAC: routing area code
 NMO: network mode of operation
 PAN_DEC, PAN_INC, PAN_MAX: radio link supervision
 ALPHA: GPRS uplink power control
 T_AVG_T, T_AVG_W: calculation of average levels
 PC_MEAS_CHAN: level measurements on BCCH/PDCH
 NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER: packet cell re-selection mode
 Access Burst Type : 8 bit or 11 bit access burst
 EGPRS_PACKET_CHANNEL_REQUEST: EGPRS capable MS shall use EGPRS
EGPRS cell

PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST message for uplink TBF establishment on the


(P)RACH (En_EGPRS = True)
 BEP_PERIOD: Bit error probability (BEP) filter averaging period

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

 The MS has to get SI13 information on a regular basis:


each time the SI13 content is updated (PSI field = SI13_CHANGE_MARK set to 1).
every 30 seconds max (even if the TBF has to be interrupted).
Through 2 different ways: SI13 on the BCCH or PSI13 in a PACCH block.
The MS has always the time to switch on PSI13 in NMOIII and/or NMOI with a Master PDCH
because PBCCH blocks are always after a I or X TS within the 52 multi-frame.
 Access Burst Type: it defines the access burst (8 bits or 11 bits) to be used on the PRACH, PTCCH and
the Packet Control Ack on a PACCH.
 When the Master Channel is present in the cell, the System Information Type 13 message has different
contents from those described above. It mainly consists of:
The radio description of the Primary Master Channel (in terms of time slot number, training
sequence code and frequency parameters).
One GPRS Mobile Allocation (MA), if frequency hopping is used for GPRS. This is the GPRS MA of
the Primary Master Channel, if hopping. If the Primary Master Channel is not hopping, the MA
corresponds to the hopping TRX(s) used for GPRS, if any.
 Three modes of cell reselection have been defined by the 3GPP Standard for GPRS MSs. These
Network Control (NC) modes, known as the NC0, NC1 and NC2, are shortly described below:
NC0: the GPRS MS performs autonomous cell reselection without sending measurement reports to
the network.
NC1: the GPRS MS performs autonomous cell reselection. Additionally it sends measurement
reports to the network.
NC2: the GPRS MS shall not perform autonomous cell reselection. It sends measurement reports
to the network. The network controls the cell reselection.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 76
1 Basics
1.39 System information broadcasting on PBCCH
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 77

 Presence of a PBCCH (primary MPDCH) in the cell is indicated by a


PBCCH description in the SI13 message
 Primary MPDCH presence is possible only in NMO I or in NMO III
 Secondary MPDCHs presence are in indicated in PSI 2 message broadcast
on the PBCCH channel
 All (E)GPRS MS monitor the PBCCH to receive the PACKET SYSTEM
INFORMATION messages (PSI)
 Without PBCCH configured in the cell:
 In PIM, MS receive SI13 sent on BCCH
 In PTM, MS receive PSI 13 (=SI13) sent on PACCH
 Not possible to indicate to a MS, GPRS re-selection parameters (C31 and
C32 criteria)

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

 Cell Parameters
NMO, MS Timers, DRX info, RLS parameters, etc.
 PRACH access control parameters
access burst type, access control class, etc.
 PCCCH organization parameters
BS_PBCCH_BKLS, BS_PAGCH_BLKS_RES, BS_PRACH_BLKS

 The GPRS cell adjacencies are the same for a MS in Packet Idle Mode as for a MS in Packet Transfer
Mode. The GPRS cell adjacencies are equal to CS cell adjacencies.

All Rights Reserved 2007, Alcatel-Lucent


3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 77
1 Basics
1.39 System information broadcasting on PBCCH [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 78

 PSI 1 (sent also periodically in PTM on PACCH)


 Cell and BSS parameters
 PRACH access control parameters
 Description of the configuration of the packet control channels
 number of blocks per 52 multiframe
 Power control parameters
 PSI 2 (sent also periodically in PTM on PACCH)
 Cell allocation
 GPRS mobile allocation : HSN + list of frequencies
 PCCCH description : list of TS and frequency configuration
 Circuit-switched parameters
 Cell Identification : CI, RAC, LAC, MNC, MCC

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

 PSI3, PSI3bis:
One PSI3 instance shall be sent and, as a minimum, one PSI3bis instance shall be sent as well
There may be up to 16 PSI3bis instances.
Reselection parameters: C31_HYST, C32_HYST, GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYST, PRIORITY_CLASS,
HCS_THR, RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS
Neighbor cell parameters: BSIC, BCCH frequency, SI13 PBCCH location, GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN,
GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH, GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET, GPRS_PENALTY_TIME,
GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET.
Up to 32 neighboring cells may be defined. The field Same_RA_As_Serving_Cell provides
complementary information for reselection process.

All Rights Reserved 2007, Alcatel-Lucent


3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 78
1 Basics
1.39 System information broadcasting on PBCCH [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 79

 PSI 3 / 3bis
 BA(GPRS) list (identical to GSM BA list, neighboring cells BCCH)
 Cell selection and re-selection parameters for (non-)serving cells
 LSA identification of serving and neighboring cells
 PSI 8 CBCH information (TS, freq., if there is CBCH in the cell)

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 79
1 Basics
1.40 (E)GPRS Transmission Aspects
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 80
!!! MODIFIED FOR B9 !!!

 One Abis link is made of 31 64 kb/s timeslots


 A 16 kb/s transmission channel is called a nibble
 One timeslot is made of 4 nibbles
 A transmission channel established for carrying (E)GPRS traffic is called a
GCH (GPRS channel). One GCH uses one Abis nibble and one Ater nibble
 Two main types of Abis nibbles:
 Basic nibbles
 Carry CS traffic
 Carry PS traffic but only coded with (M)CS-1 or (M)CS-2
 Located on Primary Abis
 Extra nibbles
 Come from additional Abis timeslots for support of high speed packet traffic
 Carry PS traffic only
 Located on Primary or Secondary Abis

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 80
1 Basics
1.40 TRX Classes Concept
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 81

 To support high data throughputs, Alcatel has developed a solution,


which aims at providing the best trade-off between offered radio
throughput and impact on the telecom resource consumption
 This solution is based on the concept of multiple classes of TRX,
which support more or less data throughput. The higher the packet
class, the higher the maximum data throughput, the higher the
impact on BSS Telecom resources
 Five TRX classes (1 to 5) have been defined
 The Operator defines per cell the number of TRXs of each class

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 81
1 Basics
1.40 TRX Classes Concept [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 82

Supported (Modulation and) Coding schemes


TRX
G3 or G4 TRX Abis TS per TRX
Packet Class
Class 1 GPRS CS 1,2
Max 12 kbps 2
Simple EDGE MCS 1,2
Class 2 GPRS CS 1,2,3,4
Max 22 kbps 4
Double EDGE MCS 1,2,3,4,5
Class 3 GPRS CS 1,2,3,4
Max 30 kbps 6
Triple EDGE MCS 1,2,3,4,5,6
Class 4 GPRS CS 1,2,3,4
Max 54 kbps 8
Quad EDGE MCS 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
Class 5 GPRS CS 1,2,3,4
Max 59 kbps 10
Quintuple EDGE MCS 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

 EGCH
An EGCH is made up of a pool of GCHs (from 1 to 5): One main GCH and a pool of auxiliary GCHs (the
GCH uses the basic 16k Abis nibble).
 TRX class
The TRX class is defined at MFS level. For a TRX class n, the MFS will use n GCHs to establish one
EGCH. The TRX class varies with the hardware TRX capabilities (TRX type, Hardware PS capability).
Higher the TRX class is, higher the PDCH throughput is.
 AterMux resources allocation
In case of EGCH establishment, from one to five AterMux nibbles will be necessary. Nibbles have not
to be contiguous.
These nibbles will be taken:
- on free nibbles of at least one already switched 64 Kbit/s channel, or,
- on free nibbles of one or more already switched 64 Kbit/s channels and on an additional 64 Kbit/s
channel, switched for this purpose, or,
- on 1 or 2 additional 64 Kbit/s channels, switched for this purpose.
When possible, the first possibility will be chosen.
When establishing a PDCH, the number of GCH links per radio time slot is determined according to
the TRX class, the PDCH type (SPDCH/MPDCH), and the AterMux congestion state.
 Abis Interface
Several Abis nibbles are also used to handle a throughput higher than 16Kbit/s. Abis configuration is
static due to hardware constraints.
Depending on the requested throughput, a radio time slot needs up to 4 extra Abis nibbles in addition
to the basic one.
As all radio time slots of a TRX must have the same throughput capability, a TRX needs up to 8 extra
Abis time slots. These extra Abis time slots are called a TRX transmission pool.
All Rights Reserved 2007, Alcatel-Lucent
3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 82
1 Basics
1.40 TRX Classes Concept [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 83

 Example 1: TRX class 1, up to CS-2 / MCS-2


TRX Abis
TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3
TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 Basic
TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 Timeslots

 Example 2: TRX class 4, up to CS-4 / MCS-8


TRX Abis Basic Nibble

TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7


TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3
Basic
TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 Timeslots
TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3
Radio Timeslot
TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7

1 PDCH = 4 terrestrial nibbles TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 6 Extra


= 1 basic nibble also used for voice TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 Timeslots
+ 3 additional nibbles used only for TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3
packet traffic TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7
Extra Nibbles

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 83
1 Basics
1.41 Two Abis Links per BTS
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 84

 The secondary Abis is fully dedicated to packet data


 Two topologies exists

BSC Primary Abis


EVOLIUM
BTS

Secondary Abis Topology 1

Primary Abis
EVOLIUM
BTS

Secondary Abis
BTS BTS

Topology 2

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 84
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 85

2 B9 features

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 85
2 B9 features
2.1 Enhanced Packet Cell Reselection (R4 MSs)
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 86

 In B9 a number of procedures have been introduced to achieve


better performances for GPRS cell reselections:

 Packet PSI Status procedure


 reducing the duration of the phase where the MS acquires PSI in the target cell
 Packet SI Status procedure, same scope as above for SI in the target cell
 Network Assisted Cell Change procedures
 reducing, in NC0 and NC2 mode, the duration of the phase where the MS
acquires target cell (P)SI, in the serving cell
 CCN mode procedure (Cell Change Notification)
 allowing, in NC0 mode, the MS to indicate its wish to perform a cell reselection
 Cell System Information distribution
 Cell ranking with load criteria

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 86
2 B9 features
2.1.1 Radio Network Impact
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 87

 The B9 added improvements allow reducing the time dedicated to a


Cell Reselection in packet mode.
 These sub-features impact traffic model, allowing faster CR to a
new cell or less number of CRs performed in a cell, will result in a
higher aggregated throughput in the cell.

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 87
2 B9 features
2.2 Extended Uplink TBF Mode
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 88

 This feature allows improving access time to the GPRS network


 ping test down to 350 ms
 It also improves the throughput in some cases.

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

 The feature main benefits are: reduced (may be 0) delay before next UL transmission (no new TBF to establish) and
reduced DL TBF establishment, when it follows an UL TBF. Expected effects:

In uplink, it can avoid to re-establish TBF for subsequent burst of data from the same higher layer transaction,
and it avoids to establish a new TBF if new data arrive during countdown procedure on the current TBF.
In uplink, it can avoid to re-establish TBF for subsequent burst of data from the same higher layer transaction,
and it avoids to establish a new TBF if new data arrive during countdown procedure on the current TBF.
in downlink, it allows to perform more often the TBF establishment on concurrent TBF and it saves the DL
bandwidth by sending dummy UI commands (on the DL TBF is in delayed release state) if a concurrent TBF exists.
Both effects are expected to improve the end-to-end transmission delay and consequently to reduce the transfer
duration.

 The mechanism proposed has the following characteristics:


Extended Uplink TBF shall be used whenever allowed by the MS capabilities.
The BSS shall be able to acquire the MS capability as fast as possible, using the Radio Access capability update
procedure (or information stored in other GPUs).
When the MS does not support the extended UL TBF mode , the BSS will use the normal release procedure, and
apply the delayed Final PUAN procedure if T_Delayed_final_PUAN is not 0.
If the MS capabilities are not yet known by the BSS at UL TBF establishment, the BSS shall be able to switch to
extended UL TBF mode if the MS capabilities are received before the release of the uplink TBF has been
initiated.
During the uplink TBF extension (i.e., after the last LLC frame has been received from the MS and no data is
being transmitted by the MS), it allows the network to initiate sending of data to the MS without performing a
downlink TBF establishment oncommon control channels.
It allows the MS to send data from newly arrived LLC frames after the countdown has started.
While in the delayed state the network must allocate some radio blocks, to allow the MS to restart the uplink
transfer whenever required by the application.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 88
2 B9 features
2.2 Radio Network Planning Impact
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 89

 Traffic model changes: the feature will modify the number of UL TBF
activation+release on PACCH for all TCP/IP based applications and
WAP.
 The feature will also modify the average duration of an uplink TBF,
and as a consequence increase the number of MS multiplexed in
uplink.
 If necessary to reserve a certain bandwidth in uplink for QoS, then
the maximum number of MS in UL on the concerned PDCH should be
limited. (the current default value is of 5 MS multiplexed in uplink)

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 89
2 B9 features
2.2 Radio Network Planning Impact [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 90

 Some parameters are to be handled in order to set up and configure


this feature:
 EN_EXTENDED_UL_TBF: Enable the extended TBF mode feature on the
uplink.
 T_MAX EXTENDED_UL: Maximum duration of the extended uplink TBF
phase. Recommended rule: value between 1s and 2s.
 EN_FAST_USF_UL_EXTENDED: Enable the transmission of USF every
20ms in extended mode, when the extended UL TBF feature is activated.
 EN_RA_CAP_UPDATE: Enable the Radio Acces Capability update on Gb.
Recommended rule: should be enabled if EN_EXTENDED_UL_TBF is
enabled and RA cap. update is supported by SGSN.
 It is recommended not to activate simultaneously extended UL TBF
feature (flag EN_EXTENDED_UL_TBF) and the DL PDU rerouting
feature (flag EN_AUTONOMOUS_REROUTING).

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

Fast USF UL extended : to keep the link alive in order to be ready as soon as needed. If n MSs in extended,
then USF for 1 MS sent every n x 20ms.
RA CAP Update : the MFS can request the RA capabilities of the MS to the SGSN (based on IMSI)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 90
2 B9 features
2.3 Enhanced support of E-GPRS (EDGE) in uplink
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 91

 In B9 support of MCS-5 to MCS-9 coding schemes in UL was


introduced.
Release Modulation Coding User data
scheme rate
B8 GMSK CS-1 8.0 kbit/s
B8 GMSK CS-2 12.0 kbit/s
B8 GMSK CS-3 14.4 kbit/s
B8 GMSK CS-4 20.0 kbit/s
B8 GMSK MCS-1 8.4 kbit/s
B8 GMSK MCS-2 11.2 kbit/s
B8 GMSK MCS-3 14.8 kbit/s
B8 GMSK MCS-4 17.6 kbit/s
B9 8-PSK MCS-5 22.4 kbit/s
B9 8-PSK MCS-6 29.6 kbit/s
B9 8-PSK MCS-7 44.8 kbit/s
B9 8-PSK MCS-8 54.4 kbit/s
B9 8-PSK MCS-9 59.2 kbit/s

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 91
2 B9 features
2.3 Enhanced support of E-GPRS (EDGE) in uplink [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 92

 In B9 release, Incremental Redundancy may be activated for both


the DL and UL paths. Thanks to Incremental Redundancy, the link
adaptation procedure can be more aggressive: if the chosen MCS is a
bit too optimistic, IR increases the probability of data recovery and
increases data rates considerably specially in poorer radio conditions
for higher MCSs.

 The link adaptation mechanism in UL is based on measurements


(MEAN_BEP, CV_BEP) done by the BTS on the radios blocks received
from the mobile. To take into account MCS-5 to MCS-9, the BSS
algorithm for link adaptation needs new link adaptation
MEAN_BEP/CV_BEP tables. These tables are the same as the one
already used for DL.

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 92
2 B9 features
2.3.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 93

 8-PSK in the UL should be considered in the planning tools for the


throughput and coverage estimation (based on interference
calculation). It impacts cell range estimates if the link-budget is UL
limited.

 The IR gain should also be considered in the throughput estimation :


 2 dB can be taken for the average IR gain.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 93
2 B9 features
2.4 Counter Improvements for Release B9
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 94

 Counter Improvements for Release B9 feature covers four


candidate sub-features for B9:
1. Support of distributions: It introduces a new concept of counters
called distributions to obtain improved statistics on (E)GPRS resource
usage.
2. Consolidation of cell indicators at GPU level: It allows an operator to
consolidate each indicator defined at cell level per GPU. This operation
is very useful to follow possible lacks of GCH or GPU resources in a
given GPU.
3. Counters defined at TRX level: It introduces a few counters defined at
TRX level to follow the radio and transmission resource usage.
4. New MFS counters: It consists in defining a few new counters to ease
the dimensioning and optimisation of (E)GPRS networks.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 94
2 B9 features
2.4 Counter Improvements for Release B9 [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 95

 Support of distributions
Counter Mnemonic Rationale

P453a DISTRIB_UL_TBF_DURATION The distribution of the UL TBF duration is interesting to:


-Differentiate the type of traffic (GMM signalling, Web browsing, FTP transfers, etc.).
-Check the validity of the UL TBF duration reported by the PM counters. For instance, the average is
meaningless if long TBFs are not distinguished from short TBFs.
-Justify certain bad throughputs observed in the fields.
-The corresponding thresholds should be tuneable to allow isolating a given traffic for a deep field
analysis.

P453b DISTRIB_DL_TBF_DURATION Same rationale as P453a but for the DL direction

P454a DISTRIB_UL_TBF_VOLUME The distribution of the UL LLC volume is interesting to:


-Differentiate the type of traffic (GMM signalling, Web browsing, FTP transfers, etc.).
-Check the validity of the UL LLC volumes (measured in bytes) reported by the PM counters. For
instance, the average is meaningless if long TBFs generating high UL LLC volumes are not
distinguished from short TBFs generating small UL LLC volumes.
-Justify certain bad throughputs observed in the fields.
-The corresponding thresholds should be tuneable to allow isolating a given traffic for a deep field
analysis.

P454b DISTRIB_DL_TBF_VOLUME Same rationale as P454a but for the DL direction

P455a DISTRIB_UL_PDCH_UNIT_ALLOC The distribution of the number of PDCH units assigned to an UL TBF is required to check whether
non-optimal allocations come from a lack of radio resources. In this case, parameters like
MAX_PDCH, MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD can be increased.

P455b DISTRIB_DL_PDCH_UNIT_ALLOC Same rationale as P455b but for the DL direction

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 Support of distributions
Actually, Support of distributions is an enhancement for the feature Radio Measurement Statistics
(RMS), introduced on release B7.2, in order to get statistics on radio measurements such as RXLEV,
RXQUAL, interference level, timing advance, MS or BS transmitted power, etc.
This sub-feature introduces a new concept of counters to monitor PS resource usage. The existing PS
counters count a number of events occurring during the reporting period (i.e. every hour). However,
such counters do not allow retrieving the distribution of the events. For instance, existing counters
allow evaluating the averaged duration of the TBFs. However, it is interesting to know what is the
proportion of short TBFs compared to long TBFs, to evaluate the type of GPRS traffic, to understand
the throughput measured in the fields, etc.. New counters, called distribution, were introduced. The
B7.2 RMS feature is based on the following principles:
- The operator can launch RMS from the OMC-R on a per cell or per BSC basis for a given duration (up
to 23 hours).
- The radio measurements are monitored the closest to the observed functions, i.e. in the BTS.
- During the observation period, it is possible to launch extended measurement reporting in order to
get measurements on radio frequencies not used for CS/PS traffic in the cell.
The measurements are usually reported in vectors made of 10 values (or matrixes made of several
vectors). The ranges of each vector are defined by 9 thresholds. These thresholds are changeable at
the OMC-R.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 95
2 B9 features
2.4 Counter Improvements for Release B9 [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 96

 Consolidation of cell indicators at GPU level


Reference Definition Instance
P105c Number of DL TBF establishment failures due to GPU congestion. Cell
P105d Number of UL TBF establishment failures due to GPU congestion. Cell
P105e Number of DL TBF establishment failures due to CPU processing power limitations of the Cell
GPU.
P105f Number of UL TBF establishment failures due to CPU processing power limitations of the Cell
GPU.
P105g Number of DL TBF establishment failures due to a lack of transmission resources. Cell
P105h Number of UL TBF establishment failures due to a lack of transmission resources. Cell

 The sub-feature consists in allowing the operator to consolidate cell


counters P105c/d/e/f/g/h at GPU level.
Also, without this consolidation, it is up to the MFS to perform the
consolidation, which is in contradiction with the usual principles.
Indeed, it is not the role of the MFS to perform computation on
counters.
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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 96
2 B9 features
2.4 Counter Improvements for Release B9 [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 97

 New MFS counters


Counter Mnemonic Rationale
P38f CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_USED_UL_CELL This counter is used with P451a to quantify the
overlapping of the UL TBFs on the PDCHs. For instance, a
high overlapping factor can explain why the throughputs
observed in the fields are low.
P38e CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_USED_DL_CELL Same rationale as P38f but for the DL direction.
P451a CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_UL_TBF_CELL This counter is used with P38f to quantify the
overlapping of the UL TBFs on the PDCHs. For instance, a
high overlapping factor can explain why the throughputs
observed in the fields are low.
P451b CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_DL_TBF_CELL Same rationale as P451a but for the DL direction.
P452 CUMULATED_TIME_PDCH_DL_TBF_GMM_SIG_CELL This counter is used to quantify the part of the GMM
signalling traffic over the whole (E)GPRS traffic. For
instance, this information is required to know how many
radio resources should be configured to carry only GMM
signalling traffic.
P98f NB_SUSP_UL_TBF_REL This counter is defined to obtain a more accurate
indicator for TBF drops. Operators are carefully analysing
the TBF drop rate that it is one of the main (E)GPRS QoS
figures.
P98e NB_SUSP_DL_TBF_REL Same rationale as P98f but for the DL direction.

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Class B
Class B mobile phones can be attached to both GPRS and GSM services, using one service at a time. Class B
enables making or receiving a voice call, or sending/receiving an SMS during a GPRS connection. During voice
calls or SMS, GPRS services are suspended and then resumed automatically after the call or SMS session has
ended.

 This is suspend / resume

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 97
2 B9 features
2.4.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 98

 The new counters and distributions should allow us to improve the


existing (E)GPRS traffic model (i.e. better accuracy of the model can
be achieved) but no impact on radio and other telecom
performances is expected.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 98
2 B9 features
2.5 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 99

 The purpose of this feature is to give to the MFS all the radio
timeslots that are usable for PS traffic, according to the whole BSS
load (CS and PS loads). The MFS needs no more to request radio
timeslots to the BSC; instead the MFS is always aware of all the
available radio timeslots.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 99
2 B9 features
2.5 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 100

 Main principles:
 CS and PS allocation separation with expected result of higher mean TBF
throughputs.
 To give to the MFS all the radio timeslots that are usable for PS traffic

Max CS traffic without PS traffic

Max PS traffic without CS traffic

Max PS traffic when high CS traffic

reserved for PS priority for PS priority for CS reserved for CS

MIN_SPDCH

MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD

MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT

MAX_SPDCH

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 MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT is computed by the BSC and defines the number of SPDCHs that are allocated to the
MFS (based on the whole BSS load)
 The allocated SPDCHs are always those having the highest priority for PS allocations and their positions
are provided to the MFS within a new message called Radio Resource (RR) Allocation Indication message
 TBFs allocated in the MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD zone cannot be pre-empted (T1 re-allocation) when
MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT value decreases
 Periodically, the MFS sends to the BSC a Radio Resource Usage Indication message. This message
contains the allocated SPDCHs in the MFS as well as their usage. This message is used by the BSC to
estimate the PS load
 If required, the MFS may pre-empt a few SPDCHs to give them back to the BSC. The MFS uses the same
Radio Resource Usage Indication message to indicate to the BSC the de-allocated SPDCHs and to
acknowledge the allocation of new SPDCHs

Reserved for PS: This zone defines the number of radio resources reserved for PS traffic. No CS traffic can
be carried in that zone. The size of this zone is defined by the parameter MIN_SPDCH.
Priority for PS: This zone defines a number of radio resources where CS and PS traffic can be carried, but
the preference is given to PS traffic in that zone. The size of this zone is defined by the parameters
MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD and MIN_SPDCH.
Priority for CS: This zone defines a number of radio resources where CS and PS traffic can be carried, but
the preference is given to CS traffic in that zone. The size of this zone is given by the difference between the
parameters MAX_SPDCH and MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD.
Reserved for CS: This zone defines the number of radio resources reserved for CS traffic. No PS traffic can
be carried in that zone. The size of this zone is defined thanks to the parameter MAX_SPDCH.

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 100
2 B9 features
2.5.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 101

 Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation


 -100 ms gain in the DL or UL TBF establishment duration
 As the maximum number of radio resources is allocated to the MFS, the
TBF establishment duration (DL or UL) is reduced compared to the B8
solution (if the MFS requests for additional radio resources to establish
the TBF).
 This could lead to an increase in the average TBF throughputs at cell
level.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 101
2 B9 features
2.6 2G/3G Inter-working
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 102

 Improve the 3G neighborhood description in 2G cells

 Consistent with the cell reselection strategy in B9

 2G/3G Interoperability feature comprises two sub-features:

 Improved 3G cell reselection


 Neighbour UTRAN FDD cells are provided in SI2quater (new message)
 UTRAN frequencies are defined at GSM cell level (3/cell at max)
 Neighbour UTRAN FDD cells are described at the OMC with their UTRAN FDD
frequencies Scrambling Codes and Diversity

 Load based 3G HO filtering


 The BSS may reject an external HO incoming from the UTRAN, provided the HO
has not been triggered by an emergency cause
 Current load will be compared with a new threshold, namely
THR_CELL_LOAD_3G_REJECT

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 102
2 B9 features
2.6 2G/3G Inter-working [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 103

 Improved 3G cell reselection


 The B9 Improved 3G cell reselection feature allows the operator to
declare per 2G cell basis the 3G neighbor cells (the FDD UMTS frequencies
and the scrambling codes). Maximum 3 FDD UMTS frequencies may be
declared per cell basis. When knowing in advance the frequency and the
scrambling code of a 3G cell, an MS should require 10 to 20ms to
synchronize on that cell.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 103
2 B9 features
2.6 2G/3G Inter-working [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 104

 Load based 3G HO filtering


 Regarding the current load, the BSS may reject an external hand-over
coming from the UTRAN, provided the hand-over has not been triggered
by an emergency cause, i.e. provided the hand-over request does not
carry a cause type uplink/downlink quality/strength.

 Radio Network Planning Impact


 These sub-features impact traffic model, allowing faster 2G-to-3G cell
reselection to a new cell or denying incoming handovers in a loded
condition. It will result in a higher aggregated throughput in the cell or in
less call drops experienced by a source 3G cell.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 104
2 B9 features
2.6.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 105

 These sub-features impact traffic model, allowing faster 2G-to-3G


cell reselection to a new cell or denying incoming handovers in a
loaded condition. It will result in a higher aggregated throughput in
the cell or in less call drops experienced by a source 3G cell.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 105
2 B9 features
2.7 M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 106

 This feature provides a solution to share the Ater and Abis nibbles
between the radio timeslots of a TRX so that the transmission
resources left available by a PDCH can be re-used by other PDCHs
as long as those PDCHs belong to the same TRX. Thus allows
reducing the waste of transmission bandwidth on the Ater and Abis
interfaces.

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 Terminology

M-EGCH
- The term M-EGCH (Multiplexed-EGCH) is used to refer to a link established between the MFS and
the BTS. An M-EGCH is defined per TRX (instead of an EGCH per radio timeslot in release B8).

GCH
- A GCH is the 16kb/s channel between the MFS and the BTS. It is composed of an Ater nibble and an
Abis nibble cross-connected together in the BSC. The MFS or the BTS periodically send blocks on a
GCH every 20 ms.

GCH frame
- In 20 ms period (also called block period), a number of 320 bits of this GCH can be used: this is the
frame.

Segment
- A segment is formed by a part of an RLC block (after its segmentation on the M-EGCH link) and a
GCH header (different for first segment and subsequent segments). RLC data might be padded or a
segment can be a no-data segment.
- Note that in B9 a frame can be constituted of several segments belonging to different RLC blocks as
now all the RLC blocks sent on several PDCHs of a TRX are multiplexed on the same M-EGCH link.
Padding bits are added to the RLC blocks segments to fill the frame to 320 bits.

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 106
2 B9 features
2.7 M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 107

 The M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing solution allows to share a given


number of GCHs at a TRX level, i.e between the radio timeslots of
one TRX, so that:
 the transmission resource left available by one TBF mapped on a set of
RTS and being idle (eg, in establishment or delayed release phase) is
automatically reused by another TBF mapped on the same RTSs or on
another set of RTSs (as long as those sets of RTS are on the same TRX ).
 an increase of MCS, i.e. of throughput experienced by one TBF, does not
lead to an increase of transmission links need since this increase can be
compensated by a decrease of MCS experienced by another TBF.
 The GCH left while the control blocks are transferred can also be re-
used by other TBFs (which is not the case in B8); indeed control
blocks are encoded with CS1 and do not use an entire 320-bit frame.

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The Statistical Multiplexing introduces a new segmentation of the radio blocks on the M-EGCH link: the blocks
of all the PDCHs of the TRX are sent one after the other without padding between them. As in B8 a block for a
PDCH can be spread over several 320-bit frames but after its last segment the block of another PDCH can be
started (if the remaining transmission capacity is sufficient). So a fixed 320-bit frame can have up to 2 or 3
segments of variable size. As in B8, the unused part of a 320bit frame (once all the PDCHs have been
scheduled) is filled with padding and the unused GCHs with a NODATA PDU.
The EGCH layer is highly impacted to support the statistical multiplexing and is renamed M-EGCH layer in
B9. This feature only applies to G3 and G4 TRX while the G2 DRFU TRX uses a B7.2 like GCH stack (1 GCH
allocated per PDCH to support up to CS2 TBFs).

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2 B9 features
2.7.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 108

 Statistical multiplexing at M-EGCH layer does increase the BSS PS


capacity without running out of Abis/Ater resources.

 Increase of BSC capacity in terms of # of TRXs allows :


 higher PS throughputs
 lower PS blocking/drop probabilities

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 108
2 B9 features
2.8 Dynamic Abis allocation
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 109

 This feature enables, on the Abis, to dynamically allocate nibbles


among the different TREs used for PS traffic in a given BTS.
Compared to B8, it allows a higher average Abis bandwidth per PDCH,
the BSC capacity in terms of TRXs is increased, and in some BTS
configurations it may avoid to deploy a second Abis link. The extra
Abis nibbles are shared at BTS level.

 Radio Network Planning Impact

 Increase of BSC capacity in terms of # of TRXs handled allows higher


PS throughputs and could lead to lower PS blocking/drop
probabilities.

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 109
2 B9 features
2.8.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 110

 Increase of BSC capacity in terms of # of TRXs handled allows higher


PS throughputs and could lead to lower PS blocking/drop
probabilities.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
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2 B9 features
2.9 Enhanced transmission resource management
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 111

 Deals with the determination of the number and of the nature of the
16k GCH channels inside each M-EGCH. It is implemented as a
transmission resource manager. The transmission resource manager
is located at MFS/GPU level. It handles both Abis and Ater resources
at GCH level.

 It is in charge of:
 Creating and removing the M-EGCH links
 Selecting, adding, removing, and redistributing GCHs over the M-EGCH
links
 Managing transmission resource preemptions
 Managing Abis and/or Ater congestion states,

 Optionally, monitoring M-EGCH links usage, according to the (M)CS


of their supported TBFs (UL and DL).

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 Abis nibbles sharing rules:


To ensure that, anytime, each cell of a given BTS would be able to support PS traffic, we should
guarantee a minimal number of Abis nibbles to every cell in the BTS. Consequently, it has been
decided that basic Abis nibbles are only shared at cell level (i.e. among TRXs of the same cell or
sector). This restriction prevents some cells from using the whole Abis nibbles of the BTS as a
given cell cannot use the basic Abis nibbles of another cell. However, Extra (and Bonus) Abis
nibbles are shared at BTS level.

 Ater nibbles sharing rules:


A given amount of Ater transmission resource is allocated per GPU. Afterwards, this Ater
transmission resource is shared among the four DSPs of the GPU thanks to the GPU on-board Ater
switch.
Only 64K Ater TS are handled at GPU-level between DSPs. Thus, a 64K Ater TS may be moved
from one DSP to another if, and only if, all its four 16K Ater nibbles are free. This is the unique
restriction to Ater nibbles sharing at GPU-level.
Furthermore, to prevent the above restriction from disturbing the First GPRS traffic in a cell, an
Ater reserve shall always be available. The Ater reserve consists on one or several free 64K Ater
TSs and is defined per GPU. Every 64K TS of the Ater reserve may be connected to any DSP of the
GPU to fulfil GCH requests:
to establish the initial GCH in a cell with the Fast Initial GPRS Access feature activated, or;
to ensure the First GPRS traffic in a cell with no active initial GCH.
Each time a 64K TS is taken from the Ater reserve, a process is launched to retrieved another 64K
TS to replace it in the Ater reserve. This is done by means of GCH pre-emption on the Best effort
traffic supported by the GPU.

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2 B9 features
2.10 RMS_I1 Improvements
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 112

 The goal of the feature is to monitor the usage of each allowed


AMR codecs (FR or HR), and to provide statistics information on
timing advance.

 This feature allows monitoring the proper operation of AMR and the
quality of the radio coverage in a cell. It also gives the possibility to
tune the AMR parameters. Indeed, statistics about frame erasure
rate in uplink and comparison between codec distribution and RXLEV
allow assessing the voice quality, and adapting AMR thresholds to
the situation of a given cell.

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 RMS_I1 Indicators:

Mnemonic Definition Formula


RMS_AMR_FR_UL_BAD Number of bad speech frames using any RMS44a
AMR FR codec in uplink
RMS_AMR_HR_UL_BAD Number of bad speech frames using any RMS45a
AMR HR codec in uplink
RMS_AMR_FR_UL_RXLEV_UL Number of speech frames using one RMS46a
AMR FR codec in uplink per Rxlev on
the uplink path
RMS_AMR_HR_UL_RXLEV_UL Number of speech frames using one RMS48a
AMR HR codec in uplink per Rxlev on
the uplink path
RMS_AMR_FR_DL_RXLEV_DL Number of speech frames using one RMS47a
AMR FR codec in downlink per Rxlev on
the downlink path
RMS_AMR_HR_DL_RXLEV_DL Number of speech frames using one RMS49a
AMR HR codec in downlink per Rxlev on
the downlink path

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2 B9 features
2.10.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 113

 Knowing which codecs are the most used, and comparing them with
link level in the cell, the operator could assess the voice quality and
possibly adapt the AMR parameters (definition of the subset,
thresholds and hysteresis).

 These parameters are different for AMR FR and AMR HR, information
shall be provided separately for AMR FR and AMR HR.

 The codecs used in UL and in DL can be different; therefore


interpretation of results would be easier if results are provided
separately for uplink and downlink.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 113
2 B9 features
2.11 RMS_I2 Improvements
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 114

 The aim of this feature is to provide statistics information on


timing advance, in order to understand geographical traffic
distribution in a cell, to identify resurgences and hot spots.

 The improvement RMS_I2: Timing advance is a good indicator


about the mobile position relative to a cell.

 Its usage in RMS B7.2 is very limited: only measurement reports


done over a TA threshold are available, along with the max
measured TA. This information is not detailed enough to
understand geographical distribution in a cell, in order to identify
resurgences and hot spot.

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 RM_I2 Indicators:

Mnemonic Definition Formula


RMS_TPR_TIMING_ADVANCE The distribution of number of RMS50a
measurement reports for which the value
of timing advance is in TA band
RMS_TPR_UL_RXLEV_TA_BAN The average value of RXLEV per TA band RMS51
D in uplink.
RMS_TPR_DL_RXLEV_TA_BAN The average value of RXLEV per TA band RMS52
D in downlink.
RMS_TPR_UL_RXQUAL_TA_BA The average value of RXQUAL per TA RMS53
ND band in uplink.
RMS_TPR_DL_RXQUAL_TA_BA The average value of RXQUAL per TA RMS54
ND band in downlink.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 114
2 B9 features
2.11.1 Radio Network Planning Impact
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 115

 This RMS improvement described here would provide help to the


operator for optimization of his network planning, through
identification of these resurgences and hot spots. Detecting hot
spots can be very useful in order to re-design that part of the
network in a most adapted way to the experienced traffic load.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 115
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 116

3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 116
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.1 Cell Reselection Overview
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 117

 In GSM, when an MS in idle mode


moves from cell A to cell B, it
performs a cell reselection applying
the C1 or C2 criteria. In dedicated selection
mode, MS performs a handover reselection
Cell 1
 For (E)GPRS, the MS does in GMM
Cell 2
READY state (PTM) cell reselection
 In the old cell an abnormal TBF release
takes place
 In the new cell the MS establishes a new RA A
resource. (Different to handover in GSM, Cell 3
where the new channel is reserved by the LA 1
network in advance) RA B
LA 2

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 117
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.1 Cell Reselection Overview [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 118

 Three modes of cell reselection have been defined for a MS in GPRS


packet transfer mode:
 NC0 mode: (E)GPRS MS performs autonomous cell reselection without
sending measurement reports to the network
 NC1 mode: (E)GPRS MS performs autonomous cell reselection.
Additionally it sends measurement reports to the network
 NC2 mode: (E)GPRS MS shall not perform autonomous cell reselection. It
sends measurement reports to the network. The network controls the
cell reselection
 B9 release supports NC0 and NC2 modes
 NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER parameter defines whether the MS or the
BSS controls the cell reselections
 NC0 mode: NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER = 0
 NC2 mode: NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER = 3

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 118
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.1 Cell Reselection Overview [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 119

 The attached (E)GPRS mobiles use different criteria, depending on whether


the PBCCH is present or not in the serving cell

 No PBCCH in the serving cell:


 GMM standby:
 Only NC0 mode is applied. Cell reselection is identical to the basic GSM cell reselection in idle mode.
C1 and C2 criteria are used
 GMM ready:
 NC2 mode is applied if set by the Operator. C1NC2, C2NC2 criteria are used
 NC0 mode is applied if NC2 mode is not set and consequently C1, C31 and C32 criteria are used

 PBCCH established in the serving cell:


 GMM standby:
 Only NC0 mode is applied. C1, C31 and C32 criteria are used

 GMM ready:
 NC2 mode is applied if set by the Operator. C1NC2, C31NC2 and C32NC2 criteria are used
 NC0 mode is applied if NC2 mode is not set and consequently C1, C31 and C32 criteria are used

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 In GSM
C1 = A - Max (0,B) with:
- A = RLA_C - RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN
- B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH - MS_TXPWR_MAX + POWER_OFFSET(1800)
C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET - TEMPORARY_OFFSET(T) when Penalty_time<31
C2 = C1 - CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET when Penalty_Time=31

 In GPRS ready and standby states, cell reselection is performed by the MS except for a class A MS while
in dedicated mode of a circuit switched connection, in which case the cell is determined by the
network according to the handover procedures.

 For a class B MS which can combine GSM and GPRS states, C1 criterion is used when the MS
simultaneously attached to both, the network and the MS is in Packet Idle Mode (refer to GSM 05.08).

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 119
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.1 Cell Reselection Overview [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 120

 Independent from the presence of the PBCCH

 The GPRS cell adjacencies


 are the same in packet idle mode as in packet transfer mode
 are set equal to the CS cell adjacencies (i.e. the BA(GPRS)=BA(BCCH) list )

 Recommendation is to enable the GPRS service on all cells in order to


prevent a MS to reselect a cell without GPRS support

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 120
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.2 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, no PBCCH established
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 121

 The same procedure as in GSM, with the following criteria applied:


 C1: the pathloss criterion, for cell selection and reselection
 C2: for cell reselection
 C1 criterion: the path loss criterion is satisfied if C1 > 0
 C1 = A - Max(B,0)
A = RLA_C - RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN
B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P
 RLA_C = Received Level Average for CS service
 RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN = Minimum received signal level at the MS
required for access to the system
 MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH = Maximum TX power level an MS may use
when accessing the system
 P = Maximum RF output power of the MS

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 The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighboring cell.

 In the above equations, the following notations mean:


AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) is the average received signal level measured by the MS on the BCCH of the cell n.
RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n) or GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n) is the minimum received signal level required
to perform an access to the cell n.
MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) or GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) is the maximum transmit power of the MS
when accessing the cell n.

 P(n) is the maximum output RF power of the MS in the BCCH frequency band of the cell n. P(n) gives
the MS Radio Access Capability Information Element provided in the Packet Resource Request message
or in the DL LLC PDU. In the NC cell reselection procedure, the parameter P(n) shall always refer to the
RF power capability of the GMSK modulation.
 Note that all values are expressed in dBm.

 The cell ranking criterion parameter C2NC2 is used to order the candidate cells on an radio criterion.
This criterion applies only in serving cells where there is no PBCCH established.
CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) is a positive offset which favors or disfavors the cell n.
PENALTY_TIME(n) indicates whether the cell reselection offset shall be positive or negative.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 121
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.2 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, no PBCCH established [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 122

 C2 criterion:
 PENALTY_TIME <> 11111
C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET - TEMPORARY OFFSET * *
H(PENALTY_TIME - T)
 non-serving cells: H(x) = 0 for x < 0; H(x)= 1 for x 0
 serving cells: H(x) = 0
 T is a timer implemented for each cell in the list of strongest carriers. T shall be started
from zero at the time the cell is placed by the MS on the list of strongest carriers
 CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET may be used to give different priorities to different bands when
multiband operation is used
 TEMPORARY_OFFSET applies a negative offset to C2 for the duration of PENALTY_TIME
after the timer T has started for that cell.
 PENALTY_TIME = 11111
C2 = C1 - CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET
 If CELL_RESELECT_PARAM_IND = 0 then C2 = C1

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 122
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 123

 The following criteria are applied for cell reselection:


 C1: when C1< 0
 C31, C32: when a non-serving cell is evaluated to be better than the
serving cell
 C1: the pathloss criterion
 Is used as a minimum signal level criterion for cell reselection for GPRS
in the same way as for GSM Idle mode criterion
 Same as defined, but with specific GPRS parameters:
 C1 = A - Max(B,0)
A = RLA_P - GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN
B = GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P
 GPRS specific parameters, are broadcast on PBCCH of the serving cell

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 123
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 124

 C31: the signal level threshold criterion parameter for hierarchical


cell structures (HCS)
 Is used to determine whether prioritized hierarchical GPRS and LSA cell
re-selection shall apply
 For cells that fulfill C31criteria (C31>0):
 The best cell is the cell with the highest C32 value, among those cells that
have the highest priority class, among those cells that have highest LSA priority
 If no cell fulfils the C31 criterion:
 The best cell is the cell with the highest C32 value, among all the neighbor
cells
 C32: cell ranking criterion parameter is used to select cells among
those with the same priority class

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 The signal level threshold criterion parameter C31NC2 is used in hierarchical cellular networks to
determine whether the signal level received from a neighboring cell n is sufficient to redirect the MS
towards cell n based on a non-radio priority criterion. This criterion parameter is used only if there is a
PBCCH established in the serving cell. HCS_THR(n) defines a signal threshold for applying the
prioritized hierarchical GPRS cell reselection criterion. The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a
neighboring cell. Contrary to the C31 criterion implemented in the MS, the Alcatel BSS does not
manage the timer T implemented for each cell to monitor the time a neighboring cell is present in the
list of the strongest carriers. Therefore, the Alcatel BSS always assumes that
GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) = 0. As the GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS,
RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS, and C31_HYST are used to control the triggering conditions of a cell
reselection, they are not taken into account in the criterion C31NC2 and C32NC2 parameters.
 The cell ranking criterion parameter C32NC2 is used to order the candidate cells on an radio criterion.
This criterion applies only in serving cells where there is a PBCCH established.
GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) applies a positive or negative offset which favors or disfavors the
neighboring cell n. The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighboring cell. If the parameter
C32_QUAL is set, the determination of C32NC2 is modified so that the neighboring cell n having the
highest AV_DL_RXLEV_NC2 among all the neighboring cells is applied a GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET
(only if the offset is positive) and no GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET is applied to the other neighboring
cells.
 The MFS shall take care of avoiding ping-pong effects between the old cell and the new cell (i.e.,
circular NC cell reselections). For that purpose, the MFS handles an anti-ping-pong timer and an anti
ping-pong offset, respectively called T_NC_PING_PONG and NC_PING_PONG_OFFSET. While the timer
T_NC_PING_PONG is running the neighboring cells are disfavored by the offset NC_PING_PONG_OFFSET
(expressed in dB) in the cell ranking process.
 The MFS starts the anti-ping-pong timer at the creation of the NC2 context for the MS.
 The MFS stops the anti ping-pong timer at the deletion of the NC2 context.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 124
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 125

 C31 criterion
 Serving cell:
C31(s) = RLA_P(s) GPRS_HCS_THR(s)
 Neighbor cell:
C31(n) =
GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(n) GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(n)
<> =
GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(s) GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(s)
= RLA_P(n) GPRS_HCS_THR(n)
T(n) <= GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) = RLA_P(n) - GPRS_HCS_THR(n)
GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n)

T(n) > GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) = RLA_P(n) - GPRS_HCS_THR(n) = RLA_P(n) - GPRS_HCS_THR(n)

 RLA_P is the received level average for PS service (i.e. C value)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 125
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 126

 The following parameters are broadcast on PBCCH of the serving


cell:
 GPRS_HCS_THR is the signal threshold for applying HCS GPRS and LSA re-
selection
Min: -110 dBm; Max: -48 dBm; Default: -84 dBm

 GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS is the HCS priority of the cell


Min: 0 (lowest); Max: 7 (highest); Default: 0

 GPRS_PENALTY_TIME is the time during which the


GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET is active in neighbour cells
Min: 10s; Max: 320s ; Default: 10s

 GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET applies a negative offset to C31/C32 for the


duration of GPRS_PENALTY_TIME after the timer T has started for that
cell
Min: 0; Max: infinity (coded 7); Default: 0

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 126
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 127

 C32 criterion
 Serving Cell:
C32(s) = C1(s)
 Neighbor cell:
C32(n) =
GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(n) GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(n)
<> =
GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(s) GPRS_PRIORITY_CLASS(s)
= C1(n) +
= C1(n) +
T(n) <= GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) GPRS_ RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) -
GPRS_ RESELECTION_OFFSET(n)
GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n)
= C1(n) + = C1(n) +
T(n) > GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n)
GPRS_ RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) GPRS_ RESELECTION_OFFSET(n)

 GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET is used to apply an permanent offset for GPRS cell


reselection in neighbor cells
Min: -52 dBm; Max: +48 dBm; Default: 4 dBm

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 C1 is the same as in GSM except that


A = RLA_P GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN: listening capacity of MS in the cell
B = GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P: talking capacity of MS in the cell
C1 shall be positive and as high as possible

 C32:
if C32_QUAL=1, positive GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET value shall only be applied to the
neighboring cell with the highest RLA_P value of those cells for which C32 is compared above.
If GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET (neighbor) >0, the cell has a bonus to reselection
If GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET (neighbor) <0, the cell has a handicap for reselection

 In Packet Idle Mode, the MS shall make one measurement for each BCCH carrier monitored every 4
seconds, as well as more than one sample per second for each BCCH carrier.
 A list of 6 strongest cells shall be kept updated at a rate of at least one update per running average
period.
 In Packet Transfer Mode, the MS shall monitor a list of 6 strongest non-serving cell BCCH carriers. It
shall attempt to check the BSIC for each of these 6 strongest cells at least once every 10 seconds.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 127
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 128

 C32 is an improvement of C2. It applies an individual offset and


hysteresis value to each pair of cells, as well as the same temporary
offsets as for C2.
 Additional hysteresis values apply for a cell re-selection that requires
cell or routing area update
 With C32, neighbor cells can be favored through the
GPRS_RESELECTION_OFFSET(n) broadcast on the PBCCH. This allows
favoring neighbor cells e.g. based on their frequency band
 C32 also gives the possibility to temporarily penalize neighbor cells
having the same priority as the serving cell (contrary to C31 that
penalizes cells of different priorities). The penalty is computed
based on the GPRS_TEMPORARY_OFFSET(n) and
GPRS_PENALTY_TIME(n) parameters, like for C31

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 128
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.3 Cell reselection: NC0 mode, PBCCH established [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 129

 If cell B is belonging to another Routing Area (RA) than cell A, the


MS has to make RA update
 additional hysteresis are applied to avoid unnecessary RA updates:
 CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS hysteresis for cell reselection applied on C1
criterion (no PBCCH), when the new cell is in a different LA or, for a GPRS MS,
in a different RA, or when a GPRS MS is in GMM ready state
 RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS indicates in both STANDBY and READY state the
additional hysteresis which applies on C31 and C32 (with PBCCH) when
selecting a cell in a new RA
 C31_HYST: Determines whether an additional cell hysteresis shall be
applied to the C31 criterion in same RA, in READY state
 GPRS_CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS additional hysteresis

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 129
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.4 Cell reselection execution: NC0 in PTM
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 130

 THERE ARE NO HANDOVERS IN GPRS


The MS is performing now Cell Reselection during a TBF
 it leaves the coverage area of the cell or enters in a building
 if a neighbor cell is better (from C Criterion point of view), the MS
performs a cell re-selection  abnormal TBF release happens
 in the new cell, a new TBF is automatically established, after (P)SI
information acquisition
 only the remaining data from the old TBF will be sent then
automatically
 Coding scheme adaptation is active in parallel and independently
triggered

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 130
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.4 Cell reselection execution: NC0 in PTM [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 131

 Typical GPRS data transmission with cell reselection


Throughput
[kbit/s] Data Call Duration

1. CS change
1. CS change

TBF 1 (Cell 1) Cell TBF 2 (Cell 2)


Re-Selection

CS 2

Average
Throughput

Throughput

CS 1

Time
t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 [s]

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 131
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 132

 In NC2 mode of operation, the BSS controls the cell reselections of


all MS when in packet transfer mode (PTM) or of all MS when in GMM
Ready state (depending on the selected NC2 deactivation mode)
 While the NC2 mode is activated for the concerned MS, the MS sends
packet measurements reports (PMR) to the BSS
 Aim: NC2 mode is to limit the number of reselections to the strict
necessary ones  increased data throughput
 Alcatel NC2 implementation allows to favor GPRS traffic inside GPRS
preferred cells (GPRS redirection)
 Particular layer (e.g. macro)
 Particular frequency band (e.g. GSM 900)
 reduced impact on signaling load

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 Each time the MS performs a cell reselection, the data transfer is interrupted and a retransmission of
some LLC PDUs may be required:
The on-going TBF is released in the old cell.
The MS performs the PSI or SI acquisition in the new cell.
Then, the MS establishes a new UL TBF in this cell to send a Cell Update message to the SGSN.
The MFS deletes or reroutes towards the new cell the LLC PDUs stored in the old cell.
- if they are deleted, a retransmission is needed.
Finally, the data transfer is re-started (after a DL TBF establishment, in case of DL transfer).
 All these steps degrade the data throughput or the page access time perceived by the enduser.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 132
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 133

 NC2 activation
 An MS transit to NC2 mode when it receives a PACKET MEASUREMENT
ORDER message from the BSS, at the beginning of a data transfer. It
provides mainly the NC_REPORTING_PERIOD_T which is the reporting
period of NC measurements sent by the MS while in PTM (default = 0.96s)
 Measurement reporting and processing
 MS periodically reports its NC2 measurements on PACCH through a
PACKET MEASUREMENT REPORT
 The BSS handles the following measurements:
 UL serving cell: RXQUAL for GPRS TBF and mean BEP for EGPRS TBF
 DL serving cell: RXQUAL for GPRS TBF and mean BEP for EGPRS TBF
 DL serving and neighbor cells: RXLEV measurements of BCCH

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 NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER is a cell parameter tunable at the OMC-R.

 The R97 and R98 MSs are differentiated from the other MSs. Indeed, all the MSs shall support the NC2
mode, however since no network manufacturer has implemented the NC2 mode, the R97 and R98 MSs
may not have been sufficiently tested and therefore there is a risk of interoperability with these MSs.

 The Packet Measurement Order message is used to activate and de-activate the NC2 mode of
operation for a given MS.
Activation
- The Packet Measurement Order (NC2) message is sent when:
establishing the first Downlink TBF of the Packet Transfer Mode or when re-establishing
the DL TBF while T3192 is running and there is not any on-going UL TBF.
no measurement report has already been received for that MS during its on-going packet
transfer(s) (UL and/or DL).
the MS has not been forced to operate in NC2 mode by a Packet Cell Change Order
message (during an intra-RA cell reselection).
De-activation
- The Packet Measurement Order (RESET) message is sent at the end of the data transfer, in
case of NC2_DEACTIVATION_MODE = NC2 deactivation at the end of the packet transfer.
- When the MS goes back to the STANDBY state, in case of NC2_DEACTIVATION_MODE = NC2
deactivation at GMM Ready timer expiry.

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 133
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 134

 Cell reselection detection


 NC2 reselection are triggered only for EMERGENCY or for POWER BUDGET
causes:
 Cause PT 1: Too low DL received signal level
 Cause PT 2: Detection of a better cell
 Cause PT 3: Too bad DL radio quality
 Cause PT 4: Too bad UL radio quality

 The criteria calculated by the BSS in NC2 mode are very near from those
used by the MS in NC0 mode. This ensures that the target cell selected
by the MS in NC0 mode or by the BSS in NC2 mode are identical in quite
all cases
 C1NC2,
C2NC2, C31NC2 and C32NC2 criteria are calculated by the BSS and the
parameters defined for cell reselections in NC0 are re-used

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 134
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 135

 Cause PT1: Too low DL received signal level


 AV_DL_RXLEV_NC2 < NC_DL_RXLEV_THR + Max(BNC2,0)
 NC_DL_RXLEV_THR = -110 dBm (Never)  deactivates Cause PT1
 Cause PT1 is equivalent to check the condition C1NC2 < 0 assuming that the
(GPRS_)RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN threshold is replaced by NC_DL_RXLEV_THR
threshold
 C1NC2: Pathloss Criterion parameter
 C1NC2(n) = ANC2(n) max(BNC2(n),0)
 No PBCCH
ANC2(n) = AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n)
BNC2(n) = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) P(n)
 PBCCH established
ANC2(n) = AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) GPRS_RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN(n)
BNC2(n) = GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) P(n)

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The cause PT1 is equivalent to check the condition C1NC2 < 0 assuming that the (GPRS_)RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN
threshold is replaced with NC_DL_RXLEV_THR threshold.

Max (Bnc2,0) = handicap on threshold if MS can't reach max UL tx power recommended in the cell

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 135
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 136

 Cause PT2: Detection of a better neighbor cell


 AV_DL_RXLEV_NC2 NC_DL_RXLEV_LIMIT_THR
and
{
No PBCCH:
C2NC2(n) > C2NC2(s) + NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS (s,n)
PBCCH established:
C32NC2(n) > C32NC2(s) + NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS (s,n)
}
 NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS (s,n) defined per cell adjacency link
 NC_DL_RXLEV_LIMIT_THR = -110 dBm (Never)  disables Cause PT2
 The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighbor cell

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Cause PT2 is checked among the neighboring cells n upon receipt of a Packet Measurement Report message. It
is triggered if the value C2NC2 or C32NC2 of one neighboring cell n exceeds the value C2NC2 or C32NC2 of the
serving cell s by at least the O&M hysteresis NC_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS(s,n) defined per cell adjacency link
(respectively whether or not there is a PBCCH in the serving cell).

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 136
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 137

 C2NC2: Cell ranking criterion parameter


 used to order the candidate cells on a radio criterion and applies only in
serving cells where there is no PBCCH established

 PENALTY_TIME(n) <> 11111:


C2NC2(n) = C1NC2(n) + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET(n)
 PENALTY_TIME(n) = 11111:
C2NC2(n) = C1NC2(n) CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET(n)

 CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) is a positive offset which favors or disfavors the


cell n
 PENALTY_TIME(n) indicates whether the cell reselection offset shall be positive
or negative
 The n denotes either the serving cell or a neighbor cell

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Same parameter as GSM Reselection


"11111" = value 31 (or infinity)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 137
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 138

 C31NC2: signal level threshold criterion parameter


 Used in hierarchical networks to determine whether the signal level
received from a neighbor cell n is sufficient to redirect the MS towards
cell n based on a non-radio priority criterion
 Used only if there is a PBCCH established in the serving cell

 C31NC2(n) = AV_RXLEV_NC2(n) HCS_THR(n)

 HCS_THR(n) defines a signal threshold for applying the prioritized hierarchical


GPRS cell reselection criterion
 The cell n denotes either the serving cell or a neighbor cell

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 138
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 139

 C32NC2: cell ranking criterion parameter


 Used to order the candidate cells on a radio criterion
 Applies only in serving cells where there is a PBCCH established
 Cell n is the serving cell:
C32NC2(n) = C1NC2(n)
 Cell n is a neighbor cell:
C32NC2(n) = C1NC2(n) + GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n)
 GPRS_RESELECT_OFFSET(n) applies an positive or negative offset which favors
or disfavors the neighbor cell n. Cell n denotes either the serving cell or a
neighbor cell

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 139
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 140

 Cause PT3: Too bad downlink radio quality


 AV_DL_RXQUAL_NC2 > NC_DL_RXQUAL_THR
 NC_DL_RXQUAL_THR: threshold above which Cause PT3 is triggered due to a
too bad RXQUAL in DL (while the MS is in PTM)
Min: 0; Max: 7; Default: 7; step size: 0.1
 NC_DL_RXQUAL_THR = 7 (Never)  deactivates Cause PT3

 Cause PT4: Too bad uplink radio quality


 AV_UL_RXQUAL_NC2 > NC_UL_RXQUAL_THR
 NC_UL_RXQUAL_THR: threshold above which Cause PT4 is triggered due to a
too bad RXQUAL in UL (while the MS is in PTM)
Min: 0; Max: 7; Default: 7; step size: 0.1
 NC_UL_RXQUAL_THR = 7 (Never)  deactivates Cause PT4

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 Cause PT4
is checked only for the serving cell whenever one UL RLC data block is correctly received for the on-
going UL TBF provided that T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID seconds have elapsed since the computation of the
first UL samples of the UL TBF.
T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID aims at not triggering false alarms at the beginning of the TBF and not
triggering an NC cell reselection for a very short TBF.

 Cause PT3
is checked only for the serving cell each time a (EGPRS) Packet Downlink Ack/Nack message is
received provided that the DL TBF is not in delayed release state and provided that the
T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID seconds have elapsed since the receipt of the first Packet Downlink Ack/Nack
message of the DL TBF.
T_NC_RXQUAL_VALID aims at not triggering false alarms at the beginning of the TBF and not
triggering an NC cell reselection for a very short TBF.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 140
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 141

 Candidate cell evaluation


 Cell Filtering: this process removes from the list candidates the cells to
which a previous NC2 cell reselection failed
 Cell Ranking:
 No PBCCH
 The cell are ranked to their C2NC2 value. The best cell candidate is the cell having the
highest C2NC2 value

 PBCCH established
 The cell are ranked based on the C31NC2 and C32NC2 criteria. Among the cells, the best
cell is the cell with the highest C32NC2 value among:
o For cells that fulfill C31NC2criterion (C31NC2>0):
Those cells having the highest PRIORITY_CLASS(n)
o If no cell fulfill C31NC2 criterion:
All cells

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 141
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.5 Cell reselection: NC2 mode [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 142

 Cell reselection execution


 The network triggers the cell reselection by sending a PACKET CELL CHANGE ORDER message

MS Cell A Cell B SGSN

On-going data transfer (1)


Packet Measurement Report (2)
(3)
Packet Cell Change Order (4)
Packet Control Ack. (5)
(6)
UL TBF establishment (7)
UL LLC PDU (8)

Flush-LL PDU (9)


Flush-LL-Ack PDU (10)

 NC2 deactivation
 Two modes via the O&M parameter NC2_DEACTIVATION_MODE:
 NC2 deactivation at the end of packet date transfer
 NC2 deactivation at Ready timer expiry

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 142
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.6 GPRS redirection
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 143

 Thanks to NC2 activation for MS in PTM


 B8/B9 release GPRS redirection is actually a NC cell reselection that
is triggered at the beginning of the PTM in the serving cell even if
the radio link is good
 Redirect the MS towards a target cell more appropriate to carry PS
traffic
 The operator may wish to favor GPRS traffic in a particular
layer/band:
 MULTILAYER NETWORK, it may be more efficient to define GPRS
resources in the UPPER LAYER only
 Reduce the number of cell reselections
 Microcells have smaller traffic capacity and is assigned to CS

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 143
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.6 GPRS redirection [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 144

 MULTIBAND NETWORK, it may be more efficient to favor GPRS


traffic in the 900 MHz band, due to its better indoor penetration
 MS GPRS mainly used in indoor environment
 Gain in stability of the GPRS session

 Operator must tune the NC parameters so that a NC cell reselection


is systematically triggered at the beginning of a data transfer on
receipt of the first Packet Measurement Report
 E.g. NC cell reselection Cause PT1 can be always activated by setting
NC_DL_RXLEV_THR = - 47 dBm (Always)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 144
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.7 GPRS Power Control: Overview
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 145

 GPRS power control is only implemented in uplink in open loop


configuration
 GSM recommendation 05.08
 During open loop power control, the MS adapts its output power in
UL per block (i.e. 4 timeslots), based on the measured average
signal strength in DL
 Open loop:
 There is no indication by the BTS whether the output power was
sufficiently low or high: the same path loss in UL and DL is assumed by
the MS
 When accessing the network on the (P)RACH the MS uses the output
power defined by (GPRS_)MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH, which is
broadcasted on the (P)BCCH

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 145
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 146

 MS (E)GPRS performs the necessary LEVEL measurements for power


control algorithm, either on the BCCH of the serving cell or on the
PDCH (carrying the PACCH):
 The choice is made according to PC_MEAS_CHAN parameter, which is
broadcasted on the BCCH:
 PC_MEAS_CHAN = 1, measurements on PDCH (default)
 24 measurements in 480 ms
 PC_MEAS_CHAN = 0, measurements on BCCH
 12 measurements in 480 ms
 The LEVEL measurements are averaged with recursive filtering
algorithms
 The average levels are calculated by the MS in PIM and PTM modes,
thus proper average level available at transfer start

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 146
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 147

 Averaging
 Recursive Filtering (in the MS) to obtain average level
 Recursive Filtering Formula:
Cn=a * SSn + (1-a) * Cn-1
 Cn is the DL level average calculated by the MS (Cn-1 =previous value)
 SSn is mean of received signal level of 4 bursts
 a is the forgetting factor
 Packet Idle Mode
a = 1 / [min (n, max (5,T_AVG_W/TDRX) ) ]
 TDRX= parameter which considers the number of measurements that are made
and the paging group; TDRX=BS_PA_MFRMS
 BS_PA_MFRMS = number of multiframes needed to send all paging groups
 T_AVG_W = 2k/2 /6 (k=1..25, recommended k < 12) is the signal level filter
period for PC in PIM

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 147
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 148

 Packet transfer Mode


a = 1/[6* T_AVG_T] on BCCH
a = 1/[12* T_AVG_T] on PDCH
 T_AVG_T= 2k/2 /6 signal level filter period for PC in PTM
 k for T_AVG_T for measurements on BCCH or on PDCH:

GSM averaging window size Default value of k Range to


(A_LEV_PC) investigate
2 4 [1-7]
4 7 [5-9]
6 8 [6-10]
8 8 [6-10]
10 9 [6-10]
12 9 [6-10]
14 9 [7-10]
16 9 [7-10]

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 148
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.8 GPRS Power Control: Measurements [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 149

 Averaging
 Tuning of k: average mechanism convergent between GSM and GPRS
 Comparison between GSM averaging and the practical GPRS averaging with
A_LEV_PC=2 and K =4:

50

45

40

35

30

25

20
1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 81 86 91 96 101 106 111 116 121 126 131 136 141

RXLEV_DL GSM average practical GPRS average

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 149
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.9 GPRS Power Control: Algorithm
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 150

 Each block is transmitted by the MS with the output power PCH:


PCH=min (0 - CH - * (C+48), (GPRS)MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH))

 0 : is the maximum classmark power of the MS


 = 39 dBm in GSM 900/850/400
 = 36 dBm in GSM 1800/1900
 CH : is sent to the MS. This parameter is used for grading the power
control to a target received level at the BTS side
 Min:0; Max: 62; Default: 30 dB in GSM 900, 24 dB in GSM 1800
 : is send to the MS. This parameter can be described as a reactivity
factor. The 05.08 GSM recommendation suggest to use = 1 in order to
have an open loop power control
 C : is the DL level average calculated by the MS

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 150
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.9 GPRS Power Control: Algorithm [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 151

 Tuning of CH and
 Idea: Tune PC algorithm to balance DL and UL paths

 = 1 (according to GSM 05.08)
 CH
 tune CH in order to reach the Minimum UL Level (RXLEVUL) at the BTS
 CH = 0 - 48 - RXLEVUL - PBTS

 Balanced DL and UL paths:


 PMS - RXLEVUL = PBTS RXLEVDL
 PBTS: BTS power; PMS: MS power
 RXLEVUL: Received level at BTS side
 RXLEVDL: Received level at MS side (C value in the PC formula)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 151
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.9 GPRS Power Control: Algorithm [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 152

 Example: Tuning of CH and


 Settings:
 MS_Power_MAX = 33 dBm
 PBTS after connector = 40 dBm

 =1
 CH
 tune CH in order to reach the Minimum RXLEVUL at the BTS side
 assume RXLEVUL = - 80 dBm
 CH = 0 - 48 - RXLEVUL - PBTS
 CH = 33 - 48 - (-80) - 40 = 25 dBm

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 152
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 153

 It relies on RXQUAL except between CS3 and CS4 adaptation, where


the new metric I_LEVEL_TNi (interference level) is also considered
 If CS-4 is used, the MS is allowed to report RXQUAL = 7
 AV_RXQUAL_ST (Short Term average), AV_RXQUAL_LT (Long Term
average) and AV_SIR (Signal to Interference Ratio) are respectively
averaged values at MFS side, of the RXQUAL and I_LEVEL_TNi
measurements received from the MS in Packet DL Ack/Nack
messages
 AV_RXQUAL_ST
 Triggering condition AV_RXQual_ST aim to decrease the coding scheme number
as fast as possible when the radio conditions degraded significantly. Reaction
would be much slower if it was only based on a long-term average, which could
results in a TBF release

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 153
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 154

 Interference measurements performed during


idle frames of the 52 multiframe (twice during
240ms):
 I_LEVEL_TN 0 = I>C MS MFS

 I_LEVEL_TN 1 = C - 2dB < I C Packet DL Ack/Nack


 I_LEVEL_TN 2 = C - 4dB < I C - 2dB (RXQUAL, I_Level_TNi)

 I_LEVEL_TN 3 = C - 6dB < I C - 4dB


...
Packet DL Ack/Nack
 I_LEVEL_TN 14 = C - 28dB < I C - 26dB (RXQUAL, I_Level_TNi)

 I_LEVEL_TN 15 = I C - 28dB Averaging

 MFS uses the I_LEVEL_TNi received to calculate - AV_RXQUAL_ST


the AV_SIR value - AV_RXQUAL_LT
- AV_SIR
O&M threshold
 In case of DL GPRS TBF with PDCH allocated on and hysteresis Link current CS
BCCH TRX and no frequency hopping on the adaptation

BCCH TRX, the MS does not report any new CS


interference levels  usage of BLER (Block
Erasure Rate) instead of interference levels

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 Drawback of putting GPRS on BCCH freq : no measure of interference levels

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 154
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 155

 Coding Scheme changing decision for a downlink GPRS TBF:

Current
CS CSi -> CSi+1 CSi -> CSi-1
CS1 AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_DL_1_2 -

AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_DL_1_2 + CS_HST_DL_LT


CS2 AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_DL_2_3 OR
AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_DL_1_2 + CS_HST_DL_ST
AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_DL_3_4
AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_DL_2_3 + CS_HST_DL_LT
AND
CS3 OR
AV_SIR > CS_SIR_DL_3_4
AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_DL_2_3 + CS_HST_DL_ST
(CS3_BLER < CS_BLER_DL_3_4)
AV_SIR < CS_SIR_DL_3_4 + CS_SIR_HST_DL
CS4 -
(CS4_BLER > CS_BLER_DL_4_3)

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 As it has been observed (in the Alcatel labs during the B8 release validation) that some MS do not
report any interference measurements when the BCCH carrier is included in the frequency hopping
sequence of the allocated PDCH, the algorithm described above is slightly modified in the MR2 version
of the B8 release.

 A new triggering condition is used for the CS change between CS3 and CS4. This new triggering
condition shall be applied only to the TBF that do not report any interference level measurements.
Each time a Packet DL Ack/Nack message is received:
either it contains no interference measurements and the new algorithm is applied,
or it contains interference measurements and the standard algorithm is applied.

 With the new algorithm, the interference level is replaced by the BLER (RLC BLock Error Rate):
the CS3 BLER is used for a CS change from CS3 to CS4,
the CS4 BLER is used for a CS change from CS4 to CS3.

 Remarks :
case of a DL TBF with PDCH allocated on the BCCH TRX and no frequency hopping on the BCCH
TRX : the MS does not report any interference level measurements in the Packet DL Ack/Nack
message (no interference measurements on the BCCH carrier),
case of a DL TBF with PDCH having the BCCH carrier belonging to the frequency hopping
sequence : depending on MS implementation, some MS may not report any interference
measurements (behavior observed in the Alcatel labs during the B8 release validation).

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 155
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.10 Link adaptation: DL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 156

 CS_HST_DL_LT and CS_HST_DL_ST are introduced to have hysteresis


mechanisms, to avoid ping-pong effects between coding schemes:

AV_RXQUAL_LT

CS1
CS_QUAL_DL_1_2 + CS_HST_DL_LT
CS1 or CS2 (hysteresis)
CS_QUAL_DL_1_2

CS2
CS_QUAL_DL_2_3 + CS_HST_DL_LT
CS2 or CS3 (hysteresis)
CS_QUAL_DL_2_3

C S_QUAL_DL_3_4
CS3 CS3
or CS4
CS4
0 AV_SIR
0 CS_SIR_DL_4_3 CS_SIR_DL_3_4 15

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 The change from CS-3 to CS-4 is not only based on AV_RXQUAL_LT for the two following reasons:
RXQUAL range only goes down to 0.2%. However, the change of the coding scheme from CS-3 to CS-4
will probably have to be done for even lower values. Indeed, when the coding scheme is CS-4, in
static (AWGN), a BLER of 0.1 (typical value of the BLER threshold to change from CS-3 to CS-4) is
obtained for a raw BER of 1-(1-0.1)1/456 = 2.10-4. This raw BER would be larger in multipath
channels but is likely to remain below 0.2%. This means that CS_QUAL_DL_3_4 should be close to 0
and that a condition based on RXQUAL is not sufficient to change the coding scheme from CS-3 to CS-
4.
If the changes from CS-3 to CS-4 and from CS-4 to CS-3 are based on different metrics, a Ping-Pong
effect may occur. Indeed, it may happen that the conditions to change from CS-3 to CS-4 and CS-4 to
CS-3 are simultaneously true in some situations.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 156
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.11 Link adaptation: UL GPRS Radio Link Control
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 157

MS BTS MFS

 It is based only on RXQUAL, UL RLC block (RXQUAL)


measured by the BTS
 Interference measurements
are not reported by the BTS UL RLC block

to the MFS RXQUAL


measurement
 AV_RXQUAL_ST (Short Term
average), AV_RXQUAL_LT (Long UL RLC block (RXQUAL)

Term average) are averaged


values of the RXQUAL received Averaging
from the BTS
- AV_RXQUAL_ST
- AV_RXQUAL_LT
O&M threshold
and hysteresis Link current CS
adaptation

new CS

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 157
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.11 Link adaptation: UL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 158

 Coding Scheme changing decision for uplink GPRS TBF:

Current
CS CSi -> CSi+1 CSi -> CSi-1
CS1 AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_UL_1_2 -

AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_UL_1_2 + CS_HST_UL_LT


CS2 AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_UL_2_3 OR
AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_UL_1_2 + CS_HST_UL_ST
AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_UL_2_3 + CS_HST_UL_LT
CS3 AV_RXQUAL_LT < CS_QUAL_UL_3_4 OR
AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_UL_2_3 + CS_HST_UL_ST
AV_RXQUAL_LT > CS_QUAL_UL_3_4 + CS_HST_UL_LT
CS4 - OR
AV_RXQUAL_ST > CS_QUAL_UL_3_4 + CS_HST_UL_ST

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 AV_RXQUAL_ST is a short term average whereas AV_RXQUAL_LT is a long term average. The short term
average is used to react quickly in case of fast degradation of the radio conditions.
X = FH or NFH: two thresholds are available for hopping and non-hopping TRXs.
Y = ACK or NACK: two thresholds are available for RLC acknowledged and unacknowledged modes.

 The thresholds should be chosen so that:


CS_HST_UL_ST > CS_HST_UL_LT > 0

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 158
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.11 Link adaptation: UL GPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 159

 CS_HST_UL_LT and CS_HST_UL_ST are introduced to have


hysteresis mechanisms, to avoid ping-pong effects between coding
schemes:
AV_RXQUAL_LT

CS1
CS_QUAL_UL_1_2 + CS_HST_UL_LT
CS1 or CS2 (hysteresis)
CS_QUAL_UL_1_2

CS2
CS_QUAL_UL_2_3 + CS_HST_UL_LT
CS2 or CS3 (hysteresis)
CS_QUAL_UL_2_3

CS3
CS_QUAL_UL_3_4 + CS_HST_UL_LT
CS3 or CS4 (hysteresis)
CS_QUAL_UL_3_4

CS4
0 AV_SIR
0 15

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In the uplink, the RXQUAL is available in CS-4 and the SIR measurements are not reported by the BTS to the
MFS so far. Therefore, it is possible to also use RXQUAL measurements to change the coding scheme from CS-3
to CS-4 or from CS-4 to CS-3, contrary to the downlink algorithm, where the SIR was used.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 159
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.12 Link adaptation in EGPRS: New metrics
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 160

 Two new metrics are introduced in EGPRS, Mean_BEP (mean Bit error
Probability) and CV_BEP (Coefficient of Variation of BEP), to offset the fact
that RXQUAL, does not provide an accurate estimation of the bit error rate
of the radio channel
 BEP measured on burst basis, is a reflection of the current C/I, time dispersion
of the signal and the velocity of the terminal
1 4
MEAN_BEPblock = BEPburst i
4 i=1
 The variation of BEP value over several bursts also provides additional
information regarding velocity and frequency hopping
2
1 4 1 4
BEPburst k BEPburst i
3 k =1 4 i=1
CV_BEPblock = 4
1
BEPburst i
4 i=1
 The mechanism is more efficient than in GPRS, since measurements are taken on
every burst and not only during the idle frames

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For more details about MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP averages performed by the MS, refer to 3GPP 05.08.
Raw measurements on a radio block basis
For EGPRS (that is during an EGPRS DL TBF), the MS shall calculate the following values, for each radio block (1
radio block = 4 bursts) addressed to it (the DL TBF TFI contained in the radio block must be decoded) :
Mean Bit Error Probability (BEP) of a radio block:
1 4
MEAN _ BEPblock = BEPburst i
4 i =1
Coefficient of variation of the Bit Error Probability of a radio block:
2
1 4 1 4
BEPburst k BEPburst i
3 k =1 4 i=1
CV _ BEPblock = 4
1
BEPburst i
4 i=1
In the above equations, the BEP is measured on a burst basis by the MS before channel decoding.

 Averaging of the raw measurements on a TS basis


The raw measurements made by the MS on a radio block basis are averaged by the MS per TS (TN in the below
equations) and per modulation type (GMSK (MCS1 to MCS4), 8-PSK (MCS5 to MCS9)) as follows:
xn x
N n = (1 e
MEAN_BEP_T ) MEAN_BEP_T Nn1 + e n MEAN_BEP block,n
Rn Rn
x x
CV_BEP_TN n = (1 e n ) CV_BEP_TN n 1 + e n CV_BEPblock,n
Rn Rn
with R n = (1 e) R n1 + e x n , R 1 = 0 (Rn gives the reliability of the averaged quality parameters)

 In the above equations :


n is the iteration index, incremented for each DL radio block,
e is a forgetting factor and is calculated according to the BEP_PERIOD cell parameter (new in B8, OMC-R
changeable),

SEE NEXT SLIDE


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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 160
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.13 Link adaptation: DL EGPRS Radio Link Control
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 161

 The link adaptation is based in DL on Mean_BEP and CV_BEP


measurements reported by the MS in every EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack
message
 The MS can report 32 different Mean_BEP values (0..31) and 8 different
CV_BEP values (0..7), per modulation type

Decision tables are different


MS MFS
depending on whether the
Incremental Redundancy
EGPRS Packet DL Ack/Nack
is activated or not
(Mean_BEP, CV_BEP)
Average Power
IR Decrease in 8-PSK

current CS Link link adaptation


adaptation tables

new CS

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 xn denotes the existence of quality parameters for the nth block, i.e. if the radio block is intended for this MS. xn values 1
and 0 denote the existence and absence of quality parameters, respectively

 Measurements reporting
A MS shall report the overall MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP (instead of reporting the RXQUAL and SIGN_VAR values) per
modulation type (that is GMSK_MEAN_BEP, GMSK_CV_BEP and/or 8-PSK_MEAN_BEP, 8-PSK_CV_BEP depending on the
received blocks since the last channel quality report sent to the network) averaged over all allocated channels
(timeslots) as follows:

R (j)
n MEAN_BEP_TN(j)
n

n =
j ,
MEAN_BEP
j
Rn
(j)

where n is the iteration index at reporting time and j the TS number.

The MS reports the Mean_BEP and CV_BEP values to the MFS in the Channel Quality Report included in the EGPRS
Packet DL Ack/Nack and Packet Resource Request messages.

The MS can report 32 different Mean_BEP values (MEAN_BEP_0 to MEAN_BEP_31). The mapping between the
calculated Mean_BEP value (linear scale) and the reported Mean_BEP value (logarithmic scale) depends on the used
modulation (two mapping tables are given in the 05.08 GSM recommendation : one for GMSK and one for 8-PSK).

The MS can report 8 different CV_BEP values (CV_BEP_0 to CV_BEP_7). The mapping between the calculated and
the reported values is identical for the GMSK and 8-PSK modulations.

 Measurements and reporting at BTS side

The BTS measures for each UL burst the BEP and calculates for each UL radio block (4 bursts) the Mean_BEP and the
CV_BEP = Std_BEP / Mean_BEP. The Mean_BEP and the CV_BEP are reported on a radio block basis by the BTS to the
MFS.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 161
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.13 Link adaptation: DL EGPRS Radio Link Control [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 162

MS BTS MFS

UL RLC block (CV_BEP, Mean_BEP)


 In the UL, Mean_BEP and
CV_BEP are computed in
the BTS and sent to the UL RLC block

MFS, in each radio block CV_BEP, Mean_BEP


computation

 The MFS averages Mean_BEP UL RLC block (CV_BEP, Mean_BEP)

and CV_BEP and then, a


decision can be taken on Averaging

the link adaptation Average Power


IR Decrease in 8-PSK

current CS Link link adaptation


adaptation tables

new CS

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 162
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.14 EGPRS Link Adaptation Decision
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 163

 The MFS verify if a MCS change is needed each time it receives new
MEAN_BEP and CV_BEP measurements, based on the following algorithm:

RLC Acknowledge Mode

YES NO
IR activated
?
APD value APD value

GMSK 8-PSK GMSK 8-PSK


GMSK / 8-PSK GMSK / 8-PSK
? ?
GMSK tables 8-PSK tables GMSK tables 8-PSK tables

MCS 1..4 MCS 5..9 MCS 1..4 MCS 5..9

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 163
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.15 TRX ranking/TRX transmission pool set-up
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 164

 TRX ranking
 PS capable TRXs (TRX_PREF_MARK = 0) are
ranked at BSC side for PS traffic (from the TRX <--> TRE
highest to the lowest), according to the following
criteria :
 TRX supporting the BCCH, if PS_Pref_BCCH_TRX = 0 TRX ranking TRX characteristics

 TRX capability (EGPRS capable High Power, then for PS traffic


EGPRS capable Medium Power and finally non-
EGPRS capable) ordered list of TRXs
for PS traffic
 Dual Rate capability (FR, then DR)
 Size of the PDCH-group
 This ranking will be used in the reverse order for TRX transmission TRX transmission pools

CS traffic pool set-up

TRX <--> TRX transmission pool

 TRX transmission pool set-up


 A TRX transmission pool groups, together extra Abis nibbles for one TRX
 The biggest TRX transmission pools are allocated to the TRXs having the highest
ranking for PS traffic.

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p.90 et p.91

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 164
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.15 TRX ranking/TRX transmission pool set-up [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 165

 Example:
 5 TREs in a cell
 1 G4-HP TRE
 2 G4-MP TREs
 2 G3 TREs
 PS_Pref_BCCH_TRX = 0 (no specific preference)
 5 TRXs
 TRXa, TRXb, TRXc, TRXd: TRX_PREF_MARK = 0 (PS capable)
 TRXe: TRX_PREF_MARK > 0 (non PS capable)
 3 DR TRXs
 Pool types
 1 type 4
 1 type 2
TREs Dual Rate associated PS capable associated
usage TRXs TRX ranking transmission
 2 type 1
pool
G4 - HP FR TRXa 1 type 4
G4 - MP FR TRXb 2 type 2
G4 - MP DR TRXc 3 type 1
G3 DR TRXd 4 type 1
G3 DR TRXe

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 165
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.16 TRX capability for PS traffic
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 166

 TRX capabilities are determined at MFS side, taking into account:


 For GPRS: the max CS configured (MAX_GPRS_CS) O&M
BSC
 For EGPRS:
 TRX type (n=1 to 5), received from BSC
- HW PS
 Hardware PS capability of each TRX, received from capability En_EGPRS
the BSC - TRX Max_EGPRS_MCS
Max_GPRS_CS type
 En_EGPRS (parameter to allow or not EGPRS in the
cell), received from the BSC
 Max_GPRS_CS (parameter which gives the highest TRX GPRS TRX EGPRS
usable CS in the cell), received from the BSC capability capability
 Max_EGPRS_MCS (parameter which gives the highest
usable MCS in the cell) GPRS capability EGPRS capability
(CS2/CS3/CS4) (MCS 1-MCS 9)

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p.119

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 166
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.17 Radio Resource Allocation: Overview
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 167

 To offer high throughput to EGPRS MSs :


 EGPRS TBFs are preferentially allocated on high class TRXs
 Multiplexing, on the same PDCH, a DL EGPRS TBF with an UL GPRS TBF
has to be avoided, since in this case, the DL EGPRS is limited to GMSK
(i.e. MCS4)  new PDCH state: EGPRS
 To fairly share throughput between EGPRS TBFs:
 A higher number of EGPRS TBFs has to be piled up on high class TRXs
than on low class TRXs. This ratio has to take into account the maximum
throughput which can be offered by each class of TRX
 specific TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs
 To optimize GPRS throughput (i.e. high class TRX usage), as long as
it does not conflict with EGPRS traffic
 A new reallocation trigger (T4) is created in order to reallocate an UL
GPRS TBF which is multiplexed with a DL EGPRS TBF

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 167
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.18 Radio Resource Allocation: PDCH state
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 168

!!! New states in B9 !!!

 All the following PDCH states are related to establish TBFs:

 Allocated : The PDCH is a slave PDCH, which has been indicated as usable
for PS traffic by the BSC
 Active : An allocated PDCH is active if it supports at least one radio
resource allocated for a TBF or for a RT PFC
 Full :
 For GPRS TBF:
The number of established TBFs (GPRS + EGPRS TBFs) is equal to
MAX_UL/DL_TBF_SPDCH.
 For EGPRS TBF:
The number of established EGPRS TBFs is equal to MAX_UL/DL_TBF_SPDCH.
 EGPRS : SPDCH used in the DL direction by a 8-PSK capable EGPRS TBF.
This state is meaningful only for non-EGPRS capable MSs and only in the
UL direction.

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Full : for GPRS TBF : GPRS + EGPRS ts are counted, because some EGPRS TBF on GPRS PDCH are using GMSK
MCS.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 168
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.18 Radio Resource Allocation: PDCH state [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 169

 New state for GPRS PDCH


 PDCH used in DL direction by 8-PSK capable EGPRS TBF, i.e PDCH does
not belong to a class 1 TRX
 meaningful only
 fornon-EGPRS capable MS
 only in UL direction
 When meaningful, it overwrites active and busy states but not the
full state
 Avoids multiplexing of UL GPRS TBF and DL EGPRS TBF, in order
to not reduce the EGPRS throughput

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 169
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.18 Radio Resource Allocation: PDCH state [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 170

DOWNLINK UPLINK

MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH

Allocated Active Full Allocated Active Full


[EGPRS] [EGPRS]

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One SPDCH has one state per direction (i.e., one state for the UL, one state for the DL). This state depends on the type of the MSs (EGPRS
capable or non-EGPRS capable) for which the radio resource (re)-allocation algorithm is called.
 radio resource allocated to the MFS, but associated transmission resources are not allocated (i.e., the PDCH is not established).
All the following states are related to established PDCHs:
 empty:
the PDCH is established, but no established TBF.
 active:
For GPRS TBF: at least one established TBF and the number of established TBFs (GPRS + EGPRS) is smaller than
N_TBF_PER_SPDCH.
For EGPRS TBF: at least one established EGPRS TBF and the number of EGPRS TBFs (1) is smaller than N_TBF_PER_SPDCH.
 busy:
For GPRS TBF: the number of established TBFs (GPRS and EGPRS TBFs) is greater or equal to N_TBF_PER_SPDCH, but smaller
than MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH/MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH.
For EGPRS TBF: the number of established EGPRS TBFs (1) is greater or equal to N_TBF_PER_SPDCH, but smaller than
MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH/MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH.
 full:
For GPRS TBF: the number of established TBFs (GPRS + EGPRS TBFs) is equal to MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH/MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH.
For EGPRS TBF: the number of established EGPRS TBFs (3) is equal to MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH/MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH.
 EGPRS (2)
PDCH used in the DL direction by an 8-PSK capable EGPRS TBF (i.e., the PDCH does not belong to a class 1 TRX).
This state is meaningful only for non-EGPRS capable MSs and only in the UL direction.
When meaningful, it overwrites active and busy states (but not the full state).
 (1): Only EGPRS TBFs are taken into account to avoid to establish EGPRS TBFs on PDCHs with a low EGPRS capability, because of
GPRS TBFs.
 (2): The aim of this new state is to avoid multiplexing UL GPRS TBF and DL EGPRS TBF, in order not to reduce EGPRS throughput.
 (3): Only EGPRS TBFs are taken into account to avoid radio resource allocation failure because of the restricted list of EGPRS
capable TRXs.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 170
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 171

 Specific conditions are defined for TRX selection in case of


allocation or reallocation for EGPRS capable MS
 To allocate EGPRS TBFs preferentially on TRX which allows a high
throughput
 Principle:
 As long as the TRXs with the highest throughput do not support a
maximum number of EGPRS TBFs, the other EGPRS capable TRXs are not
taken into account by the algorithm

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 171
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 172

 Following internal variables are defined:


 N_TRX_EGPRS : number of TRXs on which EGPRS MSs are served in EGPRS
mode
 MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current(TRXi) : maximum number of EGPRS TBFs per
PDCH, currently allocated in TRXi
 N_TBF_PDCH_MCSi_MCSj

 Itdefines for each EGPRS TRX capability (MCSi) in the cell the number of
EGPRS TBFs per PDCH beyond which it becomes more interesting to serve
upcoming EGPRS MSs on TRXs with a lower EGPRS capability (MCSj).
 Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSi / Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSj
with Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSx is the maximum theoretical throughput that
can be achieved at RLC/MAC per PDCH using MCSx encoding

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 172
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 173

 All the values between MCS2 and MCS9 are possible because of the
O&M parameter Max_EGPRS_MCS
 Different used thresholds :

EGPRS TRX capability Immediately lower TRX


N_TBF_PDCH_MCSi_MCSj
(MCSi) capability (MCSj)
MCS3 MCS2 1
MCS4 MCS2 1
MCS5 MCS2 2
MCS6 MCS5 1
MCS2 2
MCS6 1
MCS7 MCS5 2
MCS2 4
MCS6 1
MCS8 MCS5 2
MCS2 4
MCS8 1
MCS9 MCS6 2
MCS5 2
MCS2 5

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N_TBF_PDCH_MCSi_MCSj are internal parameters which define for each EGPRS TRX capability, in the cell, the
number of EGPRS TBFs per PDCH beyond which it becomes more interesting to serve upcoming EGPRS MSs on
TRXs with a lower EGPRS capability.
This value depends on the throughput gap between 2 consecutive TRXs inside the ordered (according to TRX
Rank) list of EGPRS capable TRXs.
N_TBF_PDCH_MCSi_MCSj = Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSi DIV Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSj
 Max_PDCH_Throughput_MCSx is the maximum theoretical throughput that can be achieved at RLC/MAC
per PDCH using MCSx encoding.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 173
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 174

 Example
 Assuming that in a cell the following TRXs are EGPRS capable:
 TRXa: EGPRS capability = MCS9
 TRXb: EGPRS capability = MCS5
 TRXc: EGPRS capability = MCS5
 TRXd: EGPRS capability = MCS2
 TRXe: EGPRS capability = MCS2

 Two thresholds are used :


 N_TBF_PDCH_MCS9_MCS5 =2
 N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 = 2

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 174
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.19 TRX selection for EGPRS TBFs [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 175

CELL START
MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXi) = 0
(with i = a, b, c, d or e )

MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXa)
TRXa < N_TBF_PDCH_MCS9_MCS5

MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXa)
MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXa)
= N_TBF_PDCH_MCS9_MCS5
< N_TBF_PDCH_MCS9_MCS5

MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXb)
< N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _
OR
TRXa, TRXb, TRXc MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXc)
< N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _

MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXb) MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXb)


< N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _ = N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _
OR AND
MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXc) MAX_TBF_PDCH_Current (TRXc)
< N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _ = N_TBF_PDCH_MCS5_MCS2 _

TRXa, TRXb, TRXc, TRXd, TRXe

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 175
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.20 Radio Resource Allocation: GPRS/EGPRS TBFs
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 176

!!! New in B9 !!!


HIGH
. If it is not a T3 reallocation  TRXs for which have already enough GCHs
established on the M-EGCH link

A. Lowest number of PDCHs in the EGPRS state


IMPORTANCE

B. Highest available throughput in the direction of the bias

C. Highest available throughput in the direction opposite to the bias

D. TRX with the highest priority

E. For EGPRS Best Effort TBFs establishments  Lowest number of GPRS


TBFs in the direction of the bias
LOW
F. Combination with the PDCHs that have the lowest index.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 176
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.20 Radio Resource Allocation: EGPRS TBFs [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 177

HIGH E) The candidate timeslot allocations which have the lowest number
of established EGPRS TBFs in the direction of the bias are preferred
 It is preferred to multiplex an EGPRS TBF with a GPRS TBF, rather
than with another EGPRS TBF
F) The candidate timeslot allocations which have the lowest number
of established EGPRS TBFs in the direction opposite to the bias are
IMPORTANCE

preferred
G) The candidate timeslot allocations which are on a TRX with
highest priority are preferred
H) The candidate timeslot allocations which have the lowest number
of established GPRS TBFs in the direction of the bias are preferred
 H has a lowest priority than G, in order to avoid to establish
EGPRS TBFs on low class TRXs, because of GPRS TBFs

LOW

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 177
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.20 Radio Resource Allocation: EGPRS TBFs [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 178

HIGH I) The candidate timeslot allocations which have all their PDCHs
established are preferred. If all the preferred best candidate
timeslot allocations require additional PDCHs, then a request is sent
to the BSC and the algorithm is stopped
IMPORTANCE

J) If the MS has already one or 2 TBFs established, preference is


given to the candidate timeslot allocation which does not require a
T2 reallocation of the on-going TBFs
K) The candidate timeslot allocation with the PDCHs that have the
lowest index is preferred
LOW

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 178
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.21 Radio Resource Allocation: TBF Re-allocation
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 179

 B8/B9 release: 4 types of TBF reallocations:

 T1: re-allocation to
 maintain a TBF alive despite a pre-emption on a PACCH of a TBF
 or if MEGCH becomes too low to provide MAX MCS of the TBF [B9]
 T2: re-allocation of an on-going TBF when establishing a concurrent TBF
 in order to provide a better throughput
 T3: re-allocation to offer a better throughput to an on-going TBFs
 In order to provide a higher throughput, if it is possible, to any TBF in the cell.
 T4: re-allocation condition to move
 ULGPRS TBF sharing one PDCH with a DL EGPRS TBF
  PDCHs which do not carry a DL EGPRS TBF

B9 : Same types as in B8, but extended possibilities

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T2 : It is the case in the following scenarios:


- establishment of a downlink TBF, concurrent to an existing uplink TBF, which is
allocated in such a way that the maximum number of timeslots supported in the
direction of the bias cannot be offered to the MS.
- similar situation in case of uplink TBF establishment concurrent to a downlink TBF;

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 179
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.22 Radio Resource Allocation: Min_PDCH
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 180

 Min_PDCH: O&M parameter per cell


 Minimum number of PDCHs that are always allocated to the MFS.

 B8/B9 release: Min_PDCH takes into account:


 The pre-allocated SPDCH but not established (w/o GCH resource)
 The SPDCH pre-allocated and established for the fast initial (E)GPRS access
 The MPDCH represented by the parameter Nb_TS_MPDCH

 Thus, the initial allocation process takes into consideration:


 IF EN_FAST_INITIAL_GPRS_ACCESS = 0 (false)
 MIN_PDCH - Nb_TS_MPDCH SPDCH are requested to the BSC and pre-allocated
on the TRX with the highest priority
 IF EN_FAST_INITIAL_GPRS_ACCESS = 1 (true)
 MIN_PDCH - Nb_TS_MPDCH - 1 SPDCH are requested to the BSC and pre-
allocated on the TRX with the highest priority

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 180
3 (E)GPRS Radio Algorithms
3.23 Radio Resource Allocation: Fast initial (E)GPRS access
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 1 1 181

 Also called : Immediate UL TBF establishment

 To provide always one established PDCH, usable for UL GPRS and UL


EGPRS TBFs, even if there is no PS traffic at all

 A TBF can be immediately established without requesting


transmission resource connection to the BSC

 EN_FAST_INITIAL_GPRS_ACCESS, parameter per cell


 flag to indicate whether or not one Slave PDCH for (E)GPRS traffic usage
will be statically established in the cell
 Min: 0; Max: 1; Default 0

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 181
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 182

4 General (E)GPRS planning principels

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 182
4 General (E)GPRS planning principles
4.1 Throughput Dependency -> Interference (and Level)
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 183

Level of serving cell

Level (dBm) C/I = 13 dB

C/I = 9 dB
Level of interfer cell

CS-2 Distance

CS-1
RL/MAC net
Data Throughput 12
(kbit/s) 10.8
8
7.2

Note: the throughput values are ETSI requirements, the C/I values are valid for TU3, SFH enabled

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Neighbor cell not really, it is a cell using identical interfering frequencies.


Depending on C/I, CS2 wont provide the same tput (due to lost packets and retransmissions, the useful tput
decreases down to 10.8)
For instance MCS9 can vary from 45  59 kbps

If performing a planning with C/I > 12db : only MS with good C/I will get enough C/I to have max tput.
It is possible to link the C/I and RXLEV to simplify analysis (rxlev = f(C/I), depending on netwpork planning)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 183
4 General (E)GPRS planning principles
4.2 Packet data throughput
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 184

 Packet data System Scheme Max RLC data through- RLC data throughput
throughput (ETSI) put (RLC payload) at Reference Point
[kbps] (BLER=10%)
[kbps]
 Maximum (error free
transmission) on Air EGPRS MCS-9 59.2 53.3
Interface MCS-8 54.4 49.0
MCS-7 44.8 40.3
MCS-6 29.6 26.7
 at BLER=10% MCS-5 22.4 20.2
Degradation of RLC MCS-4 17.6 15.9
by Level and MCS-3 14.8 13.3
Interference MCS-2 11.2 10.1
MCS-1 8.8 7.9

GPRS CS-4 20.0 18.0


CS-3 14.4 13.0
CS-2 12.0 10.8
CS-1 8.0 7.2

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p.52 and p.64 of 3GPP 45.005

Type of Propagation conditions


channel TU3(no FH) TU3(ideal FH) TU50(no FH) TU50(ideal FH) RA250(no FH)
PDTCH/MCS-5 dB 18 14.5 15.5 14.5 16
PDTCH/MCS-6 dB 20 17 18 17.5 21
PDTCH/MCS-7 dB 23.5 23.5 24 24.5 26.5**
PDTCH/MCS-8 dB 28.5 29 30 30 *
PDTCH/MCS-9 dB 30 32 33 35 *

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 184
4 General (E)GPRS planning principles
4.3 Reference performance point
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 185

 ETSI -> Simulation of coding scheme performance under different


environment and fading conditions
 typical urban environment with mobile speed of 3 km/h (TU3)
 typical urban environment with mobile speed of 50 km/h (TU50)
 typical hilly terrain with mobile speed of 100 km/h (HT100)
 typical rural area with mobile speed of 250 km/h (RA250)

 The impact of Level and interference has been studied in order to


find the minimum required Level and C/I ratio for the reference
error performance, defined by a block error rate Block Error Rate
(BLER) of 10%, the reference performance point

 Why is this important?


 Saturation effect

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For data, most users are static (TU3)


Japanese/Korean behaviour : they use data while in subways and trains. Appearing in France due to tv
online.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 185
4 General (E)GPRS planning principles
4.4 Saturation effect
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 186

CS1
kbit/s The reference performance point is reached at BLER=10% CS2
The following data rates can be achieved at this point:
CS-1: C/I=9 dB =>7.2 kbit/s (saturation: 8 kbit/s)
20 CS-2: C/I=13 dB =>10.8 kbit/s (saturation: 12 kbit/s)

16

12

0 C/I
3dB 7dB 11dB 15dB 19dB 23dB 27dB

Throughput curve as required by ETSI for CS-1and CS-2, typical urban environment with MS speed 3 km/h TU3 with SFH

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 186
4 General (E)GPRS planning principles
4.4 Saturation effect [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 187

 By increase of the C/I ratio


 Less retransmission has to be performed (less data blocks are
erroneous)
 since saturation occurs. e.g. for CS-1 starting with 7.2 kbit/s at a C/I
ratio of 9dB
 With an increasing C/I ratio the data throughput increases only little up
to its maximum value of 8kbit/s (saturation point)
 Data throughput increases

 Due to this saturation effect, a further increase of the C/I ratio does
not have large impact on the data throughput of a single coding
scheme: possibly a switch to a higher CS may occur (C/I ~ 7 dB for
CS-1 to CS-2)

 Reference Performance Point : A tradeoff between the


maximisation of the network throughput and excessive C/I
constraints.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 187
4 General (E)GPRS planning principles
4.5 Cell area and throughput
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 188

Level of serving cell


Level (dBm) C/I = 13 dB

C/I = 9
dB Level of neighbor-cell

CS-2 Distance

CS-1
RL/MAC net
Data Throughput 12
(kbit/s)
10.8
8
7.2

1. Throughput at CS-2 saturation point 4. Throughput at CS-1 reference performance point

2. Throughput at CS-2 reference performance point 3. Throughput at CS-1 saturation point

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 188
4 General (E)GPRS planning principles
4.6 Throughput <-> C/I
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 189

 ETSI requirements and Alcatel values for C/Ico and C/Iadj for CS and GPRS
(PDCH) GSM 900 (Requirement for GMSK modulation: C/Iadj = C/Ico 18dB)
 In general: With higher coding scheme, higher C/I ratios required
 GPRS functionality more sensitive against interference

Packet switched
Circuit CS1 CS2
GSM 900
switched
TU3 TU50 TU3 TU50
TU3 TU50 TU3 TU50
ideal FH ideal FH ideal FH ideal FH
C/I co-
channel 9 13 9 10 9 15 13 14 13
ETSI
C/I adj-
-9 -5 -9 -8 -9 -3 -5 -4 -5
channel ETSI
C/I co-
channel 11.5 6.7 7.5 6.5 13.1 10.3 11.1 10.8
Alcatel
C/I adj-
channel -9 -13 -12 -13 -6 -8.8 -8.2 -9
Alcatel

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Ideal FH : hopping on 4 or more frequencies with at least 800kHz separation between each channel offers
the "ideal FH" diversity gain (4 to 5 dB)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 189
4 General (E)GPRS planning principles
4.6 Throughput <-> C/I [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 190

TU50 (900 MHz) no fh


20
Parameters : CS4
18 CS3
 GPRS CS2
CS1
 C/I Throughput 16
 Co-channel
14
Interferer

13Jul2000 09:45:44
 TU 50
Throughput
12

 no FH 10

0
5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
C / I c o [dB]

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CS4 can't resist to interference, even with high C/I, it doesn't reach the saturation point. Expect high
retransmission % when using CS4.
For each C/I, a typical tput can be expected. CS adaptation gives flexibility in case of radio conditions
changes.

At start of a session, which CS to choose?

How would the curve looks like if TU3 was used ? (C/I scale would be squeezed)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 190
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 191

5 (E)GPRS Network introduction

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 191
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.1 GPRS network planning
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 192

 Two different cases are possible to introduce GPRS service:

 GPRS Greenfield planning means


 Dedicated analysis of GPRS network design
 All GPRS cells will be designed for maximum throughput performances
 So the (GPRS) cell ranges could be smaller as used to be in a pure GSM
network, designed for speech service only

 Introduction of GPRS in operating GSM cells


 GPRS performance is strongly depending on GSM network quality
 Cell ranges are depending from GSM service planning

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 192
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.2 GPRS Greenfield planning
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 193

Traffic Analysis
Field strength prediction
Mutual interference calculation
GSM/GPRS frequency planning
Cell specific interference calculation
TRX assignment to GPRS service

GPRS Throughput Analysis


RA Planning + CAE Data

Measures to reach GPRS QoS


GPRS features
GSM features

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Objectives
 Traffic Analysis
PS Traffic
User Profile
Market applications
Customer questionnaire
Traffic model: Example
GPRS traffic calculation
- Straight forward
- Erlang C
- Traffic tool
- Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 193
GPRS traffic calculation
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 194

 Traffic Analysis
 PS Traffic
 User Profile Different traffic calculation
 User Behavior procedure for packet traffic
compared to speech traffic
 Market applications calculation
 Customer questionnaire
 Traffic model: Example
 GPRS traffic calculation
 Straight forward
 Erlang C
 Traffic tool

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 194
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.3 GPRS traffic calculation and traffic analysis
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 195

 The traffic analysis is done to have the amount of resources


(frequencies) one needs to carry GSM+GPRS traffic

 CS traffic demand (Circuit Switched, derived from Erlang B formula)

 PS (Packet Switched) traffic demand has also to be taken into account


for the capacity calculation
 What is PS or GPRS traffic?

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 195
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.4 GPRS traffic calculation and PS traffic
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 196

 The PS traffic demand (or user throughput demand) is derived from


an average traffic data volume generated by each type of GPRS
subscriber
 GPRS traffic volume is given on a monthly basis as sum of used
applications data volume.
 Today all PS traffic values are based on assumptions until useful
experience values are available
 The traffic values are collected in a traffic model
 In general, the traffic from PS services is depending on:
 User profile
 User behavior
 Market applications and service distributions

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User profile : what kind of applications ? which volumes ?


User behaviour : what time ? how long ? where ?
Market applications : what is proposed to customers : video on demand ? Live tv ? Mmp games ?

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 196
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.4 GPRS traffic calculation and PS traffic [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 197

U s e r p ro file U s e r b e h a v io r C u s to m e r
Q u e s tio n n a ire
M a rk e t a p p lic a tio n s
a n d s e rv ic e d istrib u tio n s

T ra ffic m o d e l

T ra ffic c a lc u la tio n

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 197
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.5 GPRS traffic calculation and user profile
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 198

 A user profile defines a typical user for packet data services, using a
certain amount of applications
 It is useful to limit the amount of user profiles to keep the calculation
simple, e.g. two profiles can be introduced, business and private user

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 198
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.6 GPRS traffic calculation and market applications
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 199

 Market applications
 Different services are possible for packet data use e.g. new designed
services or services known from the fixed network
 Market applications and user profiles are related to each other, thus
some applications are assigned to one user profile only
 Each service is characterized by its occurrence: action time per month
and the related bit rate per action.
 In some applications, the data exchange traffic is oriented to downlink,
in some others to uplink. Generally the downlink traffic is preponderant
in asymmetrical applications such as: web browsing, information
downloading, audio downloading etc.
 This shall be taken into account for the dimensioning process: so the
dimensioning will be downlink oriented.

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Difference between prepaid and postpaid ?


Daily services : weather forecast, news
Hourly : road traffic, market shares

Uplink bias applications : MMS, ftp upload. Create problem for dimesionning ? No, because MMS are
uploaded and then downloaded. They create equal traffic in both ways.
Current Ms use 2ts in uplink, class 11 and 12 are coming (up to 4 TS in uplink, but still simplex.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 199
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.7 GPRS traffic calculation and user behavior
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 200

 Important for the user behavior is the daily distribution


 Duration and occurrence time of busy hour (BH), assumption busy hour is
same for CS and PS
 The user distribution over the planning area
 Following definitions can be only expected values for the
introduction of GPRS (homogeneous traffic distribution over the cell
area is assumed)
 GPRS subscriber percentage (%), related to the total (CS+PD) subscriber
number
 GPRS user profiles percentage (%), related to the total GPRS subscriber
number
 Geographical percentage distribution (%) of GPRS user profiles related to
morphostructure
 Daily GPRS user profile activity (days/month)

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Core network : can provide statistics per user (pdp context activation, gprs attach, APN usage, etc)
Which interface : Gb (mfs-sgsn) , Gn (sgsn-ggsn)
Special tools : astelia

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 200
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.8 Customer questionnaire
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 201

 Customer questionnaire
 Data collection from Operator -> Forecast data
 To keep process simple -> 12 Points questionnaire
1. Total amount of GSM subscribers in the network (CS+PS subscribers)
2. Blocking at air interface (speech)
3. Speech traffic per subscriber (mErl/sub)
4. Distribution of CS subscribers to different morpho classes
5. Percentage of GPRS subscribers related to the total amount of GSM
subscribers
6. Busy hour occurrence for speech traffic and packet data traffic

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This questions are asked to the operator


Speech traffic : from 10mErl to 25 mErl (depends on network age and area covered)

6. Busy hour mix (BHM) : at busy hour, split of different types of traffic

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 201
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.8 Customer questionnaire [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 202

7. User profile definition


8. Market applications definition and relation to user profiles
9. PS user behaviour/distribution:
 daily GPRS user profile activity (days/month)
 GPRS user profiles percentage (%), related to the total GPRS subscriber number
 geographical percentage distribution (%) of GPRS user profiles related to
morphostructure
10. Number of BTS in the existing network
11. Distribution of existing BTS to morphoclasses
12. Number of TRX/BTS, in accordance to morphoclass

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 202
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.9 Traffic Model (Example)
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 203

User Profile Business Private


The table summarizes the assumptions
Market Application during GPRS ntroduction
made for the traffic profiles of GPRS
subscribers Remote access (e.g. WEB Update/Month 6 -
data bases general and
Kbytes 20 -
 (days/month): business 22 days, private 30 specific (law, medicine,
...) Mbytes/Month 0.117 -
 Total GPRS Users 7%: 2% private and 5 %
business E-mail+Attachment mail/Month 24 3
Kbytes 150 30
 urban = 70% business, 50% private
Mbytes/Month 3.516 0.0878
 rural = 30% business, 50% private
WWW Pages/Month 25 10
Kbytes 100 100
Mbytes/Month 2.441 0.977
Information (e.g. info/Month 25 20
Location, event,
transportation services) Kbytes 60 60
Mbytes/Month 1.464 1.17
e-Commerce usage/Month 8 2
(e.g. On-line shopping)
Kbytes 75 75
Mbytes/Month 0.586 0.146
Audio (MP3) Min/Month - -
e.g. (Access audio files on
the net) Kbytes/Min - 1024
Mbytes/Month - -
TOTAL Mbytes/Month 8.124 2.380

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 203
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.10 User mapping
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 204

 User mapping and Multi-service mapping


 GOAL : to categorize the quality of the three calculation methods

 User mapping
 One certain resource can be shared simultaneously by different users.
Behavior in GPRS -> Packet switched service for different users on one
timeslot.

User
User 3
User 2
User 1
Timeslot TS 2 TS 3 TS 4 TS 5 TS 6 TS 7 TS 8
1
TRX

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In dimensionning, never take maximum usage as an average value!


User mapping should be quite low, in order to allow a high throughput  but requires higher capacity

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 204
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.11 Multi-Service
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 205

 Multi-Service with GPRS


 One user can use different services. So one user is not directly
mapped to only one service in the traffic model examination

S e r v ic e 2
e .g . F T P

S e r v ic e 1
S e r v ic e 3
e .g . H T T P
e .g . W A P

U ser

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Typical http "surfing" usage : 10kB/s (average on 1 hour)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 205
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.12 QoS per User Application
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 206

 QoS per User Application Volume@BH

 Page size
 Queue Delay
 Acceptable delay if no resource is available at service attempt
 Quantile
 Specific elements in the range of a variety X are called quantiles
 Bit rate

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Queue delay : how long a user can wait before disconnecting ? Usually for data, user can wait up to 30s.
Quantile : percentage of throughputs measures that are within a certain range (to check)  STANDARD
DEVIATION !!

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 206
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.13 GPRS traffic calculation
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 207

 3 different calculations can be used for GPRS traffic calculation


 Straight forward
 Erlang C
 Traffic tool

Multi-service
User mapping QoS per service
mapping
Straight Forward result
+ _ _
for PS

Erlang C for PS
+ + _

Traffic Model
+ + +

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 207
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.13 GPRS traffic calculation [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 208

 The straightforward calculation


 gives the smallest number of needed PS TS among the traffic calculation
methods
 It calculates for the whole data volume, sum of all users data, the
number of PDCH TS needed to transfer this data volume, regardless of
data transfer peaks
 This method is not taking into account parallel data transfer, which is
the benefit of packet transfer (GPRS).
 So no service attempt queuing and no service multiplexing is taken into
account by this method.
 A calculation method to get in the first step of GPRS planning an idea of
minimum needed PDCH TS.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 208
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.13 GPRS traffic calculation [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 209

 Erlang C calculation
 gives for a required service attempt probability (Quantile) and the queue
delay time of it (e.g. 2 s delay can be set if no resource is available at
service attempt), the number of needed resources (TS).
 The result of Erlang C will give the biggest number of needed PDCH TS
among the presented packet traffic calculations.
 The reason is that a constant data flow is considered which is not the
case for different applications like WAP
 For all different services the PDCH TS with Erlang C has to be calculated
and summarized. Afterwards the sum of PDCH TS for the different
services leads to an over dimensioning.
 This method can be used to give very fast a planning result on how many
PDCH as maximum can be expected.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 209
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.13 GPRS traffic calculation [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 210

 Traffic Model from Alcatel


 The traffic tool is the most exact method to calculate the needed PDCH
compared to the above calculation methods
 Traffictool is an automated tool (processed by Alcatel-Lucent only)
 Result of this calculation will be most probably between the above calculation
methods
 Additionally operator agreed/suggested handling of GPRS channels must
be fixed. This is for example the usage of:
 Activation of MPDCH or not
 BCCH combined mode or not
 Usage of Delayed DL TBF Release or not
 QUALITY OF SERVICES [Volume @BH, Page size (KBytes), Queue delay
(seconds), Quantile (%), Bit rate (kbit/s)]

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 210
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.13 GPRS traffic calculation [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 211

 Traffic Model from Alcatel


 The traffic tool can calculate the result:
 TS needed for CS traffic and signaling in DL/UL
 TS needed PS traffic and signaling in DL/UL
 TRX calculation for CS and PS with application of reuse of CS TS for PDCH
(PS) when dynamic/smooth PDCH adaptation and /or fast preemption
feature is activated

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 211
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 212

 General Input data for all 3 calculation methods

 GPRS users (Packet Switched Service)=600 per cell


 WAP users: 60
 WEB users: 180
 MMS users: 360

 Service data size per user in busy hour (per 3600s)


 WAP data size per user 12KB
 WEB data size per user 40KB
 MMS data size per user 40KB

 Coding Scheme : CS-2

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 212
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 213

 Straight Forward calculation for GPRS Traffic

 Needed transfer rate per service for all users


 WAP 12KB x 8bit/3600s x 60 users = 1.6 kbit/s
 WEB 40KB x 8bit/3600s x 180 users = 16 kbit/s
 MMS 40KB x 8bit/3600s x 360 users = 32 kbit/s

 Total number of needed PDCH's


 Sum of data rate for all services: 49.6 kbit/s
 Expected transfer rate per Timeslot (PDCH)= 10 kbit/s in good radio
conditions

Total needed PDCH = 5 PDCH TS / cell


(= 49.6 kbps / 10 kbps)

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But assumption is : all users can bare to wait for 3600 sec to finish their download

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 213
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 214

 Erlang C GPRS traffic calculation

 QoS per service


 WAP service: bit rate = 5 kbit/s for 90% Quantile and 2s queue delay
 WEB service: bit rate = 30 kbit/s for 90% Quantile and 2s queue delay
 MMS service: bit rate = 30 kbit/s for 90% Quantile and 2s queue delay

 Number of needed PDCH per service


 The following results calculation can be done with an Erlang C tool. The
results are listed for each service
 in this example here for WAP, WEB and MMS

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 214
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 215

ERLANG C
 Erlang C GPRS traffic calculation MMS

Page size (Kbytes)

Queue delay (s)


Volume@BH
WAP

Subscribers

Quantile

Bit rate
4 0R L A N G
E 2 C 360 2 s 9 0 .0 % 30
WEB

Page size (Kbytes)


2 1 .0 6 6 7 1 .8 7 5 0

Queue delay (s)

MU =
PDCH =

RO =
Volume@BH

Subscribers

Quantile

Bit rate
40 2 180 2 s 9 0 .0 % 30

1 0 .5 3 3 3 1 .8 7 5 0
PDCH =

RO =

MU =
Total number of needed PDCH = 10 PDCH TS
 Assumption: Expected rate per TS of 10 kbit/s
 For the WAP service 1 resource of 5 kbit/s is needed = 1 PDCH TS
 For the WEB service 1 resource of 30 kbit/s is needed = 3 PDCH TS
 For the MMS service 2 resources of 30 kbit/s is needed = 6 PDCH TS

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 215
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.14 Exemplary results of the 3 traffic calculation methods [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 216

 TRAFFIC TOOL version 1.0


 Results of the traffic tool is:

6 PDCH TS / cell needed


to cope with GPRS traffic
per cell

 Used settings in the traffic tool:


 No activation of: Combined mode, DL Delayed TBF Release and MPDCH
 Call Mix Reference used is: Alcatel B7 reference

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 216
5 (E)GPRS Network introduction
5.15 GPRS traffic calculation result
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 217

 General GPRS traffic calculation result:

 Needed amount of timeslots for PS traffic


 makes it possible to go to the next step of GPRS network design process

 The user throughput demand is then related to a daily traffic occurrence


(user capacity)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 217
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 218

6 (E)GPRS Network design

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 218
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.1 General
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 219

 With the input from GPRS traffic calculation the GPRS Design
process can start:

 Basis: The knowledge of the amount of timeslots makes it possible to go


to the next step of GPRS network design process

 The user throughput demand is then related to a daily traffic occurrence


(user capacity) and in combination with the CS traffic demand, the
needed equipment amount is calculated:
 Number of timeslots which may be reserved for GPRS in normal and high load
state of the BSC
 Number of timeslots which have to be reserved exclusively for GPRS
 Number of remaining timeslots for CS traffic
=> Standard BTS configuration

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 219
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.1 General [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 220

 Standard BTS configuration


 The result of traffic analysis gives the standard BTS configuration for
the different traffic areas. The traffic areas are most commonly linked
to a specific morpho class

 Next steps:
1. GPRS Field strength prediction is done as for the GSM network planning
[A9155]

2.  Inputs for mutual interference calculation [A9155]

3.  Inputs for a GSM/GPRS frequency planning [A9155/AFP module]

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 220
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.1 General [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 221

 Cell specific interference calculation

 It is done with the results of the GSM/GPRS frequency planning.

 The cell specific interference calculation will be used to identify less


interfered frequencies for TRX assignment.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 221
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.2 Frequency planning
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 222

 Mostly all GPRS networks will be INTERFERENCE limited


 Therefore:
 Proper Frequency Re-use
 Introduction of Frequency hopping [FH doesn't bring better throughput in
GPRS and E-GPRS while using high CS & MCS]
 What is the best Carrier for GPRS - BCCH or TCH?

 Make use of improvement strategies


 site design changes
 e.g. antenna changes, electrical down tilt
 site lowering
 sitedensification
 network expansion/enhancement strategies (like Dual Band)

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Interference limited = C/I limited.


Needs an higher C/I to ensure better tput. Redo a frequency planning with greater constraints on C/I

Best carrier = the carrier with the less interference  BCCH ? Normally, yes.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 222
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.2 Frequency planning [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 223

 BCCH
 no DTX, PC (Power Control) or FH (Frequency Hopping)
 C/I of minimum 11.5 dB is recommended (Alcatel values)
 Disadvantage: only 6 TS available for GPRS

 TCH
 Hopping, (PC)
 all 8 TS available for GPRS
 Disadvantage: by hopping -> Interference is RF_load dependent
 the increase of RF_load implies a decrease of C/I and therefore of the
throughput

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 223
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.3 Throughput
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 224

 Throughput -> directly related to link quality and level


 Due to this dependency, the shape of a cell is related to the
throughput
 GPRS cells are designed in respect to the
 desired data transmission (throughput)
 behavior of the customers in the planned area

 Attention: GPRS service more sensitive against interference and


level than CS service
 Therefore GPRS designed cells are smaller than CS designed ones

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 224
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.4 Link budget
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 225

 In general, the link budget calculation is the same like for CS design
 Attention has to be paid to the hardware related values:
 BTS/MS performance -> Supplier dependent
 BTS output power & receiver sensitivity according to the coding scheme
 MS output power & receiver sensitivity according to the coding scheme

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 225
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.4 Link budget [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 226

 Some differences compared to the well-known power budget is the


handling of some losses and margins:
 body loss, for PS: 2 dB, due to the fact, that for the most PS applications
the MS is not close to the body , but on an other, from the propagation
point of view unfavorable position (e.g. on the table)
 interference margin: minimum 3 dB (urban and dense urban area up to 5
dB, depending of the frequency re-use), due to the high dependency of
the PS service on C/I
 (lognormal) fading margin can be added to increase the coverage
probability from 50% up to 95%; e.g. assuming standard deviation sigma =
7 dB =>fading margin:1.65 sigma ~11 dB

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 226
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.4 Link budget [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 227

Circuit switched mode CS1 (TU 50) CS2 (TU 50)

TX Uplink Downlink Uplink Downlink Uplink Downlink


Internal Power: 33.00 dBm 45.44 dBm 33.00 dBm 45.44 dBm 33.00 dBm 45.44 dBm
Isol.,Comb.,Filter Loss: 0.00 dB 5.01 dB 0.00 dB 5.05dB 0.00 dB 5.05dB
Output Power 33.00 dBm 40.39 dBm 33.00 dBm 40.39 dBm 33.00 dBm 40.39 dBm
Cable,Connectors 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.00 dB 3.00 dB
GPRS link budget
Loss: example,
Body Loss: 3.00 dB 0.0 dB 2.00 dB 0.00 dB 2.00 dB 0.00 dB dimensioned for
Antenna Gain: 0.00 dBi 18.00 dBi 0.00 dBi 18.00 dBi 0.00 dBi 18.00 dBi
Eff. Isotr. Rad. Power: 30.00 dBm 55.43 dBm 31.00 dBm 55.43 dBm 31.00 dBm 55.43 dBm
the Evolium BTS
(without TRE):
RX Uplink Downlink Uplink Downlink Uplink Downlink Evolium/900, 3x4
Rec. Sensitivity: -111.00 -102.00 -109.00 -102.00 -105.00 -98.00 dBm
dBm dBm dBm dBm dBm configuration, 1
Body Loss: 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.00 dB 2.00 dB 0.00 dB 2.00 dB X-Pol
Cables, Connectors 3.00 dB 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.00 dB
Loss:
Antenna/sector,
Antenna Gain: 18.00 dBi 0.00 dBi 18.00 dBi 0.00 dBi 18.00 dBi 0.00 dBi in comparison to
Diversity Gain: 3.00 dB 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.00 dB 3.00 dB 0.00 dB a CS link budget
Interference Margin 3.00 dB 3.00 dB 3.00 dB 3.00 dB 3.00 dB 3.00 dB
Fading Margin 0.0 dB 0.0 dB 0.0 dB 0.0 dB 0.0 dB 0.0 dB
Isotr. Rec. Power: -126.00 -96.00 -124.00 -97.00 -120.00 dBm -93.00 dBm
dBm dBm dBm dBm

Balance Uplink Downlink Uplink Downlink Uplink Downlink


Max. Path loss 156 dB 151.43 dB 155 dB 152.43 dB 151 dB 148.43 dB

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Path loss difference = 3dB standard, 5dB alcatel standard


Uplink Rx sensitivity depends on CS being used.
p. 92 radio network planning aspects

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 227
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.5 Interference analysis on BCCH frequencies
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 228

Network wide C/I (BCCH)

Legend (dB)

> 25 dB
> 16 dB
> 13 dB
> 9 dB
< 9 dB

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 228
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.6 Interference analysis on TCH frequencies
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 229

Network wide C/I (worst TCH)

C/I reduction

Legend (dB)

> 25 dB
> 16 dB
> 13 dB
> 9 dB
< 9 dB

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 229
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.7 TRX assignment to GPRS service
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 230

 Some general considerations apply independently from the BSS


software release:
 GPRS/EDGE shall be mapped on the TRX(s) with the best radio quality
(lowest interference probability); this can be any TRX in the cell.
 Identification of less interfered frequencies and their ranking
 Assigning the preference for PS traffic handling to the best ranked frequencies
(e.g High Power TRX, Full rate capable TRX) with the help of the parameters:
TRX_PREF_MARK; PS_PREF_BCCH_TRX, TRX Classes,
 Since B7 up to 16 TRX per cell are available for GPRS service. So a
differentiation of GSM and GPRS TS allocation priority on the TRX must be
fixed during planning. The allocation priority for GPRS shall be set according to
GPRS QoS needs.

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How to map TRE with TRX ?


PS capable TRXs have to be preferentially mapped (from the best choice to the worst) on:
- FR, HP, EGPRS capable TREs
- DR, HP, EGPRS capable TREs
- FR, MP, EGPRS capable TREs
- DR, MP, EGPRS capable TREs
- FR, non-EGPRS capable TREs
- DR, non-EGPRS capable TREs
(When PS_Pref_BCCH_TRX = TRUE, the TRX supporting the BCCH is mapped on the best TRE)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 230
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.8 GPRS Analysis
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 231

 GPRS coverage analysis


 What area is covered with what coding scheme?
 Area and average throughput distribution

 Environment definition (Example)


 TU 50
 GSM 900 Band
 BCCH as GPRS carrier

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 231
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.8 GPRS Analysis [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 232

 GPRS analysis Steps:

 C/I based analysis


 Codingscheme
 Throughput
Analysis in respect to:

  Average throughput or/and


 throughout hot spots

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 232
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.8 GPRS Analysis [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 233

 GPRS service is C/I limited Network wide Coding Scheme


Distribution (C/I based)
 Improvements for a larger
CS-4 coverage
-> reduction of the overall
interference situation in the
network (higher achievable
throughput)

Legend (CS value)

CS 4
CS 3
CS 2
CS 1

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 233
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.8 GPRS Analysis [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 234

 The system keeps always the Network wide GPRS Throughput


highest coding scheme (and (C/I based)
due to this, the highest
achievable throughput), until
the C/I proportions lead to
change to a lower coding
scheme
 By driving through the CS4
area from the center
to the border, a
stepwise degradation
Legend (kbit/s)
of the throughput depending
from the 19..20 kbit/s
16..18 kbit/s
C/I ratio is visible 14..15 kbit/s
7..13 kbit/s
< 7 kbit/s

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 234
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 235

 Routing Area (RA) Definition


 CS case with a mobile terminating call:
 the
MS in idle mode will be paged in all cells belonging to the LA
where the MS is assigned. The signalling effort for paging is thus
focused to a certain area, the LA.
 GPRS: the SGSN pages the MS in STANDBY state, in case of a downlink
TBF (comparable to a CS MT call).
 Paging GSM+ paging GPRS additional signalling effort will be produced in
the network
 ETSI introduced Routing Areas (RA), which are smaller than LA.
 The signalling effort for paging is now more focused to a smaller area.
Since not all cells of a LA are involved in the paging process, the
signalling load for the cells is reduced

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 235
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 236

 Routing Area (RA)


 A Routing Area is a sub-set of one LA and identifies one or several cells in
a location area.
 The location of a MS in STANDBY state is known in the SGSN on a RA
level.
 Each cell in a network is now (additionally to CI and LAC)
characterized by:
 Routing Area Code (RA_code) range 0255
 RA_Colour range 07

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In SI3, if RA COLOUR = -1 : no gprs in the cell


Allows the mobile to quickly check if change of RA : ra colour change (because SI3 update frequent)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 236
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 237

 Routing Area (RA)

 RA information is sent to MS on BCCH by


 RA_Colour (SI 3 and 4)
 RA_Code (SI 13, less often )

 RA_Colour indicates the MS:


 if GPRS is supported in the cell (if -1)
 the fast identification of the RA membership of the serving cell and
neighbour cells (what cell belongs to what RA)

 As a consequence, the assignment of the cells belonging to RA has to


be done carefully, to avoid additional signaling load on the cell
(additional to the signaling for the CS traffic too)

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Mapping of BCCH data in 3GPP 45.002 (6.3.1.3)


SI3 : twice in 1.9s
SI4 : twice in 1.9s
SI 13 : once in 1.9s

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 237
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 238

 LA planning
 in accordance to the common rules for CS planning, no extra adaptation
(e.g. on the neighbour list) has to be made for PS services
 RA planning
 follows in general the rules of the common LA assignment, e.g. avoid
roads with fast moving traffic through RA
 The RA planning consists of:
 assignment of each cell to a RA
 assignment of the RA_Code to each RA
 assignment of a RA_Colour to each RA

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Routing area code can be, ie, LAC+0,1,2,3...


Routing area color : shouldn't be the same between two areas that are next to each other

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 238
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 239

 The following rules are mandatory:


 256 possible RA_Code (0..255)
 8 possible RA_Colour_Code (0..7)
 one RA must belong to only one LA, it is not possible to define a RA
across a LA border (e.g. 1 cell from LA1 and 2 cells from LA2)
 a RA can contain one or several cells
 one cell can not belong to two RA
 cells from one BTS can be allocated to different RA
 the maximum number of RA in a LA is 256
 it is possible to reuse the RA_Colour in a LA
 two adjacent RA in a LA must have different RA_Colour

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 239
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 240

 For the dimensioning of the number of RA in a LA, of the number of


cells belonging to a RA and the number of RA_Codes per LA, the
following steps are proposed, function of different network growths
 Step 1: Network with low GPRS/E-GPRS traffic
 RA as big as LA =>1 RA_Code (same for each cell) per LA, 1 RA_colour
(same for each cell) per LA
 The first introduction step is based on the assumption, that in the
beginning not much PS services is expected. The expense of this
implementation is low

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 240
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 241

 Step 2: Network with medium GPRS/E-GPRS traffic


 The LA is split into maximum 8 RA
 For each RA in a LA one unique RA_Code is assigned
 A balanced number of cells per RA needs to be acquired, however for
identified hot spots an unbalanced assignment is possible (smaller RA for
hot spots)
 This step represents a reasonable split of the LA into RA if packet data
traffic rises
 It can also be carried out right from the start to be prepared for the
traffic growth
 The planning effort is medium

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 241
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 242

 Step 2: Network with medium GPRS/E-GPRS traffic


 The LA is split into maximum 8 RA

RA 1 RA 2 RA 3

RA_C: 0 RA_C: 1 RA_C: 2

RA 4 RA 5 RA 6

RA_C: 3 RA_C: 4 RA_C: 5

RA 7 RA 8

RA_C: 6 RA_C: 7

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 242
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 243

 Step 3: Network with high packet data traffic or dense network


 LA = up to n RA (max 256)
 If the number of RA in a LA is larger than 9, the RA_Colour reuse is
necessary, and a large-scale careful planning is recommended
 As described before, frequent RA change by cell-reselection is not
desired =>thus the RA should be not to small
 by reusing the RA_Colour, adjacencies of RA's with the same RA_Colour
have to be avoided

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 243
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.9 LA and RA planning [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 244

 Step 3: Network with high packet data traffic or dense network


 LA = up to n RA (max 256)

RA 1 RA 2 RA 3

RA_C: 0 RA_C: 1 RA_C: 2

RA 4 RA 5 RA 6

RA_C: 3 RA_C: 4 RA_C: 5

RA 7 RA 8 RA 9

RA_C: 6 RA_C: 7 RA_C: 0

RA 10 RA 11 RA 12

RA_C: 1 RA_C: 2 RA_C: 3

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 244
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.10 Quality of Service
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 245

 GPRS QoS is not an isolated


topic GSM QoS
 It is necessary to use GSM Impact of GSM on GPRS
counters in order to
complete the analysis of :
 GPRS QoS GPRS QoS
 the impact of GPRS on GSM
QoS

 Note: for more information


refer to the GPRS QoS follow
up expert training

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 245
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.10 Quality of Service [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 246

 Use GSM indicators in order to complete the analysis of GPRS QoS


 Example :
 high number of TBF establishment failures due to radio problems =>
check with GSM counters if there are interferences (quality HO,
interference HO)
 Use GSM counters in order to complete the analysis of the impact of
GPRS traffic on GSM QoS
 Example :
 CCCH load due to GSM and GPRS
 TCH Erlang
 TCH Congestion (call establishment and incoming HO)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 246
6 (E)GPRS Network design
6.10 Quality of Service [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 247

 OMC-R indicator comparison


 According to GSM, QoS indicators for the Air interface available for GPRS
 Indicators based on counters, computed by the MFS, transferred to the
OMC-R
GSM GPRS
Radio interface indi- Call setup success TBF establishment success
cator rate rate
Call success rate TBF normal release rate
Call drop rate Abnormal TBF release

 Note: To obtain the QoS for GPRS, it is not sufficient to study only the GPRS
indicators. There is always an influence of GSM service on GPRS service, e.g.
TCH congestion in GSM could be influenced by high CS traffic or the additional
high packed data traffic.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 247
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 248

7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS target

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 248
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.1 General
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 249

 GSM QoS and Interference problems if existing shall be fixed, e.g. by


 Introduction of Frequency Hopping
 GSM Power Control (UL)

 If the GPRS QoS is still not reached, then


 New GPRS features as mentioned in next slides shall be introduced

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 249
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.1 Optimization campaign on parameters
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 250

 If still the GPRS QoS requirement is not fulfilled, then an


optimization campaign on parameters has to be started
 Use of unique values of (GPRS) parameter settings has to be checked
 Use of latest Alcatel default parameters
 Optimize parameters for the different GPRS features, if implemented in
the network
 TMA (Tower Mounted Amplifier) from hardware point of view can be
considered to increase UL throughput, see also GPRS power control
topic

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 250
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.2 MPDCH
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 251

 MPDCH and SPDCH Planning


 The enabling of MPDCH and the decision to allocate them dynamic or
static is depending on
 Trafficcapacity the operator has for GSM and GPRS
 Trafficcapacity the operator can reserve directly to GPRS
 Amount of traffic for GSM (Voice, SMS signaling, Location Area Update signaling)
and GPRS (data, signaling, Routing Area Update signaling)
 Subscriber distribution per service and area
 Mobility (cell reselection) of users during GPRS transfer

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 251
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.2 MPDCH [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 252

 Planning Recommendation on MPDCH


 Till the penetration rate of GPRS MS, which support master channel feature,
is unclear the MPDCH should be not enabled
 So it is guaranteed that all GPRS mobiles in the network can access for GPRS
service. MS, which do not support MPDCH, cannot access the GPRS service if
MPDCH is enabled. Note: MPDCH can be enabled in network mode of operation:
NMO I and NMO III.
L o w p r io r ity fo r G P R S o r
lo w G P R S tra ffic ?

YES NO

NO M PDCH S ta tic M P D C H
(D y n a m ic M P D C H )

G P R S s ig n a lin g
c o n g e stio n

YES NO

E n a b le s e c o n d a ry M P D C H s d e p e n d in g o n
G P R S s ig n a lin g n e e d

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 252
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.2 MPDCH [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 253

 Traffic dependent recommendation (with respect to condition for


MPDCH):
 Low GPRS traffic
 If GPRS traffic is low no Primary Master Channel needs to be activated
 High GPRS traffic
 Static Primary Master channel
 If the available TS are not scarce
 Operator wants the GPRS MS to perform autonomous cell re-selection based on C31 and
C32 criterion
 Dynamic Primary Master Channel
 If the CS signaling channels CCCH getting overloaded due to high GPRS traffic and
signaling in addition to CS signaling

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 253
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.3 Enhanced PDCH Adaptation & Fast pre-emption
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 254
!!! New in B9 !!!

 Feature Smooth/Enhanced PDCH Adaptation is recommended to


be enabled, leads to higher GPRS QoS [B7]
 There are no parameter to control this feature in B9.

 Soft Pre-emption
 T1 reallocation of TBF's whose PACCH is supported by a preempted time
slot
 T1 reallocation of TBF's whose MEGCH link becomes too small (basic
nibbles are allocated to the CS calls)
 Fast pre-emption
 After T_PDCH_Pre-emption = 4s
 Softpre-empted PDCH's are released
 Other "locked" PDCH's are released

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Locked PDCH = PDCH's that are required by the BSC to the MFS for CS calls

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 254
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.4 User multiplexing
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 255

 The strategy of the TBF resource sharing is to use the PDCH resources
in a most effective way, that means not to waste a PDCH just with
one user and therefore to limit the available PS capacity. On the
other hand, the more users (different TBFs) share a PDCH, the less
effective the data flow and the longer the download or upload time is

 Trade-off between radio resource capacity sharing and optimum data


throughput
 Since GSM speech service users are still to be preferred, it is
recommended to set N_MAX_UL/DL_TBF_PDCH 1 (e.g.=2)
 E.g. if N_MAX_DL_TBF_PDCH and CS-2 is used, the DL bit rate per MS will be
6.0 kbit/s (=12/2) per used timeslot for this MS
 If operators goal is to maximize the PS throughput then
N_MAX_UL/DL_TBF_PDCH = 1 (default value) is recommended

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 255
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.5 PDCH Resource Multiplexing
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 256

 Multislot access is the allocation of more than one PDCH to one MS


(multislot access). However to prevent one multislot MS to use too
many PDCHs each time it wants to transmit data (detriment of other
users), following parameter is used:

 MAX_PDCH_PER_TBF : Maximum number of PDCHs, which can be


allocated to a single TBF (or MS)
 Range: [1..5], default value: 5 (todays MS capabilities)

 Radio Network Planning Impacts


A few multi slot mobiles can occupy all resources with the default value of
MAX_PDCH_PER_TBF. Thus the parameter has to be set, depending from the
expected load and in combination with N_TBF_PER_S/MPDCH to reflect
operators strategy on GPRS QoS.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 256
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.6 Radio (TBF) Resource Reallocation
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 257

 With the feature TBF reallocation, the radio resources allocated to a


TBF can be changed during TBF lifetime, which increases successful
and efficient TS allocation (according to multislot capability) during
ongoing data transfer for PS case.

 Radio Network Planning Impacts


 EN_RES_REALLOCATION is enabling / disabling the Radio Resource
reallocation feature per trigger and per BSS
 All event triggers for TBF resource reallocation shall be considered:
 Trigger T1
 Trigger T2
 Trigger T3
 Trigger T4 (new in B8 for EGPRS purposes)

!!! B9 : this feature is always activated !!!


Not changeable !

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 Trigger T1 (target maintain a TBF alive when its PACCH is fast preempted):
Reallocate all impacted TBFs using the pre-empted PDCHs instead of releasing them using the
Packet TBF Release procedure
 Trigger T2 (target attempt offering more PDCHs to an MS upon concurrent TBF establishment):
get rid of the concurrence constraints imposed by the multislot class of the MS and an existing TBF
to offer the best throughput, the initial TBF can be moved to other PDCHs
 Trigger T3 (target periodically attempt offering more PDCHs to an MS which has a TBF in the
direction of the bias with less PDCHs than it can support according to its multislot class):
take benefit of PDCH resource usage variations in a cell to reallocate the resources granted to a
Mobile Station, in case those resources were not using the full multislot class capabilities of the MS
to offer the best throughput in the direction of the bias and even adapt to bias changes in the
course of a packet transfer
Parameters for trigger T3 :
- T_CANDIDATE_TBF_REALLOC: Timer value controlling the time duration between successive
resource reallocation attempts for candidate MSs with the trigger T3

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 257
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.6 Radio (TBF) Resource Reallocation [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 258

 Advantages
 The advantage of the feature TBF resource reallocation is to serve a
better PDCH allocation to a TBF (throughput can be optimized),
according to the available radio, transmission, DSP and CPU resources,
during establishment and lifetime of TBF
 Drawback
 The allocation process is based on the number of PDCHs that the TBF can
be mapped on a new resource and not on the throughput the TBF will get
on these PDCHs
Consequence: in certain cases, available PDCHs will not be used for TBF
reallocation, whilst using them would have improved the TBF throughput

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 258
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.7 Coding Scheme Adaptation
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 259

 Different quality threshold are introduced since B7 to optimize


coding scheme adaptation algorithm

 Radio Network Planning Impacts


 Recommendation: Enable Coding scheme adaptation mechanism in GPRS
RLC acknowledged, un-acknowledged mode with parameters
EN_CS_ADAPTATION_ACK/EN_CS_ADAPTATION_NACK
 Default parameter setting = enable.

 If the network interference is low it allows to start CS-2 usage at the


beginning of a TBF:
 TBF_UL/DL_INIT_CS = CS-2 (default setting = CS-2)
 TBF_UL/DL_INIT_MCS = MCS-6 (default setting = MCS-3)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 259
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.8 Cell Reselection
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 260

 Network control order (NC) parameter defines cell reselection mode,


GMM state and the presence of PBCCH in the serving cell.
Network Control MS GMM State Mode of cell reselection Presence of Absence of the PBCCH
Order parameter the PBCCH

Standby MS autonomous cell C1, C31, C32 C1, C2


reselection (NC0 mode)
NC0
Ready MS autonomous cell C1, C31, C32 C1, C2
reselection (NC0 mode)

NC1 Not supported in B8


Standby MS autonomous cell C1, C2
reselection (NC0 mode)
NC2
Ready Network controlled C1, C2
(or RMM Mode = PTM) reselection (NC2 mode)

 Independent from the presence of the MPDCH:


 GPRS cell adjacencies are same in packet idle mode as in packet transfer
mode
 GPRS cell adjacencies are set equal to the GSM cell adjacencies (i.e. the
BA(GPRS) list = BA(BCCH) list )

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 260
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.8 Cell Reselection [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 261

 Radio Network Planning Impacts


 Possible to reselect a cell without GPRS service (if in the target cell GPRS
is disabled)
 Recommendation : enable the GPRS service on all cells in order to
prevent a MS to reselect a cell without GPRS support

 "NC0" Cell reselection criterion for PBCCH established or not


 MS triggers GPRS reselection according to GSM reselection criteria (C1,
C2)
 Radio Network Planning Impacts
 Generally optimized GSM/CS parameters for cell reselection shall be kept also
for PS cell reselection
 Default values for the parameters are kept

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 261
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.8 GPRS Power Control
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 262

 Compatibility of GSM and GPRS UL Power control


 For GPRS rollouts it is recommended to disable the GPRS UL PC by
setting: =0 and TNX=0
 The reasons why GPRS UL PC shall be disabled:
 MS controlled open loop PC is not working reliably (MS software
implementation)
 Field tests show a better throughput performance since the acknowledge
message is sent in UL with full power
 Remark: It is possible to deactivate GPRS UL power control (GCH=0 and a=0)
and to let GSM UL power control activated (EN_MS_PC=enabled, default),
different power control parameters for GSM and GPRS
 Increase UL GPRS throughput
 If TMA (Tower Mounted Amplifier) is used and UL GPRS PC is disabled on
a site than better throughput in UL is expected

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 262
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.8 Features on DL TBF establishment and release
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 263

 3 different features are presented which preemptively delay the TBF


release to speed up the setup of subsequent TBF
 Delayed DL TBF release
 Fast DL TBF re-establishment
 Non DRX Mode
 Their success depends on the users download behavior e.g. how
often pages are changed and the content of the downloaded http
looks like. For Web browsing and WAP applications where the PS
traffic is bursty, the gain of the features to delay TBF release will be
very high
 The 3 features are complementary and can be activated
independently from each other. Delays to start download of new LLC
PDU depending on feature

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 263
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.8.1 Delayed DL TBF release
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 264

 This feature should be enabled if there is no lack of resources to


achieve higher user application throughput
 Main beneficiaries will be the applications consecutive pings, WAP and
HTTP (clustered web page). The round trip time (RTT) can be shortened
by the availability of an already opened TBF. This, in turn, is affected by
the TBF hold time and the time between pings
 So in fact less signaling is needed for e.g. download of successive WAP
pages or HTTP links because there is no need to establish a new TBF
during T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL time
 T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL should be in between of 1.5s up to 2s depending
on available resources in the cell. The higher the TS capacity in a cell is
the higher the value of T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL can be tuned

T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME T3192 DRX_TIMER_MAX


DL TBF establishment
DL TBF Non-DRX mode via PCH or PPCH
of MS paging group

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p.82
During the delayed release of the DL TBF, the BSS periodically sends to the MS a DL RLC data block (with a
polling request) containing a Dummy UI Command which is a LLC PDU whose checksum is deliberately
wrong. This LLC PDU is hence discarded by the LLC layer of the MS.

Sending periodically Dummy UI Commands enables the mobile station to request an UL TBF establishment in
a PACKET DL Ack/Nack message if it has data to send, and prevents defense RLC timers from expiring in the
mobile station.

If new DL LLC PDUs are received for that MS, the DL LLC PDUs can be sent immediately on the DL TBF. If
the BSS does not receive any DL LLC PDU during the inactivity period, it releases the DL TBF through the
normal TBF release procedure.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 264
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.8.1 Delayed DL TBF release [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 265

 Delayed Downlink TBF release -> Total TBF release time is:
 T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL = T_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL_RADIO +
T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME.
T_Delayed_DL_TBF_Rel = T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME (= 1600ms)
= 800 ms + 700 ms (defaults) = 1500 ms if delayed DL TBF Release is enabled by
parameter EN_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL
 Advantage
 no delay to start DL data transfer for new DL LLC PDUs
 less signaling
 throughput improved for reason: long RTT. RTT can be shortened by the
availability of an already opened TBF. This, in turn, is affect by the TBF
hold time, and the time between pings.
 Drawback
 waste of resources, TBF is kept open during delayed downlink time,
available USF values are limited

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 265
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.8.2 Fast Downlink TBF re-establishment process
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 266

 Fast Downlink TBF re-establishment process


 After reception of the final block by the MS and after the sending of the
last PACKET DL ACK/NACK message, the MS still listens on the PACCH
during T3192 sec
 BSS re-establishes a DL TBF on the PACCH of the previous DL TBF (i.e. to
send a PACKET DL ASSIGNMENT message on the PACCH)
 fast DL TBF re-establishment without impacting the (P)CCCH resources;
i.e. a new TBF is established but with the parameters of the old TBF
(TFI, TAI)

 Rules
 T3192 > MS-BSS roundtrip delay + RRBP maximum duration (120 ms)
 T3192 + T_MAX_EXTENDED_UL + round_trip_delay < 5 sec
 Default Values
 T3192 = 1000ms when non-DRX mode is not activated
 T3192 = 500ms when non-DRX mode is active

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Relative Reserved Block Period : waiting time before UL emission (=> for PACCH) is allowed (cf. USF
mechanism)
RRBP : +3RB, +4RB, +5RB or +6RB (approx)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 266
7 Considerable features to reach (E)GPRS QoS target
7.8.3 Non-DRX feature
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 267

 Non-DRX feature benefits


 Continuous monitoring of AGCH messages by the MS
 The MFS establishes a DL TBF on the first available AGCH block (without
MPDCH) or the first PPCH occurrence (with MPDCH)
 Higher downlink throughput and shorter transfer delay for cell
reselection and bursty download application (HTTP, WAP).

 Radio Network Planning Impacts


 DRX_TIMER_MAX = 2s (Max = 4s)  Non-DRX mode possible for 2 seconds
 If Non-DRX feature possible, influence on following parameters settings:
 BS_AG_BLKS_RES, BS_PA_MFRMS, T_PDA, T_PUA, T_GPRS_assign_AGCH
 T_GPRS_assign_AGCH parameter can be found in the memo
MND/TD/SYT/EBR/0342.2001.

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Radio Network Planning

 In B7, the default value was set to 0.7 s


The discontinuous (DRX) mode applies when the MS is in packet idle mode. This function allows a MS not to
monitor all PCCCH blocks, but only blocks defined by its paging group. The MS applies existing GSM DRX
procedures if there is no MPDCH.

Remove 0.6 seconds, due to AGCH queuing time. So real time in non-DRX is 1.4s.

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 267
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 268

8 GPRS introduction into operational GSM network

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 268
8 introduction into operational GSM network
8.1 General
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 269

 Following aspects are considered if GPRS is introduced into a mature


GSM network without network design changes
 Different to the approach of GPRS Greenfield planning
 If the operator foresees design changes due to GPRS QoS requirements
than traffic analysis and GPRS network design tasks has to be done
before the GPRS introduction step
 Actual status of the GSM network
 GSM QoS and Interference
 All
GSM network enhancement features and GSM network problems, mainly
GSM QoS and interference, shall be fixed before GPRS is implemented
 New network design/frequency planning
 Ifa new network design and frequency planning is developed to improve GSM
QoS and interference, then the implementation of this design should be done
before GPRS is implemented

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 269
8 introduction into operational GSM network
8.1 General [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 270

yes
GSM QoS and Interference GSM problem fixing
Tasks before GPRS

problems?
Introduction

no
yes
New Frequency plan foreseen? Implement Frequency
Plan
no
Actual GSM capacity enough to no Increase capacity
cope with GSM and GPRS traffic?
yes yes
Introduction of GPRS and
GSM QoS and Interference
Introduction

related features/settings.
problems
GPRS

Check GPRS throughput map


no
RA planning Add new GPRS features if needed
CAE data generation
Optimize GPRS parameters if
How to reach

needed
GPRS QoS?

no
GPRS QoS reached?
Considerable features to reach
GPRS QoS target

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 270
8 introduction into operational GSM network
8.1 General [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 271

 Occurred traffic and handled traffic balance

 GPRS QoS requirements


 Operator requirements define the needed GPRS capacity and GPRS QoS
per user in relation to specific definitions for user and used service:
 Volume @BH (Kbytes)
 Page size (Kbytes)
 Queue delay (seconds)
 Quantile (%)
 Bit rate (kbit/s)

 Expected GPRS traffic


 The calculation of expected GPRS traffic has to be done before
 Following results will be then available:
 TS needed for CS traffic and signaling in DL/UL and
 TS needed for PS traffic and signaling in DL/UL

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


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Section 1 Module 1 Page 271
8 introduction into operational GSM network
8.1 General [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 272

 Amount of TS, TRX's & frequencies needed :

 If resources are enough for GSM and GPRS


 TRX assignment to GPRS service and the PDCH planning can be done.

 If resources are not enough for GSM and GPRS


 Additional TRX & frequencies must be allocated to the sites with not enough
traffic capacity.
 A new frequency planning should be done when a not negligible amount of new
frequencies have to be added to a planning area to fulfill (GSM+GPRS) capacity
requirements.

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 272
8 introduction into operational GSM network
8.1 General [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 273

 Introduction of GPRS and related features/settings


 The prerequisites for a GPRS analysis are following tasks
 Field strength prediction
 Interference analysis
 If new sites after GPRS analysis are required to fulfill operators GPRS
requirements, a new frequency planning with a certain frequency band
range planning has to be done.
 Routing area, CAE data
 The routing area (RA) planning is a must for GPRS introduction into GSM
network, see chapter 7 for details on RA planning and CAE data
generation.

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 273
8 introduction into operational GSM network
8.1 General [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 274

 GPRS QoS increasing tasks to be done are depending on dimensions


of QoS requirements. What kind of tasks and references can be done
to increase GPRS QoS ? As seen earlier :
 Dedicated TRX for GPRS in a cell can be done if TRX number in the cell is
2
 Introduction of GPRS Master channels (MPDCH to separate GPRS and GSM
signaling
 Open question: Penetration rate of GPRS MS which can decode MPDCH
 The parameters for PDCH dynamic allocation (and TBF resource
management) depends on GPRS QoS requirements :
 Weaker GPRS requirements  more TS for GSM can be reserved with a low
value of MAX_PDCH

 For GSM tasks see next slides

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 274
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 275

9 GSM Network enhancement features & GPRS

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 275
9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS
9.1 Frequency Hopping
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 276

 The dependency between FH usage and Coding scheme distribution


and the consequences on CS1-CS3 and CS 4
 Generally Frequency Hopping (FH) leads to Interference averaging. Thus
calls having good quality will get worse, bad calls will get better. This is
valid for GSM, similar it is valid for GPRS.
 CS1 is used in bad conditions, thus it will be improved if FH is
introduced.
 CS4 is used in very good conditions, which are more seldom in a hopping
network. Thus CS4 will perform less good and will be used more seldom.
 The overall gain of CS1 - CS3 will depend on the C/I situation before and
after FH.
 CS adaptation parameters can be tuned more optimistic in respect to
throughput and Coding Scheme if FH is used:
 CS_QUAL_XX_1_2_FH_Z > CS_QUAL_XX_1_2_NFH_Z

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 276
9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS
9.1 Frequency Hopping [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 277

 GPRS load and GPRS performance


 GSM + GPRS load increases  Higher probability for interference
 Because GPRS performance is mainly based on C/I  it will reduce the
performance.

 Radio Network Planning Impacts


 To reduce the load in the network/cell following GSM activities can be
started:
 Addingmore resources, frequencies
 Make smaller cell sizes (e.g. achieved by stronger tilt)
 Do proper cell planning

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 277
9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS
9.2 -cell
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 278

 The main advantage of a -cell environment may be a better


frequency re-use possibility, thus better C/I value and higher
throughput can be expected (especially for E-GPRS with higher C/I
requirements than GPRS s). Following two steps is proposed for GPRS
implementation
 1. Step: GPRS traffic is low => introduction of GPRS for macro
and -cell together
 Disadvantages in both layers :
 Emergency capacity on macro cell layer reduced
 Higher blocking probability on -cell layer for CS traffic
 Solution:
 Reductionof the maximum GPRS capacity of the -cell to 30-50% by
parameters setting
 Tuning of the GPRS user access handling (TBF and PDCH share)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 278
9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS
9.2 -cell [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 279

 Step 2: Increasing GPRS traffic => network densification

 Measures:
Hardware : TRX upgrade, -cell and macro cell densification, site
design
Parameter: GPRS capacity and user access handling tuning
 Basis: OMC-R Load measurements and GPRS customer behavior (location)
 Assumption: 80% of packet data traffic is static, 20% is dynamic (driving)
 The strategy is also valid for a different assumption, but this assumption is
more probable.

!!! Activate Outgoing Redirection from MICRO !!!


EN_OUTGOING_GPRS_REDIR(Umbrella) = Disable
EN_OUTGOING_GPRS_REDIR(Micro) = Enable
NC_DL_RXLEV_THR(Micro) = -47 dBm
NC2_DEACTIVATION_MODE(Umbrella) = at the expiry of the GMM Ready timer

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 279
9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS
9.3 Dual Band
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 280

 The consequence for the PDCH configuration will be explained


related to Alcatels dual band approaches.
 Reminder:
 there are no HO in GPRS for PS services
 supported MS classes to be checked

 Two Approaches
 Multiband BSS approach
 Multiband cell approach

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 280
9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS
9.3 Dual Band [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 281

 Multiband BSS approach


 A dedicated BCCH for each cell/frequency band
 Class B and C MSs can make interband cell reselection during data
transmission
 if C2 parameters are used in order to give a higher priority to a given layer for
circuit mode
 the same priority is obtained for packet mode
 thus GPRS can not be kept in 900 MHz layer, if GSM MS is sent to 1800 MHz
layer
 therefore PS functionality should be configured in both bands

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 281
9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS
9.3 Dual Band [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 282

 Multiband cell approach


 TRXs of one band are allocated to the outer zone and the TRXs of the
other band to the inner zone.
 The BCCH is configured to the outer zone. The principle is similar to the
concentric cell ones.
 During PS traffic, class B and C MSs will always be served by the outer
zone GPRS TRX.
 if C2 parameters are used in order to give a higher priority to a given layer for
circuit mode the same priority is obtained for packet mode
 if GSM MS is sent to inner zone in dedicated mode, the GPRS service cannot be
ensured in the inner zone

 PS functionality in outer zone only


 No use of C2 to give a higher priority to non-GPRS layer

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 282
9 GSM network enhancement features & GPRS
9.4 Concentric cell
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 283

 For the two possible cases:


 Concentric cells which are disturbing other cells:
 the
inner zone is smaller than the outer zone and keeps the disturbing
carriers
 concentric cells which are disturbed by other cells:
 the inner zone and outer zone carriers have the same output powers;
nevertheless, the size of the inner zone is dimensioned by proper
parameter setting
 the same recommendation holds: the TRX for PS traffic must be
configured in the outer zone of the concentric cell

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 283
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 284

10 E-GPRS

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 284
10 E-GPRS
10.1 E-GPRS main differences
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 285

 E-GPRS main differences


 TRX output power
 RX sensitivity

EDGE timeslot GSM900 GSM1800


8PSK TX power 15 W or 41.76 dBm 12 W or 40.8 dBm
(tolerance 0.5 + 0.5 dB) (tolerance -0.5 + 0.5 dB)
Reference sensitivity -112 dBm (static MCS-1)
108 dBm (TU50 ideal FH, MCS1)
-104 dBm (static MCS-5)
- 100 dBm (TU50 ideal FH, MCS5)

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Section 1 Module 1 Page 285
10 E-GPRS
10.1 E-GPRS main differences [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 286

MCS-9
60
MCS-8
MCS-7
MCS-6
50
MCS-5
MCS-4
Throughput [kbps]

MCS-3
40
MCS-2
MCS-1

30

20

10

-110 -105 -100 -95 -90 -85

Level [dBm]

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 286
10 E-GPRS
10.1 E-GPRS main differences [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 287

60
MCS-9
MCS-8
50 MCS-7
Throughput [kbps]

MCS-6
MCS-5
40 MCS-4
MCS-3
MCS-2
30 MCS-1

20

10

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
C/Ico(dB)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 287
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 288

11 GPRS traffic calculation example

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 288
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.1 Customer questionnaire (Example) [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 289

 1. Total amount of GSM subscribers in the network (CS+PS subscribers)


 1Mio
 2. Blocking at air interface (speech)
 2%
 3. Speech traffic per subscriber (mErl/sub)
 20 mErl/Sub rural,
 25 mErl/Sub urban
 4. Distribution of CS subscribers to different morpho classes
 80% urban
 20% rural)
 5. Percentage of GPRS subscribers
 7% of total GSM subscribers
 6. Busy hour occurrence for speech traffic and packet data traffic:
 Speech traffic busy hour: 8-11, 13-17 and 18-22 oclock
 Packet data service hours: Business: 8-11 and 14-17, private 14-20 oclock
 7. and 8. see table

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 289
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.1 Customer questionnaire (Example) [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 290

 9. PS user behaviour/distribution:
 daily GPRS user profile activity (days/month):
 business
22 days,
 private
30 days
 GPRS user profiles percentage (%), related to the total GPRS
 subscriber number = 7%: 2% private and 5 % business
 Geographical percentage distribution (%) of GPRS user profiles related to
morphostructure:
 urban = 70% business, 50% private
 rural = 30% business, 50% private
 10. Number of BTS in the existing network
 2000 BTSs
 11. Distribution of existing BTS to morphoclasses:
 1200 BTSs in urban,
 800 in rural
 12. Number of TRX/BTS, in accordance to morphoclass:
 3*2 configuration in urban, 3*1 configuration in rural

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 290
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.2 User and area distribution determination
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 291

 According the questionnaire, the GPRS user distribution will be


calculated
 Due to the different network capacity in urban and rural area and
the different ratio of business and private users in the area, the
GPRS and speech subscriber are split to urban and rural area

Total GSM subscriber: 1 Mio


Business Private
Packet data GPRS share 7% total 5% (50000 subs.) 2% (20000 subs.)
Urban area 70% (35000) 50% (10000)
Rural area 30% (15000) 50% (10000)

Speech Total CS subscriber: 1 Mio


Urban area 80% (800000 subs.)
Rural area 20% (200000 subs)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 291
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.3 Traffic demand for CS traffic
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 292

 The traffic demand for CS subscribers


 2% blocking during the busy hour
 Urban area 25 mErlang/Subs.
 Rural area 20 mErlang/Subs.

Total CS subscriber: 1 Mio


Urban area Rural area
Traffic [Erlang] 20000 4000
 Assumption: Homogeneous traffic distribution in each morpho class

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 292
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.4 Traffic demand for packet traffic
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 293

 The traffic demand for PS is calculated in two steps:


 First step: throughput demand per user profile calculation (due to the
different user behaviours)
 Second step: Relation of throughput demand to the total subscriber
amount in urban and rural area
 Assumptions:
 packet data traffic per month is user profile depending (e.g. not during the
whole month, like speech traffic)
 PS traffic is not to be spread over the whole day, there are now service
hours/day, depending on the user profile
 Packet data traffic occurs only during the service hours.
 Packet data traffic is homogeneously distributed over the service hours,
 During service hours, the user is continuously active (worst case calculation)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 293
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.4 Traffic demand for packet traffic [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 294

 What is the busy hour?


 1. CS traffic is maximum
 2. PS traffic is also maximum in that period

 Exception:
 CS and PS busy hour not overlapping -> separate dimensioning
Reserve still sufficient capacity for CS during PS busy hour!
 PS user profile service hours not overlapping
Use user profile with highest throughput demand

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 294
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.4 Traffic demand for packet traffic [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 295

 In our example, the service hours for PS traffic are in total 6 hours,
but from 14 to17 oclock business and private subscriber will make
data traffic at the same time
 Thus the busy hours for data traffic are these 3 hours
 It is also visible, that during that time, also for speech traffic a busy
time occurs
 Busy hour: GPRS traffic dimensioning will be 14 to17

 Speech
8 11 1314 17 20 22
 Packet
 Business
 Private

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 295
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.4 Traffic demand for packet traffic [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 296

 Packet data throughput demand (user profile):


Business Private
Traffic/month [Mbyte] 8.124 2.380
Traffic/month [kbit] 68149.05= =19964.88
8.124*1024*1024*8/1000
traffic volume demand /day 3097.68 665.49
[kbit] =68149.05/22 days for 30 days
throughput demand /service 0.14 0.03
hours [kbit/s] =3097.68/(6 hrs*3600) 6 serv. hours
throughput demand /busy hours 0.14 0.03
[kbit/s] during 3 busy hours during 3 busy hrs

 Packet data throughput demand (total network):


Urban area Rural area
Business Private Business Private
throughput demand 4900 300 2100 300
/busy hours [kbit/s]
Total: 5200 2400

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 296
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.5 Network capacity calculation
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 297

 For CS traffic:

Total BTS 2000


Urban area Rural area
BTS 1200 800
Configuration 3x2 3x1
Capacity/Erlang 2% 29520 6960
Blocking =1200*3*8.2 =800*3*2.9
CS traffic demand 20000 4000

 The actual network capacity is sufficient to handle the CS traffic during


the busy hour by assuming a maximal blocking probability of 2%

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 297
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.5 Network capacity calculation [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 298

 Network throughput capacity for PS traffic:


 The network throughput capacity for PS traffic is based on the cell
throughput capacity
 For this dimensioning example it is appropriate to consider the result of
the cell ranges dimensioning example
 According to it, 59% of the cell area is operated in CS-2 and 41% in CS-1
mode
 The cell throughput capacity can be estimated with a data rate of
(0.41*8+0.59*12) kbit/s = 10.36 kbit/s per timeslot

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 298
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.5 Network capacity calculation [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 299

 The network capacity is depending from the allocated TS for PDCH


use:
 parameter MAX_PDCH in cell's CS normal load situation
 parameter MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD in cell's CS high load
 parameter MIN_PDCH (optional)
 Example:
 MAX_PDCH is set to 8 TS for the 3x2 BTS configuration (2nd TRX
allocated for GPRS),
 MAX_PDCH for the 3x1 BTS, only 7 TS can be allocated for packet data
(TS 0 is reserved for BCCH)
 MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD =1 (Under CS high load conditions, only one TS
will be present for packet data usage)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 299
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.5 Network capacity calculation [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 300

Total BTS 2000


Urban area Rural area
BTS 1200 800
Configuration 3x2 3x1
Total Available TS, BCCH not incl. 54000 16800
=(7+8)*3*1200 =7*3*300
Available TS, BCCH not incl. 28800 16800
MAX_PDCH_GROUP = 8 TS =8*3*1200 =7*3*800
Available TS if BSC in HIGH_LOAD 3600 2400
MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD = 1 TS =28800/8 =16800/7
Capacity [kbit/s] 298368 174048
(10.36 kbit/s /TS) =28800*10.36
Capacity [kbit/s] 37296 24864
if BSC in HIGH_LOAD (10.36 kbit/s /TS) =3600*10.36

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 300
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.6 Traffic dimensioning
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 301

 Allocating TS to GPRS traffic reduces the capacity within the circuit


switched design
 For the busy hour, the BSC is in high load situation, i.e the maximum
of PDCHs is equal to MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD (resource control)
 The following table gives the CS capacities based on a blocking
probability of 2% (in Erlang), according to the amount of allocated
timeslots for GPRS in BSC high load situation

A- A- Amount Amount PDCH


mount mount TCH 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
of TRX SDCCH +PDCH
1 TRX 1 7 2.93 2.27 1.65 1.09 0.6 0.2 0.02 0
2 TRX 2 14 8.2 7.4 6.61 5.84 5.08 4.34 3.62 2.93
3 TRX 3 21 14.03 13.18 12.33 11.49 10.65 9.82 9.01 8.2
4 TRX 4 28 20.15 19.26 18.38 17.50 16.63 15.76 14.89 14.03
5 TRX 4 36 27.34 26.43 25.52 24.62 23.72 22.82 21.93 21.03
6 TRX 5 43 33.75 32.83 31.91 30.99 30.08 29.16 28.25 27.34

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 301
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.6 Traffic dimensioning [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 302

 MAX_PDCH_Group = 8 or 7
 MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD = 1
 Network capacity for CS and PS traffic (1 TS for PS):

Total BTS =2000


Urban area Rural area
number of BTS 1200 800
Configuration 3x2 3x1
Speech Capacity/Erlang @2 % Blocking 29520 6960
Capacity/Erlang @2% Blocking and 1 PDCH 26640 5448
=1200*3*7.4 =800*3*2.27
CS traffic demand [Erl] 20000 4000
Packet Capacity [kbit/s] (10.36 kbit/s /TS) 298368 174048
data Capacity [kbit/s] if BSC in HIGH_LOAD 37296 24864
(10.36 kbit/s /TS)
PD busy hour throughput demand [kbit/s] 5200 2400

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 302
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.6 Traffic dimensioning [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 303

 Conclusions:
 Network is able to serve CS traffic.
 One TS is necessary to handle PS traffic.
 One TS is sufficient for PS traffic during the busy hour.
 No CS service degradation during busy hour.
 The reservation of 1 TS for PS traffic represents no service degradation for CS
traffic, since the remaining network capacity is still sufficient to handle the CS
traffic.
 To guarantee a permanent PS service independent form the load situation, the
parameter Min_PDCH_GROUP was set to 1 (I.e. 1 TS/ cell is permanently
reserved for PS service and not available for CS traffic),
however Min_PDCH_GROUP = 0 is recommended (load reduction on Atermux
interface)

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 303
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.6 Traffic dimensioning [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 304

 Further iterations would be necessary (increase of


MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD) if the PS traffic demand could not be
handled with MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD = 1 timeslot
 Further, if the CS traffic demand could not be handled with the
remaining timeslots some measures are necessary e.g.:
 add a TRX to the considered serving cell
 shrink the cell size of the serving cell (e.g. introduce downtilt) and
increase the cell size of a neighbouring cell which offers sufficient
capacity to handle the traffic demand surplus of the serving cell
 reduce interference (network changes) to get higher average throughput

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 304
11 GPRS traffic calculation example
11.6 Traffic dimensioning [cont.]
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 305

 In the Alcatel GPRS implementation step 1, the number of TRX's


which can be allocated to GPRS is maximum NTRXGPRS =1.
 In our worst case consideration, this TRX comes to its limit when the
packet throughput demand is higher than the throughput capacity
and cannot be satisfied even if the number of allocated TS for PS
reaches Max_PDCH_Group

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3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 305
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 306

ALMAP: ALcatel MAnagement Platform PCO: Protocol


Switch
APN: to notes
Access Point Name view! PCU: Packet Control Unit
AS: Alpha Server (Compaq) PDCH: Packet Data CHannel
BG: Border Gateway PDN: Packet Data Network
BSC: Base Station Controller PDP: Packet Data Protocol (IP or X25)
BSS: Base Station Subsystem PDU: Protocol Data Unit
BSCGP: BSC-GPRS Protocol PPCH: Packet- Paging CHannel
BSSGP: BSS-GPRS Protocol PRACH: Packet- Random Access CHannel
BVCI: BSSGP Virtual Connection Identifier PS: Packet Switching
CCBS: Customer Care and Billing Center P-TMSI: Packet- Temporary Mobile Subscriber
CCU: Channel Codec Unit Identity
CDR: Call Detail Record PVC: Permanent Virtual Circuit
CG: Charging Gateway P-VLR: Packet- Visitors Location Register
CS: Circuit Switching QoS: Quality of Service
DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol RA: Routing Area
DL: Down Link RIP : Routing Information Protocol
DLCI= Data Link Connection Identifier RLC: Radio Link Control
DNS: Domain Name System RADIUS: Remote Authentication Dial In Use
EDGE: Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution Service
FUMO : Frame Unit Module RRDTUF : Roaming Restriction Data Towards
FR: Frame Relay Unknown Foreign PLMN
GPRS: General Packet Radio Service RRM: Radio Resource Management
GGSN: Gateway GSN RSZ : Regional Subscription Zone
GMM: GPRS Mobility Management SGSN: Serving GSN
GR: GPRS Register SM: Session Management | Short Message
GSL: GPRS Signaling Link SMS: Short Message Service
GSM: Global System for Mobile communication SMS-C: SMS-Center
GSN: GPRS Support Node SNDCP: Sub Network-Dependent Convergence
GSS: GPRS
EVOLIUM Sub-System
BSS - GPRS and EGPRS Protocol
All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
GTP:
Radio GPRSPlanning
Network Tunneling Protocol SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol
HLR: Home Location Register SNS: Sub-Network Service layer
HSCSD: High Speed Circuit-Switching Data TBF: Temporary Block Flow
IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identity TC: Trans Coder
IP: Internet Protocol TCH: Traffic CHannel
ISDN : Integrated Service Digital Network TCP: Transmission Control Protocol
ISP: Internet Service Provider TDMA: Time-Division Multiplexing Access
LAN: Local Area Network TFI: Temporary block Flow Identifier
LLC: Logical Link Control TID: Tunnel IDentity
MAC: Medium Access Control TLLI: Temporary Logical Link Identity
MFS: Multi-Bsc Fast packet Server TMN: Telecommunication Management Protocol
MNRG: Mobile Not Reachable for Gprs TS: Time Slot
MS: Mobile Station UDP: User Datagram protocol
MSC: Mobile Switching Center UL: Up Link
MT: Mobile Terminal UMTS: Universal Mobile Transmission System
NE: Network Element WAP: Wireless Application Protocol
NMC: Network Management Center WAN: Wide Area Network
NNM: Network Node Manager
NRPA : Network Requested PDP Context
Activation
NSAPI: Network Service Access Point Identifier
NSC: Network Service Control layer
NSEI: Network Service Entity Identifier
NSS: Network Sub-System
NS-VC: Network Service- Virtual Circuit
NTP: Network Time Protocol
DB : On Demand Bandwidth
OMC: Operation & Maintenance Center
OS: Operation System
PAGCH: Packet- Access Grant Channel
PCCCH: Packet- Common Control Channel

All Rights Reserved 2007, Alcatel-Lucent


3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 306
Radio Network Planning - GPRS and EGPRS 11 307

End of Module
EVOLIUM BSS GPRS and EGPRS

EVOLIUM BSS - GPRS and EGPRS


All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2007
Radio Network Planning

All Rights Reserved 2007, Alcatel-Lucent


3FL 38020 ACAA Edition 2
Section 1 Module 1 Page 307