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8 GREAT PROGRAMS IN THIS ISSUE!

March 990

COMPUTERS
D222°

SAFEGUARD
YOUR SYSTEM.'
Expert Advice
On Guarding
Against Sags,
Spikes, and
Surges ^ /

International rf
Bounty Hunter jcj /
Round up bad guys, / /)
learn world geography
in this exciting / / ,
128 game

1 1 i 1 i

--;-■;•■ in \\\ USA K 95 Ca^UatSW

Q 7U86 02220 6
■••■

ngeo Gtwma\s of hRYm improves on


CO1FT.TTH PHOniCT
the award-winning game system
used in SSI's mega-hits Pool or
Radiahce and CW6E or me /Izlkc
Bonds. Tor the first time ever on
, your computer, you'll enjoy
fantasy role-playing adventure
in the legendary AD&D1 game
r. r ^ world of Krynn! Your quest:
Defeat a vile plot
by the forces of
evil to establish the
4 Dark Queen, Takhisis, as
undisputed ruler of Krynn!
>et fin

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f Inside every box.

►CLUEBOOK!
hope urr ■ 11 Coming sooii to
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To order: visit your retailer
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To receive SSI's complete
.".* *>. product catalog, send $ 1.00
. 4 to: SSI, 675 Almanor Avenue,
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snsn r;::1..*1.;! .-■■:;■!

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used dndET Eictnu jrorn TSFt, Inc.
itriliil.l-: I :.)'■■:
%■<:■; Inc. All ligfils ■„•.- ■. '

ESS^
STRATEGIC SIMULATIONS, INC.
GAZETTE
rmfcrrrs March 1990 Vol. 8, No. 3

Features Alias
Will Steinsiek 56 128/64
Safeguard Your System!
Raster Master
How to Guard Against EDITOR'S
Peter M. L. Lottrup 64 64 CHOICE
Bad Power
Charles Kuhlmann 22 * Machine Language Programming:
Future Computing: USR and Floating Point
Part 3—Neural Networks Jim Buttertield 68
Kevin E. Martin 42 '
Departments
Reviews The Editor's Notes
Storm Across Europe Lance Eiko 6
Jell Seiken 60 64 Letters to the Editor 7
Gauntlet II Horizons:

Steve Hedrick 60 64 Computer Science


Shoot 'Em Up Construction Kit Rhett Anderson 8 *
David and Robin Minnick 62 64 Diversions:

World Geography Classrooms Oi Tomorrow


David and Robin Minnick 63 64 Fred D'lgnazio 10 *
Aussie Games User Group Update
Alison Fleming 63 64 Liz Casey 14 *
Feedback

Games Editors and Readers


The GEOS Column: Calendar
15 *
EDITORS
International Bounty Hunter CHOICE Richard A. Rardin 18 128/64
Neil Harvey 26 128
Bug-Swatter: Modifications and
Planet Raider EDITORS
Corrections 69 *
Alain Tremblay 36 64 CHOICE
Commodore Clips:
News, Notes, and New Products
Programming Mickey McLean 79 *
Power BASIC: BASIC Labels
Ancel Bhagwandeen 11 64 Typing Aids
The Programmer's Page: The Automatic Proofreader , 71 128/64
Hints and Tips MLX: Machine Language
Randy Thompson 12 128/64 Entry Program for
BASIC for Beginners: Commodore 64 and 128 . 72 128/64
AND, OR, and NOT How to Type In COMPUTEI's
Larry Cotton 16 64 Gazette Programs 76 *
158! Partitloner
47 128 Advertisers Index 69 *
Jeremiah Farmer
Screen Designer T28
James L. Lindly 52 128 i. 128-Commooo'e 129. ^-General

COMPUTE!1! G«i*1t« (ISSN 0737-3716) is ouolishea moruM/ by COM PUTE! PuclicalJons. Inc. ABC Consumer Magaimes. Inc., r^fflon Company, one of the ABC Publishing Companies, a
pan oi Capital Cmos/ASC, inc.. 825 Scvemn JWa.. Now YMfc, NY 10019. © 1990 ABC Consumer Magnnnes. Inc All rights lesmveO Eamriai ollicss are IccatM ai SMe 200, 324 West
Wmdovor^e.GrssnsOMO.NC 27408 Domestic subsenpuons: 12 issues. S24. POSTMASTER: Send Form 3579 to COMPUTE'S GaiMW, P O. Bo* 3255. Hartan. (A 51537. Second-class
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MAGAZINES, INC.
FROM THE
PresirJem Gary R. Ingersall
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BIBLE WITH
Director. FinanoaJ AnaPysis Andrew D. Land la
CirKtor of C<rculflhon Harold Buckley LANDMARK
SUBTOTAL:
CIRCULATION The Computer Reference Bible
DEPARTMENT
Sales Taut
Subscript fons Jeanne Andrawi
MAureen Buckley Here's whil LANDMARK wll enable you lo do:
Shipping:
Jenny Lam
Raymond Ward • SEARCH THROUGH THE BIBLE—Find TOTAL:
Newsstand Peter J. Birmingham Phrases, words or sentences,
Jana Friedman Back issues of COMPUTE!, and COMPUTE! s Ga-
• DEVELOP TOPICAL FILES—Copy from Ihe
Cualomer Service (BOO) 727-6937 z&le are 36.00 each. No Issues daled prior to Janu
Bible icxt and search results then add your
ary, 1986, are availante. In addition, the following
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Greenibom COMPUTE1 PuUcaHom 324 Wnt WwtfQv* A axisisls mainly of magazines with 5 25-inch disks,
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[Cfiotffio). 1*151 340 B^?? |Cii-1orniil BOTH KJVindNIV forS]89.95 plus $10.CO S600 each Back Issues of COMPUTES Amiga Re-
Won. Norlh*nat, & BnlLth ColumWn Jnrry T
NIV royalty and shipping chirgc. soufco D'Sk are availaDIn bogmning wtfi Summer,
1989 for S1000 escli ask/maganno comDinaiions
marO J ThM&rtl. Jr ( vl-2 For C64 and v2.0 for C128 are SI2.00
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EDITOR'S

In cast.1 you haven't heard, Commodore reported a and the Commodore 65 in other quarters—will not be
$6.5 million loss for the quarter ending September delivered. Too bad. It sounded like an interesting ma
30, 1989. At this writing, we're waiting for word on the chine with some potential.
following quarter {translation: Commodore's Christ
mas). Commodore won't release its bottom-line num
ber until after you read this, so we'll follow up in one of
our next couple of issues. COMPUTE! Publications attended the annual World of
Commodore blamed its poor third-quarter per Commodore show in Toronto this past December. We
formance on slumping 64 sales and added that Amiga set up our booth and manned it with a variety of edi
and PC-compatibles sales were up compared with last tors, including those from our two Commodore maga
year's third-quarter sales. - zines, Amiga Resource and Gazette. We had lots of
Despite the bad quarter, Commodore appeared to magazines and disks on hand, and, based on our expe
be in general good health. We'll soon see how the all- rience from the previous two 1989 Commodore shows,
important fourth-quarter results affect the company's we anticipated that most of the interest would be cen
vitality. tered around our Amiga products. Much to our sur
We've heard through the grapevine that the ru prise, there was, instead, even more interest in Gazette
mored 64 upgrade machine—dubbed the 64GS by and our 64/128 disks.
yours truly in the September 1989 "Editor's Notes" Our Canadian readers, slightly more than 10 per
cent of our audience, never fail to amaze us with their
knowledge of hardware and software, as we!! as their
VIDEO BYTE II the only FULL COLOR! historical knowledge of Gazette. One of our editors, ob
video digitizer for the C-64, C-128 viously impressed, told me that one Canadian reader
Inlroducinrj iho wjrldS Ins! FULL COLOfl! mdec digilnei lor the Commotae C-6J. 64-C, knew more about Gazette than any of us did.
CATS. & 1?8D computer VIDEO BYTE can gire you digitized video Irom join VC R.. USER
DISK, B/W oi COLOR CAMERA or OFF THE AIR or CABLE VIDEO (thanks to a tasi' 2.2
Our hats are off to our Canadian readers. They're a
sec scan dme). New wision 30 sollwareieaiuresiullRE-DISPLAYwimMULTI CAPTURE special group. The letters and suggestions we get from
MODE, BUILTIN PRINTING MODE, EXPANDED COLORIZING MODE, FREEZE COLOR foa- north of the border are usually intelligent, observant,
lure and much, much more!
and always gracious. Meeting with this group, if only
f ULL CPLORIZINGI Is possible, due to a unique SELECT and INSERT color process, where
you can select one or 15 COLORS and insert itiat color into one ol 4 GRAV SCALES. This once a year, is a real treat for us.
process will give you over 32,000 different color combinations to use in your video pictures
SAVES as XDAIAS1 Video Byte II allow you lo save all your pictures to Disk as FULL COLOfl >•>■•*•■>■■•

KOALAS Afiei wflich [using Koala oi suitable program) you can 90 in and rediaw 01 color
youi V.B pic's
LOAD. DISPLAY t, PRINT Video Byte II allows you to load, display S prim all VIDEO BYTE A reminder: If you'd like to offer input as to how Ga
or KOALA picluiDS from Vrfleo Byte's menu.
MENU DRIVEN I Video Byte II comes with easy to use menu driven UTILITY DISK with
zette can better serve you, send in the Gazette Reader
V3.0 video digitizer program (64 MODE ONLY]. ship Survey from the December 1989 issue. We read
COMPACT! Video Byte I! is compact1 In lad no bigger than most cartridges! VB II (fllurjs each of the responses and tabulate the results.
into MODEM PORT) comes witli 3' caole
IHT EG RATE PI video Byte II is designed to be used with or without EXPLODE' V5.0 color This is the third year we've run such a survey.
cartridge Eiplode1 V50s menu will return you lo VIDEO BYTE IIS menu. EXPLODE! V5 Each time that we've charted the results, we've made
is Ihe PERFECT COMPANION! AT ONLY H4.95 Or W/DISABLE SWITCH M9.95.
changes in the magazine based on what you've told us.
FREEI Video Byte II users are automatically senl FREE SOFTWARE updaies along willi
new doc u menial ion, when it becomes available. We'll do the same again this year.
PfMNTJ Video Byte II will printout VB 0' KOALA pictures in 4 GRAY SCALE to most printers. The sole purpose of the survey is to see how we're
However when used with Explode! V50 your printouts can be done in FULL COLOR 8
doing for you, what you like and don't like, and how
by 11s SIDEWAYS on Ihe RAINBOW NX -1000, HAINB0W NX -1000 C. JX ■ B0. Seikosha
3000 Al. IOXIDATA 10/20"S (print larger 6" by 9") we can better shape the magazine for your needs. We
USER SLIDE SHOW pngram w/auto or manual display Is standard have hundreds of responses in and tabulated {a sneak
with VIDEO BYTE program. And can he backed upl Why DRAW a
car, airplane, person or lor thai matter . . . anything when you can
preview of the early returns is in this month's "Hori
BYTE It... VIDEO BYTE H Intlmll zons" column), but it's not loo late to write in and be
All units come w/9D day WARRANTY All orders aH J3 loi UPS BLUE LABEL S/H UPS BLUE jvjrtjblc counted.
only in 38 stales FOREIGN ORDERS are US FUNDS *S63S S/H. ORDER BOTH EXPLODE! V5 & VIDEO
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PARTS S L«BOB ONLY All SOFT GROUP UTILITY DISKS COME mTmH-ifi CATALOG or PRODUCTS

■IN 64 MODE ONLY TO ORDER ULL 1-7M-8S1 ««7 IL RESIDENTS »OD 6t SALES TAX PLUS S3 00
S/H. HO COD'S FOREIGN ORDERS US FUNDS ONLY S635 S/H Personal Checks 10 Days to Clear

THE SOFT GROUP, P.O. BOX 111, MONTGOMERY, IL 60538 Lance Elko
Circlo Render Sirvici NgmBti I 19 Associate Publisher
6 COMPUTBs Gazette March 1990
LETTERS
tn the alitnr
Send questions or comments to Letters We recommend that you consider synapse. Finally, the axon label, al
to the Editor, COMPUTED Gazelle, purchasing COMPUTERS SpeedScript though technically correct, is actually
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, North Disk, which contains both versions of pointing to part of the myelin sheath,
Carolina 27403. We reserve the right SpeedScript, both spelling checkers, and which is an insulating wrap around
to edit letters (or clarity and length. a host of other support utilities for both the axon.
the 64 and 128 versions. (An orf appears Craig D. Slattery
elsewhere in this issue.) The "Tape or Wapakoneta, OH
The Right Joystick Disk?" prompt is conspicuously absent in
I'd like to comment on the review of the disk version. Thanks, Craig—you're absolutely right.
The Final Cartridge 111 [January], Art
Hunkins reported thai a mouse was Thanks to Hostlers VIC Help
necessary in order to use the desktop A special thanks to those readers who re I found myself in complete agreement
feature of the cartridge and that joystick sponded to Kristine Cipra's request for with the reader searching for programs
mode is nearly impossible. Well, Art accounting-program recommendations for his VIC-20 and Plus/4 ["Call for
apparently doesn't own a decent joy ("Reader Advice, Please," December). VIC-20 and Plus/4 Software," Novem
stick. I've owned my Final Cartridge III Since there were a variety of responses (no ber). !'ve been going bananas trying to
for more than a year now, and I use an one package dominated the suggestions), find software.
Epyx 500XJ joystick. I can tell you with we have fonvarded letters lo Kristine. To respond to the reader's direct
great confidence that this inexpensive question, I've found all of my programs
joystick is almost as good as using a Good Report at the public library. My branch carries
mouse and works equally well with I've discovered that Commodore's cus some Family Computing issues and,
GEOS. Cheer up, Art. .. the rest of the tomer support which everyone is quick more importantly, COMPUTE! and Ga
article was pretty good. to put down is really quite good. I re zette going back far enough to carry
Robert L Rappaport cently wrote to Commodore about not some VIC programs. I've also been able
Key West, FL receiving a manual and a registration to receive some V!C books through the
card with my 1084. Within a week, I re interbranch library system. Another av
ffatf Taste? ceived both along with a letter of apolo enue to explore is user groups. Com
In the past few months, I've noticed an gy from a customer support person. I puter Shopper runs a list of user groups
increasing occurrence of advertising don't know about anyone else, but to broken down by state. Each group has
that appeals to the sensual. I under me that's outstanding support. in its listing the names of the computers
stand that Gazette does not design the Ronald W. Waid they support. There were lots of Com
ads, and that advertising is essential to Philadelphia, NY modore groups listed, and at least two
the economic survival of any magazine. mentioned the VIC. I've written to
It has reached the point where I am em Lest We Forget some but haven't received a response
barrassed to read my Gazette in public. Just a little nitpicking comment. In the yet. One more idea: If the reader has ac
Please share my concern with those December issue, you carried the pro cess to an IBM PC or compatible with a
who advertise in your magazine. gram 80 X 50 Display. In the article, modem. Computer Shopper runs a list of
Clark Lindsay you mentioned that the VIC-20 had a BBSs by state. He could tie into one of
Dunbar, WI 22 X 25 character screen. It's 22 X 23. those and find out if they carry a "For
I got rid of that archaic beastie, but I Sale" conference. Post a message ask
SpeedScript on Disk still remember a lot about it. ing for VIC-20 or Plus/4 equipment. Be
I've found SpeedScript to be better than Rod Reddekopp prepared to wait for an answer,
the commercial word processor I had Yarkton, Sask., Canada though—I'm just now getting some
been using. I recall that you published a feedback after three months of waiting!
spelling checker for it a few years ago. Right you are. We used to cover the VIC Also, I'd love to find some out-of-
Can you reprint this? Also, 1 find the quite extensively, but it seems we've got publication copies from COMPUTEI's
question "Tape or Disk?" (asked every some bad memory chips here at the COM series of titles for the VIC.
time you want to print or save) to be a PUTE! office. Edward }. Rhodes
waste of time. I'll bet nearly everybody Newport, Rl
who uses SpeedScript has a disk drive. Benitiltes In Dispute
F. S. A. Johnstone The illustration for Neural Networks Some excellent ideas here. Don't forget
Ont., Canada [January] is incorrectly labeled. The Hint in every May and June issue Gazette
short, red fingeriike projections ex publishes a comprehensive list of Commo
We published a SpeedScript spelling tending from the cell body are the dore user groups (many with BBS num
checker (SpeedCheck) (n the December dendrites. Their function is to carry bers) as well. Incidentally, back issues of
1985 issue of Gazette. We also published messages from the synapses to the cell Gazette before 1986 are oul of print, as
a version for the 128 (SpeedCheck 128) body. The blue projections, which are are all the VIC titles published by COM
in the September 1988 issue. All 1985 labeled as dendrites, are actually the PUTE! Books. But, we're fairly certain
issues are no longer available. The 1988 ends of the axons, which carry mes that some libraries will have copies of
issue is, however, available. sages away from the cell body to the these magazines and books. B
COMPUTE!* Gazelle March 1990 7
horizons Computer Science
fiheit Anderson best tools that ever came out for design- certain that today's games would have
ing Commodore 64 games was the stunned yesterday's game players.
No matter what the system—Atari Commodore Amiga. Artists draw
2600, Commodore 64, Nintendo, IBM screens, characters, and objects with Ear to Ihe Ground
PC—programs just keep getting better the excellent Amiga paint and anima The rumors of the Commodore 65—an
and better. Because [ claimed lack of in tion programs. Then the programmers enhanced Commodore 64—remain.
spiration for this month's "Horizons," write routines to convert the Amiga im Since the 128 is out of production, and
Associate Publisher (I knew him back ages to 64 images. While the images the 64 is rumored to be out of produc
when he was just an editor) Lance Elko lose a bit in translation, they look far tion, many people see the 65 as the
suggested that I discuss this phenome superior to the images created from Commodore 8-bit line's last chance.
non. I liked the idea so much that 1 scratch on the 64. Many of the user group newslet
scrapped the half-column 1 had already ters I see make mention of the 65.1 my
written. The Road Taken self have never seen one. I've never
First, an experiment. While reading Let's take a closer look at the 64 (the even talked to anyone who has seen
this sentence, carefully walk over to 128, from a game player's point of view, one. If any of you have seen a 65 proto
your software shelf. Don't trip over fur is essentially the same machine). The 64 type machine, please drop me a line
niture, pets, or family members as you was preceded by the Apple II, the Atari and tell me your story. I'll keep it confi
do this. Now, while reading this sen 800, and the V1C-20. It wasn't surprising dential. If you'd like, I'll eat your letter
tence, look out of the corner of your eye to anyone when the first Commodore 64 when I'm through reading it.
and find your first favorite game for games looked exactly like Apple, Atari, My prediction on the situation: If
your computer. Next, find your current and VIC games. In fact, some of the first Commodore doesn't sell enough Ami-
favorite game. 64 games copied the other versions so gas by fall to make believers out of an
If you're not the type to play closely that they didn't even use the 64's increasingly skeptical marketplace, it
games, this experiment also works with hardware sprites. will scale back the company, release the
productivity software, but because Soon, programmers felt their way 65, and try to become (once again) ev
games stretch the machine more than through the 64 and began to take ad eryone's favorite low-end computer
any other category of software, we'll be vantage of its considerable strengths: maker.
able to go further in our scientific color memory, sprites, expansive RAM,
quackery if you can nab a pair of enter and three-channel sound. A spate of Sneak Preview
tainment titles. books arrived, detailing the hardware I've managed to sneak a look at some of
Fire up your computer and boot and system software. Soon, the 64 was the early returns of the 1989 Reader
the older game. Check out the title the most popular home computer. ship Survey.
screen, the music, the graphics, the ani For a while, programmers almost Some of your responses surprised
mation, the sound effects. Now try the overused the 64's special talents. Often, me. For instance, more than 90 percent
second game and compare. for instance, nothing on the screen of you use the programs published in
Old-timers will notice the most would move but the sprites. Since Gazelle. The majority of you type them
change—the longer the gap between sprites can take up only a small percent in. That's encouraging. When asked to
the two programs, the more obvious age of the total screen area, many pro rate the quality of our programs, most of
and significant the differences. grams started to look the same. you gave us an 8, a 9, or a 10 (out of 10).
With this experience in mind, let's To break out of the pack, program Most of you want to hang on to
take a closer look at the programmer mers had to do more. With the intro your current computers. Of those who
and his or her tools. duction of the PC's EGA mode and the want to buy a new one in the next year,
Amiga and ST computers, program most want an Amiga (37 percent). Next
Cold Pizza and Inspiration mers had new goals to work toward. come the PC (28 percent) and the 128
Because programming is largely misun (19 percent).
derstood by the outside world, pro The Outer Limits Well, I'll stop pulling my material
grammers tend to run in packs. While it Have we seen the best? What we've out from under the editor. I'm sure
would be stretching the facts to say that seen is close. The 64 has definite, un you'll find out more about the survey
they all walk alike and talk alike or that avoidable limitations. It has only 16 when the final results are in.
they all have the same diet and taste in colors out of a palette of 16. EGA has 16
music, they do look out for each other. out of 64. The Amiga has 32 out of Old Business
Trade secrets don't last long. Program 4096. Memory is a big problem. Digi Alan Shotzbarger from Solon, Ohio
mers are anxious to brag about what tized sound samples (which pale in (I've actually eaten at a McDonald's
they've done, so source code streams comparison to Mac or Amiga sound) there, Alan), wrote to tell me that he
along the telecommunications wires 24 take up huge amounts of RAM. Resolu votes in favor of voting by computer.
hours a day. tion is limited to 320 X 200. Commo He believes that our method of democ
That's one reason programs get dore 64 disks drives are slow, and the racy could use an overhaul. He says
better. Each programmer contributes a disks don't hold much. "By allowing computerized voting,
few tricks to the taming of the machine. So, we've come close to the limit. every individual would have thfl oppor
Tools get better, too. One of the As close as is economical, anyway. It's tunity to be heard equally." G

8 COMPUTE'S Gazette March 1990


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Clicl* H»»d«r S«»!c* Number 196
iversions
Classrooms of Tomorrow
Fred D'lgiazlo study geography the way a teacher NASA's astronauts and commercial air
does—so they can share their new line pilots. Information will be dis
Over the past few months, I've received knowledge with their classmates. Stu played in various windows on the
hundreds of letters from Gazette readers dents are graded not by what they computer screen—animation windows,
as part of The Great Commodore/Nin know, but by how well they share what number windows, text windows, and
tendo Debate. The letters have been they know with others. so on. Student explorers will interview
outstanding. Encouraged by the quality scientists, experts, policymakers, and
of your responses, I've decided to turn * Thematic Teaching. Students no long other decision makers. They will turn
to you for advice on a project I'm in er study one subject at a time. Now they their interviews into computer games
volved with here in Michigan. try to see connections between math and get practice solving real-world
I'm working with high-level state and reading or between history and sci problems and searching for solutions to
officials in Michigan to create a pro ence. They learn subjects as part of larg the same problems that are stumping
gram that will be called Michigan er thematic units such as whales, the the experts.
Classrooms of Tomorrow. Michigan greenhouse effect, homeless people,
teachers who sign up for the program technology, religion, migration, and so Help!
will get $20 million worth of computers on. They learn how to use the tools of This is the proposal that I made tp
for their classrooms. To qualify, the science, math, and so on, to interpret Michigan officials as part of their Class
teachers will have to show how they information and share it with others. rooms of Tomorrow program. We need
will use the computers to create a class to work toward tomorrow, [ said, liy
room of tomorrow. The computers will A New Kind ol Classroom starting today. We need to look at Ihe
help teachers try out new methods of What will a classroom look like in the best computer games and see how they
teaching and learning that will prepare year 2000? can be transformed into powerful learn
their students for the twenty-first cen That used to be a question asked ing experiences that turn students on to
tury as citizens, parents, and workers. only by futurists and crystal-ball gaz learning, help them link together the
ers. Now it's a question for all of us. The continents of knowledge, and carry
New Strategies year 2000 is only ten years away. them into the twenty-first century.
Here are some of the strategies Michi I've made a futuristic proposal to But I'm no gamer. I depend a lot on
gan teachers can explore with their stu Michigan educational officials. In the my 10-year-old son, Eric, and my 13-
dents, using computers: year 2000, I said, students won't learn year-old daughter, Catie, to advise me,
from textbooks or teachers. Textbooks but 1 need more help. A lot more.
• Cooperative Learning. Students work contain warmed-up, leftover knowl If you play computer games and
as teams. They help each other learn edge that is largely outdated. Teachers would like to help the state of Michigan
and don't let anyone fall behind. The can't keep up with knowledge on all plan its classrooms of tomorrow, please
teams solve problems together, create fronts or with the tools that can deliver write me. Tell me how we can use com
class speeches, and demonstrate what knowledge to their students—tools like puter gaming techniques in the class
they've learned using the computer. computers, laserdiscs, satellite TV, room to help students learn their
compact discs, compressed video, fiber subjects. What powerful learning skills
• Critical Thinking. Teachers turn over optics, and so on. do games develop? How can these
the responsibility for learning to their In the year 2000, teachers and stu skills be used in classroom learning?
students. The students gain a lot of in dents will learn together as knowledge Be specific. Diagram a map of the
dependence and get to make a lot of explorers. They'll choose topics pulled classroom of tomorrow and show me
their own decisions. However, they from current events, family life, and lo how the students are grouped, what
must be more self-reliant, manage their cal politics. And they'll send student equipment is used, and so on. What
classwork and homework, and solve a and teacher teams out into the real does the school day look like? Is it di
lot of problems on their own. They use world on electronic field trips to investi vided into periods as it is now, or is it
a computer to help them work. gate these topics as they gain practice centered around students' projects?
with tools for investigation including Read this article again; then jot
• Classroom Publishing. Students statistics, reading, writing, the scientific down your ideas, pictures, suggestions,
choose projects that have a natural method, and graphic arts. and so on, and send them to
audience—parents, younger students, Education hi the year 2000 will be a
senior citizens, and so on. They re lot like a goad computer game. A student Fred D'lgnazio
search a subject, gather materials, and on an electronic field trip will still be sit c/o COMPUTED Gazette
create publications using their com ting in the classroom, but he or she will 324 W. Wendover Ave.
puter. The publications might be on also be an electronic telepresence, able Suite 200
disk, audiotape, videotape, or paper to use electronic eyes and ears and jour Greensboro, NC 27408
(like a class newspaper or flyer). ney around the globe, explore the seas,
or blast off to a distant planet or I'll publish the most innovative
• Apprentice Learning. Students take on moon—just like a character in a com ideas in an upcoming column. And,
Ihe role of apprentice teachers. They puter game! Student workstations will thanks! Kids all over Michigan will ben
learn how to read, write, do math, and be like flight simulators used by efit from your thinking. fl
10 COMPUTE! s Gazette March 1990
power
BASIC BASIC Labels
Ancel Bhagwandeen 10 IF A-0 THEN A-1:LOAD"BASIC CF94 98 CF AD FF FF C9 89 F0 55
LABELS",8,1 CF9C 06 C9 8D F0 ID D0 E2 20 84
CFA4 A9 CF 6C 08 03 AD EB CF 91
Branch to labeled subroutines with at the beginning of your program. Then CFAC B5 7A AD EC CF 85 7B AD 6B
this short but powerful enhancement type SYS 52900 to enable the routine. CFB4 E8 CF 85 39 AD E9 CF 85 3B
for BASIC 2.0. With BASIC Labels, each label must CFBC 3A 60 68 68 20 A9 CF 6C D8

begin with a letter and can contain as CFC4 »a 03 A0 SS Bl 7A C9 5B A3


CFCC F0 05 A9 0B 4C C6 CE C8 EF
Commodore 64 BASIC is a good general- many as 20 alphanumeric characters. A
CFD4 58 68 68 68 Bl 7A F0 E7 97
purpose language, but it lacks a certain left square bracket ([) must precede CFDC C9 3A F0 E3 E6 7A D0 F4 04
feature offered by many languages. each label at the point of execution. If CFE4' E6 7B D0 F0 00 00 00 00 FF
Specifically, it won't allow you to you forget to include this character, a CFEC 00 22 00 00 00 00 00 00 BC

branch to labeled routines. Instead of syntax error will occur. (BASIC tries to CFF4 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0B 94

being able to use meaningful labels interpret the label itself as a command.)
such as CHECKFORINPUT or BUILD- Also, be careful if you use a left square Demo
SCREEN, you're forced to use obscure bracket within quotation marks. A SG 13 IFA-GTHENA=1:LOAD"BASIC
line numbers. string containing this character could be [SPACE}[.ABELS",8,1
mistaken for a label if the subsequent MK 20 SYS52900
BASIC Labels is a machine lan
characters match those for a label. DG 30 PRINT"{CLR}";TAB[3)"COPY
guage routine that gives BASIC 2.0's
RIGHT 1990 COMPUTE! PUB.
GOSUB and GOTO statements the A colon (:) is used to mark the end
, INC."
ability to branch to labels. With it, you of each label. Don't place a space be EM 40 PRINTTAD(10)"ALL RIGHTS
no longer have to guess where an un tween the end of the label and the colon (SPACE}RESERVED":PRINT:P
written subroutine will begin. Just give unless you want it to be part of the la RINT

it a label and the line number becomes bel. When branching, refer to the label HE 50 PRINTTAB(3):PFINT"THE LI
NE NUMBER OF EACH BRANCH
irrelevant. by its exact name; don't include the
IS"
Furthermore, with BASIC Labels bracket or the colon (for example, GO PA 60 PRINTTAB(4):PRINT"DISPLA
you can branch to the middle of a pro SUB GETINPUT). YED AS IT EXECUTES BELOW
gram line. Normally, the GOSUB and One caveat: Although BASIC La (YEL)":PRINT:PRINT
GOTO commands transfer program bels is fully functional with GOTO and GR 70 GOSUB LABEL:GOSUB LABEL1
:GOSUB CCC
control to the start of a designated line. GOSUB, with the ON GOTO/ON GO
SB 80 GOSUB DDDiGOTO A LONG LA
Now, you can position a label at any SUB statements only the last branch
BEL
point within a line and execution will line number can be replaced by a label
DR 90 THIS PART OF LINE WILL M
begin there. This added flexibility is es (for example, ON x GOTO 10,20,30, OT BE USED:[LABEL:GOSUB
pecially convenient when working with LABEL). {SPACE)DDD:PRINT"110":RE
loops and subroutines. TURN
MS 100 [LABEL1:PRINT"120":RETU
BASIC Labels RH
Getting started
CEA4 AD 00 03 8D C7 CE AD 01 28 PQ 110 [CCC: PRINT"130":RETURN
Since BASIC Labels is written entirely in XX 120 [DDD:PRINT"140":[EEEiRE
CEAC 03 8D C8 CE A9 BD 8D 00 ac
machine language, you'll need to enter TURN
CEB4 03 A3 CE 8D 01 03 60 E0 A6
it using MLX, the machine language en CEBC 11 F0 0A EG 0B D0 03 4C 5C SC 130 [A LONG LABEL:GOSUB150:
try program found elsewhere in this is CEC4 C6 CF 4C FF FF A0 01 A5 6D PRINT"END"
sue. When MLX prompts you, respond CECC 7A 8D DC CE 8D 97 CF A5 A3 CS 140 END
CED4 7B 8D DD CE 3D 98 CF AD 58 HQ 150 PRIMT:PRIHTTAB(2)"t7>YO
with the values given below.
CEDC FF FF F0 15 C9 3A F0 11 14 U CAN USE HORMAL BRANCH
Starting address; CEA4 CEE4 99 ED CF ac ea CF CB EE A4 ES AS WELL"
CEEC DC CE D0 EB EE DD CE DB E2 SC 160 PRINTTAB[9)"(GOTO 20, F
Ending address: CFFB
CEP4 E6 A9 5B A0 00 99 ED CF F7 OR EXAMPLE)"iRETURN Q
Follow the MLX instructions carefully. CEFC A0 04 A2 00 A5 2B 85 A3 C8

Before you exit MIX, be sure to save a CF04 A5 2C 85 A4 Bl A3 F0 IB 95


CF0C DD ED CF F0 09 A2 00 C8 BA
copy of the program to disk with the
CF14 D0 F2 E6 A4 Dfl EE EC EA 07
name BASIC LABELS.
Next, type in the BASIC program
CF1C CF F0 3E EB C3 D0 E5 E6 72
Use the handy
CF24 A4 D0 El CB D0 02 E6 A4 14
Demo. To ensure accurate typing, enter CF2C Bl A3 F0 IF 20 49 CF 20 83
4 9 CF Bl E8 CF
Reader Service Card
this program using The Automatic Proof CF3 4 A3 8D 20 AC
CF3C 49 CF Bl A3 8D E9 CF 20 B8
reader, also found elsewhere in this is
CF44- 49 CF 4C 08 CF ca Da 02 CB in the back of the
sue. When you've finished typing, be CF4C: E6 A4 60 ca D0 02 E6 A4 22
sure to save a copy of the program. CF54 Bl A3 D0 DB A2 11 4C C6 46 magazine to receive
CF5C- CE 20 49 CF Bl A3 C9 3A 7B
Using the Program CF64: Dfl B9 98 18 65 A3 8D EB 30 additional information
The program Demo shows you how to CF6C: CF A9 00 65 A4 8D EC CF B9

use BASIC Labels in your own pro


CF74: CE EA CF 18 AD EA CF 65 CF on our advertisers.
CF7C: 7A 95 7A A9 00 65 7B 85 B6
grams. To load the machine language, CF84: 7B 38 AD 97 CF E9 01 8D D4
place a statement of the form CF8C: 97 CF AD 98 CF E9 00 8D DE

COMPUTE'S Gazette March 1990 11


THE
Hints and Tips
Randy Thompson variable HIGH in line 110 to reflect the Character-Code Function
new upper limit. Keypress
"The Programmer's Page" is interested Henry E. Shotwell
1 cursor right
in your programming tips and tricks. Berwick, PA si hit-- cursor left
Semi all submissions to The Program SHIKT-Q cursor up
mer's Page, COMPUTEI's Gazette, REMarkable Codes Q cursor down
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, North It's a little-known fact that you can use s home cursor
Carolina 27403, We'll pay $25-550 the REM statement to change the ap SHUTS clear screen
for each tip we publish. pearance of your BASIC program list T delete
ings. Both the 64 and the 128 will SHIFT-T insert
process control codes that follow a K
This issue's hints and tips range from a reverse on
REM, forcing the computer to perform SHIIT-K reverse off
technique to put you in 64 mode on the
tasks such as changing the text color, SHIFT-P black
128 to one for creating colorful listings.
clearing the screen, moving the cursor, E white
and even emitting a beep (128 only). E red
Go Directly to 64 Mode To enter these codes, you must CMD-* cyan
Normally, to go into 64 mode on a 128, type REM, enter two quotation marks, CMD— purple
you type GO 64, hit RETURN, and then hit DEI. once {to remove the second T green
answer Y to the ARE YOU SURE? quotation mark), press CTRI.-9 (for - blue
prompt. But if you type SYS 65357 in RVS/ON), and then press SHIFT-M. SHHT-t yellow
stead, you go directly to 64 mode. The Your line should appear with a single SH1FT-A orange

ARE YOU SURE? prompt does not ap quotation mark followed by a reversed SH1FT-U brown
pear. You can use this SYS from within backslash character. Now, you may fol SHIFT-V light red
a program as well. low this backslash with one or more of SH1FT-W dark gray
Ali Imran the characters shown in the accompa SH1FT-X medium gray
Lahore, Pakistan nying table to create a variety of effects. SHIFT-Y light green
All of these control characters must be SHI IT-Z light blue
Decimal to Hexadecimal Chart entered in reverse mode. 5HIIT- + light gray
This program prints a hexadecimal For example, enter a program line B underline on
lookup chart for the decimal numbers with a REM, type two quotation marks, (80-column only)
0-255. It prints the numbers in five DEL, CTRL-9, and SHIFT-M to prepare SHIFT-B underline off
neatly aligned columns. Such a chart is for the control codes; then enter two Q's (80-column only)
useful when you're programming in (unshifted), press CTRL-0 to exit G ring bell (128 only)
machine language or whenever you reverse mode, type 13 spaces and the SHIFT-M shifted return
need to convert a number from hexa word COMMODORE, press CTRL-9 to N lowercase characters
decimal to decimal or vice versa. enter reverse mode again, and then en SHIFT-N uppercase characters
ter one last Q. Now, when you list the O flash on (80-column
GP 100 REM DECIMAL TO HEX CONV
line you'll see only)
ERSION CHART
SHIFT-0 flash off (80-column
DH lie HIGH=255:REM UPPER LIMI 10 REM " only)
T
COMMODORE I tab (128 only)
OS 1213 OPEN 4,4:X=1:Y-1:SPS»"
X set/clear tab
{SPACE}S"
READY. (128 only)
PF 130 PRINT#4,5 PC|20) "DECIMAL
TO 'HEX CONVERSION CHAR The first quotation mark that you [ escape

T":PRINTt4lPRINTI4
type is used to hold the characters; the Instead of using the characters giv
RE 140 D = X:GOSUB 200:REM COtJVE
second quotation mark turns off quote en above, you can also enter control
RT TO HEX
MX 150 X$=RIGHT$[STRS(1000+X), mode but is deleted so that the com codes as normal keypresses. To do this,
3)THXS=RIGHTSfHDS,2) puter remains in quote mode when the you must enter a quotation mark direct
DQ 160 PBINTI4,TAB(5];" ";XS;S line is listed. The CTRL-9 doesn't print ly after the shifted M and press DEL to
PS;HXS; any characters but activates reverse remove it. This puts you back into
JC L70 X»X+l:Y»Y+llIF Y=6 THEN
mode. The reverse shifted M is equiva quote mode, where you can enter the
lent to a shifted RETURN (ASCII 141). control codes simply by pressing the
PF 188 IF X<=HIGH THEN 149
PS 190 PRINTI4:CLOSE 4:ENO The reversed Q's are cursor downs. If appropriate key. For example, to enter a
CA 200 HDS="":D=D/409G:FOR 1-1 you've ever typed a cursor down in cursor-down character (which appears
quote mode, you know that the com as a reverse Q), simply press the cursor-
(49+D%-(D%>9)*7):D=16"{ puter prints a reversed Q. down key. Or to enter a color change.
D-Dt) To print normal characters in your simply hold down CTRL and press one
PS 210 NEXT
listing, simply exit reverse mode by of the number keys.
CD 220 RETURN
pressing CTR1.-0. Remember to turn Abhay Saxena
If you want this program to print reverse back on, however, to enter the Glen Oaks, NY
numbers higher than 255, change the codes listed in the following table.
12 COMPUTE'S Gazelle March 1990
SPBD
Now Get Inside Your Commodore with
COMPUTE'S Gazette Disk.


Now there's a way to get all the exciting, fun-filled programs of
EVCU
MWIICH 3 COMPUTED fiazef/e-already on disk—with COMPUTEI's
Gazette Disk.
Subscribe today, and month after month you'll get a new, fully-
tested 51/4-inch floppy disk guaranteed to run on your Commodore
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000000000
0Q0BEJD0® COMPUTEt's Gazette Disk brings you all the latest, most chal
lenging, most fascinating programs published in the corresponding
issue of GOMPUTEl's Gazette. So instead of spending hours typing
in each program, now al! you do is insert the disk... and your
programs load in seconds.

RESULT: You have hours more time to enjoy all those great
programs which appear in COMPUTEI's Gazette—programs like
SpeedScript 128, Arcade Volleyball, 3-D Sprites, Sketch Pad, Sound
Manager, 1541 Speed and Alignment Tester, and hundreds more.

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ifgf $2.00 shipping and handling) by writing us at P.O. Box 5188
?
Greensboro, N.C. 27403.
User Group
Update
Edited by Liz Casey

The following list includes updated entries to our annual "Guide to Commo MASSACHUSETTS
dore User Groups," which last appeared in the May and June 1989 issues. Commodore User Croup of the Berkshire*, 159
Send typed additions, corrections, and deletions for this list to Doneen St., Pitlsiidd, MA 01201

Commodore 64/128 User. Group Update NLW JERSEY


COMPUTED Gazette Fair Lawn Computer Club, c/o Herman Sachs, 6
Bryson Rd., Fair [awn, NJ 07410
P.O. Box 5406
Greensboro, NC 27403 NORTH CAROLINA
Weslern Carolina Commodore Beginner User
When writing to a user group for information, please remember to enclose Group (WCCHUC), III. 4 Bin 387, ForMl City,
NC 2HD43 (UBS" 704-287-8Q52)
a self-addressed envelope with postage that is appropriate for the country to
Greater Onslow Commodore Users Group (GO-
which you're writing.
CUG), P.O. Box ]6«. Jacksonville, NC2S541

Note: COMPUTE! Publications does not condone the use of its user group lists by
individuals or user groups for the purpose of buying, selling, or trading pirated soft Western Cincinnati Commodore Club <WE5T-
ware. Should we discover any group participating in any such illegal and unethical COM 64), P.O. Bu< 89, Amelia, OH 45102

activity, the club's listing will be permanently deleted from our files. TKNNESSFI-
luiljnooga Commodore Users, 1406
User Group Noles Dr.r Chattanooga, TN 37-112
TI-XAS
The Blue Juniata Commodore Users-Group has changed its mailing address.
The Software Pi lace, 11200 Socarro Rd., El Paso.
The correct mailing address is 23 Oakland Avenue, Lewistown, Pennsylvania TX 79927 (BBSs 915-859-8714)
17044. WASHINGTON
The correct bulletin board service telephone number for Commodore Users Renton Computer Group, 113HS SE 269lh St.,
Kent, WA9S031
Group of Kansas City (P.O. Box 36034, Kansas City, Missouri 64111) is (816)
Yaklma Atea Commodore Club, P.O. Bo> 10937.
353-9961. Vikima, WA98fD9-]9J7

The Queens Commodore Users Group (QCUG) has moved. Its new mailing WISCONSIN
address is P.O. Box 129, Ozone Park, New York 11437. The group has also Encallbcr 64/Amlga, Rt. 3 Bm 30-AA, Cumber
added a bulletin board service; the number is (718) 366-7445. land, VV1 54B29

The Tulsa Area Commodore Users Group (TACUG) has changed its mailing Outside the U.S.
address. All correspondence should be sent to P.O. Box 52473, Tulsa, Oklahoma
AUSTRALIA
74152-0473. Its new bulletin board service number is (918) 428-2284.
C64 Computer User, P.O. Box 826, Young, New
The Scranton Commodore Users Group in Scranton, Pennsylvania has Soulh Wales 2594, Australia
changed its bulletin board service number. The correct telephone number is CANADA
now (717) 969-1228. Calgary Commodore Users Croup, 37 1181(1
Macteod Tr. SE, Calgary, All.., Canada T2f 2VH
The Muenster Garrison User's Group has updated its mailing address. The Commodore User's Group of Saskatchewan
new address is c/o Mr. Maki, 583rd Ord Co., APO New York, NY 09078. (C.U.G.S.), 1752 Forget St., Regina. Sask., Canada
S4T 4V5
Ottawa Commodore Microcomputer User Croup
New Listings COLORADO ICMUG), c/o Mr, Z. Colynuck. 2 Kingsmill Si.,
Colorado FIub Foul Forum, 1340 Fillmore St., Nopean, Ont,, Canada K2E 5|1
ARIZONA Denver, CO B021)6
COSTA RICA
Prescotl Arra Commodore Club (P.A.C.C), P.O. OIORCilA Club Commodore Tlco, RO. Bin 4356-1000, San
lio> -101'J, PiWCOtt, AZ S6301
Metro Atlanta Commodore Klub (MACK), P.O. |<jsl\ Cosii Rica
CALIFORNIA Bos S134SI. Smyrna, GA 30081 (UBS" 404-590-
Mr.xico
7114)
Commodore 64 West User Group, 2306 w ISO Cluh de Usuarios Commodore de Chihuahua
St.. Torrancc, CA 9O5G4 (CUCC), R. Caidi-ron "801, Chihuahua, Chihua
Temple City Commodore Users Croup Commodore Computer User's Croup of Iowa hua, Meiico31340
(TCCUG1, 9317 E. Oliw St.. Temple City. CA (CCUGI), P.O. Box 3140, Des Moines. 1A 5Q316
917S0 PAKISTAN
Commodore Computer Club, 55 Bavarly Dr., LOUISIANA Commodore User Croup (C.U.C), 465-C, SfttellllB
C.-imarillu, CA 93010 West Bank Users Group, P.O. Bo> 740B54. New Town, Cujr.inw.il.i, Pakistan
Orleans. l.A 7O174-0854

14 COMPUTEIs Gazette Mflfch 1990


Do you have a question or a problem? (decimal 44) has something to do with rate. In my 64, this condition persisted
Have you discovered something that what's happening here, but I can't fig for about half an hour after the power
could help other Commodore users? ure out why. Can you help? was turned on, depending on what was
We want to hear from you. Write to Matt Bathke plugged into the expansion port. The
Gazette Feedback, COMPUTEI's Ga El Cajon, CA fault can bo cured by soldering a 0.1 ufd
zette, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, ceramic capacitor across R37 (6.8K), lo
North Carolina 27403. We regret that, We can see why you're confused. It seems cated to the right of U27 on the mother
due to the volume of mail received, we that location $033C should contain a 1 board, and another 0.1 ufd ceramic
cannot respond individually to pro each time you call the subroutine, but it capacitor across CR1 (1N4371), located
gramming questions. doesn't. The problem is that the subrou near the center of the board.
tine can be disassembled in two ways. The BASIC on the 64 generates the jiffy
disassembly above is one way to look at clock (Tl$) by counting IRQ pulses,
Video Digitizers the subroutine; below is another. which originate in Timer A of 6526 #1
I'm interested in a video digitizer for my at a nominal rate of 60 PPS. This
8000 LDA #505
Commodore 64. I know of two such counter counts at the system (CPU)
8002 BIT $01A9
products: ComputerEyes and Video clock rate of 1.023 MHz. In the original
8005 STA S033C
Byte. Could you tell me a little more software, the Timer A divisor is 16667
8008 RTS
about each of these? decimal, which is correct for a 1.000-
Art Green Now, you can see why location $033C MHz clock. Hence, the jiffy clock runs
Pembroke Pines, FL contains 5 when the subroutine ends. The 2,3 percent fast, gaining an extra min
BIT command at location $8002 ANDs the ute every 45 minutes, or 33 extra min
Video digitizers take output from a VCR contents of the accumulator with the con utes per day.
or a video camera and convert it into a tents of location S01A9 and sets the status This error can be corrected by writ
high-resolution bitmapped image. Cam- register accordingly. It also copies bit 7 of ing the proper divisor (17045 decimal)
puterEyes is an established product and S01A9 to the N (negative) flag of the status into the Timer A latches before setting
costs $129.95. It takes about six seconds to register and bit 6 to the V (overflow) flag. TI$. To do this, include one of the fol
produce a gray-scale image in Doodle or Unlike the AND command, the BIT com lowing patches in your program's ini
Koala format. mand doesn't change the contents of tialization routine.
Video Byte II is newer and features S01A9 or the accumulator.
(in machine language)
faster scanning and color support. Files The BIT command was originally in
are saved in Koala formal. Color printing tended to be used to read I/O registers LDA #S95
is supported with the Super Explode! ver without losing the contents of either the STA $DC04
sion 5 cartridge. The digitizer costs register or the accumulator. Another pop LDA #542
$79.95, and the Super Explode! 5 cartridge ular use of the BIT command is to allow STA $DC05
is $44.95. For more information on Com multiple entry points into a subroutine. In
(in BASIC)
puterEyes, contact Digital Vision, 66 the subroutine above, if you enter at
Eastern Avenue. Dedham, Massachusetts $8000, location $033C contains a 5 when POKE 56324,149:POKE 56325,66
02026; (617J 329-5400. If you'd like to the subroutine exits. If you enter at $8003,
The timer latches are write-only;
knoiv more about Video Byte II and Super location $033C contains a 1. If you're in
you cannot read the values in them. In
Explode! 5, contact The Soft Group, P.O. terested in learning more about the BIT
later 64s, these patches have no effect
Box 111, Montgomery, Illinois 60538; command, watch for the July and August
on the computer since they simply re
1312) 851-6667. installments of "Machine Language Pro
write the same (correct) values already
gramming," where Jim Butterfield ex
A BIT Confusing in the latches.
plains how the BIT command works and
Alex Engel
Recently, I was converting a VIC-20 some of its more common uses.
La Canada, CA
machine language program to work on
a C64 and ran across the following A Matter ol Timing
subroutine. Owners of older 64s (mine was manu Thanks for this enlightening discussion on
factured and sold in 1982) should be the 64's clocks. Soldering on a circuit
8000 LDA #$05
aware that the original version had de board is a delicate operation and therefore
8002 BYTE S2C
sign errors in both the hardware (TOD) we suggest that only qualified readers at
8003 LDA #$01
and software (jiffy) clocks. tempt to make the hardware modifica
8005 STA $033C
A TOD (time-of-day) clock is im tions. You can determine whether you
8008 RTS
plemented within each 6526 chip. Al need to use the software modification with
After SYSing to it, I PEEKed location though BASIC on the 64 doesn't use your computer by PEEKing location
828 to see what value was stored there. this function, some third-party soft 65408. The oldest 64s have a 170 in this
In every instance, location 828 holds 5, ware does, including Berkeley's GEOS. location. If you have one of the oldest 64s,
the first value loaded into the accumu The fault is in the circuit that generates you should use the software patch sug
lator. Why is this? Shouldn't the second the 60 PPS (power-line frequency) gested above in any program that uses the
value, 1, be the number stored in 828? It pulses for the 6526s, causing them to 64s clocks. As Mr. Engel suggests, you can
appears that the code for BYTE $2C count at two to three times the correct safely use the patch mi all 64s. B
COMPUTE'S Gazelle March 1930 16
BASIC
for beginners AND, OR, and NOT
Larry Cotton cation, we are turning on the bits 32,16, 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
8, and 1:
Best of all, by sequentially ANDing
This monlh we'll cover three more lesser-
128 64 32 16 8 i 2 1 the input decimal number with the
known commands—including one 1
0 1 I 1 1 - 57 above numbers from left to right, you
haven't used in over seven years of
can see which of the bits is 1, or on.
BASIC programming. They are the logi
Let's say you want to convert deci
cal functions AND, OR, and NOT. The Here are some other decimal num
mal 35 to a binary number. Line 40 first
two most useful in this group are AND bers and their binary equivalents:
assigns I a value of 7. In line 50, 35 is
and OR, so we'll look at them first.
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 ANDed with 2 to the seventh power
Type the following line and press
D 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 -3B (128). Here's how to manually AND 35
RETURN:
and 128:
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 - 14
PRINT 1 AND I
12a 64 32 Ih 8 4 2 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 128
It seems that 1 AND 1 is not the same as 0 0 I 0 0 0 1 1 = 35
1 plus 1. But why not? AND and OR are Try a few yourself. What are the bi
l 0 0 0 0 0 0 (I - 128
inextricably associated with the concept nary equivalents of 26? of 45? of 12?
of bits and bytes, so let's take the 0 0 0 0 0 0
What are the decimal equivalents of
time—never before undertaken in this 00010000? of 11011001? of 00111100? The first row contains our bit val
column—to grasp this.
ues. The second and third rows are the
As most of you probably know by Decimal to Binary Conversion problem rows, which contain the binary
now, most older computers are 8-bit Here's a short program, which we'll an equivalents of the two numbers that we
machines (the 64 and 128 fall into this alyze line by line, that converts decimal are ANDing. The fourth row contains
category). Every character on the key numbers to binary. Conveniently, it the answer to the binary ANDing. In or
board and each BASIC keyword is rep also uses AND, OR, and SGN (covered der for alto pop up in the answer row, a
resented by eight bits, or one byte. A oil in last month's column). column must contain a 1 in both problem
is the smallest piece of information a rows. Since none of the columns do, our
computer can recognize. It can be either 10 INPUT"{CLR1{DOWN> DECIMAL
answer to 35 AND 128 is 0.
on or off, true or false, yes or no, or plus NUMBERED
Of course, one can use PRINT to
or minus. But most often, it's 1 or 0. 20 IF D<0 OR D>255 THEN RUN
AND two numbers:
Thus, the letter A is represented 30 PRINT"{ DOWN)"D"= "f
40 FOR [-7 TO 0 STEP -1 PRINT 35 AND 128
0 10 0 0 0 0 1 50 X-D AND 2TI
If you enter this and press RE
This string of binary digits forms TURN, you'll see 0 as the result. Before
the binary number 01000001, which 70 PR1NT"JLEFT|"Q;
we continue with the program, let's
80 NEXT
equals the decimal number 65. It's also a AND 35 and 32:
90 PR1NT:END
byte (or wont) of eight bits. Think of
each of the digits above, which can be Line 10 gets the decimal number 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

only 0 or 1, as falling in a particular col from the user. Line 20 uses OR to weed 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 = 35
umn, headed by a number. out any numbers less than 0 or greater 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 tl = 32
To determine the binary number's than 255. (See "OR," below, for more
0 0 10 0 0 0 = 32
decimal equivalent, just add all the on this,) Line 30 prints the decimal
column-head values where a 1 is show number and an equal sign. Here's Now both problem rows contain a
ing in that column: where ANDing is used; line 40 begins a 1 under 32, causing a 1 to pop up in the
FOR-NEXT loop that ANDs the input answer row. Thus, 35 AND 32 is 32.
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
decimal value with eight values, one at
0 0 0 0 0 1 - 65
a time. Those values are 128, 64, 32, 16, Bach lo the Program
Each bit falls into a particular posi 8,4, 2, and 1, which should look familiar. Line 60 uses SGN to evaluate the sign
tion in the row and has a value twice Those values are calculated by se of X, the result of ANDing. Recall from
that of the bit just to the right of it. The quentially taking 2 to the powers 7 last month that SGN(0) yields 0 and
1 under both the 64 and the 1 mean that through 0. Two to the seventh power (2 SGN of any positive number yields 1.
these two bits are on, while all the bits times itself seven times) is 128, 2 to the Therefore, if X is a positive number (it
having a value of 0 are off. If all the bits sixth power is 64, and so on. Two to the really doesn't matter what its value is),
were on, the sum would be 255, the power 0 is ! (any number to the power Q will be 1; if X is 0, Q will be 0.
highest number that any one byte can 0 is 1). All that's left to do is to print, in
represent. Each bit of a byte is numbered right line 70, a string of Q's to form the binary
Recall that 255 is the largest num to left from 0 to 7: number. Be sure to enter the semicolon
ber that can be POKEd to a memory at the end of line 70. The left cursor just
location. Now we know why. When squeezes the numbers a bit closer
POKEing a number, say, the decimal Thus, 2 raised to the power of each together.
number 57, to a particular memory lo- of these numbers yields our bit values: Line 80 completes the FOR-NEXT

16 COMPUTED Gazelle Match 1990


loop. Control goes back to line 40,1 be Recall that < > means "not equal COLOR RIBBONS & PAPER
comes 6, D is ANDed with 64 (2 to the to." Using these or similar lines will en RIBBONS; Red, Blua. Grn.. Brwn., Purple, Yd
sixth power), and so on. Line 90 moves sure that the only time the program RUboni Priea Each Black Cotor Heat
the cursor down a line and ends the progresses beyond this point is when Truuln

program. the user presses Y or N at the question. Brother M1109 4,95 5 95 7.00
Any number of values can be AND and OR are also used to turn C. Itch Prowriler Jr. 7.00 900 -

one or more bits on or off within a par Cifoen 120O/1BOO 5.00 600 7.95
ANDed at once. Let's do one more
Commodore MF>S B01 4.50 5.26 6.75
AND exercise by ANDing 6,11, and 47: ticular memory register, especially if
- MPS 802/1E26 6.25 7.26 -

you don't know which bits are already - MPS 803 4.95 5 95 7.00
w 64 32 1b 8 4 2 l
on. For instance, memory register ■MPS 1000 3.95 4.95 6.75

0 0 0 0 a 1 1 0 ™ 6 - MPS 1200/1250 5.00 6.00 7.9B


53265 on the Commodore 64 normally
- 1535 6.50 8.00 -

0 0 a 0 i a : l - n contains the number 27. To switch the Epson MX BO/L X BOO 3.75 4.25 6.75
computer into its high-resolution OVidaia 82/92 1.75 2.25 4.50
0 0 1 0 l i l i - 47
mode, you must turn on bit 5 in this Okktiti 192/192 6.50 7.60 6.00
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0-2 Puniso"it K-XP 1080 6.75 7.75
register. To do this, you'd enter
-

Seikoins SP BOO/1000 5.25 a.so 7.95


Only under the 2's column do all POKE 53265,PEEK(53265) OR 32
Slar SG10 5.75 2.25 4.50
Star NXIO.'NUO 6.00 6.00 7.95
the problem rows contain a 1. Thus, 6
SMI NX1000 4.50 5.50 6.76
AND 11 AND 47 equals 2. Confirm this To tum bit 5 off and thus return to
Star NX100OC - 4C - B.75 -

by typing PRINT 6 AND 11 AND 47 text mode, you'd enter


T-SHIRT RIBBONS IHtat Tranilrl - Red, Blue, Grn.,
and pressing RETURN. POKE 5326S,PEEK(S3265) AND 223 Brwn.. Purple, YeL Blk. Call For Price & Availability.

OR If you're interested in learning COLOR PAPER


more, the Commodore 64 Programmer's BRIGHT PACK-200 Slweti/50 each cole: Rtd.
OR works in a similar way, but only Blue. Green, Velio., 9 1/2 ■ 11 - 111.90/pk.
one problem row has to contain a 1 in Reference Guide contains a number of
PASTEL PACK-200 Shee!s.'5O each color: Pink.
each column in order for a 1 to appear examples that use AND and OR to Yellow, Blue, Ivory. 9 1/2 x 11 - tii.SOJpk.
in the answer row. Here's how 8 OR 2 modify the bit values in a byte.
COLOR BANNER BAND PAPER - 45 ft./roli- S9.96/ea.
looks:
NOT Much value For nbbont & paper not lifted above, cad Tor price &
128 si II) 8 4 1 i avill Price & ipec. lubiect to change w.'o notice. Mm.
The last logical function we'll mention nriii-r 125.00. M-, V-.l ■ 13 SO mm V.m. MC. COO.
0 a 0 0 1 0 a it -8 is NOT. The Commodore 64 Program IIAMCO COMPUTER SUPPLIES
0 0 0 0 0 0 i 0 - 2 mer's Reference Guide states, "The NOT P.O. Box 475. Msntsno, IL 60950 U.S.A.
logical operator 'complements' the val (US) 8OO-522G922 • (Canada) 800-621-5444
0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0-10 815-46a-aO81
ue of each bit in its single operand, pro
When we OR two numbers, if ducing an integer 'twos-complement' Circle Reader Service Number 193
either of the bits in a column is 1 (turned result." Not very clear! Actually, NOT
on), the answer bit must be 1. A 1 pops makes true statements false and false
up in the 8 and 2 columns. We then add statements true. For example, IF NOT

BEST
8 and 2 in the normal way, getting 10. (A = 5) THEN GOTO 912 means if it's
Thus, 8 OR 2 is 10. Very strange, but not true that A = 5, then go to line 912.
very true. Occasionally, you'll see NOT oper
ating on a numeric variable, usually

SHAREWARE
Using AND and OR within a POKE statement. When used
How can we put all this to work for us this way, NOT takes a number, reverses
in BASIC programming? Actually, we the sign, and then subtracts 1. If you
only occasionally need to AND or OR enter PRINT NOT 7, you'll see -8.

for C-64
numbers together. More often, we use I've written many BASIC programs
AND and OR with IF-THEN state and have yet to use NOT. I did run
ments such as we've already seen. If across some examples years ago, but
you haven't entered the entire program I've lost them. If any of you would like
above, at least enter these two lines and to share your experiences with NOT, in

AND C-128
RUN them: a clear fashion, I would be happy to
share them with others in a future
10INPUT"(CLR}{DOWN} DECIMAL
column.
NUMBERED
Incidentally, you can AND, OR,
20 IF D<0 OR D>255 THEN RUN
and NOT numbers from -32768 to
What do these lines do? Type a few 32767. G
values at the prompt, such as 0,35, 900,
and R. You'll soon see that a statement
1-800-346-0139
like the one in line 20 can weed out ex
Use the handy
traneous numbers and letters you don't
want the user to enter. In this case, the Reader Service Card FOR CATALOGUE
user can enter any number in the range
0-255, inclusive, but nothing else. in the back of the
Here's a way to use AND:
magazine to receive
10 PRINT"DO YOU WANT TO
CONTINUE (Y/N17" additional information
20 GET A$:IF AS< >"Y" AND AS< >"N"
Marketing, Incorporated
THEN 20 on our advertisers.
30 IF AS-"N" THEN END
40 (program continues here) Circle Reader Service Number 197

COMPUTED Gazelle Marcli 1990 17


THE
ps column Calendar
Richard A, Rardln Using the Program disk in the file REMINDERS. Each time
To use Calendar, either double-click on you run Calendar, it looks for this file. If
Note important dates and times with its icon or select calendar from the geos it finds it, the program loads the notes.
this desk accessor}/ for GEOS and menu. The program displays a calendar Otherwise, it assumes no notes exist
GEOS 128, versions 1.3 and higher. of the current month in the center of and begins with an empty calendar. De
your screen. From left to right along the leting the REMINDERS file is a quick
If you're like most computer users, time top of the calendar window are a file way to delete all the notes in the calen
just slips away while your fingers dance menu, two arrow icons, the name of the dar. If you remove all of the notes with
upon the keys. You often get caught up current month, two more arrow icons, in Calendar, the program automatically
in what you're doing and forget about and the current year. deletes the REMINDERS file.
meetings, birthdays, and other impor To change the month, click on one
tant dates. Wouldn't it be nice if your of the arrow icons to the left of the Calendar
computer would remind you? month name. The left-arrow icon dis
0247 5D 03 15 BF FF FF FF 90 D9
Calendar lets you record important plays the previous month; the right 024F' 00 01 BF FF FD A0 09 05 03
dates and times and then displays them arrow displays the following month. 0257 AC 4E F.5 AA A4 C5 AC A4 E6
so that you can look Ihem up quickly Change the year by clicking on one 025F E5 A0 00 05 BF FF FD A4 6D
and easily. In addition. Calendar is a 0267- 92 45 A4 92 4 5 BF FF FD EA
of the arrow icons just to the left of the
026F- A4 92 45 A4 92 45 BF FF 06
desk accessory, so it doesn't matter current year. The lefl arrow changes the
0277' FD A4 92 45 A4 92 45 BF 04
whether you're working on the desk- display to the same month in the previ 027F: FF FD BF FF FD 88 00 01 ED
Top, creating a work of art in geoPahit ous year. The right arrow causes the 0287 FF FF FF 8 3 05 00 00 04 EF
or formatting a newsletter with geoPub- same month in the following year to be 028F: 51 41 00 04 43 61 6C 65 AA
0297: 6E 64 61 72 20 20 20 20 21
lisli; Calendar is always available. shown.
029F: 56 31 2E 31 00 00 00 00 F3
Using the two sets of arrow icons,
0 2 a 7 : 52 69 63 68 61 72 64 20 DF
Typing It In you can have Calendar display months 02AF: -11 2E 20 52 61 72 64 69 10
Calendar is written in machine lan in the distant past or in the future. 02B7: 6B 20 20 5D 2C 00 00 43 79

guage, so you'll need to use MLK, the There is no limit as to how far you can 02BF: 61 6C 65 6E 64 61 72 20 D0
02C7: 61 63 63 65 73 73 6F 72 D2
machine language entry program found go eilher way.
02CF: 79 20 66 6F 72 20 72 65 BA
elsewhere in this issue, to type it in. The To enter notes for any day of the 02D7: 63 6F 72 64 69 6E 67 20 Fl
MLX prompts, and the values you month lhat's currently displayed, click 02DF: 6E 6F 74 65 73 SD 3A 30 61
should type in, are as follows: in the box corresponding to that day. A 02E7: 90 A5 16 8D 93 20 20 D3 22

dialog box opens on top of the calendar, 02EF: 0F 20 59 10 20 9B 0F A9 E6


Starling address: 0247 02F7: C0 85 2F A9 00 8D B2 14 ED
and any notes that you've previously
Ending address: OFBE 02FF: AD 18 85 3D 7D 14 AD 17 19
entered are shown. For each day, 0307: B5 3D 82 14 8D 7E 14 AD 01
When you've entered the data for Cal there's room for 7 one-line notes. To 030F: 16 85 80 93 14 A9 00 BD 40
endar, save two copies to a GEOS work the left of each note. Calendar displays 0117: B4 14 20 E6 07 20 58 06 46

disk. Save the first with the filename two icons, E and D. Click on the E icon 031F: 20 6B 07 20 23 07 20 0D 75
0327: 0A 20 D2 03 A9 05 85 03 84
CALENDAR and the second with the to edil the corresponding note or to cre
032F: A3 3A 85 02 20 5A Cl A9 01
name CALENDAR.BKUP. One copy ate a note if none exists. Enter up to 34 0337: 04 85 33 A9 68 85 02 A9 BA
will be converted by GeoConverter 2.0 characters for each note, and press RE 033F: 00 20 51 Cl A9 00 80 79 75
into a GEOS desk accessory. The other TURN when you've finished. While 0347: 14 A9 0C 8D AA 84 A9 48 IF

is a backup copy in case you have a you're editing a note, you may not close 034F: 8D A9 84 60 13 24 28 00 BE
0357: 3C 00 01 88 04 B0 77 04 39
problem with the conversion. the dialog box or click on another icon.
035F: 24 41 28 00 5A 00 S2 8D 32
Now type in GeoConverter 2.0. Clicking on the D icon deletes the cor 0367 04 00 67 0B 93 04 00 72 2C
(This is the latest version of GeoCon responding note. Clicking on the close 036F: 05 66 69 6C 65 00 70 75 07
verter, presented here for the first time.) icon in the upper right comer of the dia 0377" 72 67 65 00 71 75 69 74 E5

Be sure to use The Automatic Proofreader, log box saves the notes and returns you 037F: 00 53 75 6E 00 00 00 4D 3D
0397 6F 6E 00 00 00 54 75 65 82
also found elsewhere in this issue, to to the calendar. Dates which have notes
038F: 73 00 00 57 65 64 00 00 81
prevent typing mistakes when you en will now be highlighted. 0397. 00 54 68 75 72 73 00 46 BE
ter the program. Save a copy of GeoCon- Calendar is designed to handle 039F: 72 69 00 00 00 53 61 74 BD
verler 2.0 to the disk that contains notes for as many as 75 days at a time. 03A7 00 00 00 4A 61 6E 75 61 63
Calendar. Be very careful when typing Therefore, you may need to delete old 03AF 72 79 20 20 00 46 65 62 99
03B7 72 75 61 72 79 20 00 20 14
in GeoConverter 2.0. It writes directly to notes as they become obsolete. To sim
03BF 4D 61 72 63 68 20 20 20 ED
your disk, and a typing error could plify this process, use the purge option 03C7 00 20 28 41 70 72 69 6C 7A
cause it to scramble the disk. from the file menu. Purge removes all 03CF 20 20 00 20 20 4D 61 79 62
To prepare Calendar for use with notes for days prior to the current sys 03D7 23 20 20 20 00 20 20 4A 07
0 3DE1 75 6E 65 20 20 20 00 20 3C
GEOS, load GeoConverter 2.0 and type tem date. Be sure that the system date is
03E7 20 4A 75 6C 79 20 20 20 B2
RUN. When prompted for a filename, set correctly before using this command.
03EF 00 20 41 75 67 75 73 74 E9
enter CALENDAR. GeoConverter 2.0 When you're ready to leave Calen 00 53 65 70 74 65 86
0 3F7 20 20
then converts the file into a GEOS desk dar, click on the file menu and select 0 3FF 6D 62 65 72 00 20 4F 63 AB
accessory. quit. The program saves your notes to 0407 74 6F 62 65 72 20 00 4E 2A

1B COMPUIEI's Gazelle Maich 1990


20 9D 65 03 17 095F:48 Bl A9 B2 8D 47 31 A5 88
340F:6F 76 65 6D 62 65 72 06B7:65 02 85 02 A5 15
0417:00 44 65 63 65 60 62 65 IE 06BF:85 03 60 03 00 03 02 03 9E 3967:03 80 4A 31 A5 02 8D 49 59
041F:72 20 00 04 00 00 00 5E 07 06C7:02 03 03 02 03 02 03 AD E9 096F:81 A9 07 8D 45 81 A9 00 E9
0427:05 0D IB 01 0B 34 05 US 2D 06CF:83 14 C9 50 B0 14 IS A9 90 0977:8D 75 81 A9 00 8D A0 81 71
042F:05 0E IB 01 08 □A 05 5E C4 06D7:D0 6D 83 14 8D 83 14 A9 A5 097F:A9 81 85 15 A9 00 85 14 35
0437:05 IB IB 01 08 41 06 69 B5 06DF:07 6D 34 14 8D 84 14 B8 FB 0987:ft9 01 85 16 20 ED Cl 60 5D
043F:05 IC IS 01 08 2A 06 89 C2 06E7:50 11 18 A9 6C 6D 83 14 32 098F:A9 14 85 ID A9 B3 85 LC 41
0447:FF EF CF ai 81 CF EF FF 88 06EF:8D 83 14 A9 07 6D 84 14 CB 0997:A2 00 20 43 0C F0 13 20 9D
044F:BF 89 FF F7 F3 81 91 F3 B5 06F7:8D 84 14 AD 84 14 8D 80 59 099F:13 0C F0 11 18 A9 28 65 8A
0457:F7 FF BF 20 BD Cl 20 2C B6 06FF:14 AD 83 14 BD 7F 14 A9 6F 09A7:1C 85 IC 90 02 K6 ID BB 54
045F:0A 20 8E 10 20 16 10 20 E0 0707:03 8D 88 14 A9 01 8D 85 3E 09AF:50 E8 A2 01 60 A5 ID 85 El
0467:B7 0F 4C 3E C2 20 91 05 3B 070F:14 A9 07 BD 87 14 A9 BC E7 09B7:03 A5 LC 35 02 IB A9 04 53

046F:20 F3 06 20 6B 07 20 □2 Dl 0717:8D 86 14 AD 87 14 CD 84 97 09BF:65 02 85 02 90 02 E6 03 33


0477:08 60 AE 82 14 CA CA 10 0B 071F:14 D0 06 AD 86 14 CD 83 AA 09C7:A2 00 60 A9 30 3D 75 14 B7
047F:02 A2 0B BD DA 07 20 9B 3D 0727:14 F0 20 20 AE 08 DO 05 BD 09CF:A9 14 85 03 A9 8F 85 02 35
0487:08 AD 84 14 BD 87 14 AD 31 072F:A9 01 20 BC 08 A9 01 20 28 09D7:A0 00 Bl 02 F0 5E AD B2 9F
048F:83 14 BD 86 14 20 AE 08 FE 0737:8C 08 IS A9 01 60 36 14 0A 09DF:14 C9 4B F0 5A EE B2 14 EE
0497:D0 0C AD 82 14 C9 03 D0 B7 073F:8D 86 14 90 03 EE 87 14 38 09E7:A9 14 85 ID A9 B3 B5 IC 99
049F:05 A9 01 20 9B 08 AE 82 93 0747:BB 50 D0 AD 85 14 CD 82 55 09EF:20 43 0C F0 0E 18 A9 28 BF
04A7:14 CA D0 13 AD 83 14 38 93 074F:14 F0 21 20 AE 03 DO 0C 0D 09F7:65 IC 85 IC 90 02 E6 ID AD
04AF:E9 01 8D 83 14 AD 84 14 4B 0757:AD B5 14 C9 02 D0 05 A9 C3 09FF:B3 50 ED A0 00 AD 83 14 IC
04B7:E9 00 8D 84 14 A2 0C BE 80 075F:01 20 8C 08 AE 85 14 CA 86 0A07:91 IC ce AD 84 ,14 91 IC 92
04BF:82 14 60 20 E7 05 20 F3 A3 0767:BD DA 07 20 8C 08 EE 85 D5 0A0F:C8 AD 32 14 91 IC CB AD C0

04C7S06 20 6B 07 20 D2 08 60 75 076F:14 B8 50 D7 60 18 6D 88 04 0A17:81 14 91 IC 18 A9 04 65 B9


04CF:AE 82 14 CA BD DA 07 20 86 0777:14 C9 09 30 03 38 E9 07 D9 0A1F:1C B5 IC 90 02 E6 ID A2 B7
04D7:BC 08 AD 84 14 8D 87 14 20 077F:BD 88 14 60 85 20 AD 88 BF 0A27:02 A0 IC 20 65 C2 18 A9 F9
04DF:AD 83 14 8D 36 14 20 AE 6E 0787:14 38 E5 20 F0 02 10 03 IF 0A2F:24 65 IC 85 IC 90 02 E6 98
04E7:0B D0 0C AD 82 14 C9 02 7E 078F:18 69 07 BD 88 14 60 AD C0 0A37:1D 20 09 0C A2 00 60 A2 3C
04EF:D0 05 A9 01 20 8C 08 AE D8 0797:87 14 85 03 AD 86 14 85 84 0A3F:01 60 20 A7 0A E0 00 F0 2F
04F7:B2 14 E8 E0 0D D0 10 19 55 079F:02 A9 00 85 05 A9 BA 85 CD 0A47:01 60 20 D2 0B A2 00 60 68
04FF:A9 01 GD 83 14 8D 83 14 F4 07A7:04 A2 02 A0 04 20 69 Cl DF 0A4F:20 BD Cl A9 14 95 ID A9 50
0507:90 03 EE 84 14 A2 01 8E FB 07AF:A5 13 C9 00 D0 04 A5 12 82 0A57:B3 85 IC AD 82 14 BD 85 0A
050F:82 14 60 A9 0C 8D 7C 14 A9 07B7:C9 00 60 AD B4 14 9D 87 AS 0A5F;14 AD 83 14 8D 86 14 AD P6
0517:20 E7 05 CE 7C 14 D0 F8 87 07BF:14 AD 83 14 SD 36 14 AE 52 0A67:82 14 8D 85 14 AD 30 14 38
051F:20 F3 06 20 68 07 20 D2 83 07C7:82 14 CA A9 IC IB 7D DA 27 0A6F:8D 84 14 AD 7F 14 3D B3 B3
0527:08 60 A9 0C 8D 7C 14 20 E9 07CF:07 8D 8C 14 20 AE 03 D0 34 0A77:14 AD 7E 14 8D 82 14 AD 5E
052F:91 05 CE 7C 14 D0 F8 20 DA 07D7:0A AD 82 14 C9 02 D0 03 E2 0A7FS7D 14 8D 81 14 20 43 0C D4
0537:F3 06 20 6B 07 20 D2 08 DD 07DF:EE 8C 14 A9 30 8D 9B 14 07 0A87:F0 IB 20 13 0C F0 0B 10 54
053F:60 A3 00 20 39 Cl A9 18 22 H7E7:AE 88 14 CA BE 8A 14 A9 0F 0A8F:06 20 D2 0B B8 50 EE IB BG
0547:S5 06 A9 9E 85 07 A9 00 50 07EF:01 BD 7B 14 A9 00 80 78 73 0A97:A9 28 65 IC 85 IC 90 02 BB
054F:35 09 A9 28 85 08 A9 01 B6 07F7:14 20 F0 09 AD SB 14 C9 54 0A9F:E6 ID B8 50 E0 AD 87 14 6B
0557:85 0B A9 0F 85 0A 20 24 C5 07FF:05 D0 06 20 97 09 B8 50 2A 0AA7:SD 84 14 AD 86 14 9D 83 24
055F:C1 A9 FF 20 27 Cl AS 06 43 0807:4C A9 00 85 19 A9 21 85 37 0AAF:14 AD 85 14 8D 82 14 20 B9
0567:85 18 20 DC 06 A5 18 8D 90 080F:18 AD BA 14 85 04 A9 00 BB 0AB7:D2 08 60 A5 ID 85 03 A5 48
056F:74 14 18 A9 0C 65 18 85 02 0817:85 05 A2 18 A0 04 20 66 BC 0ABF:1C 85 02 18 A9 28 65 02 BE
0577:18 A5 18 8D BD 14 A9 FF E2 081F:C1 18 A9 2C 65 18 85 18 BC 0AC7:95 02 90 02 E6 03 A5 ID PC
057F:20 18 Cl A9 04 8D 7B 14 D3 0827:90 02 E6 19 A9 16 35 04 23 0ACF:85 05 A5 IC 85 04 A9 20 0E
0587:18 A9 16 65 18 85 18 A9 Dl 082F:AD 8B 14 85 06 A2 04 A0 37 0AD7:B5 07 A9 93 85 06 A5 06 74
058F:FF 20 18 Cl CG 7B 14 D0 IE 0837:06 20 60 Cl A5 04 18 69 51 0ADF:3B E5 02 85 06 A5 07 E5 DC
0597:EF A5 09 85 0B A5 08 85 01 083F:3B 35 04 A5 04 85 05 AD 95 0AE7:03 B5 07 20 7E Cl CE B2 on
059F:0A AD 74 14 85 08 A5 07 88 0847:7B 14 85 02 A9 00 35 03 46 0AEF:14 60 A9 00 A0 03 91 IC AB
05A7:85 09 A9 06 8D 7B 14 18 E6 084F:A9 C0 20 84 Cl A9 20 20 C5 0AF7:88 10 FB 60 A0 00 Bl IC 5E
05AF:A9 21 65 0A 85 0A 90 02 9B 0857:45 Cl A9 IB 20 45 Cl AE A9 0AFF:CD 83 14 D0 19 CB Bl IC D6
05B7:E6 0B A9 FF 20 21 Cl CE 05 085F:8A 14 BB E0 07 D0 05 EE 59 0B07:CD 84 14 D0 11 C8 Bl IC DF
05BF:7B 14 D0 EB 60 A9 34 3D A4 0867:8B 14 A2 00 8E 8A 14 EE 4C 0D0F:CD 82 14 D0 09 CB 20 36 IE
05C7:7B 14 IB A9 03 65 18 85 95 086F:7B 14 AD 7B 14 CD 8C 14 B4 0B17:0C 31 IC CD Bl 14 60 AD Mt
05CF:18 A9 FF 20 18 Cl CE 7B 33 0877:F0 02 10 03 4C 10 09 60 C7 0B1F:81 14 29 E0 F0 03 A9 FF 15
05D7:14 D0 EF 60 A9 00 20 39 EA 087F:A9 93 85 18 A9 00 35 09 DC 0B27:60 A9 IF 60 A0 02 Bl IC 4E
05DF:C1 AD ao 14 85 06 A9 9E 5F 0887:A9 28 85 08 A9 9B 85 05 73 0B2F:60 AD 05 85 10 01 60 A5 C4
05E7:85 07 A9 00 85 09 A9 28 77 08BF:EE 78 14 AD 7a 14 C9 02 3C 0B37:3B 85 03 A5 3A 85 02 A5 98
05EF:85 08 A9 01 85 0B A9 0F BE 0897:F0 13 A9 00 85 0B A9 49 0F 0B3F:02 38 E9 28 85 02 AS 03 A6
05F7:85 0A 20 24 Cl A9 FF 20 62 089F:85 0A A9 00 85 21 A9 3B 69 0B47:E9 00 85 03 30 27 A9 00 A4
05FF:27 Cl A5 06 85 18 8D 74 3F 08A7:85 20 B8 50 10 A9 00 85 4B 0B4F:85 05 A9 21 35 04 A2 02 34
0607:14 4C 9A 06 A9 2D 85 05 F5 08AF:0FJ A9 6A 85 0A A9 00 85 Dl 0B57:A0 04 20 69 Cl A5 02 C9 CB
060FJA9 07 8D 7B 14 A9 04 85 BF 08B7:21 A9 5C 85 20 A9 FF 20 6E 0B5F:07 10 27 A5 3C 85 04 A9 BS
0617:21 A9 99 85 20 A9 00 85 B6 08BF:18 Cl A5 21 85 19 A5 20 0F 0B67:00 85 05 38 A5 04 ED BD A9
061F:IF A9 2B 85 IE A5 21 35 32 08C7:B5 18 AD 7B 14 85 02 A9 72 0B6F:14 85 04 C6 04 30 6B A9 39
0627:03 AS 20 85 02 A5 IF 85 E4 08CF:00 85 03 A9 C0 20 84 Cl 3D 0B77:00 85 07 A9 16 85 06 A2 DP
062F:19 A5 IE 85 18 20 48 Cl E0 08D7:60 AD 7B 14 8D 81 14 20 EE 0B7F:04 A0 06 20 69 Cl A5 04 24
0637:18 A9 21 65 IE 85 IE 90 03 08DF:A7 0A E0 00 D0 05 A9 12 62 0B87:C9 05 10 53 A5 02 3D 89 D4
063FIH2 E6 IF IB A9 06 65 20 BB 08E7:20 45 Cl 60 52 65 6D 69 04 0B8F:14 E6 02 A9 07 85 06 A2 41
0647:85 2S 90 02 E6 21 CE 7B 25 08EF:6E 64 65 72 73 00 A9 0A ID 0B97:04 A0 06 20 60 Cl 18 A5 7A
H64F: 14 D0 D2 60 20 9F Cl 19 16 03F7:85 0F A9 03 85 0E A9 00 AB 0B9F:04 65 32 35 02 A5 02 8D Bl
0657:23 3D 00 B9 00 20 AB 07 8F 08FF:85 02 20 08 C2 E0 00 F0 62 0BA7:8E 14 38 A5 02 ED 88 14 58
065F:A9 21 B5 05 A3 00 85 19 FA 0907:0B A9 14 85 ID A9 B3 85 60 0BAF:85 02 E6 02 A5 02 8D 81 D7
0667:A9 87 85 18 20 48 Cl 20 22 090F:IC 20 09 0C 60 A9 HA 85 5C 0BI)7:14 30 24 F0 22 AD 8C 14 GC
066F:9F Cl 19 23 EF 00 07 ai 9F 0917:03 A9 03 85 02 20 38 C2 91 0BBF:C5 02 90 IB AD 78 14 F0 65
0677:A9 21 85 05 A9 00 85 19 13 091F:AD B2 14 00 01 60 85 02 DA 0BC7:03 20 8D 0D A9 00 8D 75 C7
067F:A9 Fl 85 18 AD 84 14 85 3C 0927:A9 00 85 03 A9 00 85 05 4C 0BCF:14 A9 0C 35 03 A9 F7 85 68
0687:03 AD 83 14 B5 02 A9 C0 7A 092F:A9 28 85 04 A2 02 A0 04 73 0BD7:02 20 56 C2 20 D2 08 60 AA
068FJ20 84 Cl 60 AE 82 14 CA 7D 0937:20 66 Cl A9 B3 18 65 02 90 0BDF:00 27 80 28 00 0F 01 13 45
0697:86 02 A9 00 85 03 A9 00 28 093F:85 02 A9 14 65 03 85 03 50 0BE7:75 0E 00 08 F5 00 2D 46 0D
069F:85 15 A9 0A 85 14 A2 02 4D 0947:18 A9 04 65 02 85 02 90 61 0BEF:0D 06 37 03 0A B4 0D 46 AS
06A7:A0 14 20 66 Cl A9 04 as B5 094F:02 E6 03 A9 0A 8D 01 81 21 0BF7:0D 06 43 03 0A B4 0D 46 32
06AF:1S A9 C2 85 14 A5 14 13 D8 0957:A9 03 8D 00 31 A9 14 8D 19 0BFF:0D 06 4F 03 0A B4 0D 46 BB

COMPUTE!* Gazette March 1990 19


The Geas Column
0C07 :0D 06 5B 03 0A B4 3D 46 46 0EAF:A9 03 85 07 A9 FF 120 GETI1,K$,VS:IFKSOCHRS(
9E 85 Q6 5B
0C0F :0D 06 67 03 3A B4 0D 46 CF 0EB7:20 7E Cl 60 A9 20 85 03 9D 71)ORV$OCHR$(2)THENCLO
0C17 :0D 06 73 03 0A B4 0D 46 59 0EBF:A9 94 85 02 A2 13 20 3C 98 SE1:CLOSE15:GOTO220
0C1F :0D 06 7F 03 0A B4 3D 69 06 0EC7:C1 18 A9 28 65 BC 85 0C F4 BR 130 PRINT"(DOWN)DECOMPRESSI
0C27 : 3D IE 28 02 0B 84 3D 9E 95 0ECF:93 02 E6 0D IB A9 28 65 7F NG...":Z$=CHRS(0):GET#l
0C2F : FF FF FF 80 10 01 80 10 E4 3ED7:0E 85 0E 93 02 E6 0F A3 91 ,ESCS:ESC=ASC(ESCStZS):
0C37 : 19 8F 10 19 99 90 F9 9F F5 BEDF:E7 Bl BE 29 BE 13 2C 93 42
0C3F :91 99 98 11 99 BF 10 F9 CF 0EE7:20 10 05 Bl 3C 23 BE 10 42 RQ 140 GOSUBl70:IFVOESCTHENPO
0C47 :80 10 01 FF FF FF 12 00 E7 0EEF:8B C0 FF D3 EC 8A IB 69 B8 KEAD,V:AD-AD+1:GOTO14 0
0C4F :06 BF 96 FF FF 80 01 80 Bl 0EF7:03 AA E0 A0 93 C8 60 A9 FA PP 150 GOSUB170:CT"V:GOSUB170:
0C57 :31 83 01 87 El 37 El 87 21 0EFF:20 B5 03 A9 94 35 02 A2 E9 CT=CT+V*256:GOSUB170:GO
0C5F :E1 80 01 80 01 30 01 FF BC 0F07: 18 20 3C Cl IS A9 28 65 F9 SUB160:GOTO140
0C67 :FF 0A 30 34 BF AD 75 14 F5 0F0F:0C 85 0C 93 32 E6 0D 18 FC DH 160 FORI=1TOCT:POKEAD,V:AD=
0C6F :D0 03 4C BF C2 60 AD BE 87 0F17:A9 28 65 BE 35 0E 90 02 29 AD+1:NEXTI:CT=0:RETURN
0C77 :14 C9 ID F0 0D C9 IE F0 7B 0F1F:E6 0F A3 E7 20 C7 10 91 D8 PK 170 GETI1,VS:S-ST:V-ASC(V$+
0C7F :01 60 AD 79 14 C9 02 F0 2A 0F27:0E 2C 93 23 10 05 20 C7 68
ZS):IFST=0THENRETURN
0C87 :01 60 A5 3C C9 93 F0 03 32 0F2F:IB 91 0C 33 C0 FF D0 EC 58 SJ 180 IFSO64THENGOSUB440:PRI
0C8F :10 01 60 18 A9 07 6D SI 43 0F37:8A 18 69 03 AA E0 A0 90 F8 NT"(DOWN)LOAD ERROR -
0C97 : 14 8D 81 14 G0 AD 75 14 47 0F3F:CB 60 A9 3F 35 03 A9 64 F2
(RVS^'ENS" "EM^ETSEE$:G
0C9F::F0 01 60 A9 27 85 06 A9 1C 0F47:B5 02 A9 8C 85 37 A9 7D BF OTO400
0CA7::8D 85 07 A9 00 85 09 A9 35 0F4F:85 06 A2 11 A0 1C 2C 93 78
AF 190 IFCTO3THENGOSUB16 0:AD =
3CAF:: 30 85 38 A9 00 35 0B A9 B2 0F57:20 53 05 Bl 06 20 BE 10 93
AD-1
0CB7::3B 85 0A 20 B3 C2 30 06 21 0F5F:AD 27 8C 91 06 88 10 EE 2A
0CBF::20
DG 200 PRINT"(DOWN[WRITING..."
El 0D B8 50 33 20 0C 68 aF67:IB A9 28 65 06 85 36 90 3A
0CC7::0E 60 3F6F:32
:CLOSE1:PRINT!15,"S0:"+
20 5E BE 20 59 0B 97 E6 07 CA D0 DE 60 2C C4
NMS:CL0SE15
0CCF::20 D3 0E A5 05 35 06 19 6B 0F77:93 20 50 2A A9 3F 85 03 6C
0CD7!!69 08 85 07 0F7F:A9 64 85 EF 210 OPENl,N,8,"0:"+NMS+",p,
A5 19 85 09 6D 02 A9 8C 85 07 ED
0CDF::A5 18 0F87:A9 W":FOR1=SATOAD:PRINT*1,
85 0B A9 31 85 0B 69 7D B5 06 A2 11 A0 1C Al
0CE7::A9 0E 85 0A A9 33 20 39 70 0FBF:20 C7 10 91 06 88 10 FB 36 CHBS(PEEK(I)) i :NEXTI:CL
0CEF::C1 20 24 Cl 60 A9 0F97:18 0SE1
01 8D CA A9 28 65 36 85 06 90 6A
BCF7::75 14 20 5E 0E 20 A7 3A 04 0F9F:02 E6 07 CA D0 E8 60 34 75 GP 220 PRINT"(DOWNJCONVERT ING.
0CFF::E0 00 D0 15 A9 14 85 ID B9 0FA7:04 A0 33 91 02 S3 50 ..":HDS="":FORI=1TO4:RE
06 A2
0D07::A9 aF 85 1C A2 02 A0 1C C6 3FAF:84 34 A0 00 Bl 02 E6 02 8A ADHE:HDS=HDS+CHRS(HE):N
0D0F::20 65 C2 20 59 0B B8 50 A5 0FB7:D3 02 E6 03 A4 04 60 00 Cl EXTI

0D17::05 A9 00 8D 8F 14 A9 14 2B *. J IH FORI=1TO5:READIE:IDS=ID
0D1F::85 ID A9 8F 85 1C 20 D3 22 S+CHRS(IE):NEXTI
0D27::0E A9 00 35 04 A9 22 85 9B BEFORE TYPING ... DR 243 NLS="":OPEN15,N,15,"I0:
0D2F::06 A9 14 B5 03 A9 8F 85 F4 "iOPEN2,N,2,"l"
0D37::02 A9 0A 8D A4 84 A9 E2 44 MM 253 GOSUB410:GET #2,NTS,NSS
3D3F::8D A3 84 20 BA Cl 60 E6 20 Before typing in programs, :FORE=0TO7:DS=NLS:GETi2
0D47::02 A5 32 BD 7B 14 20 F9 4B please refer to "How to Type In ,B$:I=1:IFBS=NLSTHEH310
0D4F::0E 85 20 AD 81 14 29 IF 7E PE 263 IF ASC(B$)O130 THEN313
0D57::05 20 8D Bl
COMPUTED Gazette Programs,"
14 63 A9 33 3B AE 27 3 GET #2,HTS,HSS:I = 3:IFHSS
0D5F: 85 09 A9 28 85 08 A9 (11 D6 elsewhere in this issue. =""THENHSS=CHRS(0)
0D67: 85 0B A9 0F 85 0A A9 27 FB DJ 280 GET#2,I3$:I»I + 1:IFB$ = ""T
0D6F: 85 18 20 DC 36 20 33 3F E3 HENBS=CHRS(0)
0D77: A9 00 8D 7B 14 AD 7B 14 32 IF{ASC(BS)=160)OR(I=19)
GeoConvBrtar 2.0 BM 290
0D7F: 85 02 23 5E 0E 20 A7 0A 11 THEN318
0D87: E0 30 D0 ID A5 03 35 ID 5F HQ 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1990 COMPU SF 300 ds=d$+bs:coto2b0
0D8F: A5 02 85 1C 23 D3 0E 18 F3 TE! PUBLICATIONS, INC. - EB 310 fori=ito31:geti2,bs:nex
3D97: A9 06 65 05 85 05 A5 ID AD ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ti:ifdS=nmSTHEH340
3O9F: 85 03 A5 1C 85 02 20 48 70 SE 20 IF(PEEK(772)+PEEK[773)'2 JX 320 nexte:ifnts=nlsthen343
3DA7: Cl AD 7B 14 C9 07 D0 CD 98 56)=42364THEN4B CH 33 0 t$=nt$:S$»NS5:GOTO253
0DAF: A 9 0D a5 03 A9 02 a5 02 25 QK 30 COLOR0,l:COLOR4,l:COLOR6 GA 340 ifds=nl$thenprint"
0DB7: 20 5A Cl 63 AD 7B 14 85 BF ,1:SA=PEEK(4625)'256+PEE [downjdisk error!":goto
BDBF: 32 C6 B2 A9 0C 85 04 A2 B8 K|4624):GOTO50 400
BDC7: 32 A3 34 23 60 Cl IB A9 71 SX 40 I'OKE56,PEEK(46)+40:CLR: P PD 350
0DCF: 39 65 02 85 02 A5 02 85 A8 OKK53280,0:POKE532S1,B:S =HSS:GOSUB410:GET#2,MTS
0DD7: 05 A9 00 85 19 A9 <1C 85 C4
,MSS:IFMSS=""THENMSS=CH
0DDF: IB 60 A2 05 0A CA D0 FC DC RP 5B PRINT"(CLRH8HN} (DOWN)" R$(0]
0DE7: 60 A9 30 85 05 A9 00 85 4F TAB(12)"{RVS)GEOCONVERTE GF 360 FORI=0TO65:GET#2,B$:NEX
0DEF: 19 A9 32 85 18 A9 20 20 67 R 2.0{OFF)iGRNH3 DOWN)" TI :GET»2,CTS,GT$:GOSUB4
0DF7: 45 Cl AD 39 14 85 02 A9 D7 :PRINTTAB(13)"COPYRIGHT 10:PRINTI2,HD$;:GOSUB42
0DFF: 00 85 03 A9 00 85 07 A9 44 (SPACE)1990(DOWN)" 3
3E07: 06 85 06 A2 02 A0 06 20 31
KR 60 PRINTTAB(71"COMPUTEi PUB RX 370 TS=DT$:SS=SSS:GOSUB410:
0E0F: 66 Cl A9 04 85 07 A9 9B 78
LICATIONS _I_NC. (DOWN)"TPR FOR1-1T0 32*E+2:GETI2,BS
3E17: 85 06 A5 06 IB 6 5, 02 85 6C INTTAB(ll)"ALL RIGHTS RE :NEXTI:PRINTI2,CTS;MTS;
0E1F: 02 A5 07 65 03 85 03 20 31
SERVED(2 DOWN}" MSS;
0E27: 48 Cl A9 2C 20 45 Cl A9 13
MK 70 N=8:PRIHT"DRIVE NUMBER " MB 383 FO RI = 0TO15:GET « 2,B S:NEX
BE2F: 20 20 45 Cl 20 AB 07 20 06
N" {4 LEFT)"; UNPUTN: IFN< TI:PRINT(2,HTS;HSS;CHRS
0E37: 85 0F A9 20 20 45 Cl AD 58
3ORH>11THEN70
0E3F: 81 14 29 IF 85 32 A9 00 BF (3);GTS;iDS;:GOSUB420
QE 83 K$ = "N":PRINT"_I_S DRIVE"N" GR 393 PRINTNMS" CONVERTED!"
0E47: 35 03 A9 FF 20 84 Cl A9 5C
A 1581? "KS"(3 LEFT)";:I HB 403 CLOSE1:CLOSE2:CLOSE15:E
0E4F: 2C 20 45 Cl A9 20 20 45 Al
NPUTKS: IFKSO"N"ANDKS<>" HD
0E57: Cl AD 84 14 85 03 AD 93 AS
0E5F: 14 85 02 A9 FF 20 84 Cl 0D !("THENB0 DO 413 US = "II1":GOTO430
0E67: A9 20 23 45 Cl 63 Afl 00 89 SB 90 TS-CHRS (18) ;SS = CHRS (1) :I CS 420 US="U2"
0E6F: Bl 02 F0 0F C9 20 F0 07 AB FKS = "*"THENTS=C!iRS (40) =S PA 430 PRINT 115,US;2;0;ASC(TS +
Cl A4 20 C8 DF S=CHRS(3)
0E77; 84 20 20 45 "0");ASC(SS+"0"):RETURN
0E7F: B8 50 ED 60 A9 85 85 03 41 RS 100 INPUT"FILE TO CONVERT"; JJ 440 INPUT 115,EN,EMS,ET,EE:E
0E97: A9 IF 35 02 A9 10 85 35 AE NMS:OPEN15,N,15:OPEN1,N N5=STRS[EN):ETS=STRS(ET
0EBF; A9 D6 B5 04 A9 03 85 37 92 ,B,"0:"+NMS+",P,R" ):EES=STRS(EE):RETURN
0E97: A9 9E 85 06 20 7E Cl 60 20 BX 110 GOSUB44B: IFENOBTHENPRI EH 450 DATA 0,255,3,21,87,10,1
0E9F: A9 10 85 03 A9 D6 85 02 2B NT"(RVS}"ENS" "EMSETSEE
0EA7: A9 35 85 05 A9 IF B5 04 D3 S:GOTO403

20 COMPUT&s Gazelle March 1990


Lyco Computer
Marketing & Consultants
NX-1000 Series II
Panasonic
PRINTERS w •120 Cpl tfr.il I
speed wllh inv
•180 cps
draf! • « mao -- . .S169.SS proved through-
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four resi 1fi95 .SCALL
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print pitches ranging Irom 3 ■ OeiJir.'Nn ItaiUmf miNirui.'i space roqulramnls.

to 20 cpi

Star Panasonic KXP1180 Citizen


120 D .1129.95
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NX-1000C Color $209.95 EZ-Sel operator panel • Brother
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lor '■:■■:(! • mulliple paper
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CHID Co ulfr |J h« 1CALL
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reliable than the 1541 and 1541C. Cbll PC ...„_„ 1CAU And a one-year warranty.
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Wttf ftiop BJ iifCO Comouler? Lyco Campuier oflars quaDi? i. im' brand curripjler prodLdlb at k" ■ ■ 30% 1o i" belcw retail, n you Sales: 1-800-233-B7GO Ur
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mike Lico Compulsr four Nnl c ■ VJ!\M about warrant) or sCnice? Our CuiiDm*r Strvlce Dtpi'lmtnl it watiwbln *l (717) •.3A-1&70 id atiUl ycu Vr« Hours1 Mon-Fri. 9n.m-9c.m.
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For Prdan untV S5d. pltiH ddd 13 Icr rrsir;^' Per$omt ind company ehtck« raquln ■ 4 mth wailing p#rlod. Vlu inc] MaPEei' Cird oidfrt are icceplid. Hours' Mon-Fr, 9am.-5pm
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lend your order lo Lyco Compuiir. PO. Rat SOU. ietsej Store, PA, 17M& Or.ciN 1':'-- 'K-c:Ej :r ;717■ iji '::: Noi rfficMnsiW-' Inr typographical error*

ATTENTION EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS:


h you are rot currently using our educational service program, please calf our reprcscnlaTives for details

1-800-233-8760
Circle fiOHdOf Sflrvicrj huniDer 1
™BK^-3MMH>fffflTliiiMillffllilllP|fW il llf

am — mm ■.
■I

. 8 "■ ■■ ■ ■ -; v 1ft ■
How to Guard Against Bad Power

lightning com-

ind lot of money. What

; firsth; md
idvice from expert.

All computers have one thing in common: They hate


bad power, Bad power is a term used to describe
electric power that has the capability of damaging
your computer severely (expensively) or causing
your computer to lose some or all of your data.
Most of us never really think about the quality of the power we
use every day—but we should. Bad power can cause expensive
W ■*." \ damage to our computers and any other electronic devices in our
home—VCRs, televisions, stereos, almost anything that uses
digital electronics. >

COMPUTE'S Gazette March 1990 23


SAFEGUARD
YOUR
SYSTEM!

Sags, Surges, one yourself unless you're a qualified


and Spikes Play It Safe! electrician.) There are also a number
How does power gel bad? We can't of devices called surge supressors,
blame the power company; the quali Q Save your work often and which are commonly found in many
ty of what it produces is excellent. It's maintain backup files. retail stores. For about S5, they offer a
what happens to the power after it minimal amount of protection against
travels for miles and miles that causes surges and no real protection against
D If possible, run a dedicated line spikes of 500 volts or less. Most spike
a degradation in quality. In simple
from your breaker box to your protectors in stores don't start su-
terms, every device that uses electrical
power injects its own amount of inter computer. pressing until spikes are above 500
ference back into ihe power line. volts. The specifications of each de
Some devices contribute negligible □ Use a spike or surge vice are usually on the product label
amounts that dissipate quickly, while suppressor. in very small print. Read the labels
others, like air conditioners, can cause carefully. There are some effective
the power-line voltage to drop (a sag) spike/surge suppressors in the $35-
□ Unplug your computer before
or increase (a spike or surge) for a $75 range that do an acceptable job
a thunderstorm hits.
short time. There are other power-line for the average user. These can be or
problems, too, but these are the most dered through companies that deal in
common. of power supplied and its frequency power-conditioning devices. Let your
A sag occurs when the line volt (60 Hz). fingers do the walking.
age drops from its normal value for a The only protection against sags
very short time, ranging from thou Causes and Solutions is a full-line conditioner or battery
sandths of a second to a few seconds. Electric motors are the main cause of backup, but this product is beyond
It's generally caused by heavy loads power-line problems. If you want ti> most of our financial capabilities.
connected to the power line. The sec how much garbage (technical term
startup of a large electric motor is a for "junk" or "stuff") an electric mo Thunderstorms
good example of what causes a sag. tor will generate, turn on your televi The best way to protect your equip
When a sag occurs, the effect on your sion and then run a hair dryer on the ment during a thunderstorm is to shut
computer is the same as turning it off same circuit. All that "snow" (gar it off and wait out the storm. For the
and on. In other words, everything bage) that you see on the screen is be ultimate in protection, unplug the
not saved is history. ing created by the tiny motor in the computer, as well as any other appli
A surge happens when the power dryer. Not only is this garbage being ances you value. It's amazing how
rises, sometimes up to 20 percent injected into your household power, many people will work through a se
higher than normal, and, like a sag, but it is also being picked up by the vere thunderstorm, thinking that the
lasts from thousandths of a second to antenna. You may wonder, with this worst that can happen is a blackout.
a few seconds. A surge is usually kind of everyday interference, why They forget that lightning has a talent
caused by heavy loads (again, electric your lights aren't constantly blinking for disturbing power lines for miles
motors) being disconnected from the on and off. Let's look at power from a around when it hits hard.
power line. The effect on your com computer's point of view. The moments just before the
puter? It usually locks up or the surge Power-line problems usually oc lights go out are the most dangerous.
causes damage to the computer's in cur in thousandths of a second (milli Why? The electric company automati
ternal components. seconds) or millionths of a second cally tries to compensate for line-
A spike is a particularly nasty (microseconds). And this is the same voltage fluctuations whenever they
beast. It is a very short but very high rate our computers execute program occur. During a storm, then, the line
increase in line voltage, sometimes as instructions. A computer relies on an voltage can rise and fall faster than a
high as 600-1000 volts, thai usually internal clock, which is a steady department store elevator at Christ
lasts for a few millionths of a second. stream of electrical signals that keeps mas, not to mention the spikes and
It can cause computers to lock up, everything in step. In the Commodore other goodies that are created. This
disk drives to clobber files, and micro 64, these signals occur every one- kind of activity beats the daylights out
chips to be physically damaged, millionlh (1/1,000,000) of a second. If of your equipment. So remember, if
sometimes dramatically. even one of those pulses is missing, you hear thunder, shut off your
A spike can be caused by a vari or if a false one is generated due to a equipment.
ety of things, but the usual culprit is power-line disturbance, the computer There aren't any easy solutions to
an electric motor. Spikes of 200 volls will come to a screeching halt. Incan the power problem, but using good
or less are the most common and re descent light bulbs are incapable of common sense will make the differ
quire expensive supression devices. turning on and off that fast. Fluores ence between getting work done on
Spikes can be detected only by line- cent lights can, but we couldn't see your computer and waiting for your
disturbance analyzers, which are quite such an effect anyway. number to be called at the repair
expensive. They cost from $600 to What can you do to protect your shop. G
$12,000—and you can't get them at computer system? A good way to re
Radio Shack. The electric company duce the amount of garbage fed from Charles Kuhlmann is a customer engineer
can't help to protect your equip your wall socket to your computer is for Wang Laboratories in St. Louis, Mis
ment—its commitment, obviously, is to have a separate, or dedicated, line souri, with eight years' experience in di
not to producing computer-grade run from your breaker box to your agnosing and correcting computer power
power. What it controls is the amount computer. (Don't attempt to install problems.
24 COMPUTE'S Gazortfl March 1990
ESTABLISHED
1967
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*c sBippc 1 li r ifc B si pi i ar«l f »1 M w ten tin M Ihifpt 1 i. r


INTERNATIONAL
BOUNTY
HUNTER
Neil Harvey

OK. You've played must move from


the original Bounty country to country,

Hunter (August using visual clues


1987), and now to determine the lo
you're a whiz at cation of the crimi
U.S. geography. nal. Once you've
You're so good, in caught him, you
fact, that govern have a limited time
ments from all over to bring him back
the world are seek to the country that
ing your assistance hired you. Along
to bring to justice the way, you must
the most dangerous identify every
From Niger to Rwanda, the chase continues.
criminals alive. But country or capital
before you go international, you'd bet you pass through. If you fail to return
ter brush up on your world geography. the criminal in the alloted time, he
International Bounty Hunter is escapes and you have to start the chase
playud on a scrolling world map. You all over again.

Use your knowledge of world geography


to round up the bad guys in this exciting educational
game for the 128. Joystick required.

26 COMPUTE'S Gazdlfe March !990


Typing It In move, type in the name of the country you like, but keep in mind that in the
international Bounty Hunter consists of (in Game 1) or its capital (in Game 2) meantime the criminal may flee.
three programs. The main program, and press RETURN. If your response is The various skill levels that are of
IBH, is written entirely in BASIC. Type invalid, the prompt will reappear. Other fered allow you to fine-tune the game
it in using The Automatic Proofreader, wise, your character will be placed in according to your ability. At level l.you
found elsewhere in this issue. When the country you've selected. have six minutes to return the captured
you've finished, be sure to save a copy As you move to different countries, criminal to your employer. At level 2,
of the program to disk. the map display will scroll along with you have five minutes; at level 3, four
The second program, IBH Map your character. Thus, your movement is minutes; and so on.
Base, is a machine language file that not restricted to the area you see at the The skill level that you choose also
contains the compressed color data for start of a game. determines how quickly the criminal
the maps. Type it in using 128 MLX, the moves from place to place. On level 1,
machine language entry program also The Manhunt he moves very slowly. At level 6, he can
found elsewhere in this issue. The 128 Being an international bounty hunter is move as often as you do. When playing
MLX prompts, and the values you no easy task. You have to know where at the higher levels, you must take dif
should enter, are as follows: you are, where you're going, and where ferent measures to capture the criminal.
you've been, as well as be able to track For example, on level 6 you can't catch
Starting address: C35O
down the bad guys. However, you're the criminal by moving to the country
Ending address: D487
given a couple of tools to make your job he's in, because he'll move before you
When you've finished typing, save this easier. get there. You must move to a country
file to disk using the filename IBH MAP The first tool at your disposal is a adjacent to the one he's in and hope
BASE. bad-guy detector, which appears as an that's where he goes. It's also a good
The last program, IBH Map Ex asterisk in one corner of the screen. The idea to position yourself so that the
pand, is a short BASIC program that de placement of this asterisk tells you the criminal has a limited number of escape
compresses IBH Map Base. Type it in general direction in which you must routes.
using The Automatic Proofreader, When travel to reach the criminal. If you trav Names of countries are sometimes
you've finished, be sure to save the pro el toward the asterisk, you'll eventually spelled differently depending upon the
gram to disk. encounter the criminal. As you near reference source. If you enter a coun
Before you can play, you must de him, you'll see him on the current try's name and it's refused, just tap the
compress the file IBH MAP BASE. To screen. To capture him, you must occu HELP key until you find the spelling
do this, load and run IBH Map Expand. py the country that he's in. Once you've used in the game. If you wish to perma
This program uncrunches !BH MAP captured the criminal, the asterisk will nently alter the spelling of a country or
BASE and saves the resulting file to appear in the small white box beside its capital, change the DATA state
disk as IBH MAP DATA. your character. ments at the end of IBH. You can also
When you're ready to play, plug a In addition to your bad-guy detec do this to update the program when
joystick into port 2. Then load and run tor, you're equipped with a panoramic countries change their names or their
IBH. After the program has loaded the viewfinder. This little device comes in capitals.
map data, you'll be prompted for the handy if you need to get your bearings Also note that, in some instances,
type of game you wish to play. You or to plot a shorter route to your desti certain "countries" are actually territo
have two choices. Game 1 requires you nation. To use it, press Fl. The word ries or provinces of other countries. For
to identify the countries that you wish LOOK is displayed at the center of the example, Greenland is under the do
to travel to, and Game 2 requires you to screen. In LOOK mode, you can scroll main of Denmark, the Falkland Islands
identify their capitals. the display around with the joystick. are part of the United Kingdom, and so
After selecting the game type, Neither your character nor the criminal on. For game purposes, these are treat
you'll be prompted for the difficulty will appear on the map while in this ed as independent countries.
level (1-6). Level 1 is the easiest, while mode, so you can't use this as a shortcut
level 6 is the hardest. The difficulty lev for finding the criminal. When you've IBH
el determines how often the criminal finished using the viewfinder, press the
moves from place to place, as well as fire button to resume the game. XQ 5 HEM COPYRIGHT 1990 COMPUT
F,l PUBLICATIONS, INC. - A
how much time you have to return a The moment you capture the fugi
LL RIGHTS RESERVED
captured criminal to your employer. tive, a timer is displayed to the left of
SC 6 PRINT"(CLR)COPYRIGHT 1990
the bounty. This timer counts from 0 to ": PR INT"COMPUTE! PUBLICAT
World Navigating the limit determined by the skill level. If IONS, [NC.":PRIMT"ALL RIG
When the game begins, you're auto you make it back to your employer UTS RESERVED"
matically placed in the country that has within the time limit, your job is com DS 13 BflNK15:GRAPHICl,l.:GRAPHI
C0:BLOAD"IBH MAP DftTA",B
hired you. Be sure to remember this plete and you're awarded the bounty. If
0,Pfll92:FAST:A=RND(-TI)
country because it's where you must re you don't make it, the criminal escapes
HE 20 POKE53281,0:POKE532B0,0!
turn the captured criminal. The white to a randomly selected country and you FORA=4869TO5284:READAS:P
square beside your character represents must start all over again. You'll soon OKEA,DEC(AS):NEXTA
the capital of the country that you're in. learn that it pays to make haste. RB 33 FORA-3584TO3711:READAS:P
If you're in an extremely small country, OKEA.DEC(AS):NEXTA:KEY1,
"LO0K"+CHRS[13) !POKE 250,
the square is placed on a comer of the Helpful Hints
0
country. If you find yourself stuck in a country XII 40 POKE251,32:DIMCN$(149, I)
The top screen line displays your and don't know the way out, don't pan ,X<149),¥(149),AC(149),G
current location, such as Washington, ic. Just type HELP at the prompt or press C(149,14):FORA=1TO149
D.C., U.S.A. At the upper right, you'll the HELP key and you'll be given the EE 50 READCNSIA.0),CN$(A,1),X(
find the bounty for the criminal that name of a place to move to. This option A},Y(A),AC(A)IFORB^ITOAC
(A):READGC(A,B):NEXTB,A
you're chasing. On the second screen randomly selects a country adjacent to
EJ 60 T3(l)*"00060fl":TS(2)="00
line, you're prompted for a move. the one you occupy. Consequently, you
0500":TS (3) = "000400":TS(
You can move to any country adja may have to use it several times before 1)="000300":TS(5)="00020
cent to the one you're occupying or to the name you're looking for appears. 0"
one that is connected by a sea route. To You can use the help option as often as PJ 70 TS(6)-"000100":AS="

COMPUTE'S Gazette MarcH 1990 27


International Bounty Hunter
{39 SPACES]"+CHR$ (13) 0THEN330 6A,8D
KD 80 SPS="{HOME)"+AS+AS+AS+" KQ 330 IFASOCHRS{34)THENPRINT JG 660 DATA 03,13,B1,FA,29,0F,
(H0ME)-{5}":TB$^"(H0ME} SD.04
(OFFH5JJ6 SPACES}RRRRRR :GOTO300 QP 670 DATA 13,C8,C0,14,D0,13,
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR"+C EF 340 PRINT" ":IFBS="HELP"THE 18,AS
HRS113) BE 680 DATA FA,69,58,85,FA,A9,
FQ 90 TBS'TBS*" *•** *INTERNATI N4S0 00,65
ONAL BOUNTY HUNTER****** XC 350 B=3:FORA=1TO149:IFCNS{A MA 690 DATA FB,85,FB,18,A0,00,
"+CHRSI13) ,GT)=BSTHENB-A:A>149 EE,01
FE 190 TBS=TBS+"{6 SPACES) KF 360 NEXTA:IFB=0THEN230 MH 700 DATA 13,BC,B2,13,A0,00 ,
i27 Y>(6 SPACES)" GH 370 C=0:FORA=1TOAC(CC):IFB= AD,03
RB 110 FORA=1TO8:MOVSPRA,0I0:M GC(CC,A)THENC=1:A=AC(CC JB 710 DATA 13,91,FC,C8,AD,04,
OVSPRA,0,0:SPRITEA,0:NE 13,91
XTA RP 380 NEXTA:IFC=0THEN230 CC 720 DATA FC,E6,FC,E6,FC,A5,
PF 120 PRINT"(CLR){WHT) HP 390 CC=B:NC=CC:GOSUB400:GOT FC,C9
(6 SPACES)RRRRRRRRRRRRR 0230 DH 730 DATA 00,D0,02,E6,FD,AD,
RRRRRRRRRRRRRR" KM 400 SPRITE2,0:PRINTTBS:MOVS 01,13
XR 130 PRINT1 ■*{PUR)lN PR1,164,145:A»XINC):I FA JG 740 DATA C9,16,Ffl,06,AC,02,
>68THENA=68 13,4C
{whtJbou AC 410 DR=0:IFX<ATHENDR=l KH 750 DATA 0C,13,A9,7B,85,FC,
nty hunter*****"" KB 42B IFY<Y (NC)THENDR = DR + 128 A9,D8
jj 140 print"(6 spacesh27 y>" PF 430 SiS5051,DR,ABS(X-A),ABS MP 760 DATA 85,FD,60,00,20,00,
:printtad(12)"<8> (y-Y(HC)):X=A:Y=Y(NC) 00,00
(3 DOWNjCilOOSE A GAME RF 440 IFX(NC)>68THENMOVSPR1,1 HK 770 DATA 00,38,A5,FA,E9,58,
(DOWN)" 64+8*(X(NC)-68),145 B5.PA
CF 150 PHINTTAH(ll)" {RVS} FC 450 RETURN XR 780 DATA A5,FB,E9,0H,85,FB,
{CYN) 1 {OFF} <8}COUNTR JA 468 PRINTSPS"YOU COULD GO T 60,18
IES(DOWN)":PRINTTAB(U) 0" BJ 790 DATA A5,FA,69,58,85,FA,
" {RVS}{CYN) 2 {OFF) FS 470 PRINTCNS(GC(CC,INT(AC(C AS.FB
^CAPITALS" : SLOW: DO :GE C)*RND(1))+1),GT)JFORTG CB B00 DATA 69,00,B5,FB,60,C6,
TKEYAS FA.A5
QM 160 LaOPUNTILAS="l"QRAS="2" KP 480 SPRITE1,0:SPRITE2,0:POK OP 810 DATA FA,C9,FF,D0,02,C6,
:GT=VAL(AS)-1:PRINTTAB( E1562,143:POKE1563,143: FB,60
12)"{3 DOWNjCHOOSE A LE POKE 1564,14 3:POKE 1565,1 XC B20 DATA E6,FA,A5,FA,C9,03,
VEL(DOWN)" 39 D0,02
QK 170 PRINTTAB(ll)" {RVS) SC 490 SYS5156,X,Y:FORA=1562TO FB 830 DATA E6,FB,fi0,A5,FA,BD,
{CYNj 1 {OFF} {8}EASY T 1565:POKEA,160:NEXT:SPR 68,13
O{DOWN)":PRINTTAB(11)" ITE1,1:SPRITE2,1:GOTO23 ED 840 DATA A5,FB,8D,69,13,20,
(SPACEHRVS) tCYN) 6 0 SF,13
(OFF) <8>DIFFICULT" AR 500 SPRITE2,0:POKE1144,160: CP 850 DATA 20,05,13,AD,68,13,
DA 180 GETKEYAS:IFAS<"1"ORAS>" POKE 1183,160:POKE 1984,1 8 5, FA
6"THEN180:ELSEFAST:TMS= 63:POKE2023,160 CF 860 DATA AD,69,13,85,FB,60,
TS(VAL(AS)] QQ 510 POKE1164,16O:POKE200fl,1 BD,6D
SB 190 KR-13-2*VAL(A$):PRINT" 6O:POKE1584,160:POKE162 EB 870 DATA 13,29,0L,3D,6C,13,
lCLR)":FORA=1144TO2023: 3,160:IFCS»1THENRETURN AD,6D
POKEA,160:NEXTA:SYS4959 MQ 520 IFX(CC)<X(BC)THENA=1183 SM 880 DATA 13,29,80,8D,6D,13,
:SYS4989 :ELSEIFX(CC)>X(BC)THENA 8E.6A
PE 200 POKE250,0:POKE251,32:PR =1144:ELSEA=1164 AA 890 DATA 13 , 8C,6B,13,AD,6A,
INTTB$:SPRCOLOR2,11:X=0 QJ 530 IFY(CC)<Y[BC)THENA=A+84 13,C9
:Y=0:MOV5PRl,164,145 0:E[.SEIFY(CC|=Y(BC)THEN XQ 900 DATA 00,D0,0B,AD,6B,13,
JE 210 BC=INT(149*RND(1))+l:SC A=A+440 C9,00
=INT<149"RND(1) ) +1:IFBC SS 540 POKEA,179:IFABS(X-X(BC) QC 910 DATA D0,01,60,AD,6A,13,
"SCTHEN210 )>10ORABS(Y-Y(BC)>>11TH C9.00
GM 220 B ENRETURN JE 920 DATA D0,0D,AD,6B,13,C9,
SC:SPRITE1,1,1,, , ,1:SPR EX 550 MOVSPR2,164+16*(X(BC)-X 00, D0
ITE2,1, I,,,,1:SLOW:GOSU ),14 5+8*(Y(BC)-Y):SPRIT XS 930 DATA 1C,20,A0,13,4C,Dl,
B400 E2,l:RETURN 13,CE
MS 230 IFINT(MR'RND(l))=0ANDCS CP 560 PRINTSPS"YOU HAVE EARNE SP 940 DATA 6A,13,AD,6C,13,C9,
= 0T!1ENBC=GC(BC,INT(AC(B D A BOUNTY OF ";:PRINTU 01,D0
C)*RND(1))+1):BN=BN-130 SING"$##,###";BN FC 950 DATA 06,20,95,13,4C,E7,
QK 240 IFCC=BCANDCS=0THENSPRIT QF 570 PRINT"FOR BRINGING THIS 13,20
E2,0:CS«1:POKE1604,170: CRIMINAL TO JUSTICE." JH 960 DATA 8A,13,4C,E7,13,CE,
TIS""000000" RC 500 PRINT" PRESS (RVS) RETU 6B,13
BF 250 IFCS=1ANDTIS>TMSTHENCS= RN {OFF}":DO:GETKEYAS:L FH 970 DATA AD,6D,13,C9,80,D0,
0:DC=IKT(149''RND(1) ) +1: OOPUNTILAS=CHRS(13) 06,20
POKE1604,160 JP 590 PRINTSPS"SINCERE THANKS MG 983 DATA 7C,13,4C,EE,13,20,
HD 260 IFCS-1ANDCC-SCTHEN560 FROM THF. GOVERNMENT OF 6E.13
GK 270 GOSUB50O:PRINTSPSCNS (CC ":PRINTCNS(SC,0)"." OF 990 DATA 4C ,EE , 13,00,00,00,
,1)", "CNS(CC,0) JC 600 PRINT" PRESS {RVS] RETU 00, 8D
FS 2B0 IFCS = 1THENPRINTTAB(2'1)" RN {OFE")":DO:GETKEYAS:L DX 1000 DATA 22,14,8E,23,14,A5
{DOWN}"MID S(TIS J 4,1>"!" 00PUNTILAS=CHRS[13) ,FA,8D
RIGHTS(TIS,2)"(3 UP]" EQ 610 PRINTSPS"(DOWN)PLAY AGA JF 1010 DATA 20,14,A5,FB,8D,21
MR 298 PRINT"{DOWN}"TAB(31);IP IN?(2 SPACESjPRESS ,14,AD
RINTUSING"Sti,##l";BN:P (RVS) Y {OFF) OR [RVS) AD 1020 DATA 00,DC,C9,7E,D0,13
RINT"{2 UP)GO TO: {@} {SPACEjN {OFF)":DO:GETK ,AD,23
{LEFTl";:BS-"" EYAS SP 1030 DATA 14,C9,0O,F0,F2,2(J
FD 300 GETAS:IFAS*CHRS(20)ANDB EA 620 IFAS="N"THENPOKE53280,1 ,6E,13
SO""THENBS = LEFTS (B$,LE 3:POKE 53281,11:SPRITE1, CB 1040 DATA 20,A0,13,CE,23,14
N(BS)-l):PRINT" 0:PRINT"{CLR)<6}":END ,4C,34
{2 LEFT)<@>{LEFT)";TGOT EJ 630 GOTO110 AJ 1050 DATA 14,C9,7D,D0,13,AD
0300 HE 640 DATA A9,00,BD,01,13,A0, ,23,14
RX 310 IFA3»CHRS(13)THEN340 00, Bl XC 1060 DATA O,47,F0,DB, 23,7C
GH 320 IFASC[AS)<32ORASC(AS)>9 AJ 650 DATA FA,29,F0,6A,6A,6A, ,13,20

ZB COMPUTE! s Gazello March 1990


AH 1370 DATA A0,13,EE,23,14,4C ,39,54,4,88,116,148,14 XM 1810 DATA GUATEMALA,GUATEMA
,34,14 9 LA CITY,7,29,4,11,40,5
JS 10B0 DATA C9,7B,D0,13,AD,22 HP 1470 DATA BRAZIL,BRASILIA,2 6,84
,14,C9 0,49,11,5,14,28,53,54, DB 1820 DATA GUINEA.CONAKRY,29
CR 1090 DATA O0,F0,C4,20,8A,13 76,101,102,122,136,141 ,31,6,52,67,76,82,111,
,20,A0 DD 1480 DATA BULGARIA,SOFIA,38 112
KQ 1100 DATA 13,CE,22,14.4C,34 ,12,4,48,108,133,146 BB 1830 DATA GUINEA-BISSAU,BIS
,14,C9 CF 1490 DATA BURKINA FAS0,OUAG SAU,28,31,2,51,111
FX 1110 DATA 77,D0,13,AD,22,14 ADOUGOU,31,31,6,12,47, HE 1840 DATA GUYANA.GEORGETOWN
,C9,44 67,82,93,131 ,17,35,3,16,122,141
BG 1120 DATA F0,AD,20,95,13,20 XR 150O DATA BURMA,RANGOON,59, MD 1850 DATA FRENCH GUIANA,CAY
,A0,13 29,5,9,27,60,73,129 ENNE.18,37,2,16,122
XM 1130 DATA EE,22,14,4C,34,14 AE 1510 DATA BURUNDI,BUJUMBURA KC 1360 DATA HAITI,PORT-AU-PRI
,C9,6F ,40,41,3,109,128,147 NCE,13,27,2,31,36
MB 1140 DATA D0,9D,AD,20, 14,85 XK 1520 DATA CAMBODIA,PHNOM PE EM 1870 DATA HONDURAS,TEGUCIGA
,FA,AD NH,61,32,3,73,129,142 LPA,9,29,4,40,50,68,92
BX 1150 DATA 21,14,85,FB,20,At) GS 1530 DATA CAMEROON,YAOUNDE, DP 1880 DATA HONG KONG,VICTORI
,13,60 35,35,6,24,25,29,41,46 A,63,25,1,27
RH 1160 DATA 00,08,00,00,A8,00 ,94 GJ 1890 DATA HUNGARY.BUDAPEST,
,02,AA HH 1540 DATA CANADA,OTTAWA,14, 36,10,5,7,33,108,139,1
DJ 1170 DATA 00,0A,AA,00,2F,FA 9,2,49,138 46
,80,8F MQ 1550 DATA CENTRAL AFRICAN R KC 1900 DATA ICELAND,REYKJAVIK
XP 1180 DATA FA,00,07,7A,80,07 EPUBLIC,BANGUI,37,33,5 ,27,0,3,49,96,135
,7E,00 ,22,25,29,121,147 CS 1910 DATA INDIA,NEW DELHI,5
RK 1190 DATA 3F,FE,00,FE\ F8,00 JK 1560 DATA CHAD.NDJAMENA.,37, 3,22,8,9,13,19,27,81,8
,FF,F0 30,6,22,24,77,93,94,12 9,98,120
MX 1200 DATA 00,0E,B0,00,0F,F0 1 HS 1920 DATA INDONESIA,JAKARTA
,00,0F QD 1570 DATA CHILE,SANTIAGO,14 ,62,43,5,6,100,103,113
OQ 1210 DATA F8,55,0B,E8,55,29 ,61,3,5,14,102 , 120
,68,41 RD 1580 DATA CHINA,BEIJING,62, KQ 1930 DATA IRAN.TEHRAN,46,17
MR 1220 DATA A9,A8,41,AA,A8,41 13,12,13,19,57,60,73,8 ,5,1,63,98,133,139
,00,09 5,89,95,98,127,139,142 ED 1940 DATA IRAQ,BAGHDAD,44,1
HK 1230 DATA 41,00,00,55,00,00 QK 1590 DATA COLOMBIA,BOGOTA,1 8,6,62,70,72,110,126,1
,55,00 2,35,5,16,38,99,102,14 33
FG 1240 DATA 00,00,00,00,00,00 1 QC 1950 DATA IRELAND , DUBI.I N , 30
,00,00 QJ 1600 DATA CONGO,BRAZZAVILLE ,6,1,135
QQ 1250 DATA 00,00,A8,00,23,EA ,36,40,4,22,24,46,147 GC 1960 DATA ISRAEL,JERUSALEM,

,80.0B EJ 1610 DATA COSTA RICA,SAN JO 41,19,4,39,70,74,126


RD 1260 DATA BA,80,07,7A,00,FF SE,9,33,2,92,99 PG 1970 DATA ITALY,ROME,34,12,
,FA,B0 JD 1620 DATA CUBA,HAVANA,10,25 4,7,45,125,146
MF 1270 DATA FF,FA,00,0A.FE,00 ,4,8,55,68,138 SF 1980 DATA IVORY COAST,ABIDJ
,05,B8 XP 1630 DATA CYPRUS,NICOSIA,40 AN,21,35,5,18,47,51,76
MF 1280 DATA 00,0D,F0,00,2F,E0 ,17,1,74 ,82
,00,AF RD 1640 DATA CZECHOSLOVAKIA,PR DR 1990 DATA JAMAICA,KINGSTON,
BE 1290 DATA EB,55,AB,A8,55,AB AGUE,35,8,6,7,37,58,10 11,28,2,31,56
,A8,41 4,139,143 PH 2000 DATA JAPAN.TOKYO,68,17
AB 1300 DATA AA,A8,41,08,00,41 KM 1650 DATA DENMARK,COPENHAGE ,2,117,127
,00,00 N,33,4,2,124,143 DO 2010 DATA JORDAN,AMMAN,42,2
EC 1310 DATA 41,00,00,55,00,00 HC 1660 DATA DJIBOUTI,DJIBOUTI 0,5,39,63,65,110,126
,55,00 ,44,31,2,42,115 CB 2020 DATA KENYA,NAIROBI,43,
XS 1320 DATA AFGHANISTAN,KABUL MD 1670 DATA DOMINICAN REPUBLI 38,5,42,115,121,128,13
,50,17,3,62,98,139 C,SANTO DOMINGO,13,28, 4
EJ 1330 DATA ALBANIA,TIRANE,37 2,55,106 KD 2030 DATA KUWAIT,KUWAIT CIT
,14,2,48,146 SR 1680 DATA EAST GERMANY,RAST Y, 45, 22, 2,63,110
AS 1340 DATA ALGERIA,ALGIERS,3 BERLIN,35,6,3,33,104, BK 2040 DATA LAOS.VIENTIANE,60
3,15,7,77,82,83,86,93, 143 ,27,5,19,21,27,129,142
132,144 GX 1690 DATA ECUADOR,QUITO,11, CE 2050 DATA LEBANON,BEIRUT,41
JF 1350 DATA ANGOLA,LUANDA,36, 39,2,28,102 ,17,3,32,65,126
44,4,15,88,147,148 BQ 1700 DATA EGYPT,CAIRO,41,20 HC 2060 DATA LESOTHO.MASERU,39
CE 1360 DATA ARGENTINA,BUENOS ,5,65,70,77,110,121 ,57,1,116
(SPACE)AIRES,17,61,6,1 QE 1710 DATA EL SALVADOR,SAN S EX 2070 DATA LIBERIA,MONROVIA,
4,16,26,43,101,136 ALVADOR,8,31,3,50,5S,9 29,34,4,16,51,67,112
CG 1370 DATA AUSTRALIA.CANBERR 2 PG 2080 DATA LIBYA,TRIPOLI,36,
A,74,61,4,61,91,100,14 XB 1720 DATA EQUATORIAL GUINEA 19,6,3,25,39,93,121,13
0 ,MALABO,35,37,2,22,46 2
MR 1380 DATA AUSTRIA,VIENNA,35 PB 1730 DATA ETHIOPIA,ADDIS AB XM 2090 DATA MADAGASCAR,ANTANA
,9,6,33,58,66,125,143, ABA,43,33,4,35,71,115, NARIVO,45,50,2,81,87
146 121 XG 2100 DATA MALAWI,LILONGWE,4
QM 1390 DATA BAHAMAS,NASSAU,11 SX 1740 DATA FALKLAND ISLANDS, 1,48,3,87,128,148
,23,2,31,138 STANLEY,18,71,1,5 XB 2110 DATA MALAYSIA,KUALA LU
FP 1400 DATA BANGLADESH,DHAKA, fcS 1750 DATA FINLAND,HELSINKI, MPOR,61,36,2,113,129
57,25,2,19,60 36,1,3,96,124,139 BA 2120 DATA MALDIVES,MALE,52,
CH 1410 DATA BELGIUM,BRUSSELS, FD 1760 DATA FRANCE,PARIS,32,9 35,3,60,78,120
33,8,4,45,90,135,143 ,6,10,66,119,125,135,1 XF 2130 DATA MALI,BAMAKO,30,29
MB 1420 DATA BELIZE,BELMOPAN,8 43 ,7,3,18,51,67,83,93,11
,27,2,50,84 JP 1770 DATA GABON,LIBREVILLE, 1
RC 1430 DATA BENIN,PORTO NOVO, 35,38,3,22,29,41 BD 2140 DATA MAURITANIA,NOUAKC
33,35,4,18,93,94,131 JQ 1780 DATA GHANA,ACCRA,32,36 HOTT,28,26,4,3,82,111,
GE 1440 DATA BHUTAN.THIMPHU,57 ,3,18,67,131 144
,21,2,27,60 JP 1790 DATA GREECE,ATHENS,39, QK 2150 DATA MEXICO.MEXICO CIT

MD 1450 DATA BOLIVIA,LA PAZ,15 15,4,2,17,133,146 Y,5,27,3,11,50,138


,51,5,5,16,26,101,102 BB 180O DATA GREENLAND,G0DTI1AA EE 2160 DATA MONGOLIA,ULAN BAT
RR 1460 DATA BOTSWANA,GABORONE B,21,0,2,23,59 OR,58,9,2,27,139

COMPUTE!* Gazette Marcn 1990 29


International Bounty Hunter
BM 2170 DATfl MOROCCO,RABAT,31, ,40,56,2,87,116
C3D8:55 56 66 66 66 64 44 44 65
18,3,3,119,144 JJ 2550 DATA SWEDEN,STOCKHOLM, C3E0:66 66 FF 62 22 66 66 66 39
RD 2180 DATA MOZAHBIQUE.MAPUTO 35,3,3,34,44,96 C3ES:66 62 62 22 22 26 66 66 87
,41,54,7,78,79,116,123 XB 2560 DATA SWITZERLAND,BERN, C3F0:66 66 22 66 26 66 66 66 ED
,128,148,119 33,9,4,7,45,66,143 C3F8:66 66 00 00 DD DD DD 00 6F
BO 2190 DATA NAMIBIA,WINDHOEK, DK 2570 DATA SYRIA,DAMASCUS,42 C400:00 00 00 66 FF FF 76 66 43
37, 53, 4,4,15,116,14B ,17,5,63,65,70,74,133 C10B:G6 66 66 76 66 66 66 66 92
RF 2290 DATA NEPAL,KATHMANDU,5 ME 25B0 DATA TAIWAN,TAIPEI,65, C410:66 66 65 55 55 55 55 55 68
5,21,2,27,60 23,3,27,69,103 C41B:55 56 66 66 66 64 44 FF 62
XA 2210 DATA NETHERLANDS,AMSTE AQ 2590 DATA TANZANIA,DAR ES S C420:66 66 66 22 66 66 66 66 65
RDAM,33,6,2,10,143 ALAAM,4 3,4 3,8,20,71,79 C428:62 22 22 22 22 22 66 66 9E
PA 2220 DATA NEW ZEALAND,WELLI ,87,109,134,147,148 C430:62 66 66 66 FF 66 66 00 IE
NGTON,86,64,2,6,140 RP 2600 DATA THAILAND,BANGKOK, C438:0O 00 DD DD DD 00 66 66 7D
AM 2230 DATA NICARAGUA,MANAGUA 60,31,4,19,21,73,30 C440:66 66 FF 66 66 77 77 77 74
,9,31,3,39,40,56 DE 2610 DATA THE GAMBIA,BANJUL C448:67 67 76 67 76 77 76 66 89
BX 2240 DATA NIGER,NIAMEY,33,2 ,28,29,1,111 C450:66 66 65 55 55 55 55 55 A8
9,7,3,12,18,25,77,82,9 SR 2620 DATA TOGO,LOME,32,35,3 C458:55 66 66 66 FF FF 62 26 44
4 ,12,18,47 C460:66 66 26 66 22 22 22 22 El
GB 2250 DATA NIGERIA,LAGOS,34, EJ 2630 DATA TUMISIA.TUNIS,35, C46S:EE 22 66 66 22 66 FF 66 36
34,4,12,22,25,93 16,2,3,77
C470:00 00 00 00 DD [)D 00 00 60
RB 2260 DATA NORTH KOREA,PYONG DE 2640 DATA TURKEY.ANKARA,40,
C47B:00 06 66 66 66 64 44 66 6A
YANG,65,14,3,27,117,13 C480:FF 66 77 77 77 66 66 66 92
14,6,17,48,62,63,126,1
C48B:77 77 77 76 66 66 66 55 F0
9 39
CD 2270 DATA NORWAY,OSLO,33,1, C490:FD FF 66 66 66 64 46 66 04
MC 2650 DATA UGANDA,KAMPALA,41
C498:66 66 66 22 66 66 22 62 51
4,44,59,124,139 ,38,5,71,109,121,128,1
SQ 2280 DATA OMAN.MUSCAT,48,24
C4A0:22 EE EE EE 22 66 66 26 61
47
C4A8:60 DD DD DD 00 66 66 44 IE
,3,110,118,137 O.S 2660 DATA UNITED KINGDOM,LO
C4!i0:44 44 44 44 47 77 77 77 B8
GA 2290 DATA PAKISTAN,ISLAMABA NDON,31,6,4,10,45,59,6
C4B8:77 77 66 66 66 66 77 66 31
D,51,18,5,1,27,60,62,1 4
C4C0:66 67 77 76 66 66 65 55 9A
39 BX 2670 DATA URUGUAY,MONTEVIDE
C4C8:55 55 56 55 66 66 66 FF 0C
BC 2300 DATA PANAMA,PANAMA CIT 0,18,61,2,5,16
C4D0:44 44 52 22 26 66 26 66 77
Y,11,33,2,20,30 BC 2680 DATA U.A.E,,ABD DHABI,
C4D8:62 22 EE EE EE EE 22 22 82
FD 2310 DATA PAPUA NEW GUINEA, 47,23,3,97,107,110
C4E0:22 20 00 DD DD 00 00 00 50
PORT MORESBY,78,45,3,6 XQ 2690 DATA U.S.A.,WASHINGTON C4E8:22 26 66 64 44 44 44 44 20
,61,114 B.C.,12,15,5,8,23,31, C4F0:77 77 77 77 FE 77 77 77 B6
BS 2320 DATA PARAGUAY,ASUNCION 84,139 C4F8:76 66 77 77 76 66 65 55 2B
,17,55,3,5,14,16 KC 2700 DATA U.S.S.R..MOSCOW,4 C5(!0:55 55 56 66 FF 66 66 64 87
HF 2330 DATA PERU,LIMA,12,47,5 0,4,14,1,27,33,44,58,6 C508:47 75 55 22 22 26 26 EE 46
,14,16,26,28,38 2,85,95,96,98,104,108, C510:EE EE EE EE 22 22 20 00 75
KR 2340 DATA PHILIPPINES,MANIL 133,138 C518:00 DD DD 02 22 26 44 44 6D
A,66,31,2,61,127 QC 2710 DATA VANUATU,PORT-VILA C520:44 44 44 47 77 77 77 76 DA
DX 2350 DATA POLAND.WARSAW,36, ,87,49,3,6,91,114 C52B:67 77 FE 77 66 77 77 67 04
6,3,33,37,139 ED 2720 DATA VENEZUELA,CARACAS C530:66 66 65 55 55 56 66 66 Cl
KG 2360 DATA PORTUGAL,LISBON,3 ,14,32,4,16,28,53,106 C53B:62 22 26 66 66 66 66 64 A6
0,14,1,119 DQ 2730 DATA VIETNAM.HANOI,61, C54B:77 77 55 22 26 62 22 22 53
AX 2370 DATA PUERTO RICO,SAN J 1 26,3,21,27,73 C548:22 EE EE EE EE EE 22 20 05
UAN,14,27,2,36,141 DE 2740 DATA WEST GERMANY,BONN C550:00 00 00 DD 00 00 06 66 2C
HJ 2390 DATA QATAR,DOHA,46,23, ,34,8,B,7,10,33,34,37, C558:62 66 44 44 44 44 44 7 7 AE
2,113,137 45,90,125 C560:77 77 77 FE 77 77 66 76 41
MR 2390 DATA ROMANIA.BUCHAREST FJ 2750 DATA WESTERN SAHARA,LA C568:66 66 77 76 66 66 66 55 06
,38,11,4,17,58,139,146 AYOUNE,29,21,3,3,8 3,8 6 C570:56 66 66 66 66 26 66 66 F2
GQ 2400 DATA RWANDA,KIGALI,40, FX 2760 DATA YEMEN,SAN'A,44,29 C57B:66 66 64 44 77 76 55 52 34
39,4,20,128,134,147 ,2,110,118 C580:22 22 EE EE EE EE EE EE 72
FB 2410 DATA SAUDI ARABIA,RIYA KK 2770 DATA YUGOSLAVIA,BELGRA C58B:DD DD 66 66 66 44 44 44 BE

DH,45,24,9,39,63,70,72 C590:44 44 47 77 77 77 77 77 AF
DE,36,11,7,2,7,17,48,5
,97,107, 118,137,145 C59B:66 77 77 77 77 66 66 66 24
8,66,108
BJ 2420 DATA SENEGAL,DAKAR,28, C5A0:67 76 66 66 66 66 65 55 9D
KF 2789 DATA ZAIRE,KINSHASA,37
C5A8:56 66 66 66 66 FF 44 44 2C
28,5,51,52,82,83,130 ,41,9,4,20,24,29,109,1
C5B0:77 65 55 52 22 22 22 22 21
PM 2430 DATA SIERRE LEONE,FREE 21,128,134,148
C5B8:EE EE EE EE 22 22 22 26 48
TOWN,29,33,2,51,76 AP 2790 DATA ZAMBIA,LUSAKA,40,
C5C0:22 22 22 26 60 00 DD 00 4B
XD 2440 DATA SINGAPORE,SINGAPO 48,B,4,15,79,87,88,128
C5CB:00 06 66 66 66 44 44 44 1A
RE, 61,38,2,61,80 ,147,149
C5D0:66 66 44 77 77 77 FE 77 38
KS 2450 DATA SOLOMON ISLANDS,H DR 2800 DATA ZIMBABWE,HARARE,4
C5D8:76 66 66 66 67 77 66 76 CB
ONIARA,83,43,2,100,140 0,50,4,15,87,116,148
C5EH:66 FF FF 66 66 66 64 47 E2
RD 2460 DATA SOMALI A,HOGADISHU
C5EB:77 66 56 22 22 EE EE EE 50
,45,36,3,35,42,71 IBH Map Base C5F0:EE EE 22 26 66 22 66 26 05
XJ 2470 DATA SOUTH AFRICA,PRET
C350IDD DO 00 66 66 66 66 FF 3E C5F8:66 60 00 00 00 00 00 00 CF
ORIA,39,55,6,15,75,87, 55 DF C600:06 66 66 66 66 64 44 66 11
C358:FF 66 66 77 66 66 FF
88,123,149 C360:5'i 66 66 66 FF FF FF FF 5F C608:66 66 64 FE 77 77 77 77 DE
SH 2480 DATA SOUTH KOREA,SEOUL DD 9A C610:76 66 66 66 77 77 77 76 A4
C36B:FF FF 66 00 00 00 00
,65,17,2,69,95 C370:DD DD DD 00 00 00 66 66 4D C618:66 66 66 FF 66 66 66 66 3F
DQ 2490 DATA SOUTH YEMEN,ADEN, C378:FF FF 66 66 66 77 77 77 AA C620:65 66 66 67 77 66 62 22 79
45,30,3,97,110,145 C3S0:77 77 55 55 FD 55 56 66 F9 C62B:22 22 22 EE EE EE EE 22 B5
AF 2500 DATA SPAIN,MADRID,32,1 C38B :66 66 FF 66 62 62 62 66 0B C630:22 26 66 66 66 22 66 66 7A
3,3,45,B6,105 C390 166 66 66 66 62 FF FF FF 2B C63E:66 66 00 00 00 00 00 00 92
QJ 2510 DATA SRI LANKA,COLOMBO C399 ;DD DD DD DD DD FF FF 66 75 C640:66 66 66 66 64 46 46 66 FC
,54,35,3,60,61,81 C3A0:67 76 67 66 67 77 77 76 4B C64B:66 66 64 77 77 FE 77 77 C4
SG 2520 DATA SUDAN,KHARTOUM,41 C3A8:55 FD 55 55 55 56 66 FF 2B C650:77 76 66 66 77 77 77 76 69
,29,8,24,25,39,42,71,7 C3B0:FF FF 66 66 66 26 26 FF S3 C658:FF FF 66 66 65 56 66 66 DO
7,134,147 C3BS;FF 66 66 66 66 00 DD □D D9 C660:77 66 22 22 EE EE EE EE A9
BQ 2530 DATA SURINAM,PARAMARIB C3C0:DD DD 00 00 65 66 66 FF 48 C668IEE 26 66 66 66 62 22 66 91
0,18,35,3,16,53,54 C3C8:66 66 6G 77 76 76 77 67 45 C670:66 66 60 DD 66 66 66 64 B2
JD 2540 DATA SWAZILAND,MBABANE C3D0:67 77 76 66 65 55 55 FD 48 C67B:16 FF 64 77 77 77 77 FE B4

30 COMOUTEI's Gazono March 1990


What do the C-64, THE C-128,
the Amiga and the IBM
all have in common?

Us.
We're Software Support International. For In any case, we'd like to introduce you to
the last several years, we've specialized in our current product line up. In the past we've
doing just one thing: serving the needs of the bought several pages of advertising in several
Commodore computer community. We develop magazines month after month, and still we've
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also enable ourcus- thing new.
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been described as Other companies come and go. Some even
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many of you are already our customers. If you Big Enough To Serve You.
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you aren't, you don't know what you're missing.

(C) 1990 SOFTWARE SUPPORT INTERNATIONAL * 2700 NE Andresen Road Suite A-1, Vancouver. WA 98661 * 206*695*1393
C-64, C-128, Amiga, and IBM are registered trademarks ol Commodore Business Machines and IBM.
Circle Raittor Sarvlc* Nwnbw 104
International Bounty Hunter
C680:77 77 76 77 77 77 77 77 ED C928:66 66 FF FF FF 66 64 44 2F CBD3:3S 66 66 66 44 55 88 26 28
C68B:66 66 FF FF 56 56 66 56 12 C930:44 44 EF 44 44 44 66 66 9F CBDB:66 66 66 66 FF FF FF FF 70
C690:66 66 22 22 22 22 EE EE 87 C938:FF FF FF 66 66 62 22 22 55 CBE0:FF 66 66 55 55 S3 FF FF 01
C698:EE 22 22 62 22 22 22 22 90 C940M4 66 66 66 66 66 66 88 E4 CBE8:FF FF 38 77 77 72 aa 83 28
C6A0:22 26 66 66 66 62 22 66 63 C943:88 55 77 77 77 77 44 44 42 CBF8:88 88 22 22 22 77 77 77 AA
C6A8:66 66 66 00 00 00 00 00 CF 0950:44 55 77 77 FE 77 77 77 FD CBF8:56 62 72 44 45 66 66 66 DD
C6li0:66 66 46 66 66 66 66 66 3A C958:77 76 66 38 66 64 44 FF E7 CC00:66 66 33 88 86 66 66 66
C61i8:G6 66 66 77 FE FE 76 77 AF C960:FF FF 66 66 66 66 64 EF AC 55 58 82 66 66 66 44 2A
C6C0:77 77 77 77 76 66 66 66 CE C968:EF 44 66 66 66 66 FF FF 05 CC10:66 66 FF FF FF FF FF 66 DC
C6C81FF 66 66 67 76 55 66 22 2B C970:66 66 66 66 67 72 22 22 6F CC18:66 82 22 26 FF FF FF 66 92
C6D0:44 88 82 EE EE EE EE 62 55 C978:46 66 66 66 66 66 76 2a □D CC20:66 66 48 77 77 22 2B 88 24
C6D3:22 22 22 22 22 22 22 26 6A C980:8S 55 57 77 77 77 44 44 76 CC28:3a B2 22 22 27 77 77 77 8A
C6E0:66 66 62 26 66 66 66 66 E9 C983:45 58 87 77 77 77 FE 77 4C CC30:55 66 74 44 66 66 66 66 EB
C6E8:00 00 00 00 46 66 66 66 75 C990:77 77 66 88 64 44 46 66 3A CC38:66 66 68 83 86 66 66 66 35
C6F0:FF 66 66 67 77 77 77 77 5B C998:66 FF FF FF 66 66 66 44 3D CC40:66 45 55 32 66 66 66 64 2F
C6FB:77 77 76 77 77 77 76 77 64 C9A0:44 EF 44 44 44 66 66 FF A7 CC48:66 66 66 66 FF FF FF FF El
C700:77 77 77 77 66 FF FF 66 29 C9A8:FF FF 66 67 77 72 22 22 6B CC50:FF 67 78 86 66 66 FF FF 08
C70B:65 55 67 22 44 83 82 22 1A C9B0:44 45 55 65 55 66 66 58 22 CC58:FF 66 52 22 72 22 28 55 B9
C710:22 EE EE EE 23 B2 22 22 EA C9B8;B5 55 55 77 77 77 74 44 4D CC60:55 58 22 22 27 77 77 77 9E
C71B:22 22 77 72 22 22 22 22 57 C9C0:45 55 87 FE FE 77 76 66 56 CC68:55 56 66 66 66 FF 68 B8 02
C720:66 66 66 26 66 66 66 66 AB C9CB:64 64 FF FF FF FF 66 55 C9 CC70:66 66 66 66 66 45 54 44 3F
C728:60 00 00 00 66 FF FF FE 1A C9D0:55 55 44 EF 46 66 66 66 EA CC78:26 66 66 64 46 FF FF FF 04
C730:FE 77 77 77 77 76 66 66 4C C9D8:66 FF FF 66 66 66 66 67 07 CC80SFF FF 66 66 66 66 ea B6 71
C738:76 66 66 FF FF 66 88 22 36 C9E0:72 22 22 22 22 55 55 55 03 CC88:66 66 86 56 FF FF 66 66 58
C740:27 77 83 22 22 22 22 EE 41 C9E8:55 33 88 57 75 55 55 57 D2 CC90:66 66 22 22 72 22 47 55 5D
C748:EE 22 22 33 88 8B sa 82 9E C9F0:77 77 74 44 55 55 33 77 79 CC98:55 58 82 22 27 77 77 77 E2
C750:22 22 27 77 22 22 22 26 D9 C9F8:77 FE 77 77 77 77 76 66 5B CCA0:55 58 66 77 76 66 66 66 BF
C758:26 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 C7 CA00:64 66 66 66 FF FF FF 66 FA CCAB:66 66 66 88 FF 65 64 42 05
C760166 00 00 00 66 66 66 FF BC CA08:66 66 66 55 55 55 54 54 69 CCB0:26 66 66 66 46 66 66 FF C2
C768:66 66 66 64 44 EF 44 47 89 CA10:44 44 44 64 46 66 FF FF 73 CCB8:FF FF FF FF 66 66 66 76 62
C770:66 77 77 77 77 67 66 67 05 CA13:FF 66 66 64 22 22 22 22 5ft CCC0:66 68 85 55 55 56 FF FF Bl
C778:77 66 66 66 66 FF 66 66 F6 CA20:22 55 55 55 55 SB S3 B7 81 CCC3:66 66 64 22 B2 25 47 55 6A
C780:66 77 77 22 22 77 77 22 32 CA28:22 25 55 67 77 77 75 55 13 CCD0J55 5B B2 25 55 77 77 77 BC
C788;EE EE 22 22 22 22 27 78 12 CA30:55 53 33 84 44 77 77 FE CD CCD8:55 55 77 77 FF 66 66 8B C7
C790:BB 38 38 33 33 83 77 77 EC CA38:77 77 77 66 66 FF FF FF EF CCE0:66 66 66 66 66 65 66 62 72
C798:77 22 27 22 63 66 FF 66 86 CA40IFF 66 66 65 65 55 55 54 12 CCEB:66 66 66 64 44 66 66 66 51
C7A0:66 60 00 00 FF 66 44 ac CA4B:46 66 66 66 46 66 66 66 CC CCF0:66 FF FF FF FF FF 66 67 PI
C7A8:4-1 44 44 44 44 44 44 46 3A CA50IFF FF 66 66 66 66 64 44 F2 CCF8:55 58 85 55 55 55 66 66 8C
C7B0!66 77 77 77 77 77 76 66 A4 CA58:52 22 22 22 22 55 55 55 6C CD00:FF FF 66 72 88 55 47 55 0D
C7B8:66 66 FF FF 66 67 77 55 2A CA60:55 88 88 82 22 22 22 46 20 CD08:55 88 85 55 55 77 77 77 65
C7C0:88 85 55 77 22 22 EE EE 7E CA6B:66 77 75 55 55 SB BB 38 79 CD10:55 55 55 77 66 66 FF 66 01
C7C8:22 22 27 77 78 ED 88 87 62 CA70:84 44 82 88 87 FE 77 66 BF CD1B:76 66 66 66 66 65 66 66 B7
C7D0:77 77 77 22 62 66 66 66 EA CA78:66 66 66 FF FF FF FF 66 0E CD20:66 66 66 66 44 66 FF FF 77
C7D8:FF 66 00 00 66 66 FF 66 35 CA80:56 55 55 55 66 66 66 66 96 CD2B:FF FF FF FF 66 BB BB 88 B2
C7E0:66 66 66 44 EF 44 44 44 AB CA8B:46 86 6fi 66 66 66 FF FF E2 CD30:55 55 26 66 66 66 FF 66 2A
C7E8:66 66 77 74 44 77 77 FF 6A CA90:66 66 64 45 55 52 22 22 2E CD38:66 66 66 67 88 55 47 55 61
C7F0IFF FF 77 22 26 44 47 77 D9 CA9B:22 55 55 55 55 as 88 62 D4 CD4O:58 88 55 55 55 57 77 75 96
C7F8I72 66 26 22 22 26 62 22 D2 CAA0:22 22 22 22 66 66 65 55 23 CD4B.-5 5 55 55 76 66 66 66 66 P5
C800:62 EE 77 77 77 88 88 83 SC CAA8:58 ED 8B BB 44 77 77 77 E5 CD50:66 66 46 66 77 FF 76 66 F6
C808:88 88 87 77 77 77 77 22 13 CAB0:77 77 76 66 FF FF FF FF 15 CD58;66 66 67 66 64 46 66 66 as
CB10:66 FF FF 00 66 66 66 66 04 CABS:66 66 66 66 56 55 55 55 56 CD60:FF FF FF FF FF 66 66 66 C8
C818:FF 66 64 44 44 44 EF 44 6B CAC0:66 66 FF FF FF FF 64 55 41 CD68:G6 88 B3 B8 55 55 22 88 BF
C820:64 67 44 44 46 66 66 66 B9 CAC8:55 77 22 22 22 85 22 55 0E CD70:66 66 66 66 FF 66 66 66 D8
CB28:66 FF FF 66 65 55 77 62 25 CAD0:55 88 BB 36 22 22 22 22 AC CD73:B8 55 66 65 53 88 85 85 46
C830:26 64 44 77 76 66 66 62 6A CADB:57 75 66 66 58 83 88 88 29 CD80:5B 88 35 52 25 55 57 76 S3
C833:22 26 62 22 66 22 22 22 F4 CAE0:88 88 55 H8 44 77 77 77 76 CD88:66 FF 46 66 66 66 66 66 B6
C840:22 22 77 77 77 77 88 B8 05 CrtE8:77 77 65 66 66 66 FF FF F7 CD90:65 66 77 66 66 66 77 76 FF
C848:3B 83 77 77 77 77 72 22 47 CAF0:FF FF 66 66 56 65 55 55 02 CD98:66 FF FF FF FF FF FF 66 CD
C850:66 64 44 FF 66 66 66 63 B0 CAF8:66 66 66 67 76 66 66 66 IF CDA0:66 88 88 88 55 75 22 B5 75
C853:66 FF 66 66 66 66 64 EF D5 CB00:66 FF FF 66 66 66 44 55 DB CDAB:56 FF FF FF 64 55 77 88 5F
C860:EF 76 44 44 66 66 FF FF 21 CB93:55 77 72 22 88 88 22 25 68 CDB0:88 BB 85 52 22 27 77 76 9B
C868:66 66 66 66 55 55 56 66 0D CB10:55 38 88 86 62 22 22 22 EF CDBS:66 66 66 FF FF 56 77 66 9C
C870:22 26 64 48 36 66 66 66 AE CB1S:22 25 56 66 ED 88 55 84 FB CDC0:66 67 75 66 66 66 66 FF ia
C378:22 22 66 22 EE 22 77 77 FB CB20:44 77 72 77 77 86 65 FF IE CDC8:FF FF FF FF FF BB 38 77 0F
C880:77 77 77 88 88 87 77 77 EB CB28:FF FF FF FF 66 65 55 55 38 CDD0:55 77 72 75 76 66 66 FF B4
CBB8:77 77 75 66 66 64 46 66 B0 CB30:66 65 56 66 67 76 FF FF 9A CDD8:FF 66 66 66 65 55 77 BB 39
CB90:66 FF FF FF 66 66 44 44 EE CU33:FF 66 55 55 55 77 77 88 69 CDK0S8B 38 85 52 22 27 76 66 B9
C898:44 EF EF FF FF FF 66 66 79 CB40:83 BB 22 22 25 77 77 77 12 CDE8:FF 66 46 66 66 66 66 66 4D
CBA0:25 55 56 66 66 22 67 55 2B CB48:62 22 22 22 22 25 66 66 D8 CDF0:66 55 67 86 66 77 55 66 8C
C8A8:54 44 44 44 44 22 26 62 9B CB50:66 B6 88 88 83 33 65 54 DB CDF8:FF FF FF FF FF FF 66 66 C7
C8B0:22 22 22 22 22 77 77 FE IF CB5S:44 47 22 26 76 66 66 66 0B CE00:64 43 83 FE 77 66 66 66 6B
C8B8:77 77 77 77 76 77 55 66 EC CB6i(:56 FF FF FF FF 66 66 66 F7 CE08:66 FF FF 66 65 55 77 S3 37
C8C0:66 64 FF FF FF FF EF EF 6E CBG8:66 65 55 55 66 65 56 66 68 CE1O:88 SB 55 66 22 22 66 66 Fl
C8C8:44 44 44 66 66 FF FF FF AF CB70:66 67 66 66 FF FF 66 66 7B CE18:66 66 FF FF 66 65 56 66 5E
C8D0:25 55 66 66 66 62 66 55 SC CB78:66 66 55 55 55 77 77 S3 DC CE20:65 55 55 65 56 65 FF FF 0F
C8D8:64 44 44 44 44 27 76 62 88 CB80:38 88 22 22 22 77 77 77 3A CE2S:FF FF FF FF 44 45 88 77 85
C8E0:22 22 22 22 42 77 77 77 C8 C333:66 22 22 22 22 55 66 66 DB CE30:77 FE FF FF 66 66 66 66 49
C8E8:77 FE 77 77 66 76 55 66 7A C390:66 66 88 88 88 86 66 64 IE CE3B:65 57 7B B8 88 BB 24 66 OB
CBF0:66 66 46 66 FF FF FF 66 E4 CB98:44 48 82 26 66 66 FF FF E3 CE40I22 26 66 FF FF FF 55 66 56
C8F8:66 66 44 44 EF EF 46 66 56 CBA0:FF FF FF 66 66 66 55 55 6B CE4B:65 55 55 65 66 66 65 56 DC
C900:66 66 66 FF FF 66 66 66 F9 CBA8:55 55 46 66 68 66 64 56 6B CE50:FF FF FF FF FF 66 66 66 BA
C90Q:65 66 62 22 66 66 66 65 55 CBB0:26 66 FF FF 66 66 85 57 24 CE5B:44 55 55 77 77 77 77 77 SF

C910S64 44 44 44 44 47 77 62 44 CBB8:77 77 78 SB 88 88 22 22 4E CE60:77 77 77 66 FF FF 66 66 20


C918:77 77 24 44 44 27 FE FE C9 CBC0:22 77 77 77 76 62 22 22 51 CE68:66 77 38 BB as SS 74 44 44
C920:76 66 65 B6 66 66 46 66 5D CBCB:55 56 66 66 66 66 88 3B 3A CE70:44 66 66 66 66 FF FF 66 96

? COMPUTE'S Gazette Match !990


International Bounty Hunter
CE7B:66 66 65 55 66 55 56 55 6F D120:66 66 BB 77 77 77 57 66 C7 D3C8:66 00 00 00 DO 00 66 66 C5
CE80:56 66 66 55 55 56 FF FF 09 D128:FF FF FF FF 62 22 22 22 CD D3D0:66 66 FF FF FF FF FF FF 45
FF FF 66 45 55 75 77 6E D130:22 EE 22 26 66 66 66 FF E0 D3D8:FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 80
CE90:FE 77 77 77 66 66 FF FF BE D138:FF FF FF 66 66 66 66 64 40 D3E0:66 66 66 66 60 DD 00 00 03
CE9B:66 68 BB 88 88 83 44 44 50 D140:55 55 55 44 57 76 66 66 9A D3E8:00 00 06 FF FF FF FF FF 51
CEA0:44 66 FF FF FF 66 66 56 B6 D148:66 66 FF FF 66 66 38 77 0E D3F0:61 16 66 66 66 FF FF FF 35
CEA8:66 66 66 55 65 66 56 66 0D 0150:77 87 76 66 66 66 FF FF 93 D3FB:FF FF FF FF FF FF 66 60 CD
CEB0:55 5B 86 66 FF FF FF FF 46 D158:FF 66 66 66 62 22 EE 22 64 0400:00 00 00 DO 00 00 00 06 80
CEB8:66 66 66 66 55 55 77 77 BC 0160:22 22 22 26 FF FF FF FF 44 D408:66 FF FF FF FF 66 66 66 BI
CEC0:77 77 FE 77 76 66 66 66 CF D168:FF 66 66 44 55 55 55 55 B6 D410:16 66 FF FF FF FF 66 61 8C
CEC8:FF 66 66 66 66 62 28 22 62 0170:77 66 66 FF FF FF 67 77 7C D418:16 66 66 FF 66 66 66 66 33
CED0:8B 88 44 44 44 66 66 66 90 0178:77 77 76 FF FF FF FF 66 EA D420:ll 66 66 66 61 66 FF 66 2A
FF FF FF 66 66 66 66 76 D180:62 22 22 22 EE 22 22 66 EE 0428:66 66 66 00 DD DD 00 00 Dl

CEE0:65 58 88 68 S6 76 FF FF EC 0188:66 66 FF FF FF FF FF 44 3D D430:66 66 66 FF FF FF FF 61 D4


CEE8:FF FF 66 66 65 55 77 FE 28 D190:55 55 55 58 77 66 66 66 EC D438:16 66 66 66 FF FF FF 66 20
CEF0:FE FF FF 66 66 62 22 22 97 D198:66 FF FF 66 66 66 67 77 E8 0440:66 66 11 61 11 11 11 66 44
CEF8:BB BB 34 44 44 FF FF FF F3 D1A0:77 77 66 66 66 FF FF FF 44 D44B:66 16 11 11 11 11 DE 11 79
CF00:66 66 66 65 55 55 66 56 E12 O1A8:66 66 66 66 62 EE EE FF F8 D450:ll 11 11 66 FF 66 00 00 E8
CF08:66 66 66 66 65 58 88 66 AB D1B0:FF FF FF FF 66 66 66 44 32 0458:00 00 DO DD 06 66 66 66 9B
CF10:66 67 66 66 FF FF FF FF EF D1B8:55 55 55 88 86 66 FF FF 50 0460:66 FF FF FF 66 66 66 11 E7
CF18:65 55 77 77 77 FE 77 77 44 D1C0:FF 66 67 77 77 76 FF FF F7 D46B:ll FF FF FF 66 66 66 61 95
CF20:77 66 66 FF FF 62 22 22 01 D1CB:FF FF 66 66 62 22 22 26 A5 D470:16 DE 11 66 61 11 11 DE B5
CF28:88 BB 55 44 44 66 66 FF A5 0100:66 62 22 22 22 22 26 66 F2 D478:DE 11 11 11 11 66 66 66 5E
CF30:FF FF FF 65 55 66 66 66 9D D1D8:66 FF FF FF FF FF 66 64 E0 D480:66 60 00 DD 00 00 00 00 42

CF38:66 66 66 86 66 66 76 66 F9 DlE0:55 55 55 58 86 66 66 66 B5
CF40:66 66 FF FF FF 66 66 66 79 D1EB:FF FF FF 77 66 66 66 66 04
IBH Map Expand
CF4B:66 55 57 57 77 77 77 FE 58 D1F0:FF FF FF FF 22 26 26 66 F0
CF50:76 66 66 66 66 FF 66 66 5E D1F8:66 62 22 22 22 22 FF FF 68 KX 5 REM *** IBH MAP EXPAND **
CF58:66 62 22 22 25 88 55 76 96 D200:FF FF FF 66 66 66 66 44 E9
CF60:44 66 66 66 66 FF FF FF 22 D208:55 55 55 56 66 FF FF FF F0 XQ 10 GRAPHIC1,1:GRAPHIC0:BANK
CF6a:FF FF 66 68 66 66 66 FF F4 D210:FF FF FF FF FF FF 66 66 E8 0: FAST :OP = 5000 0:JJP = a 19 2:
CF70:FF FF FF 66 66 65 55 77 61 D218:66 66 62 22 22 26 66 66 05 BLOAD"IBH HAP BASE",B0,P
CF7B:87 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 20 0220:66 66 66 67 66 FF FF FF 09 50000
CF30:66 66 FF FF 66 66 22 22 20 D228:FF 66 66 44 55 55 55 56 79 AC 20 A=PEEK(OP):IFA>220THEN5B
CFB8:25 58 55 76 88 66 66 56 E3 D230:66 66 66 FF FF FF FF FF 6F G3 30 POKENP,A:POKENP+1,PEEK(0
CF90:66 66 66 FF FF FF FF 22 EB D238:FF FF FF FF 66 66 62 22 91 P+l):POKENP+2,PEEK(OP+2)
CF98:66 62 66 66 FF FF FF FF 37 D240:22 FF 66 67 66 66 66 FF D3 ;POKENP + 3,t)EEK(OP + 3)
CFA0:FF 65 55 55 68 77 FE 77 31 D24B:FF FF FF 64 55 55 66 66 67 KB 40 (>QKENP + 4,PEEK(OP + 4) :0P=0
CFA8:66 66 66 66 FF 66 66 66 15 D250:FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF F5 P+5:GOTO140
CFB0:66 62 22 22 55 55 55 77 A4 D258:FF FF FF 66 66 66 67 77 77 pp 50 IFA=255THENB=102:GOTO130
CFB8:88 66 66 55 FF FF FF FF 58 D260:FF FF FF FF 66 66 66 64 04 IFA=254THENB=119:GOTO130
KC 60
CFC0:66 66 22 22 66 62 66 66 83 D26B:55 55 56 66 66 66 FF FF 0C
JP 70 IFA=23BTHENB=34:GOTO130
CFC8:66 66 FF FF FF FF 66 66 68 D270:FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 66 7C IFA=239THENB=68:GOTO130
BC 80
CFD0:66 65 55 55 88 87 77 77 C5 D278:66 66 62 22 FF 66 76 76 56
DB 90 IFA=253THENB=85:GOTO130
CFD8:77 77 77 77 66 FF FF 66 12 0280:66 66 FF FF FF FF 66 64 24
IFA=23 7THENB=136:GOTO13
QH 100
CFE0:66 62 22 22 55 55 58 87 EA D288:55 56 66 FF FF FF FF FF 3B
0
CFE8:88 66 65 55 66 66 FF FF 35 D290:FF FF FF FF FF 66 62 26 BA
AG 110 IFA=221THENB-0:GOTO130
CFF0:FF 66 66 66 62 26 22 22 6F D298:66 66 66 66 66 67 76 60 5C
SA 120 IFA=222THENB*17
CFF8:66 22 66 FF FF FF FF FF 21 D2fl0:66 66 66 66 FF FF FF 66 AC
FA 1.30 POKEHP,B:POKENP+1,B:POK
0000:66 66 65 55 88 B7 77 77 39 D2A8:66 66 66 64 55 55 66 66 61
ENP+2,B:POKENP+3,B:POKE
D008:77 77 77 76 66 66 66 FF 33 D2B0:66 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 89
D010:FF 62 22 22 55 52 28 83 70 D2B8:FF FF FF FF 77 76 66 00 C0
66 66 64 64
FK 140 NP=NP+5:IFNP<1637 6THEN2
D018:a6 66 55 56 66 66 66 66 A6 D2C0:66 FF FF FF FF
D2CB:55 56 FF PF FF FF FF FF AE
2
D020:FF FF FF 66 22 22 22 22 28
66 66
HJ 150 BSAVE'MBH MAP DATA",BO,
D028:26 22 66 66 66 66 66 64 96 D2D0:FF FF FF FF FF 67 44
D2D8:76 66 60 00 66 66 66 FF F8 PS192TOP16376:S[,OW G
D030:66 66 FF FF FF FF 66 55 CO
0038:88 88 77 77 77 77 77 76 A5 D2E0:FF FF FF 64 45 56 66 66 83
D040:FF FF 66 66 66 68 88 88 83 D2E8:FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 8E
0043:44 22 22 88 66 66 55 56 2F D2F0:FF FF FF 66 66 66 00 00 C9
D050:66 FF FF FF 66 66 66 62 21 D2F8:FF FF FF FF 66 66 66 64 9C COMPUTED Gazette is
D058:22 EE FF FF FF FF FF 66 2D 0300:45 56 66 66 66 66 FF FF DF looking for utilities, games,
66 66 64 88 88 87 77 CE D308:FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF AF
0060:66
D310:FF 60 00 00 66 66 FF FF 9C
applications, educational
0068:77 77 77 76 66 66 FF FF C6
D070:66 68 88 84 44 22 22 86 2E D318:FF FF 66 66 45 56 66 FF 43 programs, and tutorial
0078:66 66 55 56 66 66 66 FF 90 D320:FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF C7 articles. If you've created a
D080:FF FF 66 22 22 22 22 22 11 D328:FF FF 66 66 66 00 00 00 36
0083:22 22 26 66 FF FF FF FF EE 0330:66 66 66 66 FF FF FF FF D7 program that you think other
D090:FF 66 66 64 88 84 47 77 3B 0338:45 56 66 62 66 FF FF FF 3E readers might enjoy or find
D098:77 77 77 76 66 66 66 66 2A 0340:FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF E7
66 66 66 66 68 88 84 79 0348:60 00 00 00 66 FF FF FF 53 useful, send it, on disk, to:
D0A0:FF
D0A3:44 42 28 36 66 65 55 66 44 D350:FF 66 66 66 64 45 FF FF FC
D0B0:FF FF FF 66 66 62 22 22 OB D358:FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF Submissions Reviewer
22 22 66 66 66 FF FF 01 D360:FF 66 66 66 00 00 00 00 04
D0B8:EE
66 10
COMPUTE! Publications
D0C0:FF FF FF 64 BB 84 47 77 05 0368:66 66 66 FF FF FF FF

D0C8:77 77 77 66 66 FF FF 66 F2 0370:66 65 56 66 FF FF FF FF 05 P.O. Box 5406


44 44 47 78 86 4B D378:FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 60 80
D0D0:66 66 88 Greensboro, NC 27403
0008:66 65 55 66 66 66 FF FF E4 0380:00 00 00 00 FF FF FF FF 28
D0E0:FF EE EE FF FF FF FF FF 1C D3B8:FF 66 65 66 66 66 FF FF A9
D0E8:66 66 66 64 85 54 44 47 B7 D390:FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 38 Please enclose an SASE if
0398:66 66 66 00 00 00 00 00 D9
D0F0:77 77 FF FF FF 66 BB 44 IB
you wish to have the
D0F8:47 77 78 66 66 66 55 FF 09 D3A0:00 66 FF FF FF FF FF FF El
D100:FF FF 66 66 66 22 22 EE C5 D3A8:FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 50 materials returned.
Dl08:22 22 22 26 66 FF FF FF IF D3B0:FF FF 00 00 00 06 66 66 5F
D110:FF FF 66 64 55 55 54 44 B3 D3B8JFF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 60
D118:77 76 66 66 FF FF 66 66 7B D3C0:FF FF FF FF FF FF FF 66 CE

COMPUTE'S Gazette March 1990 33


Roses are
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ACCOLADE ■FoniPakPlus
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WAGE WAR AGAINST THE
EVIL DROIDS IN THIS
GRAPHICALLY STUNNING,
ARCADE-STYLE GAME FOR
THE COMMODORE 64.

Trembiay

The Solar System was once a safe place The red objects on the surface of
to live. But that was long ago. Now it's the satellite are the enemy bases, which
the year 2500, and those infernal droids fire at you periodically. If they hit you
have returned. or if you contact the satellite's surface,
In Plane! Raider, the droids have your ship explodes. Also, if you run out
positioned eight war satellites around of fuel, your ship will crash into the sur
Earth and are preparing to attack. Only face and explode.
a quick strike can stop this mutant life In order to refuel, you must de
form. Guess what? You've been select scend to a fuel depot (Ihey are the blue
ed to lead this mission. So ready your squares found on every satellite) and
troops and blast off for action! activate the shield/tractor beam. Watch
the fuel gauge when you refuel. If it
Belling Started goes up, then you're refueling properly;
Planet Raider is written entirely in ma A dangerous surface maze in Planet Raider.
otherwise, move closer to the fuel depot
chine language. To type it in, you'll and try again. When the fuel depot is
need to use MLX, the machine language When the game begins, your ship ap empty, a beep signal will be emitted
entry program found elsewhere in this pears in the center of the screen, above and the depot will disappear from the
issue. When MLX prompts you, re the surface of a droid satellite. Across
spond with the values given below. the top of the screen from left to right is
your score, the number of ships remain Scoring
Starting address: 0801
ing, the amount of time that you have If you destroy an enemy base, you're
Ending address; 1AD0
left to destroy the enemy bases on the awarded 30 points. When the message
When you've finished typing, be sure to current satellite, and a fuel gauge. MISSION COMPLETE flashes over the
save a copy of the program before exit To control your ship, use the key time limit, there are no more enemy
ing MLX. ' board. The Commodore key rotates the bases on that satellite. Destroying all
Although it's written in machine ship counterclockwise; the left SHIFT the bases on a satellite and leaving it
language, Planet Raider loads and runs key rotates it clockwise. To provide within the time limit shown on the top
like a BASIC program. When you're thrust, hold down the cursor-down key. of the screen adds a time bonus to your
ready to play the game, plug a joystick To move in a certain direction, rotate score. To travel to the next satellite,
into port 2. Then load the program and the ship and then thrust. Use a light thrust upward into outer space over the
type RUN. touch on the keyboard; if you overdo it, point where you approached the satellite.
Note that if you press RUN/STOP- you'll lose control of your ship. There are eight satellites per level.
RESTORE after the game begins, you To fire on an enemy base, press the If you destroy every enemy base on a
can't restart it by typing RUN. Instead, cursor-right key. The space bar (or the level, you're awarded two extra ships.
you must reset the computer and then right SHIFT key) activates your shield/ You also receive an extra ship when
load and run the program again. tractor beam. The shield is impenetra you accumulate 1000 points and anoth
ble to all fire, both your own as well as er one for every 2000 points thereafter.
Playing the Game that from the enemy bases. Use the Once you've purged all eight satel
In Planet Raider, your mission is to lo shield judiciously since it consumes lites of enemy bases, you move to the
cate and destroy all the enemy bases fuel rapidly. The tractor beam is used next level. As you advance from level to
that defend the eight droid satellites. for refueling, as described below. level, the gravitational forces exerted by
36 COMPUTE'S Gaielte March 1990
a satellite on your spaceship alternate 0 9B9: 95 BB A5 03 18 69 04 85 91 0C61 D0 BA A5 39 D0 BA B4 F0 A4
0 9C1: 03 A4 04 CA 88 10 AE A9 37 0C69 09 80 C4 8D 7B 0C A9 3B 87
between attractive and repulsive. For
09C9: 70 A2 20 20 Al 10 A6 4C A9 0C71 85 25 BD 90 C4 85 24 A0 7B
example, on level 1, gravity pulls you 47 43
09D1: D0 52 A9 99 85 45 85 0C79 07 B9 00 33 91 24 88 10 45
toward a satellite; on level 2, it pushes 09D9: A5 C5 09 EF C9 EF D0 15 15 0C91 F8 B4 D8 B9 F6 0C 48 B4 27
you away; on level 3, it attracts again; B9E1: 86 BD EE 27 DO A5 46 30 D0 0C89 D9 31 24 F0 09 A9 00 95 F2
and so on. You'll soon learn that these 09E9: 05 A9 80 8D 12 D4 A0 09 FF 0C91 SE 68 B5 F0 10 03 68 11 3B
09F1: 20 B0 10 86 34 86 46 AS BC 0C99 24 91 24 8A 09 IB B4 4E 95
gravitational forces can be just as dan
09F9: C5 B9 7F C9 7F D0 21 AE ED 0CA1 84 22 B4 4F B4 23 B4 CB F2
gerous as the enemy fire, especially 30 20 8A 29 FE AA B5 18
OA01: F8 07 20 52 0A A5 46 0CA9 91 22 60
when it conies to navigating the treach 0A09: 03 A0 13 20 80 10 20 30 62 OCBl F0 20 9F OC A4 24 B9 E0 09
erous mazes found on some satellites. 0A11: 0A C6 34 10 17 A9 06 85 54 0CB9 02 18 79 CB 00 99 C8 00 8C
In addition to the alternating gravi 0A19: 34 30 3A 10 90 0E 34 4C A9 0CC1 30 0C C9 28 B0 08 C9 16 FF
0A21: A5 46 30 ED A9 40 BD 12 F9 0CC9 90 09 98 4A 90 05 A9 00 10
tational effects, the satellites (but not
0A29: D4 20 30 0A 4C 95 08 A2 Cl 0CD1 95 5E 38 60 B4 C9 B9 20 B9
the bases) are invisible on levels 3 and
0A31;:06 8E 27 DO AS BC 85 BD C6 0CD9 C4 95 4E B5 22 B9 40 C4 19
4. The only way to locate their surfaces 0A39::60 29 07 A8 8A 29 08 7F 95 4F 35 23 B4 C8 Bl 22 C9
8A
is to activate your shield/tractor beam. 0A41: 85 22 A9 08 Efl DC B0 06 38 0CE9 C9 10 90 06 29 0E AB B9 E9
The gravitational and visibility effects 0A49 :E0 D4 90 02 A9 00 85 23 B0 0CF1 F0 00 95 F0 60 CO CB 30 FB

repeat after level 4 (level 5 has normal 0A51 60 20 3A 0A A2 00 B5 3F 45 0CF9 30 0C 0C 03 03 C6 34 DO 4B


0A59 :29 03 4B B5 E8 29 08 55 78 0D01 09 C6 33 4A 85 34 C6 33 1A
gravity and visibility, level 6 has
0A61 :22 DO 0B 68 18 79 Al OA 96 0D09 10 03 4C 25 0A A5 BA C9 ED
reverse gravity and normal visibility, 90 2B B0 11 68 38 CA 0D11 31 B0 1A A2 08 BD 42 0D 26
0A69 :C9 04
and so on). 0A71 :F9 Al 0A B0 IF D6 2F 10 F9 0D19 9D EF 05 A9 06 9D EF D9 99
Finally, if you need to pause the 0A79 :0A B5 E8 49 FE 95 EB F6 C8 0D21 CA 10 F2 AD 01 DC C9 FD EA

game or restart it once it ends, press 0AB1 :2F 30 F2 48 84 22 B4 2F 61 0D29 D0 F9 4C 19 08 A2 00 20 30


0AB9 :B9 01 C6 D5 EC B0 02 95 B4 0D31 68 11 A6 31 D0 F7 8E 47 76
RETURN.
0A91 :EC A4 22 68 95 3F CB CB 14 0D39 03 A9 15 8D 45 03 4C 4E D7
0A99 :CB CB EB E0 02 DO B7 60 92 0D41 08 C7 Cl CD C5 20 CF D6 8B
Planel Raider 0AA1 :00 01 02 03 04 03 02 01 97 0D49 C5 D2 A5 B7 D0 06 A5 B9 CE
08 0A 00 9E 32 30 36 2E 0AA9 :00 01 02 03 38 30 27 16 55 0D51 DO 7B B5 BF A2 0C BD EE 0F
0809:34 00 00 00 9B 00 00 20 53 0AB1 :00 16 27 30 38 30 27 16 1A 0D59 0D 9D EC 05 A9 06 9D EC DC
0811:2A 16 20 B7 10 20 Dl 13 F2 0AB9 :84 03 A2 0E 86 02 B5 5E OC 0D61 D9 CA 10 F2 86 0A A5 0A FD
0819:A2 BA A9 00 85 BB 9D 40 ca 0AC1 :F0 03 20 93 0C CA CA 10 7D 0D69 30 FC E6 BB A5 BB 29 IF 01

A9 CB 9D F8 07 CA IB 99 0AC9 :F5 A5 46 10 08 AS 39 30 85 0D71 D0 09 A5 BE 4A 09 10 85 F2


0829:F1 36 BE A9 35 85 BA A9 25 0AD1 :04 36 39 F0 46 C6 BA 4E D0 0D79 BE A5 BB 29 07 F0 03 4C B4
0831iCl 3D F9 07 A9 D0 BD F8 D9 0AD9 :15 D0 OE 15 D0 A2 flfl 8E 5F 0D81 4B 08 A2 BF BD FF 3D 9D 2E
0939:07 A9 15 3D 45 03 A9 93 CF 0AE1 :5F Cl E8 BE 01 D4 A9 C8 93 I1 rift1) EA 05 A9 04 9D EA D9 CA E6

0B41:.\2 IB BD C0 13 BE Cl 13 CF 0AE9 :85 33 A9 F9 85 32 AD 01 B3 0D91 10 F2 S6 0A A5 BB 4A 4A DC


0349:06 BF 20 C6 12 A2 AA AS 13 BAF1 :D0 8D FF C0 AD 00 DO BD 7A 0D99 4A 09 30 80 F0 05 A5 BF A0
0B51;BB 29 10 85 BC D0 02 A2 B3 0AF9 :DF C0 C6 33 A6 33 EO Cl BF 0DA1 F0 24 A2 19 BD 0F BE 9D 07
08S9:FF 8E 38 38 4A 09 05 BD 9F 0B01 :F0 0B A0 IF 20 54 03 C6 87 0DA9 36 06 A9 02 9D 36 DA CA FB

0861:21 DO A9 93 BD 00 DO 3D 40 0B09 :02 C6 02 10 ED 8E 00 D4 91 0DB1 10 F2 A2 OD BD 29 0E 9D 02

0869:01 D0 20 44 E5 A9 48 35 62 0B11 :A2 0F 16 5E 16 5E CA 10 B4 0DB9 8C 06 A9 06 9D 8C DA CA DO


0871:B3 A5 BB 29 08 49 08 85 6B 0B19 :F9 86 42 A4 03 60 C6 A7 2F ODCl 10 F2 E6 BA E6 BA A5 0A A0
0879:116 A2 01 86 E8 86 E9 CA 16 0B21 :D0 18 A5 BE 85 A7 C6 AB 4A 0DC9 30 FC 4C 3F 08 A5 B7 D0 CF
08B1:A0 94 34 09 96 2E 88 D0 73 0B29 :10 10 A5 0A 29 07 85 AB BC ODDl 99 A5 BA 10 FC 85 B9 E6 BC
0889:FB A0 03 20 23 12 20 EF B3 0B31 :A2 BE B4 5E F0 05 CA CA 94 0DD9 3B A9 20 20 98 0F A2 0D 55
OB9U0F 20 34 14 20 IF 0B 20 AC 0B39 :10 F8 60 86 02 4A 90 01 65 0DE1 B6 0A BD Fl 0D 9D 08 04 SB
0899:17 0C A5 35 D0 22 A5 44 DE 0B41 :88 C8 C4 31 B0 F4 AD 12 40 0DE9 CA 10 F7 30 E0 CE CF 20 71
0BAl:F0 IE AS 41 38 ES 42 85 DD 0B49 :D0 4A 90 F5 BE 20 Cl E0 A6 0DF1 D4 C9 CD C5 20 C2 CF CE 79

0HA9:41 8D 07 D4 A5 43 E9 00 F9 0B51 :C2 90 EE B9 C0 C0 29 07 C8 0DF9 D5 D3 3D 32 30 2A CC C5 48


031)1:85 43 8D 08 D4 E9 1C D0 DE 0B59 :FD 4F 0B 85 26 08 38 B9 77 0E01 D6 C5 CC 20 D8 20 C3 CF 34
08B9:07 85 44 A9 10 SO 0B D4 73 0B61 t40 Cl D0 01 18 B9 C0 C0 1C 0E09 CD DO CC C5 D4 C5 Cl CC 44
OBCUAD IE D0 AD IF D0 A8 4A FC 0B69 :6A 4A 4A 28 E9 HI C9 28 22 0E11 CC 20 C5 CE C5 CD D9 20 7A

08C9:90 03 20 B9 0A CO 08 90 76 0B71 :B0 GF 85 24 B9 E0 C0 E9 B3 0E19 C2 Cl D3 C5 D3 20 C4 C5 4C


08D1:0F A2 08 98 3D 74 OF FB 67 BB79 :3E FD 49 0B S5 27 4A 4A AF 0E21 D3 D4 D2 CF D9 C5 C4 21 44
O8D9:03 20 53 OF CA CA 10 F3 65 0B81 :4A C9 16 B0 BC 85 25 AD FO 0E29 32 20 C5 D8 D4 D2 Cl 20 42
08E1:20 41 0E A5 33 F0 03 4C IE 0B89 :12 DB 08 29 07 E9 01 2B 7A 0E31 D3 C8 C9 DO D3 21 DC D4 61
08E9:FE 0C A5 B3 C9 40 F0 04 Al 0B91 :10 04 E9 00 49 FF IB 7D E5 0E39 FF DB oa D6 FF D0 DE D2 2B
08Fl:C5 B5 DO 03 4C 4B 0D C6 0D 0B99 :43 0B 29 0F 09 D0 AA 20 2B 0E41 A5 BB FO 3E C6 3A 10 0F AE
0BF9:4B 10 99 A9 20 85 43 AE 56 0BA1 :3A 0A 84 03 AE 02 E8 A0 C7 0E49 A2 18 86 3A E6 4A DO 07 3A
090I:F8 07 A9 FD BD 00 DC AD 3A 0BA9 :01 B9 22 00 F0 04 A9 FF DD 0E51 85 4A A6 B6 20 '-,2 0A C6 28
0909:01 DC 09 7F C9 7F DO 01 DA 0BB1 :D0 02 A9 01 9D EB 02 B9 24 0E59 3E D0 27 C6 EA DO 23 A9 A4
0911:E9 A9 16 8D B0 DC AD 01 6D 0BB9 :24 00 95 CB B9 26 00 29 B0 0E61 01 35 EA A5 2F FO 06 A5 06
8919:DC C9 FD DO 0A CD 01 DC 3F 0BC1 :07 3B F9 37 HO 29 07 95 64 0E69 EB 10 02 A9 02 A6 30 F0 D4
0921:FB FB CD 01 DC D0 FB 85 1C 0BC9 :D8 B0 04 D6 C8 30 51 84 94 0E71 08 09 08 A6 E9 10 02 49 1C
0929:C5 09 DF C9 DF D0 01 CA 08 0BD1 :04 A4 03 98 18 69 04 85 FH 0E79 0C A8 F0 69 BE 36 0E 20 35
0931:C6 3D 10 0C A9 04 85 3D 5E 08D9 :03 B9 AD 0A A8 AD 12 DO 27 flEBl 52 0A C6 4B 10 5F A9 05 2D
B939:BA 29 0F 09 D0 8D F8 07 03 0BE1 :29 03 24 0A 70 07 49 FF A4 0E89 85 4B A2 01 A9 00 95 02 1A
0941:A5 C5 09 FB A6 C6 85 C6 9A 0BE9 :39 00 C6 10 03 19 00 C6 B9 0E91 D5 2F F0 25 D6 EC D0 21 02

0949:C9 FB D0 01 E8 D0 7F A5 98 0BF1 :95 5E 95 6E A4 04 CA B8 57 0E99 BD 0B DB 75 EB AB DD E2 8E


0951:46 3D 74 A2 0A CA CA 30 8C 0BF9 AF E9 20 D5 OC A9 2A 7F 0EA1 BE DO 03 CB F6 02 DD E4 46
0959:75 B5 7E D0 FB B6 02 AE 05 OC01 :AA 4C Al 10 D2 D6 D0 D8 23 0EA9 0E DO 93 B8 D6 02 98 9D 77
0961:F8 07 2B 3A 0A 84 A6 68 0C09 :DE DA 02 F8 08 F7 02 F8 34 0EB1 00 DO B4 2F B9 01 C6 95 80
0969:02 AD 15 D0 ID 74 8D FD 0C11 :00 00 05 05 08 08 A2 0E CD 0EB9 EC CA 10 D0 A2 0B A5 02 90
0971:15 D0 E8 A0 01 S9 00 DO 29 0C19 :BS 5E DB 05 CA CA 10 F9 A9 0EC1 FO 0B B4 7E FO 03 20 18 33
0979:9D 06 D0 B9 2F 00 4A 85 25 0C21 :60 D6 9C 10 F7 A9 04 95 B7 0EC9 0F CA CA 10 Fl A2 09 A5 4C
0981:02 B9 22 00 F0 04 A9 FF 32 0C29 :9C A9 01 85 FF 85 02 D6 63 0ED1 03 F0 0B B4 7D F0 03 20 2E
O989:D0 02 A9 01 95 92 59 E8 5C 0C31 :6E D0 24 B5 5E 95 6E 46 01 0ED9 18 0F CA CA 10 Fl 4C AD 5A
0991:00 08 84 04 A4 03 B9 AD C8 0C39 t02 BD E0 02 18 75 DB A8 EE 0EE1 11 60 70 Fa B0 A2 08 86 E2
0999:BA 2B D0 B5 18 65 02 D0 50 0C41 :29 07 95 D8 9B 30 04 C0 3E 0EE9 FF B5 7E F0 IF D6 9D 10 Fl
09A1:11 33 E5 02 B0 0C E9 00 B0 0C49 :08 D0 0C 86 24 20 AC 0C BA 0EF1 IB A3 02 95 9D 4A 85 FF C0

09A9:49 FF AB B5 92 49 FE 95 IE 0C51 :B0 CA 20 D5 0C A6 24 E8 02 0EF9 D6 88 [30 09 BS 7E 95 BB A9


09B1:92 9B A8 B9 00 C6 95 7E A8 0C59 :C6 FF 10 D3 CA CA A5 02 E2 0F01 135 92 20 18 0F EB C6 FF CD

COMPUTERS Gezelle March 1990 37


Planet Raider
0F09:10 EE CA CA CA CA 10 D9 6C 11B1:86 27 B5 02 18 75 37 AS 65 1459:A9 0F BD 05 D4 A9 FA 3D BC
0F11:A5 FF 30 45 4C 7E 0F 18 EE 11B9:29 07 95 22 9B 10 00 B4 DA 1461:06 D4 58 60 00 IB 58 00 BF
0F19:7D 06 D0 9D 86 D0 AS D0 01 11C1:B2 CB 98 D5 B4 DO IB BA 89 1469:00 07 00 00 IE 05 05 00 62
0F21:B8 AD 10 D0 ID 74 0F D0 67 11C9:F0 18 DO 15 CO OB DO 16 B3 1471:02 00 00 00 FB FO FO F0 B8
0F29:0A C9 FF D0 09 AD 10 D0 BB 11D1:B4 B2 DO 0C A4 B4 DO 03 77 1479:00 00 F0 F6 FG F2 F4 F4 91
0F31:3D 75 0F 8D 10 00 8A 4A 29 11D9:B4 02 A9 07 8S 22 DO 06 CB 1481:F4 F4 F4 DB AD 19 00 80 8E
0F39:B0 12 AD 10 D0 3D 74 0F 5E 11E1:BB 98 95 B2 56 26 CA 10 3D 1489:19 D0 4A B0 6A AD IE DO DD
0F41:D0 05 CO 08 F0 14 60 CO FA 11E9:C9 20 21 11 A6 22 A4 23 58 1491:4A 6A 10 04 48 BO 35 68 93
0F49:4S F0 OF 60 CO 3C F0 04 8C 11F1:A5 26 25 27 F0 2C 66 37 04 1499:4A 90 2E A2 FE E8 E8 E0 49
0F51:C0 F8 D0 05 CA 20 5B 0F 15 11F9:B4 3B A6 B9 DO 10 BD 80 9F 14A1:0A FO 26 4A 90 F7 20 5B 74
0F59:EB 60 A9 00 85 FF 95 7E 0F 1201:C0 F0 09 29 OF C9 02 B0 C9 14A9:0F A6 05 A9 C0 DD 20 Cl BD
0F61:AD 15 DO 3D 75 0F SD 15 Al 1209:05 EB D0 F2 86 B9 AD 42 EB 14B1:B0 17 9D 20 Cl BC 00 Cl 70
0F69:D0 AD 10 D0 3D 75 0F 3D D5 1211:03 29 10 FO 07 CD 41 03 97 14B9:99 80 CO E6 3B OA BD 00 72
0F71:lfl D0 60 03 F7 10 EF 20 58 1219:F0 02 EG BA 8D 41 03 4C 82 14C1:D4 OA SD 01 D4 A9 E4 85 35
0F79:DF 40 BF 80 7F A5 3C F0 93 1221:7E 0F AD 12 D0 C9 50 90 FD 14C9:32 4C 81 EA A4 09 30 C7 6E
0FB1:10 46 20 27 10 36 3C 20 63 1229:F9 86 37 84 3B A6 B3 20 FE 14D1:A5 46 10 C3 A5 35 D0 BF FF
0FB9:32 10 68 0A 85 47 20 3A 36 1231:0B C3 86 B3 A2 0E B5 5E 69 14D9:E6 3C BE 00 Cl DE AO 03 2A
0F91U0 AS 3B F0 0C A9 30 20 IF 1239:F0 1C 8A AB A5 26 DO 07 27 14E1:DO B5 A8 A9 11 85 35 85 IE
0F99:27 10 20 32 10 C6 3B D0 59 1241:A5 02 20 BA 0C BO 0F C8 72 14E9:08 4A 95 36 A9 70 8D 0B EE
0FA1:F9 A5 0A 10 36 A9 7F 85 45 1249:A5 27 D0 05 A5 03 20 BA AB 14F1:D4 0A 20 AB 10 DO A0 A5 70
OFA9;0A A0 12 A6 B9 F0 IB 46 AF 1251:0C BO 03 20 D5 0C CA CA 49 14F9:07 DB 2E A6 39 FO 09 CA 74
0FB1:0A 8A 30 0C B9 DD 0F 99 3B 1259:10 DC A6 31 A0 00 B9 80 9D 1501:B6 39 EO FB DO 02 85 39 6B
0FB9:0A 04 88 10 F7 84 B9 69 95 1261:C0 F0 5F 30 5A B9 40 CO 0C 1509:AD 12 DB C9 IE B0 03 4C 4B
0FC1:A9 20 85 B9 99 OA 04 88 BE 1269:3B E5 B3 C9 16 B0 50 0A 54 1511:BC 15 20 Fl 15 A6 09 30 87
0FC9:10 FA AS B7 DO 3C A9 99 43 1271:0A OA 69 3F 65 38 90 EO 66 1519:66 BD C0 ca 8D 02 DO BD DO
0FDl:B5 45 55 47 20 03 10 90 E6 1279:C0 A9 00 9D 40 Cl B9 00 BE 1521:E0 CO BD 03 DO A9 FD D0 C7
OFD9:02 84 B7 60 2D CD C9 1)3 IF 1281:C0 38 ES B2 C9 28 93 0E IA 1529:43 A6 06 86 05 A9 00 3D 24
OFE1:D3 C9 CF CE 20 C3 CF CD C0 1289:A5 B4 E5 B2 18 79 00 C0 FC 1531:1D D0 8D 17 DO BD 20 Cl Cfl
0FE9:D0 CC C5 D4 C5 2D A9 02 El 1291:B0 2D C9 28 BO 29 BA 0A 5D 1539:D0 05 20 75 11 F0 40 AO D5
0FFl:A0 27 99 00 D8 38 D0 FA E2 1299:0A 3E 40 Cl 69 11 3E 40 C2 1541:04 C9 Cl BO 14 30 03 8C 17
0FF9:98 20 27 10 20 32 10 20 5C 12A1:C1 65 37 9D CO CO 3E 40 86 1549:1D DO C9 80 B0 03 8C 17 39
1001:3A 10 20 40 10 A5 BA 8D 64 12A9:C1 98 9D 00 Cl B9 80 CO 3F 1551:D0 38 E9 10 90 20 Cl A9 CA
1009:09 04 A2 04 BD ID 10 9D 63 12B1:09 CO 9D 20 Cl 99 B0 CO 76 1559:C0 3D FA 07 BD £0 C0 69 73
1011:1B 04 BD 22 10 9D 0F 04 B2 12B9:C9 Cl DO 02 86 09 EB C8 60 1561:02 8D 05 DO BD CO C0 8D 9D
1019:CA 10 Fl 60 C6 1)5 C5 CC CC 12C1:D0 9C 86 31 60 A9 40 85 09 1569:04 D0 A9 FB BC 40 Cl DO F9
1021:3A D4 C9 CD C5 3A A2 00 06 12C9:23 A9 00 85 22 A8 AA 91 DC 1571:06 2D 10 DO 4C 7D 15 49 C4
1029:A0 00 85 49 86 47 94 45 7E 12D1:22 C8 D0 FB E6 23 E8 95 3E 1579:ff 0D 10 03 BD 10 D0 A6 EA
1031:60 A9 3F A2 00 A0 05 00 SO 12D9:39 10 F4 20 BF 13 AS 20 FA 1581:31 A9 FF 65 07 A9 3A DO 2B
1039:0C A9 44 A2 20 00 04 A9 72 12E1:BF 13 35 23 A9 80 85 FF E7 1589:07 E4 09 F0 11 BD EO C0 A2
1041:47 A2 14 A0 03 95 22 86 33 12E9:20 BF 13 AA 4A 4A 4A 85 B0 1591:13 ED 12 D0 90 08 C5 07 C9
1349:24 A2 03 B6 23 E8 96 25 DB 12F1:02 F0 5E 8A 29 07 AA F0 73 1599:B0 04 86 06 85 07 CA 10 3C
1051:F8 IB Bl 22 79 44 00 91 BA 12F9:71 45 FF 30 IF 35 FF 46 30 15A1IE8 A9 14 E6 07 FO 0E A4 58
1359:22 08 AA 29 0F 09 30 91 03 1301JFF 90 04 8A 20 4B 13 46 BF 15A9:0G B9 E0 CO C4 31 90 05 7E
1061:24 S3 8A 4A 4A 4A 4A 09 C4 130 9:FF 90 09 D0 OF BA 29 02 79 15B1:E8 B6 07 A9 3A 8D 12 D0 6A
1069:30 91 24 2B 99 10 E3 D8 32 1311:D0 04 F0 05 F0 06 8A 4A 0E 15B9:4C 81 EA A9 08 8D 16 DB D5
1071:ca Bl 24 3B E9 30 D0 04 20 1319:4A 20 42 13 BD C9 13 91 B2 15CUA9 IB 8D 11 DO AO 00 8C DF
1079:91 24 F0 F4 C0 04 60 A2 52 1321:22 8A 85 FF 20 4B 13 C4 C4 15C9:05 DO 8C 03 DO A2 80 A5 24
1081:09 B9 8D 10 9D 0E D4 38 9E 1329:B4 90 02 84 B4 4A 90 0B 51 1501:32 FO 10 E6 32 C9 F8 DO 3D
1089:CA 10 F6 60 FO 01 00 05 SB 1331:20 42 13 A5 23 C5 B5 90 E0 15D9:09 CB 8C 01 04 A9 40 8D B7
1091:41 00 F0 00 9E1 F5 F0 02 29 1339:02 85 B5 C6 02 D0 DD F0 E4 15E1:00 D4 E3 8E 04 D4 C6 0A 52
1099:00 05 81 00 40 90 9F Fl 5E 1341:A7 DO 04 E6 23 E6 23 C6 20 15E9:D0 95 A9 84 85 OA DO 8F E4
10A1:86 44 86 42 85 43 A9 D2 6A 1349:23 60 4A B0 02 C8 C8 88 BA 15F1:A5 37 05 BD 8D 16 D0 A5 45
10A9:A0 22 8C 0C D4 9D 0D D4 C0 1351:60 BA A6 B3 9D 80 CO 98 63 15F9:38 18 69 13 29 17 8D 11 76
10B1:A9 11 3D 0ii D4 60 20 14 C9 1359:9D 00 C0 A5 23 9D 40 C0 91 1601:D0 A5 35 F0 23 C6 36 D0 26
10B9:11 A2 H0 20 0B 11 E0 0C 5F 1361:A9 00 9D 81 CO EG B3 4C 7D 1609:1F A9 05 35 36 C6 35 DO 39
10C1:D0 F9 C6 02 D0 F3 20 00 60 13 69 IF, 9 12 C6 02 D0 03 4C DC 0A 1611:05 A6 09 20 75 11 AS 08 CF
10C9:11 20 14 11 A2 03 18 20 7F 1371:12 A5 B5 IB 65 B4 6A 4A 5F 1619:49 01 8D 0Q D4 85 08 29 82
10D1:F0 FF A2 00 A0 05 A5 Dl F4 1379:8D 4A 03 4A 4A 4A 4A 69 77 1621:01 0A 40 15 D0 8D 15 D0 03
10D9:9D 20 C4 20 0B 11 CA A5 43 1381:F6 85 BB A2 A0 A9 CB 9D A0 1629:60 A9 00 35 FF 20 D3 16 86
10E1:D2 9D 40 C4 20 0B 11 98 0F 1389:00 03 EB D0 FA 86 22 A9 7A 1631:A2 10 91 22 C8 D0 FB E6 GF
10E9:18 69 0A A8 90 02 E6 23 B9 1391:40 85 23 as 25 A5 B4 B5 A4 1639:23 CA D0 F6 A9 30 8D IF 7B
10F1:A9 11 20 D2 FF C6 02 DO 4C 1399:24 C9 28 BO 06 86 B8 86 96 1641:32 8D 22 32 20 D3 16 AD 7B
10F9:DD 60 A0 27 Bl B2 99 00 33 13A1H34 DO 17 AS B5 E9 3F AA 12 1649:47 17 91 22 C8 EE 49 16 DD
1101:04 88 10 F8 E6 H3 60 BD 5D 13A9:A0 27 Bl 22 91 24 98 10 80 1651:00 03 EE 4A 16 DE 20 17 AC
11B9:FB 10 91 22 C8 D0 02 E6 F5 13B1:F9 E6 23 E6 25 CA D0 F0 48 1659:10 ED E8 E0 09 DO E5 B6 12
1111:23 E8 60 A9 16 95 02 A9 IA 13B9:A9 60 80 E2 0E 60 AD 8B B5 1661:05 A9 06 85 03 20 D3 16 E9
1119:C3 85 23 A0 00 84 22 60 A3 13C1:20 EE CO 13 D0 03 EE Cl 2F 1669:A2 3C A9 03 85 02 Bl 22 15
U21:A6 31 CA 10 01 60 A5 03 IS 13C9:13 60 02 03 01 01 03 02 16 1671:84 04 48 3A A8 68 91 24 C0
1129:F0 0F ia 7D E0 C0 9D E0 B8 1301:78 A9 33 85 01 A0 00 A2 8A 1679:B1 22 A4 04 91 24 E8 ca 93
1131:C0 C9 3E F0 2D C9 FB P0 70 1309:07 A9 00 9D 00 39 9D 09 EB 1681:C6 02 D0 EA 9A 3B E9 06 69
1139:29 A5 02 F0 E5 18 7D CO F3 13E1:38 BD 2C 14 9D 10 38 B9 Bl 1689:AA 10 DF C6 03 DO D6 20 A0
1141:C0 9D C0 C0 A3 F0 04 C9 2A 13E9:2C 14 9D 18 38 C8 CA 10 EA 1691:D3 16 A9 15 85 04 A9 03 46
1149:FF D0 05 49 FF 9D 40 Cl 80 13F1:E8 8E 00 C6 86 02 A9 FF 2C 1699:85 03 A2 07 Bl 22 0A 90 C8
1151:C0 01 D0 05 BD 40 Cl F0 El 13F9:AB C8 36 E5 02 BO FA 9B 6D 1GA1:H9 48 BD 2C 14 11 24 91 9D
1159:09 C0 60 DO C5 no 40 Cl DO 1401:9D 00 C6 HD FF 00 90 FF 2B 16A9:24 68 CA 10 Fl E6 22 C6 92
1161:F0 C0 20 68 11 F0 BB DC 37 1409:38 BD FF CF 90 FF 3D CA EB 16B1:24 C6 03 DO E5 A5 24 18 35
1169:00 Cl B9 80 CO 29 07 FB E4 1411:D0 E2 OE 80 C6 A9 36 as F2 16B9:69 06 85 24 C6 04 DO D6 CD
1171:03 99 90 C0 9A AB C4 09 21 1419:01 SB 8A E8 80 90 C4 19 C7 16C1:C6 05 DU CB A0 02 A2 7E 3A
1179:D0 04 A9 FE 95 09 C6 31 39 1421:69 08 9D 89 C4 EB E0 21 68 16C9:18 3E 80 31 CA 10 FA as C9
11BHC4 31 F0 Al B9 01 Cl 99 79 1429:D0 F5 60 80 40 20 10 09 F5 16D1:D0 F4 A4 FF B9 EE 16 as 73
1139:00 Cl B9 41 Cl 99 40 Cl IE 1431:04 02 01 78 A9 14 BD 15 51 16D9:22 B9 07 17 85 23 B9 IF 23
1191:B9 Cl C0 99 C0 C0 B9 El 11 1439:03 A9 84 8D 14 03 A9 7F 36 16E1H7 85 24 B9 2E 17 85 25 19
1199:C0 99 E0 C0 B9 21 Cl 99 IA 1441:8D 00 DC A2 IF 9E IB D4 71 16E9:E6 FF AO 00 60 00 OF 47 (96
11A1:2O Cl C8 C9 Cl DO D9 C6 C5 1449:A9 00 9D FB D3 BD 64 14 FB 16F1:BB 01 07 4A 8D CF 0C B9 F6
11A9:09 AC Bl 11 A2 01 86 26 F0 1451:9D 0F DB CA DB F2 86 07 39 16F9:00 C0 90 40 00 80 CO C0 AB

3B COMPUTE'S Gaitme March 1990


1991: 1C IE 4C 1A 1C 04 4C IE 2C
40 30 30 21 1849: 63 00 00 37 00 00 3E 01 1C
1701:80 40 00 C3 BO 1A 80
FC 06 00 0C 9D 1999: OC 01 14 04 1C IE 1C
1739:30 30 31 34 34 34 34 35 D4 1851: FE 00 03 03
0F BO B2 19A1: 1C 1A 0C 04 2C IE 64 04 D0
34 34 34 30 30 70 1859: 0C 00 18 0C 00 30
1711:30 31 34 6C 0A 2D A9
80 CO 00 Cl 30 00 26 19A9: 64 0B 06 57 OE
1719:35 35 35 35 34 34 34 16 1A 1861: 60 01
FC 01 83 19B1: 0B 0F 45 08 18 57 0E 6C FC
1721:20 2D 19 2B 2A 24 IF 22 49 1869: C3 00 01 86 00 01
3E 00 E4 19B9: 0A 3D 05 45 08 2A 56 0E D8
37 3D 80 C3 00 82 C2 IB 1871: 80 00 03 E0 00 06
1729:C0 0F 08 3F AF
C0 06 00 70 03 00 BO 19C1: 2C 0A 54 0A 8D
1711:42 82 C2 02 42 82 C2 30 6B 1879: 0C 23
19C9: 55 OE 8C 2A 0D 27 25 OB B8
35 36 31 31 36 56 1981: 0C 03 00 0C 06 00 78 0C 66
1739:31 35 35 OA 0D 17 7E
1889: 03 CO 06 3E 00 03 E0 00 DD 19D1: 0F 3D 05 15 0B
1741t36 36 37 37 37 37 03 30 3F
04 34 75 19D9: 08 59 53 0E 2C IE 24 4A IE
1749:00 00 01 98 00 00 00 00 21 1891: 01 80 00 5F 12 14
19E1: 0D 0F 0D 05 2D 17 IE 17 69
00 01 80 00 00 30 00 14 1899: 36 2C 01 2C 22 64 10 11 fl6
1751:18 25 F9
24 17 16 34 87 19E9: 0D 05 ID IB 22 0B 2F
1759:30 01 SO 00 CO 3C 00 00 CE 18R1: 60 16 06 16
12 16 DE 19F1: 10 00 5A A4 01 FC 0A ID EE
1761:C3 00 00 C3 00 00 C3 00 35 18A9: 16 12 OB 03 2B 14
0B 37 7D 19F9: 05 7D 23 22 33 25 37 15 46
1769:110 C3 00 03 C3 CO 03 C3 A3 1BB1: 0C 01 0C 12 2B 03
25 17 10 00 2A 1A01: 05 IS 43 4A IE 06 16 1A 59
1771:C0 03 FF C0 00 FF 00 00 CC 18B9: 0D 05 0D 13
02 22 F7 1A09: 26 3C 01 3C 22 IB 03 0B Dl
00 00 82 00 00 32 00 D4 18C1: 69 66 24 26 44 22
1779:03 2E 1C 04 96
18C9: 14 01 14 26 62 23 42 44 91 1A11! 3D 23 22 02 12
1781:00 82 00 00 32 00 00 82 E6
26 06 26 52 38 1A19: 1C IE 17 2E 6C 42 23 22 7D
1789:00 00 AA 60 HF FC F0 00 61 18D1: 04 44 46 27
24 26 64 01 04 1A21I 0C 46 06 26 2C IE 17 07 IF
1791:87 98 00 0 3 BC 00 01 98 94 1BD9! 02 12 64 46
5B 46 4E 1A29; OF 35 23 03 13 IF 13 IF 21
1799:00 00 F0 00 00 60 00 00 67 1BE1: 14 04 74 42 08 50
35 23 45 10 9C Ift3l! 2E 06 2E 27 IE 22 1C 01 E8
17A1:30 00 00 30 00 00 30 00 4B 18E9: 64 22 35 05
15 0B 24 1A39: 1C 22 1C IE 06 26 27 0D 8D
17A9:00 30 00 00 30 00 00 30 95 18F1: 00 5C C4 0A 0D 05
18F9: ID 13 12 1C 01 4C 04 14 D6 1A41: 05 15 2B 3F A5 OE F4 A4 8A
17Bl:00 00 30 00 00 30 00 00 A6
0E 4C 12 64 A0 1A49: 08 39 60 12 02 12 13 ID 98
17B9:30 7E 00 00 66 00 00 66 39 1901: OF IE OF 25
0E 06 16 2C 16 1C 19 1AS1: 05 ID 17 16 14 16 10 00 AC
17Cl:0e 03 FF CO 06 00 60 0C B9 1909; 16 1C
1911: 1A 0B 17 2B OA 02 1A 26 5B 1A59:-SA 64 3A SB 32 02 7A 02 64
17C9:00 30 18 00 18 30 00 0C 94
00 62 1919: 0A IB 1C 04 24 IF 0E 22 D.6 1A61: 32 24 01 24 17 07 67 07 C4
17D1:60 00 06 10 00 00 38
1921: 36 08 2C 5B 34 0F 25 OB DE 1A69:-6F 96 0F 07 17 IE 4C 1A 31
1709:00 6C 00 00 C6 00 00 C6 20
00 01 83 00 03 D9 1929: 08 4C 55 BE 32 0B 27 07 11 1A71 :7B 3O 04 14 1A 24 04 2C C9
17E1:00 01 83
C0 06 1931: :17 10 00 5A EC 42 02 42 4F 1A79 :32 ID 0F 07 17 ID IB 32 F5
17E9:01 80 03 01 80 06 00
7C 12 1939::6B 03 IB 82 A3 03 63 22 7F 1AB1 : 34 IE 0C 01 2C IE 1A 02 F8
17F1:06 00 CO SC 00 60 0C
03 E8 1941::02 62 54 01 14 04 EC F4 27 1AB9 ;1A 33 ID 33 65 37 IE IF Dl
17F9:60 06 C6 CO 03 83 80
00 00 19 80 00 78 1949::04 14 01 54 C6 17 07 3F C7 1A91 : 07 IF ID 33 32 02 4A 7C 92
1301:00 00 0F
1951:: 07 3F C6 06 46 0F 07 7F 0C 1A99 ;4E 2C 04 24 36 06 66 37 90
1809:31 80 00 61 30 00 Cl 80 10
00 B5 1959 :36 06 16 EC 08 37 5A 14 9F 1AA1 :36 37 ID 63 OF IE IF 0E D5
1811:03 81 80 06 01 8(1 OC
OC A6 1961 :01 F4 04 EC 01 14 C2 A3 22 1AA9 : B6 16 1C IF 4B 22 ID 4F 48
1819:C0 0C 00 C0 0C 00 C0
1969 ;03 63 0A 02 7A 43 03 43 81 1AB1 ME 94 01 64 08 33 5A 1A 74
1821:E0 C0 07 19 80 00 OF 30 86
1971 i0D 05 ED 4D 05 4D F5 05 4C 1AB9 :0B 03 2B 7A 4D 4F 15 05 18
1829:00 06 03 E0 00 0E 60 00 42
C0 IE 1979 ;0D 47 F6 06 16 6F 07 IF DE 1AC1 i 3D 7E 08 53 63 0C 1A 33 ID
1831:79 60 03 C0 60 0E 00
1981 :76 06 16 47 46 10 00 5D 77 1AC9 i03 IB 32 ID IB 47 6E 18 49
1839:BC 00 C0 0C 00 C0 OC 01 64
1841:90 0F 81 80 00 El 80 00 36 1989 : 32 IE 1A 0C 01 14 36 1A 3F G

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Future
Computing
Neural Networks Part 3

Kevin E. Martin

In the final installment, the author presents the competitive learning model
and a program to go with it.

Competitive learning {CL) is the focus of most of not receive any teacher input. We can adapt to almost any
today's neural-network research. After you type of environment, and the CL neural network is leading
read about how the algorithm works, you us toward developing a neural -network model that actual
can experiment with the program at the end ly can adapt itself to any environment.
of the article. The program implements the Another feature different from the previous networks
competitive-learning algorithm with a complete interface we have seen is that we have connections not only be
to BASIC. tween layers, but also within a layer. These intralayer con
In February, 1 discussed the back-propagation algo nections are only between PEs within the same group, and
rithm. It is in the associator class of neural-network they are inhibitory. 5o, if one PE gets a stronger input sig
models, but it was not developed from evidence from nal from the previous layer, it will inhibit its neighbors. In
neurophysiology or even from psychology. The CL model doing so, it becomes stronger and is said to be "winning
is a much more biologically plausible model, and it exhib the competition." Then, after a winner is determined, it
its many of the features we find in our own brain. outputs its signal to the next layer. The connections be
Competitive learning belongs to the class of self- tween layers are all excitatory, which will cause another
organizing neural networks. These models take the salient competition to occur in the next layer.
features of the input domain and organize themselves so The learning algorithm is very simple. All the weights
as to internally represent these features. Because they de in the connection matrix which lead from all the cells in
tect the features of the input domain, they can leam how the previous layer to a single cell in the current layer (that
to statistically classify the domain into several categories. is, a row in the connection matrix) must sum to 1. This
This is especially useful when the network has to leam keeps the weights evenly distributed, and no PE in the
how to recognize damaged or distorted objects or patterns. group will get too strong. When a PE in a group wins a
Like back propagation, competitive learning has layers competition, it gets to learn, and the weights are changed
of PEs (Processing Elements) and connections between the according to a mathematical learning rule. Since all the
layers, but the similarities stop there. Each of the layers in weights must sum to 1, when a PE learns, the weight for
the CL networks arc broken up into groups of PEs where connection between the current PE and the active PEs in
no PE can belong to more than one group. All of the PEs the previous layer becomes stronger, and the weight for
in these groups receive their input from the previous layer, connection between the current PE the inactive PEs be
and then they compete to see who gets to oulput from comes weaker. This causes the PE that won the competi
their group. Only one PE can output its signal from its tion to become more likely to recognize the pattern when
group. it appears again.
There is no teacher vector in CL, because the network Although competitive-learning neural networks are
organizes itself into recognizing the features of the input more like the brain in many respects, they still have sever
domain. This is quite a bit more like our own brain, since al limitations. First, each of the clusters should learn differ
the vast majority of the cells in our own brain have no ent patterns, but in this scheme, there are no provisions
connection directly to the outside world and therefore do which keep them from learning the same patterns. If two
42 COMPUTED Gazelle March 1990
clusters' weights are similar, they will tend to learn the What's startling about this example is that the pro
same pattern. A simple fix for this problem is to have each gram classifies the inputs into two distinct groups without
of the clusters repel each other (that is, to have inhibitory any teacher. The groups are equally distributed; that is,
connections between the clusters). they accept approximately equal numbers of patterns.
The linear-associator and back-propagation neural net They are also divided into very logical halves. If we were
works were able to associate two different patterns. This is asked to divide the grid shown in Figure 1 into two dis
a very important type of learning. The competitive-learning tinct, equally distributed groups, we would most likely di
neural network can't learn to associate two patterns, but if vide them between the second and third columns or
it were combined with another network scheme, such as between the second and third rows. This is exactly what
back propagation, then we would have a very powerful the graph-partitioning example does. It divides the graph
network architecture able to classify patterns and associate (the grid) into Iwo halves horizontally or vertically and
these classifications as well as the patterns themselves. sometimes (though not very often) along the diagonal.
Since the size of the competitive-learning networks The competitive-learning example program is divided
are limited to a certain number of clusters, they can classi into two parts. The majority of the work is performed by
fy the inputs into a limited number of categories. This lim the machine language routines. To type these in, you'll
itation does not become apparent until the number of need MLX, the machine language entry program found
natural classifications of the inputs exceeds the number of elsewhere in this issue. The MLX prompts, and the values
clusters the CL network contains. In this situation, the net you should enter, are as follows:
work will classify the extra classes into categories in which
Starting address: COOO
they do not belong. This can be solved by simply adding
Ending address: C98F
more PEs and more clusters in the layers.
The largest problem, and the most difficult to solve, is Once you've finished entering the data, save a copy of the
the problem of stability. The CL network should, after a routines to disk with the name CLML. The BASIC pro
certain amount of time, stabilize each of its weights to a gram expects to find a file with this name.
final value. After this, the weight change from subsequent The graph-partitioning program is written in BASIC; it
training should not move the weights. But the weights in a calls the machine language routines. To avoid typing
CL network significantly change even after a long period errors, you should use The Automatic Proofreader, also
of training. This problem has been solved by another neu found in this issue, while entering it. Save a copy of the
ral network. Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART). For a dis program to the same disk that contains C1..ML.
cussion of ART, see Neural Computing: Theory and Practice, The CL example program, Dipole, is very simple. In
by Philip Wasserman. line 40, I initialize the random-number generator. The CL
The field of neural computing has grown rapidly since network is initialized by calling the machine language rou
its rebirth in 1982, but there is still much more research to tine at 49152 with the following parameters: the number
be done. Over the next several years, many new neural- of PEs in the first layer, the number of PEs in the second
network architectures will be developed and implemented. layer, the number of patterns to learn, and the learning
The applications will become wider and wider, but we are rate. An example of this is shown in line 60 of the ex
still a very long way from the day when every home has a ample program.
computer to talk to. This initialization sets up all the variables used by the
program. These variables are standard BASIC variables
Hands On and arrays and are described in the following table.
The accompanying program performs graph partitioning. It
takes inputs and classifies them into two distinct groups Variable Meaning
(one for each PE in the second layer). The first layer of
p1 Number of PEs In layer 1
PEs is arranged in a grid shape shown in Figure 1. The in
p2 Number of PEs in layer 2
puts are dipoles; that is, only two PEs in the input pattern np Number of patterns for the system to learn
are allowed to be 1, and the rest are set to 0. In order to rate Learning rate
determine the correct classifications, there must be some
Array (Size) Meaning
order to the input patterns. To accomplish this, we limit
the inputs to dipoles which are adjacent to each other o2(p2) Output from layer 2
along a horizontal or vertical line of the grid. As shown in w1(p2,pi) Connection weights between layers 1 and 2
Figure 1, only two PEs are active (blackened) and the rest in(p1,np) Input patterns

are inactive (open). There are 24 possible dipole inputs,


and each of these must be presented during a training run. Remember that these variables and arrays are erased if
you perform a NEW or CLEAR command, load another
program, or change the existing program.

Figure 1: Graph Partitioning Before training the network, all of the input patterns
must be presented to the system. To do this, use the com
mand SYS 49167 followed by the number of the pattern
o, o2 O3 04
and then the pattern itself. The pattern should consist of
!s and Os and should be enclosed within quotation marks.
o5 •6 O7 0a The first number corresponds to the activation of the up
per left PE in the input layer. The rest of the PEs are num
bered from left to right as shown in Figure 1. (See lines
80-310 for an example of this.)
Now the CL network is ready to learn. To teach it the
0, 3
°. O15 0 16
patterns, simply enter SYS 49164 followed by the number
of times you want the patterns to be presented. If you

COMPUTED Gazelle March 1990 43


Future
Computing

specify a large number, the program will take some time


to complete because each time you present a set of pat Figure 2: Weights
terns it takes nearly 15 seconds. In order to properly train
the network, you need to train it several hundred times. 63653 67248 0 0
For 400 training runs, it takes over 60 minutes to train the 122666 141174 3283 0
network. 142081 192964 61438 0
Once the network has been trained, you should save 87442 91651 26394 0
the current values so that another long training run will be 999994
unnecessary. To do this, type SYS 49170 followed by the
0 40386 135818 67980
filename in quotation marks. To reload the network, use
0 49159 200137 1257B1
SYS 49173 followed by the filename in quotation marks.
0 2167 91572 1087B4
Now that the network has been trained and saved for
0 0 80543 97667
further study, the network will correctly classify patterns
according to the rules it derived. It will correctly classify 999994
all the patterns you used to teach it, but it will also classify
patterns you did not teach it. This is one of the most pow
erful features of the CL network. If you want the program pole that is on the left side of the grid is presented, the
to recognize a pattern, type SYS 49155 followed by the in first PE in the second layer will be active. If it is on the
put pattern in quotation marks. The input pattern should right side of the grid, the second PE in the second layer
consist of Is and 0s, and its length should be equal to pi will be active.
(the number of PEs in the first layer). After this, the output
pattern will be in o2.
In the graph-partitioning program, the display consists
of four parts. The first part consists of a 4 X 4 grid of Sources
weights on the connections between the PEs in the first
If you're intrigued by neural computing, check your library or
layer and the first PE in the second layer. The next part is
university bookstore for the books listed below.
the total weight of all the weights on the connections in
the 4 X 4 grid above it. The third part consists of another Now a! Computing: Theory and Practice
By Philip Wasserman
4X4 grid of weights on the connections between the PEs
From Van Nostrand Heinhold
in the first layer and the second PE in the second layer.
The final part is the total weight of all the weights on the Neurocomputlng: Foundations of Research
connections in the second grid. Each of these numbers is Edited by James A. Anderson and Edward Rosenfeld
out of 1,000,000. From MIT Press

The total of all the weights should remain at or close Parallel Distributed Processing (two volumes)
to 1,000,000. This keeps the symmetry of the distribution Explorations In Paralled Distributed Processing
of the weights and is vital to the functioning of the CL By Rumelhart, McClelland, and the POP Research Group
From MIT Press
network. As the program progresses, the weights will be
come stronger on one side of the grid. Each grid should Wore: To understand the models presented in these books,
have weights that look like mirror images of each other. you'll need to have an understanding ol linear algebra and
Figure 2 shows the weights after 400 training trials. Notice elementary calculus.

that the grid has been partitioned into two groups. If a di-

CL C0E0:02 A9 01 20 3C BC AE B3 D5 C1D0:8D 38 03 4C IB Cl A9 7A FB
C0E8:02 AC B4 02 20 D4 BB A9 C2 ClD8:85 7A A9 C9 85 7B 20 8B 75
C030:4C 18 C0 4C M C2 EA EA 90 C0F0:6A 85 7A A9 C9 85 7B 20 6E C1E3;B0 8D C3 32 BC C4 02 AD El
C008:60 EA EA 60 4C FD C5 4C 3A C0F8:3B B0 3D Cl 02 8C C2 02 04 C1E8:B3 02 38 E5 2F 3D B3 02 45
C010:31 C6 4C E8 C6 4C F0 C7 05 C100:A9 01 8D 36 03 A9 00 8D F9 C1F3:AD B4 02 E5 30 8D B4 02 3fl
C018:20 FD AB 20 9E B7 8E A9 9B C108:3B 03 A9 72 85 7A A9 C9 F7 C1F8:AD BF 02 38 E5 2F 8D BF CD
C320:02 20 FD AE 20 9E B7 BE CB C110:85 7B 20 8B B0 8D BF 02 2F C200:02 AD C0 02 E5 30 8D C0 FS
C028:AA 02 20 FD flE 20 9E B7 4E C113:3C CB 02 AD 38 03 D0 11 AD C208:02 AD Cl 32 33 E5 2F 3D 97
CB10:8E AC 02 20 FD AE A5 7A D6 C120:A9 00 20 3C BC AC C0 02 5C C210SC1 02 AD C2 02 E5 30 8D GE
C03B:SD A7 02 A5 7B an A8 02 6fi C12 8:AE BF 02 20 D4 BB 4C 75 DB C218:C2 02 AD C3 02 38 E5 2F 5D
C340:A9 58 85 7A A9 C9 85 7B FF C130:C1 A9 01 20 3C BC 20 97 CD C220:8D C3 02 AD Ci 02 E5 30 ft2
C04B:20 8B B0 8D AD 02 8C AE E8 C138:E0 AD BF 02 8D 34 03 AD A0 C22B:8D C4 02 AD AD 02 38 E5 BC
C350:02 AD A7 02 85 7A AD AB 6D C140:C0 02 8D 35 03 AC 36 03 E3 C230:2D 8D AD 32 AD AE 02 E5 97
C053:02 85 7B 20 8A AD AE AD C3 C14 8:AE 38 03 AD AA 02 20 92 9C C238:2E 8D AE 02 AD A7 02 85 C3
C060:02 AC AE 02 20 D4 BB A5 75 C150:C3 AC 35 03 AE 34 03 20 24 C240:7A AD AS 02 35 7B 60 A9 28
C068:7A 8D A7 02 A5 7B 8D AB 7E C158:D4 BB AD BF 02 AC C0 92 2D C248:3B ao BB 02 20 49 C6 A9 26
C070:02 A9 5B 85 7A A9 C9 85 B4 C160:20 A2 BB AD 34 03 AC 35 2B CZ50:31 8D 36 03 A9 00 8D C5 DE
C078:7B 20 BS B0 48 98 48 AD IF C168:03 20 67 B8 AE BF 02 AC 13 C258:02 A9 01 3D 38 03 A9 00 63
C080:A9 02 20 3C BC 68 A8 68 60 C170:C0 02 20 D4 BB EE 33 03 33 C260:20 3C BC A2 CD A0 02 23 DB
C088:AA 20 D4 nn A3 5E 85 7A 0A C173:AD A3 02 CD 3B 03 B0 9B 25 C268:D4 BB AD BF 02 18 65 2F 63
C090:A9 C9 85 7B 20 8B B0 48 9A C180:A9 01 8D 38 03 AD BF 02 9E C270:8D 34 B3 AD C0 02 65 33 BE
C09B:98 48 AD AA 02 20 3C BC 9E C18B:8D 34 03 AD C0 02 8D 35 79 C278:an 35 33 AE 38 03 AC 36 BA
C0AS:63 AB 68 AA 20 D4 BB A9 AD C190:03 AC 36 03 AE 38 03 AD Cl C280:B3 AD AA 02 20 92 C3 AD BS
C0A8:61 85 7ft' A9 C9 85 7B 20 Al C198:AA 02 20 92 C3 AD BF 02 75 C288:34 33 AC 35 03 20 A2 BB 6B
C0B0:8B B0 46 98 48 AD AC 02 0B C1A0:AC C0 02 20 A2 BB AD 34 80 C290:AD Cl 32 18 65 2F ao 34 56
C0B8:20 3C BC 68 A3 68 AA 20 D3 ClAa:03 AC 35 03 20 0F BB AC 11 C29B:03 AD C2 02 65 30 8D 35 BF
C0CB:D4 BB A9 35 35 7A A9 C9 57 C1B0;35 33 AE 34 03 20 D4 BB A6 C2A0:03 AE BB 02 AC 38 03 AD E4
C0C8:85 7B AD 35 C9 20 81 B0 77 C1BB:EE 38 03 AD A9 02 CD 38 26 C2AB:A9 32 23 92 C3 AD 34 03 FB
CQDS-.hV 64 85 7A A9 C9 85 7B 93 C1CB:03 B0 C2 EE 36 03 AD AA FC C2B0:AC 35 33 20 28 BA A9 CD B9
C0Da:Z0 8B BS 8D B3 02 8C B4 AF C1C8:02 CD 36 33 90 08 A9 00 AF C2BB:Afl 32 20 67 B8 EE 38 03 7B

44 COMPUTE'S Gazette Marcfi 1990


9B 6F C56B:AE BB 02 20 92 C3 AD 34 AF :810:14 D0 Fl A9 2C 99 DD 02 3E
Z2C0:AD A9 02 CD 38 03 B0
C2C8:AD C5 02 D0 08 A9 01 8D 5A C570:03 AC 35 03 20 0F BB AD El ;8lS:C8 A9 52 99 DD 02 CB 98 70
C2D0:C5 92 4C 24 C3 A2 CD A0 6A C573:SD 02 18 65 2D BD 34 03 BF :820:A2 DD A0 02 20 BD FF A.9 50
C2DB:02 20 D4 BB AD B3 02 18 16 C580:AD AE 02 65 2E BD 35 03 3A ;828:91 A2 08 A0 02 29 BA PP F3
C2E0:65 2F 8D 34 03 AD B4 02 14 C598:AD 34 03 AC 35 03 20 28 41 :830:20 C0 FF A2 0F 20 C6 PF 02
C2E8:65 30 8D 35 03 AD C5 02 8E C590:BA A2 CD A0 02 20 D4 BB DB :838:20 CF FF C9 30 D0 9B 20 B6
C2F0:20 78 C3 AD 34 03 AC 35 34 C59B:AD 34 03 AC 35 03 20 A2 CB :840:CC FF A2 01 20 C6 FF 20 D8
C2F8:03 20 A2 BB A9 CD A0 02 DF C5A0IBB AD BF 02 18 65 2F 3D CF _84B:CF FF SD A9 02 20 CF PF 3E
C300:20 5B BC 48 A9 00 20 3C 54 C5A8:34 03 AD C0 02 65 30 8D 64 :850:8D AA 92 20 CF FF BO AC DB
01 F9 16 34 C2 C5B0:35 03 AD AA 02 AC C5 22 48 :assiB2 20 E2 C8 AE AD 02 AC BB
C30B:BC 68 C9 AE
D4 94 C5BB:AE 36 03 20 92 C3 AD 34 BE ;860:AE 02 20 8E C8 AD BF 02 35
C310:03 AC 35 03 20 BB AD
C318:36 03 BD C5 92 A9 CD A0 7C C5C0:03 AC 35 03 20 28 BA A9 90 ;863:85 22 AD C0 02 85 23 AC 20
C320:02 20 A2 BB AD B3 02 IB 19 C5C8:CD A0 02 20 50 BB AD 34 9A :870:AA 02 AE A9 92 20 A6 C8 EE
2F 8D 34 03 B4 02 5D C5D0:03 AC 35 03 20 67 BB AE 9E :878:AD Cl 02 85 22 AD C2 02 39
C328:65 AD
C339:65 30 3D 35 03 AD 36 03 B9 C5D8:34 03 AC 35 03 20 D4 BB 26 :880:85 23 AC A9 92 AE AC 02 F3
C338:20 78 C3 AE 34 03 AC 35 BD C5E0:EE 36 03 AD A9 02 CD 36 D3 2886:20 A6 CB 4C 27 C9 8A 18 3P
C340:03 20 D4 BB EE 36 03 AD AB C5E8:03 90 03 4C 2C C5 EE C6 5C :89fl:65 2D 35 22 98 65 2E 85 2P
C348:AA 02 CD 36 03 90 03 ■tc 6F C5F0I02 AD AC 02 CD C6 02 90 BC ^899:23 A0 00 20 CF FF 91 22 A9
C350:59 C2 Ai) B3 02 18 65 2F 90 C5F8:03 4C CE C4 60 20 FD AE 6D :8A0:CB C0 05 D0 F6 60 AS 2F 28
C358:8D 34 03 AD B4 02 65 30 97 C600:20 8A AD 20 AA Bl BD CB F7 :8A8:18 65 22 85 22 A5 30 65 A9
C360:8D 35 03 AD C5 02 20 78 26 C608:02 BC C7 02 C0 00 09 04 7E :8B0:23 35 23 CB 8C 36 93 8C P5
C368:C3 A9 01 20 3C BC AE 34 C4 C610:C9 00 F0 17 20 E6 C3 20 56 :8B8:CD 02 E8 8E 38 03 A0 00 C6
C370:03 AC 35 03 20 D4 BB 60 A7 C618:E1 FF F0 10 CE C7 02 D0 20 ^8C0:A2 05 20 CF FF 91 22 CB 39
C37BIAA E8 CA F0 14 AD 34 03 BA C620:F3 AD CB 02 F0 9S CE CB 4B :ac8;D0 02 E6 23 CA D0 F3 A2 76
C380:1B 69 05 8D 34 03 AD 35 26 C628:02 D9 E9 60 A0 00 4C 3B 04 :8D0:05 CE 36 03 D0 EC AD CD F2
C383:03 69 00 8D 35 03 4C 7A 8D C630:A8 20 FD AE 20 9E B7 8E 3E :8D8:02 8D 36 03 CE 38 03 D0 F3
C390:C3 60 8D FD 03 98 48 E8 97 C638:BB 02 E0 00 F0 98 AD AC EF :8E0:E1 60 AS 37 A4 38 85 33 E7
C399:CA F0 2C AC FO 03 C3 AD 40 C640:02 CD BB 02 B0 03 4C 4B 4C :8E8i84 34 A5 2D A4 2E 85 2P 69
C3A0:34 03 18 69 05 80 34 03 66 C648:B2 20 FD AE 20 9E AD 20 D8 ;8Ffl:84 30 85 31 84 32 A5 7A 47
C3A8:AD 35 03 69 00 3D 35 03 EE C6S0i8F AD 20 A6 B6 CD A9 02 Cl :8F8:8D A7 02 A5 7B 8D A8 92 3B
C3B9:8B F0 E5 AD 34 03 18 69 97 C65B:D0 EC BE CD 02 BC CE 02 IA ;900:A9 53 85 7A A9 C9 85 7B Dl
C3B8:05 8D 34 03 ho 35 03 69 8E C660:A9 99 8D 36 03 30 38 03 99 :908:20 8B B0 BD AD 02 8C AE BA
C3C0:00 8D 35 03 4C B0 C3 68 97 C668:flC 36 93 AD CD 02 85 22 B8 :910:02 20 71 C0 60 A9 00 20 80
C3C8:4C 78 C3 29 DD BD A0 FF 36 C670:AD CE 02 85 23 Bl 22 C9 0F :91B:BD FF A9 0F A2 08 A0 0F 3G
C3D0:C8 B9 00 91 DO FA CB 93 D7 C678:31 F0 04 A9 00 F0 05 EE B2 :920:20 BA FF 20 C0 FF 60 20 5B
C3D8:4B A9 00 85 22 A9 01 85 86 C680:38 03 A9 01 20 3C BC AD 49 2928:CC FF A9 01 20 C3 FF A9 21
C3E0:23 68 20 24 AB 60 A9 01 80 C688:C1 02 18 65 2F BD 34 03 EB I930:0F 20 C3 FF 60 4F 32 2B 9B
C3K8:BD 36 03 AD C3 02 IB 65 BB C690:AD C2 02 65 30 BD 35 03 61 :938:S0 32 29 2C 57 31 28 50 HI)
C3F0:2F 8D 34 03 AD C4 02 65 14 C698:AD A9 02 AC 36 03 C8 AE 70 2940:32 2C 50 31 29 2C 49 4E BF
C3F8:30 3D 35 03 AD 36 03 20 3F C6A0:BB 02 20 92 C3 AE 34 03 FD ^948:28 50 31 2C 4E 50 29 2C IP
C400:73 C3 AD 36 03 20 3C BC 9D C6a8:AC 35 03 20 D4 BB EE 36 E5 :950:50 41 54 28 4E 50 29 00 6P

C40B:AE 34 03 AC 35 03 29 D4 EB C6B0:03 AD A9 02 CD 36 03 00 9E ;95B:52 41 00 50 31 99 50 32 C6


C410:BB EE 36 03 AD AC 02 CD 1C C6B8:AF AD 38 03 20 3C BC AD D9 1960:00 4E 50 00 4F 32 28 30 55
C418:36 03 B0 CF A9 01 BD 36 33 C6C0:C1 92 ia 65 2F 8D 34 03 24 :968:29 00 49 4E 28 30 2C 30 29
C420:03 AC AC 02 C8 98 38 ED 13 C6CB:AD C2 02 65 30 8D 35 03 99 :970:29 00 57 31 28 30 2C 30 21
C42B:36 03 3C BC A2 CD A0 02
20 C6D0:AD A9 02 A0 00 AE BB 02 IE :97B:29 00 50 41 54 28 30 29 BB
C430:02 20 D4 BB A9 01 20 3C E6 C6D8:20 92 C3 AE 34 03 AC 35 BA :980:00 00 00 00 09 90 81 00 17
C43B:BC 20 97 E0 A9 CD A9 02 F0 C6E0:03 29 D4 BB 60 4C 48 B2 C5 :988:00 00 00 54 45 99 00 00 8B
C44B:20 28 BA 20 CC BC A2 CD A9 C6E3:20 IS C9 29 FD AE 20 9E 90

C448:A0 02 20 D4 BB AD 36 03 F7 C6F0:AD 29 8F AD 20 A6 B6 BD C0

C450:20 3C BC A9 CD A9 02 20 40 C6F8:36 93 A0 90 Bl 22 99 DD 9D BEFORE TYPING..


C458:67 B3 20 Al B7 BE 3B 03 4D
C70O:02 C8 CC 36 03 F0 04 C0 64
C460:AD C3 02 18 65 2F BD 34 AA C708:14 D0 Fl A9 2C 99 DD 02 34 Before typing n programs
C7101C8 A9 57 99 DD 02 CB 98 14
C46B:03 AD C4 02 65 30 3D 35 D3 please refer to "How to Type In
C470:03 AD 36 03 20 78 C3 AD F5 C71B:A2 DD A0 02 20 BD FF A9 46
C478:34 03 8D CD 02 AC 35 03 9B C720:01 A2 08 A0 02 20 BA FF E9 COMPUTED Gazette Programs,"
C72B:20 C0 FF A2 0F 20 C6 FF AB
C4B0:3C CE 02 20 8C BA AD C3 B4 elsewhere m this issue
C4B8:02 18 65 2F 8D 34 03 AD A9 C730:20 CF FF C9 30 F0 03 4C F7
C490:C4 02 65 30 ao 35 03 AD Al C738:DA C7 20 CC FF A2 01 20 A4
C49B:38 03 20 78 C3 AD 34 03 CA C740:C9 FF AD A9 02 20 D2 FF 3B Dipole
C4A0:AC 35 93 20 A2 BB AE CD 5F C74B:AD AA 02 20 02 FF AD AC 3A
C4AB:02 AC CE 92 20 D4 BB 20 44 C750:02 20 D2 FF AE AD 02 AC 21 1R 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1990 COMPU
C4B0:FC BB AE 34 03 AC 35 03 F8 C753:AE 02 20 86 C7 AD BF 02 A2
TE1 PUBLICATIONS INC.
C4B8:20 D4 BB EE 36 03 AD AC B3 C760:B5 22 AD C0 02 85 23 AC 16 { 5PJ *LL RIGHTS REKERV
C4C0:02 CD 36 03 90 93 4C 21 FF C768:AA 92 AE A9 02 20 9E C7 D3
ED
C4CB:C4 A9 01 BD C6 02 AD C3 75 C770:AD Cl 02 85 22 AD C2 02 2F ZP 20 PRlNT'MCLRWSKNl": P0KE5
C4DO:02 IB 65 2F BD 34 03 AD Fl C778:B5 23 AC A9 02 AE AC 02 E9 ■j t an n * PCI 1Q 1 i i

C4D3:C4 02 65 30 BD 35 03 AD E9 C780:20 9E C7 4C 27 C9 BA 18 13
1H 30 IF PEEK(49153)<>24 OR PE
C4E01C6 02 20 7B C3 AD 34 03 1A C788:65 2D 85 22 98 65 2E 85 25
EK(49157)<>194 THEN LOAD
C4E3:AC • 35 03 20 A2 BB 20 Al 5E C790:23 A0 09 Bl 22 20 D2 FF 2C rl *"■ r \a* M O 1
'IL , ° r i
C4F0:B7 8A BD BB 02 20 4F C2 58 C798:CB C0 05 D0 F6 60 A5 2F IE
C4F8:AD Cl 02 18 65 2F 8D 34 C2 C7A0:18 65 22 85 22 A5 30 65 9F
JC 43 X 3 (- iii Ji)
PA 50 PRINT"INITIALIZING"
C500:03 AD C2 02 65 30 8D 35 2D C7AB:23 85 23 C8 BC 36 03 BC EB
13 RR 60 SYS «1L ?*■ i 10, i., 1 . 1
C508:93 A0 00 AE BB 02 AD A9 C7B0:CD 02 EB 8E 38 03 A0 00 BC
C510:02 20 92 C3 AD 34 03 AC 24 C7B8:A2 05 Bl 22 29 D2 FF CB 49 RQ 70 PRINT"LOADING PATTERNS
C518:35 03 20 A2 BB 20 Al B7 86 C7C0:D0 02 E6 23 CA D0 F3 A2 6C KB B0 SYS 49167, 1, "11000000000
C529:E0 00 D0 03 4C EE C5 A9 B9 C7C8:05 CE 36 03 D0 EC AD CD EB 0000H"
C528:91 BD 36 03 AD Cl 02 18 IP C7D0:02 8D 36 03 CE ■38 03 00 E9 AA 90 SYS 49167, 2,'01
C539:65 2F 8D 34 03 AD C2 02 85 C7D8:E1 60 20 D2 FF 20 CF FF C2 00090"
C538:65 30 8D 35 93 AD A9 02 AB C7E0:C9 0D D0 F6 20 D2 FF 20 3E PP 100 SYS 49167 ,3, "0011
C549:A0 00 AE BB 92 20 92 C3 27 C7E8:E7 FF 20 7A A6 4C 74 A4 8C 000000 H
C548:AD 34 03 AC 35 03 20 A2 7B C7F0:20 15 C9 20 FD AE 20 9E 9A GK 110 SYS 49167 ,4, "00001106
n
C550:BB AD Cl 02 18 65 2F BD BF C7FB:AD 20 8F AD 20 A6 B6 BD CA 000000
C558:34 03 AD C2 02 65 30 3D 34 C800:36 03 A0 09 Bl 22 99 DD AB EH 120 SYS 49167 -s. "000C
C560:35 03 AD A9 02 AC 36 03 C9 CB03:02 C8 CC 36 03 F0 04 C0 6E 009000"

COMPUTE!/; Gazulla Marcti 1990 45


Future
Computing (com.)
XB 130 SYS 49167,6,"0800001100 KF 340 SYS 49164,1
000000" MC 350 T»0
QC 140 SYS 49167,7,"0000000011 AE 360 PRINT"{HOME}"
000000" JJ 370 FOR J= 1 TO 16
HA 150 SYS 49167,8,"0000000001 XB 380 A-INT(W1{1,J)'1000000)
100000" DG 390 T=T+A
KB 160 SXS 49167,9,"0000000000 SR 400 IF A < 10 THEN PRINT" "
110000" ; Looking for a Widget
CF 170 SYS 49167,10,"000000000 DG 410 IF A < 100 THEN PRINT"
0001100" (SPACE)"; for your Printer
SD 180 SYS 49167,11,"000000000 420 IF A < 1000 THEN PRINT"
HR
and need it now?
0000110" 1

MB 190 SYS 49167,12,"000000000 MA 430 IF A < 10000 THEN PRINT Call Precision!
0000011" rr ■■ .

Precision Images stocks a complete


ED 200 SYS 49167,13,"100010000 KE 440 IF A < 100000 THEN PRIM
selection of parts, supplies, and
0000000"
•p ii ii *

manuals for these printers:


KB 210 SYS 49167,14,"010001000 DF 450 PRINT A,
0000000" FD 460 NEXT J C. ITOH, 9UME, CITIZEN,
ox 220 SYS 49167,IS,"001000100 FR 470 PRINT SPRINT T OKIDATA, FUJITSU, EPSON
0000000" MG 480 PRINT
AND OTHERS
JB 230 SYS 49167,16,"000100010 HQ 490 T=0
0000000" XB 500 FOB J= 1 TO 16 For VIsa/MC/Amex Call
EM 240 SYS 49167,17,"000010001 CM 518 A=INT(Wl(2,J)'1000000) 1-800-524-8338
0000000" PR 520 T=T+A Precision Images
AJ 250 SYS 49167,19,"000001000 GF 530 IF A < 10 THEN PRINT" " P.O. Box 573
1000000" f Chester. NY 10918
RG 260 SYS 49167,19,"000000100 EX 540 IF A < 100 THEN PRINT"
0100000" (SPACE)";
Cuds Rtadsr Servlco Numb or 19S
KQ 270 SYE 49167,20,"000000010 RG 550 IF A < 1000 THEN PRINT"
II *
0010000" 1

PR 280 SYS 49167,21,"000000001 BJ 560 IF ft < 10000 THEN PRINT


ii ii.
0001000"
BP 290 SYS 49167,22,"000000000 AX 570 IF A < 100000 THEN PRIN
1000100"
JTI 11 II »
Copies of articles from this
SJ 300 SYS 49167,23,"000000000 QR 580 PRINT A, publication are now available from
SQ 590 NEXT J
0100010" the UMI Article Clearinghouse.
PQ 310 SYS 49167,24,"000000000 AS 600 PRINT:PRINT T
Mail to: Univtriily Microfilm* lnTem*tmnal
0010001" DP 610 NEXT I 300 North Zcrb (told, Bo. 91 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106
PA 320 PRINT"{CLR}" XQ 620 END

FR 330 FOR 1=1 TO 400 0

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• Full documentation on disk PhttC a!li"v ■!-<> week* lor deliver)- Prourim mlllMe Wllf Ml S',-inch ditk*
Parti
Create and use subdirectories on your 1581 without resorting to or Current Partition option). If you're
cryptic DOS commands. For the 128 with an 80-column not sure whether the disk is already for
matted, you can use the View Directory
monitor.
option to check. You should also be
aware that partitioning a disk can de
The main advantage of the 1581 disk ways to partition disks; it creates parti stroy files that are already stored on the
drive over Commodore's other drives is tions by location, by size, or by number, disk, so copy important files to another
its increased storage capacity. The 1581 [t also deletes, accesses, displays direc disk before you begin.
can store more than twice as much tories of, and formats partitions. When you select the Create a Parti
information per disk as can the 1571 tion option, the program displays a sub-
and almost five times as much as the Typing II In menu containing three options for
1541. This extra storage space is great, 1581 Partiiioner is written entirely in partitioning a disk: by number of parti
but it poses a new problem. How do BASIC. To prevent typing mistakes, tions per disk, by size of the partition,
you organize the disk so that infor type it in using The Automatic Proof or by location of the partition. A fourth
mation can be found quickly and easily? reader, found elsewhere in this issue. Be option allows you to return to the main
Most computers that have high- sure to save a copy of the program to menu without altering the disk.
capacity disk drives organize data using disk once you've finished entering it. if you want to divide the disk into a
a hierarchy of directories and subdirec To begin using 1581 Partiiioner, certain number of partitions, select tHe
tories. Unfortunately, none of Commo load the program and type RUN. Trie first option. The program prompts you
dore's equipment (including the 64, program first displays the main screen for the number of partitions to create.
128, 1541, 1571, and 1581) supports and then requests that you enter the de Enter an even number from the range
subdirectories. The 1581 overcomes vice number of the 1581 disk drive. 2-20. Next, the program asks if you
this limitation by allowing you to di Type the device number and press RE want to save a copy of the program on
vide disks into separate sections, called TURN, or simply press RETURN to ac the disk. Answer Y or N. The program
partitions. cept the default value of 8. Next, 1581 then prompts you for the name of each
The 1581's partitions arc a cross Partiiioner displays a directory of the partition. Enter a unique name for each
between hierarchical directories and partitions on the current disk and then and press RETURN. After you've an
hard drive partitions. Like hard drive shows the main menu. swered all the prompts, the program
partitions, the 1581's partitions divide creates and formats the partitions.
Fl CREATE A PARTITION
disks into sections. Each of these is To create a partition based on a cer
F2 ACCESS A PARTITION
treated as if it were another disk and tain size, choose the second submenu
F3 RETURN TO THE ROOT
must be formatted separately. But like option. The program prompts you for
F4 DELETE A PARTITION
hierarchical directories, the 1581's par the partition's size in blocks. Simply en
F5 FORMAT A DISK OR
titions can be nested. ter this within the following con
CURRENT PARTITION
The major obstacle in partitioning straints; The partition must contain at
F6 CHANGE DRIVE NUMBER
a 1581 disk is determining how to do least 120 blocks (or sectors), its size
F7 VIEW DIRECTORY
this correctly. The 1581 user's m.inual must be an even multiple of 40, and it
ESC EXIT PROGRAM
contains a lengthy but confusing dis must be small enough that it doesn't
cussion on partitioning. To further Each menu option is described below. encompass track 40. This final con
complicate the matter, you must use straint limits partitions to a maximum
several new DOS commands to create Creating Partitions of 1560 blocks. After you've entered the
and access each partition. Before you attempt to partition a disk, size, type a name for the partition and
1581 Partitioner takes the work out you should be sure that the disk is for press RETURN. As with the first op
of partitioning a disk. It offers several matted (you can use the Format a Disk tion, the program prompts you to save a

COMPUTE!'* Gazelle March 1990 47


15S7 Partitloner
copy of 1581 PafiUtoner on the disk. An current drive number and prompts you QD 80 PR1NTTAB(31)"8(7 RIGHT)
swer the prompts as before. for the new drive number. If you want {Z KCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
The last option, creating a partition to use the same drive as before, simply CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC{X>"

by its location, is intended for more ad FE 90 PRINTTAB(31)"B"TAB(51)"U


press RETURN. To change to a differ
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCI"
vanced users. This option is useful for ent drive, enter the device number of
EX 100 PRINT"CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
creating a partition within a partition or the new drive. 1581 Partitioner displays CCCCCCCCCCCCCCW'TAB (5
one around a certain portion of the disk. the directory of the new disk and re 1)"B158HRIGHTHA>I
If the disk already contains one or more turns to the main menu. (9 RIGHTJB"
partitions, this is the only partitioning The standard directory listing MP 110 PRINT"{31 SPACES}B"TAB(
option that will work correctly. 51) "B{5 RIGHTKOK
shown by 1581 Partitioner displays only
(9 RIGHTjB"
A 1581 disk has 80 tracks, num the partitions contained in the current DP 120 PRINT"CCCCCCCCCCCfKfrCCC
bered 1-80, and each track contains for directory. If you need to examine other CCCCCCCfR>CCCCCCCC{W>"T
ty 256-byte sectors, numbered 0-39. A files within the directory, press F7at the AB(51)"B(5 RIGHT}BARTIT
partition must start on sector 0 of ihe main menu. The program displays the IONERB"
files in the window on the left side of DM 130 PRINT"FIRST TRACKBLAST
specified track, and it must end on sec
(SPACE)TRACKB BLOCKS B"
tor 39 of the ending track. As men the screen. Pressing NO SCROLL or
TAB (51)"JCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
tioned above, a partition may contain a CONTROL-S pauses the listing; press CCK"
minimum of 120 blocks and a maxi ing the Commodore key slows the SR 140 PRINT"CCCCCCCCCCC+CCCCC
mum of 1560 blocks. Remember, a par scrolling rate. CCCCC+CCCCCCCC W'TAB {4
tition cannot contain track 40; 1581 6)"(C) 1990 COMPUTE!'S
In Your Own Programs (SPACE)GAZETTE"
Partitioner doesn't check for errors, so
BE ISO PRINT"!11 RIGHT)B
be careful. When you've finished with I5S1 Parti
(10 RIGHT|B(8 RIGHTlB
tioner, press ESC to exit. The program {HOME}":DV-8:GOSUB9B0:G
Moving About leaves the disk drive in the current par OSUB1370
To access a partition, press F2 from the tition so that you can access it from PJ 160 GOSUB1080:WINDOW40,1,77
main menu. When the program prompts BASIC. .16,1
If you want to move between parti 176 PRINT"{4 RIGHT}(RVS}F1
you for the name of the partition, sim
(OFF}(2 RIGHTjCREATE A
ply type a name and then press RE tions from your own programs, you can
(SPACE}PART IT ION":PRINT
TURN. Once you access a partition, do so with the following commands. To
"{DOWN}[4 RIGHT}{RVS}F2
1581 Partitioner displays any partitions access a subdirectory, use the commands (OFF}(2 RIGHTjACCESS A
within the current partition. It also dis (SPACEjPARTITION"
OPEN I5,tlevice number,!*."'/^.partition
plays the beginning track, ending track, HF 180 PRINT"(D0WN][4 RIGHT)
namtf'
{RVStF3(OFF)(2 RIGHTjRE
and number of blocks within the parti CLOSE 15 TURN TO THE ROOT DIRECT
tion. If there are partitions within the ORY"
current partition—that is, if they are If the disk drive successfully accesses
SM 190 PRINT"(DOWN}(4 RIGHT}
nested—you can press F2 again to the partition, the reserved variable DS (RVS}F4{OFF}{2 RIGHT}DE
move into these. should contain the value 2. Be sure to LETE A PARTITION"
The 1581's disk operating system check the error channel before execut HX 200 PRINT"(DOWN}(4 RIGHT)
ing the CLOSE 15 command. (RVS}E-5(OFF} (2 RIGHT)F0
doesn't provide a way to step back out
RMAT A DISK /":PRINT"
of partitions one at a time. The only To return to the root directory, use
(8 RIGHTlCUHRENT PARTIT
way to leave a partition is to go directly the command
ION"
back to the root of the disk. You can OPEN Ib.device number,15t"/" HP 210 PRINT"(DOWN}(4 RIGHT)
move to the root directory by pressing (RVS}F6(OFF)(2 RIGHT}CH
CLOSE 15
F3 at the main menu. ANGE DRIVE NUMBER":PRIN
As before, DS should contain a 2 if the T"(DOWN}{4 RIGHT}{RVS}F
7(OFF}(2 RIGHTlVIEW DIR
Other Options command is successful.
ECTORY"
If you decide to delete a partition, select FH 220 PRINT"{DOWN}(4 RIGHT)
I:4 from the main menu. When the pro
1581 Partitioner [RVS)ESC(OFF)(2 RIGHT)E
gram prompts you for the name of the KQ 10 BEH COPYRIGHT 1990 COMPU XIT PROGRAM(HOME}"
TE! PUBLICATIONS, INC. - GA 230 GETKEYAS:IFAS=CHRS(27)T
ill-fated partition, enter it and press RE
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED HEN1040
TURN. If you change your mind, you SP 20 COLOR0,1:COLOR4,1:COLOR6 RD 240 A-VAL(AS):IFA<10RA>7THE
can press F8 to abort the delete. Delet ,1:COLORS,4:IFPEEK<215)= N230
ing a partition also deletes any files 0THENPRINT"(CLR}SWITCH T HA 250 ONAGOSUB260,880,910,920
stored in it, including other partitions 0 80-COLUMN MODE AND PRE ,940,990,1020:GOTO160
which may also contain files, so be S5 A KEY":POKE2OS,0:WAIT RK 260 IFBL<120THENPRINT"{CLR)
208,1:POKE208,0:GRAPHICS (8 D0WN)"TAB[9)"NO ROOM
careful when using this option.
BG 30 DIMPNS(21):WINDOW0,0,79, FOR A PARTITIONlDOWN}"
Press F5 at the main menu to for 2 4 , I: KE Y1, " 1" : K E Y 2, " 2 " : K :PRINTTAB(15)"(RVSjPRES
mat a disk or the current partition. If EY3,"3":KEY4,"4":KEY5,"5 S A KEY":GETKEYAS:RETUR
you're currently in the root directory of ":KEY6,"6":KEY7,"7":KEY8 N
the disk, this option formats the whole ,"ABORT"+CHRS(13):FAST:T GP 270 [>RINT"{CLR}(D0WN)D0 YOU
disk. If you're within a partition on the RAP1040 WISH TO CREATE A PARTI
PC 40 PRINTCHRS(142)CHRS (12)" TION ON":PRINT"THE BASI
disk, it formats only that partition.
(4 RIGHT}PARTITIONS OH T S OF:"
When you select this option, the pro
MIS DISKH RIGHT}B"; FG 2B0 PRINT"{DOWN){RIGHT}
gram prompts you for the name of the XO. 5B PRINT"(7 RIGHT HAJCCCCCC (RVS(F1{OFF}{2 RIGHT]TH
disk or partition to be formatted. Enter a CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC E NUMBER OF PARTITIONS
name containing up to 16 characters CCCCCCCC{S>" (SPACE)PER DISK"
and press RETURN, HC 60 PRINT"CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC MB 2 90 PRINT"{DOWN}(RIGHT}
CCCCCCCCCCCCC{H} (RVS}F3(OFF}{2 RIGHTjTH
To partition another disk, place the
(7 RIGHT}B"TAB(78)"B" E SIZE OF THE PARTITION
new disk into the drive and select the JF 70 FORI=1TO15:PRINTTAB(31) "
Change Drive Number option from the B(7 RIGHT)B"TAB(78)"B "! N CQ 300 PRINT"{DOWN)[RIGHT}
main menu. The program displays the EXTI (RVS)F5(OFFH2 RIGHTjTH

48 COMPUTED Gazette March 1990


E LOCATION OF THE PARTI 1070:PRINTI15,"/":GOSUB BG 730 PRINT"PARTICULAR PORTIO
TION" 109B:RETURN N OF THE DISK":PRINT"
EE 310 PRINT"{DOWN)(RIGHT) BG 530 PRINTI15,"/":IFDSO2THE {3 DOWN)(2 RIGHTlOR PRE
{RVS}F7{OFF){2 RIGHT)RE NGOSUB1070:PRINT#15,"I0 SS lRVS)F8(OFF} TO ABOR
TURN TO MAIN MENU" ITC1!RS(13) V": GO SUB 10 90: T. . . (4 UP}"
SR 320 GETKE¥AS:A=VA[,(AS) :IFA< RETURN XR 740 PRINT"WHAT WILL THE PAR
1ORA>7THEN320 SS 54H GOSUB109 0:NEXTI:IFSPS=" TITION BE CALLEn?":NS="
AM 330 ONAGOSUB340,320,560,320 Y"THENDSAVE"1581 PART IT "tINPUTNSsIFN$=""ORN$="
,720,320:RETURN IONERM,U(DV| ABORT"TI!ENRETURN
JP 340 PRINT"[CLR)[2 DOWN}THIS FE 55fl GOSUB107O:RETURN RD 750 IFLEN(NS)>16THEN740
OPTION WILL CREATE A M BQ 56fl PRINT"(CLR)(2 DOWNlTHIS HG 760 FT=0:TFS=HIGHTS("O0"+ST
UMBER OF":PRINT"EQUAL P OPTION WILL CREATE ONE RSITF+1),3):PRINT"(CLR}
ARTITIONS, USED AS "MAN PARTITION":PRINT"OF A (2 DOWNjWHAT IS THE STA
t DISKS":PRINT"IN ONE1" {SPACEjSPECIFIC SIZE, U RTING TRACK{2 SPACES}"T
MD 350 PRINT"HOW MANY PARTITIO SEFUL FOR A WORK":PRINT FS"(4 LEFT]";:INPUTFT:I
NS WOULD YOU LIKE TO":P "AREA OR A BOOT SECTOR FFT=40ORFT<TF ORFT>TLTH
RINT"CREATE? (FROM 2 TO (DOWN)" EN750
20, USE EVEN ":PRINT" KA 570 PRINT"APPROXIMATELY HOW
(2 DOWN}[2 RIGHTlOR PRE MANY BLOCKS WILL THE": NLB=1560
SS {RVS}F8{OFF) TO ABOR PRINT"PARTITION BE? (MU PE 780 PRINT'MDOWHiHOW MANY SE
T...(3 UP(" LTIPLE OF 40 BETWEEN" CTORS IS IT (MULTIPLE O
AJ 360 NP = 0:NPS="":INP!JT"NUMBE BP 580 PRINT"{2 DOWN)E2 BIGHT} F 40":PRINT"BETNEEN 120
RS ONLY, PLEASE)";NPS:I OR PRESS (RVS)F8(OFF) T AND"LB")";:INPUTSC:IFS
FNPS'"ABORT"THENRETURN O ABORT...{3 UP]":LB=BL C<12 0ORSOLBOR( (SC/40) <
MA 370 NP=VAL[NPS) : IFINP/2) Ol :IFLB>1560THENLB=1560 MNT (SC/40) 1THEN770
NT (NI>/2)ORNP<2ORNP>2flTH PD 590 PS=0:PSS="":PHINT"120 A BE 790 PRINT'MCLR) (4 DOWN}
EN340 ND"LB" BLOCKS PLEASE)"; (2 RIGHTjPRESS (RVS)RET
BC 180 PRINT"(CI.R) {4 DOWNjWOUL :INPUTPSS:IFPSS="ABORT" URN(OFF] TO CONTINUE,":
D YOU LIKE TO SAVE A CO THENRETURN PRINT"{2 RIGHTlOR (RVS)
PY OF" PF 600 PS=VAL(PSS):IFPS<120ORP F8{OFF) TO ABORT...":GE
em 390 print"this program on t S>LBOH( (PS/40) OINT [PS/ T KEY AS: IFASOCHRS {13) TH
he disk (y/n) ?" 40))THEN560 ENRETURN
cg 400 sps="":getke¥sps:ifsps< BR 610 PRINT"tCLRH2 DOWNlWOUL EJ 800 X=INT (SC/256):Y = SC-(X*2
>"n"andsps<>"¥"thsn4O0 D YOU LIKE TO SAVE A CO 56):PRINT"(CLR)(7 DOWN)
cx 410 scnclr:fori=ltonp:print PY OF":PRINT"THIS PROGR (2 RIGHT)CREATING PARTI
"what will partition t" AM ON THE DISK U/N) ?" TION..."
I HE 310 PRINTU5,"/0:"NS","+CHR
QK 420 PNS(I)="":PRINT"BE CALL EE 620 SPS="":GETKEYSPS:IFSPS< S(FT)+CHRS(SS)+CHRS(¥)+
ED "I"(4 LEFT}"; UNPUTP >"Y"ANDSPSO"N"THEN6 20 CHRS (X)+",C":IFDSO0THE
NS(I)IIFPNS(I)=""ORLEN( DK 630 PRINT"{CLR](2 DOWN}WHAT NGOSUB1070:PRINT!15,"/"
PNS (I))>16THENPR1NT" WILL THE PARTITION BE :GOSUB1090:RETURN
[2 UP)":GOTO420 (SPACE)CALr,ED?":NS="": I CF 820 PRINT"(CLR){2 DOWN)WOUL
PM 430 NEXTI:PRINT"{CLR) NPUTNS:IFNS=""ORLEN(NS) D YOU LIKE TO FORMAT TH
[4 DOWN}{2 RIGHTjPRESS >16THEN630 B NF,W":PRINT"PARTITION
{SPACE}{RVS}RETURN I OFF) DC 640 PRINT"(CLR}(4 DOWN} (SPACE} (Y/N) ?";
TO CONTINUE,":PRINT" (2 RIGHTlPRESS (RVS)RET xs 83E GETKEYAS: I FASO" Y" ANDAS
(2 RIGHTlOR (RVS)FB URN(OFF) TO CONTINUE,": <>"N"THEN830
(OFF) TO ABORT...":GETK PRINT"(2 RIGHTlOR (RVS} CB 84C PRINTAS:IFAS = "V"'THENBEG
EYAS:IFASOCI!RS (13) THEN F8(OFF} TO ABORT...":GE IN:PRIHT"[CLR}{7 DOWN}
RETURN TKEVAS:IFASOCHR$(13)TH (2 RIGHTjFORMATTING PAR
KP 440 PRINT'MCLR) (7 DOWN) ENRETURN TITION..."
[2 RIGNT}CREATING PARTI EP 650 PRINT"(CLR){7 DOWN} FK 858 PRINT<tl5,"/0:"NS: IFDSO
TIONS. ..":S«INT(1580/(N (2 RIGHT}CREATING PARTI
P/2))!S=40"INT(S/40)IIF TION...":FT»1:PS = 43* (IN ,"/":GOSUB1090:RETURN
NP=4ORNP=6THENS-S-40:GO T(PS/4 0)):X=INT(PS/2 56) OB 860 GOSUB1090:PRINTU5,"N0:
TO460 "NS","*CHRS(INT(RND(1)*
QF 450 IFNP=2ANDSPS Y"THENS=S SQ 660 PRINTtl5,"/0:"NS","+CHR 25)+65)+CHRS(INT(RND(1)
-40 S(FT)+CHRS(0)+CHRS(Y)+C *25) +65) :IFUSO0THENGOS
KS 460 X = INT (S/256) :Y = S-(X*256 HRS (X)+",C":IFDSO0THEN UBl070:PRINT#15,"/";GOS
I:TT=1:T=S/49:I=1:B=0 GOSUB1070:PRINTS15,"/nS UB1090:RETURN
xj 470 window40,1,77,16,1:prin GOSUB1090:RETURN AR 870 BEND:GOSUB1070:RETURN
ti;:ps=pns{i):print!15, PF 670 PRINT*15,"/0:"NS:IFDS<> Ell 880 PRINT "(CLR){6 DOWNjENT
"/0:"ps","+chrs(tt)+chr 2THENGOSUB1070:PRINTI15 ER NAME OF PARTITION TO
s (0)+chrsiy)+chr$(x)+", ,'V":GOSUB1O90:RETURN ACCESS,"!PRINT"OR PRES
C":ifdsoothengosub13 70 MK 680 GOSU01090:WINDOW4O,1,7 7 S (RVS}F8{OFF} TO ABORT
:printh5,"/":gosub10 90 ,16,1:PRINT"(7 DOWN] ..,":NAMES="":INPUTNAME
:RETURN (2 RIGHTjFORMATTING PAR $:IFNAMES"""ORNAMES="AB
XP 480 TT=TT+T:I=t + l:IFB = 0AtJD( TITION..." ORT"THENRETURN
TT*40)+S>=1560THENTT=41 SS 690 PRINT*15,"N0:"NS","-t-CHR GD 890 PRINT#15,"/0:"+NAMESJIF
:B=B+1 S[INT(RND(l)'25)+65)tCH DSO2THENGOSUB1070:PRIN
00 490 IFPNS{I)O""THEN470 RSIINT(RHD(l)*25)+65):I T#15,"/":GOSUB10 90:RETU
RC 500 WINDOW48,1,77,16,18PRIN FDSO0THENGOSUB1070:PRI RN
T"{7 DOWN!(2 RIGHTjFORM NTH 15,"/":GOSUB109U:RET MK 900 GOSUB1070:GOSUB1090:RBT
ATTING PARTITIONS..." URN URN

XX 510 FORI-1TONP:WINDOW70,8,7 EG 700 IFSPS="Y"THENDSAVE"1581 HM 913 PRINT#15,'7":GOSUBl090:


5, B, 1: PRINT I ; :PRINTU5, PARTITIONF,R",U(DV1 GOSUB107H:RETURN
"/0:" + PNS(D :IPDSO2TME MD 710 GOSUB1070:RETURN BK 920 PRINT"(CLR)(6 DOWN)ENTE
NGOSUB107O:PRINT#15,"/" FR 720 PRINT"fCLR}(2 DOWN}THIS R NAME OF PARTITION TO
!GOSUB1090:RETURN OPTION WILL CREATE A P {SPACE}ERASE,":PRINT"OR
PP 520 PBINTUS,"SB:"+(PNS(I)] ARTITION":PRINT"AT A CE PRESS {RVS}FB{OFF) TO
+","+CHR5(HIT|RND(1)*25 RTAIN LOCATION AND A CE IS PACE}ABORT...":ZS="":
)+65)+CHRS(INT(RND(1)*2 RTAIN":PRINT"SIZE, USEF
5)+65) :IFDSOOTHENGOSUB UL FOR PROTECTING A" S=""THEMHETUBN

COMPUTE!1* Gazette March 1990 49


1501 Partltloner

ATTENTION GC

CK
93B SCRATCH(ZS),U(DV):GOSUB
1073:RETURN
940 PRINT"(CLR}(5 D0WN]ENTK

ALL COMMODORE 64/64C R NEW


PRINT"CURRENT
NAME OF DISK OR":
PARTITION

AND COMMODORE
TO BE FORMATTED,":PRIN
T"0R PRESS [RVS)FB(OFF)
TO ABORT..."
128/128D OWNERS ar 950 print"(2
£rvs!warning(off):
down}{right)
form
atting will destroy any
":print"(right jpart it 10
A complete self-tutoring BASIC programming course is hs visible in the direc

available that starts with turning your computer on, to TORY!(4 UP)"
QF 960 DS="":INPUTDS:IFDS="ABO
programming just about anything you want! This course
RT"ORDS=""THENRETURN
is currently used in both High School and Adult Evening EA 970 PRINT»15,"IJ0:" + DS + ","+C
Education classes and has also formed the basis oi HRSIINT (BND(1)*25)+65) +
teacher literacy programs. Written by a teacher, who CURS(INT(RND(1)*25)+65)
after having taught the course several times, has put :INPUT#15,EN,EM$,EN,EN:
PRINT#15,"/":GOSUB10 90:
together one of the finest programming courses avail
RETURN
able today. This complete course of over 220 pages is JM 980 WINDOW3,0,79,24:PRINT"
available for the COMMODORE 64/64C, and for the (24 DOWN}111 SPACES)
COMMODORE 128/128D computers. This course [RIGHT}(10 SPACES}
(Volume 1) will take you step by step through a (RIGHT)(8 SPACES}(HOME I
discovery approach to programming and you can do it ":WIND0W4a,1,77,16,1!PR
all in your leisure time! The lessons are filled with INT"(6 DOWN)(10 RIGHTjI
NSERT A 1581 DISK"
examples and easy to understand explanations as well RK 990 PRINT"f9 RIGHTjlN DEVIC
as many programs for you to make up. At the end of E NUMBER "DV:PRINT"
each lesson is a test of the information presented. (9 RIGHTjAND PRESS RETU
Furthermore, ALL answers are supplied to all the RN...":INPUT"[2 UP)
questions and programs, including the answers to thB (25 RIGHTi";AS:DV=VAL(A
S):IFDV<8ORDV>11THEN980
tests. Follow this course step by step, lesson by lesson,
PJ 1000 CL0SE15iOPEN15,DV,15,"
and turn yourself into a real programmer! You won't be I0":PRINTtlS,"M-R"CHRS
disappointed! (198)CHR$(229)CHRS{1) :
FOLLOW-UP COURSE (Volume 2) - A 200 page GETtl5,A$:IFAS<>CHR$(2
55)THENPRINT"[2 DOWN}"
self-learning course for each of the above named
TAB(7)"THAT DRIVE IS N
computers dealing exclusively with sequential and OT A 15S1":SLEEP1:GOTO
ralative files. Our teacher uses a unique approach to 989
file handling that was designed especially for students PS 1010 GOSUB910:RETURN
with absolutely no prior file handling experience. Yet by KF 1020 WINDOW0,0,79,3:PR1NT"
the end of the course you will be able to make up many (6 SPACESJFILES ON THI
S DISK(6 SPACES)":WIND
of your own personal and business file programs.
OW1,2,30,18,1:DIRECTOR
Each course is only $21.95 plus $3.00 for ship 1 U(D7):WINDOW40,1,77,
ping and handling. We have been developing and 16,1:PRINT"(7 DOWN}
selling Commodore courses for over 6 years now and if (3 RIGHTjPRESS ANY KEY
you do not think that we have the best self- TO CONTINUE..."
tutoring course you have yet come across, then CF 1038 GETKEYA$:GOSUB107 0:WIN
DOW0,0,79,3:PRINT"
just send the course back to us within 10 days of
[i SPACES}PARTITIONS 0
receipt for the FULL $24.95 refund. N THIS DISK(3 SPACES}"
Note: We also sell programming courses for all versions :RETURN
of the Amiga computer as well as a self-learning SJ 1043 CLOSE15:KEYL,"GRAPHIC"
AmigaDOS course. :KEY2,"DLOAD"+CHRS(34)
:KEY 3,"DIRECTORY" + CHR$
(13)
| NAME:
CF 1050 key4,"scnclr"+chr$(13)
! ADDRESS: :key5,"dsave"+chrs(34)
:key6,"run"+chrs(13)
:CITY: HE 1060 ki-:y7,mlist"+chrs(13) :k
ey8,"monitor"+chrs(13)
jSTATE/PROV: CODE:
:window0,0,79,24,1:end
11 desire the BASIC programming course (Volume 1) □ flj 1070 window1,20,30,20,1:pri
ntdss;:return
i FOLLOW-UP course on file handling (Volume 2) Q EP 1380 window1,2,30,1b,1:dire
ctory"*=c",u(dv):retur
! The computer that the course is needed for: N

| COMMODORE 64/64C □ COMMODORE 128/128DD CO 1090 WINDOW0,9,79,24:PRINT"


(24 DOWN){11 SPACES)
j For each desired course, send $24.95 cheque or !RIGHT]{1Q SPACES)
i money order (in the currency of your country) to: [RIGHT}(8 SPACESHUPl"
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|P.O. Box 1327 or Brantford, Ontario DK 1100 PRINTTAB(4)TFTAB{15)TL
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Circle Ruder Sitrvlec Number 187
James L. Lindly

The Commodore 128 has one of the Next is the View a Screen option.
best screen editors available on a per Design impressive Select this option to view any of the five
sonal computer. With it, you can use text and graphics screens screens in memory. Simply enter the
the 128's character graphics to create number of the screen you wish to view
colorful, eye-catching screens. How on your 128 and it will appear. Press any key when
ever, there are a couple of problems with this handy, you've finished viewing the screen.
with generating screens this way. First, Option 5 is Edit a Screen. Select
easy-to-use program.
you have no way to save the screens this option to modify one of the five
after you've created them. And second, A Commodore odd-series screens in memory. Enter a screen
they're not easy to incorporate inlo number and the program will display
printer or compatible
your own programs. that screen and put you in design mode.
Screen Designer 128 helps you cre is optional,
ate text screens for your BASIC pro Disk Options
grams. With Screen Designer 128, you The next three menu options are specif
can design up to five text screens using from 1 to 5. The screen then clears, and ic to the disk drive. Option 6, Disk Di
the 128's editing and graphics keys as if you're put in design mode. Use the cur rectory, displays onscreen a listing of
you were in direct mode. Thus, you sor and color control keys to move the files on the disk. This is useful for
have the freedom to move about the about and change text colors as you finding previously saved screens with
screen, changing colors and typing text would in direct mode. Press Fl to incre out leaving Screen Designer 128. Press
and graphics characters as you go. ment the background color or F3 to dec the NO SCROLL key to pause the di
When you've completed your screen, rement it. rectory listing. Screen Designer 128 auto
Screen Designer 128 allows you to print When you've finished designing, matically pauses at the end of the
it or save it for fulure use. press F5. This saves your screen in listing. Press any key to resume.
memory and returns you to the menu. If The next two options are very pow
Gelling Started you want to leave design mode without erful and should be used with caution.
Screen Designer 128 is written entirely in storing the screen in memory, press the Option 7 scratches a file on disk. The de
BASIC. Enter the program from 128 ESC key. leted file can be any file—not necessar
mode using The Automatic Proofreader, The second menu option is Save a ily one created with Screen Designer 128.
found elsewhere in this issue. Be sure to Screen. It allows you to save o'ne of the Type in the name of the file that you
save a copy of the program to disk five screens to disk for future use. Enter wish to scratch and press RETURN
when you've finished typing. the number of the screen you wish to (press the back-arrow key to abort the
When you're ready to design a save, or press the back-arrow key (■-) to delete). If you're deleting a screen creat
screen, load and run Screen Designer abort the save. After selecting the ed with Screen Designer 128, remember
128. You'll be presented with a menu of screen, type in a filename. This name to scratch the color file as well.
11 options for creating, saving, loading, must be 15 characters or less in length. Choose option 8 to format a disk.
and printing up to five different Screen Designer 128 saves two files: The Screen Designer 128 waits for you to in
screens. There are also menu options first contains the screen information; sert a disk and press RETURN. It then
for such tasks as viewing a disk directo the second contains color information, formats the disk and displays a directo
ry, scratching a file, formatting a disk, The second file has a C appended to its ry listing. As always, you can press the
and generating the BASIC code that re name. back-arrow key to abort the operation.
creates one of the five screens. The third option is Load a Screen.
With this option, you can load a screen Miscellaneous Options
Menu Options created previously with Screen Designer The Generate Code option creates
The first option is Design a Screen. Se 128. Enter a screen number, then the BASIC statements that recreate one of
lect this option to create artwork, to name of the file. Note that, as the file the screens. These statements are ap
write a memo to yourself, or just to doo loads, any information previously pended to the end of Screen Designer
dle on an electronic scratch pad. Screen stored in this screen will be overwrit 128. When you choose this option,
Designer 128 asks you which screen ten. As with the save option, the back you're first asked for the starting line
you'd like to design. Type in a number arrow aborts the operation. number for the generated code. Enter a
52 COMPUTES Gazette March 1990
number greater than 2300 and less than PYRIGHT 1990 PJ 310 PRINT"fCYN)l, 2, 3, 4,
60000. Screen Designer 128 then asks KB 50 PRINTTAB(7)"{DOWNH5>CDM iSPACEJOR 5..."
PUTE! PUBLICATIONS, INC. HQ 320 GETKEYKS:IFK$="<"THEN80
which screen to code. Enter a number IFVAL(KS)<1ORVAL[KS]>5T
■':PRINTTAB(10) n!D0WNH5> FK 130
from 1 to 5; then press any key to begin HEN320
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED":SLE
the coding process. EP1 EH 340 RS=1:GOSUB800
Screen Designer 128 displays the SE 55 JF$="":BANK1:JK*POINTER{ QP 350 !>RINT"(2 HOME))CLR}
line numbers used to code each of the JFS):LO=PEEK(JF+1):HI*PE (YEL)";:POKE248,255

five screens when this option is select EK (JF+2) FK 355 JX-PEEK(235):JY=PEEK(23


JC 56 Y=PEEK{JF):X*10:A=250:BA 6):CP=1024+JX*40+JY:POK
ed. This is useful when you need to
NK15:POKE250,LO:POKE251, ECP,(PEEK(CP)+128)AND25
code more than one screen. To avoid
HI:POKE252,1:SYS65381,A, 5
overwriting a previously coded screen, X,Y:X=9:SYS65381,A,X,Y KJ 360 TRAP360:IFPEEK(208)>0TH
be sure to enter a starting line number DR 69 GOTO2200 ENGETJFS:GOTO400
that doesn't conflict with a previously JK 70 REM — MAIN MEMO -- BD 365 JF=PEEK(212):IFJF=8 8THE
coded screen. ME Btf TRAPB0:SLQW:COLOR0,l:PRI N365
The Print Screen option prints one NT"(CLR)(2 I!OME!";TAB(18 GM 3713 GETJF$:IFJF=7 2THENPOKE2
) "*3}MENU" + CIIR$(142) : POK 4B,0:GOTO80
of the screens on a Commodore odd-
E208.0 XD 38fi IFJF=4THENPOKE53281,(PE
series printer (a 1525, an MPS-801, an EK(53281)+1)AND15:GOTO3
BS 90 TT$="{D0WN)(9 RIGHT ){3H
MPS-803, and so on). You're first asked 60
":PRINTTAB(ia)"{4 ¥>{UP}
if you want the screens printed in text ii CP 390 IFJF = 5THENPOKE53281, (PS
mode (with the upper-/lowercase char DF 100 PRINTTTS"1)(CYN) EK (53281)-1)AND15:GOTO3
acter set) or in graphics mode (with the {3 SPACESlDESIGN A SCRE 60
uppercase/graphics character set). If EN" HC 395 IFJF=6THENJX=PEEK(235):

you choose text mode, you're asked if SK 110 PRINTTT$"2)ICYKJ) JY=PEEK(236):CP=1024+iX


{3 SPACESlSAVE A SCREEN *40+JY:POKECP,(PEEK(CP)
Ihe screen should be printed in 40 or 80
+128)AND255:GOTO410
columns. If you choose 40, the text is DH 400 JX=PEEK(235):JY=PEEK{23
PH 120 PRINTTTS"3)(CYN)
automatically centered on the page; {3 SPACES)LOAD A SCREEN G) :CP = 1024 + JX*40 + JY:POK
otherwise, it's printed normally. N
ECP, (PEEK(CP)+128]AND25
The last menu option is Screen PQ 130 PRINTTT$"4)(CYN) 5:PRINTJFS;
Color. Press Fl to increment the screen (3 SPACES)VIEW A SCREEN FC 404 JX=PEEK(235):JY=PEEK(23
n
background color or F3 to decrement it. 6):CP=1024+JX*40*JY:POK
BF 140 PRINTTTS"5)fCVN) ECP,(PEEK(CP)+128)AND25
{3 SPACESlEDIT A SCREEN 5:G0TO36fl
Using the Screens
HD 410 POKE183,0:POKE1B4,4:POK
Screen Designer 128 is written so that DD 150 PRINTTTS"6](CYN) E186,0:POKE187,216:POKE
the screens you create with it can be {3 SPACES)DISK DIRECTOR 248,0:TRAP80
used in your BASIC programs without Y" SH 420 POKE177,P[SM+1):P0KE178
Screen Designer I2S's support. There are RK 160 PRINTTTS"7)(CYN} ,P(SM+2):POKE179,P(SH+3
two ways to do this. The first way is to 13 SPACESjSCRATCH A FIL ) :POKElS0,P(SM+4) :SYS35

simply BLOAD a saved screen. E" 84


SB 170 PRINTTTS"8)(CYN) DH 430 PRINT"(CLR){2 HOME}
For example, let's say you have a
{3 SPACESjFORMAT A DISK {OFF)t3J{2 DOWNlSCREEN
screen stored on disk as PICTURE. The it
JSPACEJNOW IN MEMORY...
following BASIC statements load the FF 180 PRINTTTS"C) {CYNj ":SLEEP1:POKE24 8,9:CLOS
picture and its color information: {3 SPACESjGENERATE CODE E1:GOTO80
II
GK 440 REM -- SAVE A SCREEN —
BLOAD"PICTURE",B15,P1024 RE 190 PRINTTTS"P)(CYN) QS 450 PRINT"{CLR}(3}"TAB(13)"
BLOAD"PICTUREC",B15,P55295 (3 SPACES)PRINT A SCREE SAVE A SCREEN"
N" DX 460 PRrNTTAB(13)"(13 Y}"
Note once again that the file holding
HE 200 PRINT"(DOWN)<3> XA 470 PRINT"{5 DOWN}";:fS=""
the color information has a C appended (5 SPACES)(F1/F3){CYN] EP 480 PRINT"ENTER WHICH SCREE
to its name. J3 SPACES)SCRF.EN {PUR)C N TO SAVE..."1PRINT"
The other way is to have Screen {YEL)O{GRN)Li7>OfRED)R" {CYN}1, 2, 3, 4, OR 5:
Designer 128 generate the BASIC code CA 210 PRINT"{YELJCCCCCCCCCCCC (2 SPACES}{YEL}YOUR CHO
to recreate the screen. This places CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC lCE(RIGHT}--> ( )"
CCCCC" BA 490 GETKEYKS:IFKS="<"THEN80
BASIC PRINT statements at the end of
HE 220 PRrNT"{RIGHT)(3}USE GA 500 IFVAL(KS)<1ORVAL(KS)>5T
Screen Designer 128, as explained above.
[cyn!-;{3> or (cyn)run/s HEN490
After coding your screens, exit Screen TOP(3> TO (CYNjESCAPE ER 510 SM=VAL(KS):PRINT"{HOME}
Designer 128 by pressing RUN/STOP- {3} A ROUTINE(HOME)":WI <3J(8 DOWN)"TAB(36);KS
RESTORE. Type DELETE 10-2300 to NDOW0,0,39,22 CG 520 PRINT'MCYN}{DOWNjENTER
eliminate the lines of code specific to AK 230 GETAS:POKE208,0:IFAS="P (SPACE}A NAME FOR SCREE
Screen Designer 128 itself. The lines "THEN1200 N #{3J"SM"{CYN}AND HIT"
which remain can then be added to XS 248 IFPEEK(212)=5THENKU=-1: :PRINT"(RVS)RETURN(OFF)
GOSUB960 <3}";:INPUT FS:IFLEN(FS
your own BASIC programs lo generate
QD 250 IFPEEK(212)=4THENKU=1:G )>15ORFS=""THENPRINT"
each screen. OSUB960 {3 UP)";:G0TO52B
FS 260 IFAS="C"THENLQ=LN:GOTO1 CG 53B IFFS""<"THEN80
890 CD 540 PRINT"(DOWN[SAVING ";FS
Screen Designer 128 FG 270 IFVAL(AS)<1 ORVAL(A$)>8 "(2 SPACES)(CYN)( SCREE
HQ 19 HEM COPYRIGHT 1990 COMPU THENPRINT"{2 UP}":GOTO2 N #"SM"){DOWN}"
TE! PUBLICATIONS, INC. - 30 AC 550 OPEN15,a,15:BSAVE(F5) ,B
ALE, RIGHTS RESERVED MM 280 ONVAL (AS)GOTO300,450,60 0,P(SL[SM)) TO P(SLfSM)
EM 20 FAST:GRAPHIC1,0:GRAPHIC0 0,7 50,7 50,9 20,1130,1010 +1000)
:COLOR0,1:COLOR4,4:SC=1: PC 290 REM — DESIGN A SCREEN QA 560 INPUTI15,A,A5,BS,CS:IFA
DIMKC(16):SLOW {SPACE} — <>0THENPRINTAS:CLOSE15:
SA 30 PRINT"{CLR){8 DOWNK3}"T BB 300 PRINT"(CLR)t3K2 DOWNjE SLEEP1:GOTO450
AB(12)"SCREEN DESIGNER" NTER WHICH SCREEN TO DE an 570 BSAVE(FS)+"C",B0,P(CL(S
XS 40 PRINTTAfi(12)"(DOWN) SIGN..." M))TOP(CL(SM)+1000)

COMPUTE'S Gazette March 1990 53


Screen Designer 128
HH 580 CLOSE15:PRINT"(2 DOWN} HR 1310 POKE6,4:POKE144,0:SYS6
i3>SCREEN FILED ON DISK GS 970 IFSC<1THENSC=16 5457:DV=ST:SYS654 54:DV
...":SLEEP2:GOTOB0 GR 980 COLOR0,SC:FORI=lTO100:N =DVORST:IFDVTHE1J2178
PX 590 REM - LOAD A SCREEN — EXT SE 1320 PRINT"(CLR)":FAST:TRAP
KD 600 PRINT "{CLRK3>"TAB( 13)" HP 990 PRINr"{HOME)";:RETURN 1440:CLOSE4:OPEH4,4:A5
LOAD A SCREEN" MX 1000 REM -- FORMAT A DISK - =CHRS(15):BS=CHR$(8):P
RG 610 PRINTTABU3) "(13 Y}" 0S-CHRS(16):IFMS="T"TH
RK 620 PRINT"(5 DOWN)";:FS>"" JR 1010 PRINT"(2 HOME)(CLR)<3> ENB$-CHRS(IS) :PRINT 14,
EC 630 PRINT"ENTER WHICH SCREE "TAB(13)"FORMAT A DISK BS:CLOSE4;OPEN4,4,7
N TO LOAD...":PRINT" AG 1330 R0 = (J:TB = 3:TD =
{CYH}1, 2, 3, 4, OR 5: BK 1020 PRINTTAB(13) "{13 *>" (SM)TOSL(SM)+999:GETES
{2 SPACES}{YEL}YOUR CHO SJ 1030 PRINT"{2 DOWN}{CYNjlNS
ICE {RIGHT }—> ( )" ERT DISK AND HIT {RVS} XC 1340 P = PEEK(I) :IFPM28THENR
64G GETKEYKS:IFKS="<"THEN80 O-llP-P-128
JE IFVAL (KSXIORVAL (KS) >5T XK 1040 PRINT"{HOME}{3* EX 1350 IFP = 34THENPRINT#4,'"";
HBN640 (24 DOWN)!12 RIGHTlUSE :GOTO1420
SF 66a SM=VAL(KS):PRINT"(HOME) < TO ESCAPE(HOME}":FO HM 1360 IFP<32ORP>95THENP-P+64
{3}{8 DOWN}"TAB(36) ;KS: RT2=1TO200:NEXT :GOTO1390
IFPR=1THENPR=0:RETURN FP 1050 PRINT"{HOME]{3> HK 1370 IFP>63AHDP<96THENP=P+3
PC 670 PRINT"(CYN}(DOWN)ENTER (24 DOWN)(12 RIGHT} 2: GOTO13 90
(SPACE)THE NAME OF YOUR (15 SPACES}(HOME)":FOR BK 1380 IFP>31ANDP<64THEN1390
SCREEN FILE":PRINT"AND T1=1TO100:NEXT FG 1390 PS=CHRS(P):IFRO=1THENR
HTT {RVS}RETURN<3* AR 1060 GETKS:IFKS*="<"THEH80 O=0:PS=CHRS(18)+CHRS(P
{OFF}"; :INPUT FS:IFLEN[ MF 1070 IFKSOCHRS(13)THEN1040
FS)>15ORF$=""THENPRINT" JK 1080 PRINT"(HOME}[24 DOWN} RO 1400 ifms="g"orcl=40thenpri
[3 UP)";:GOTO670 (12 RIGMTH16 SPACES] NTM,AS;POS"20";p$;bS;
BQ 680 IFFS="4"THENB0 (HOME)" :GOTO1420
DD 690 PRINT"{DOWN]LOADING ";F HH 1090 PRINT"{6 DOWN}(YEL}PLE QB 1410 PRINTH,AS;POS"00";PS;
S"(2 SPACES)(CYN)( SCRE ASE WAIT..." BS;
EN *"5M")" SX 1100 HEADER"SCREEN FILES",I XS 1420 TB=TB+1:IFTB=CLTHENPRI
AJ 700 TRAP710:OPEN15,8,15:BLO 13 NT(4:TB=0
AD(FS),B15,P(SL(SM)):GO DA 1110 PRINT"(3>(2 DOWN}FORHA PP 1430 NEXT
TO 7 20 T COMPLSTE":SLEEP2:GOT GF 1440 PRINTI4:CLOSE4:SLOW
XF 710 PRINT"!DOWN}"DSS:CLOSE1 0920 JG 1450 GOTO80
5:SLEEP1:GOTO609 HE 1120 REM — SCRATCH A FILE GC 1460 REM — CODE A SCREEN -
EH 720 BLOAD(FS)+"C",B15,P(CL( (SPACE}--
SM)) EK 1130 PRINT"(CLRH3>"TAB(13) OS 1470 FAST:TRAP2120:PRINT"
JR 730 CLOSE15:PRINT"{2 DOWN} "FILE SCRATCH" (2 HOME} {CLR}":D1=»SL(S
(3JSCREEN LOADED FROM D AH 1140 PRINTTABU3) "<12 Y>" M) :AV = 39:LX(K)=LN:LN(K
ISK...":SLEEP2:GOTO80 AK 1150 PRINT"(2 DOWN)(CYN}NAM )»LN:K-K+1
MS 740 REM — DISPLAY A SCREEN E OF FILE TO SCRATCH SG 14B0 PRINT"(CLR}(6 DOWN}":P
■C3}"; :INPUTF$ L=1313TRV=0:PS=PL+27:A
DJ 750 PRINT"{CLR}"; BK 1160 IFLEN(FS)>150RF$=""THE D=40:D2=DH-40:IFAV=104
JK 760 PRINT"{3 DOWN}(3>ENTER NPRINT"{3 UP}";:G0T011 0THEN80
(SPACE)SCREEN TO DISPLA 50 AK 1490 PRINTTAB(PX);LN"?"+CHR
Y . . . " QC 1170 IFFS="<"THEN80 $(34) :IFAV=39THENPRINr
RS 770 PR1NT"(CYN}1, 2, 3, 4, EG 1180 SCRATCH(FS)ISCRATCH(FS "(UP]";TAIHPX);LN;"?CH
[SPACElOR 5..." )+"C":PRINT"[2 DOWN] RS(27)*"CHRS(34);"M";C
BC 780 GETKEYKS:IFKS="<"THEN80 (3}"FS" FILE SCRATCHED HRS (!■)),-"; ";CI!RS (34) +C
KP 798 IFVAL(KS)<1ORVAL(KS)>5T ":SLEEP2:GOTOB0 HRS (147):PL = PL + 14:AV = 4
HENPRINT"(UP)"; :GOTO7 30 BR 1190 REM — PRINT A SCREEN
AA B00 SM=VAL(K$):IFSM=1THENSM (SPACE } — GX 1500 P=PEEK(D1):CP=D1+1000:
=0 SK 1200 TRAP1440:PRINT"(CLR] C=PEEK(CP):IFP»34THENP
QD 810 SM=SM*2:IFSM=8THENSM=12 (3J"TAB(13)"PRINT A SC "39
PG B20 IFSM=10THENSM=16 REEN" BD 1510 IFO16THENC=C-16:G0T01
QR 838 IFSM=6THENSM=8 CJ 1210 PRINTTAB(13)"(14 Y}" 510
QH 840 IFRS=1THENRS=0:RETURN MG 1220 PRINT"i3>(2 DOWN}ENTER HA 1520 IFP<129ANDRV=1THENGOTO
JR 850 PRINT"(CLR}";:POKE183,P WHICH SCREEN TO PRINT 1650
(SM+1):POKE184,P(SM+2): ...":PRINT"(CYN)1, 2, DS 1530 IFP>128THENP=P-128:GOT
POKElB6,P(SM+3):POKE 137 {SPACE}3, 4, OR 5: 01630
,P(SM+4) {2 SPACES}(YEL}YOUR CH EB 1540 IFP=32ANDRV=0THEN1580
EA 860 POKE177,0:POKE178,4:POK OICE(RIGHT]—> ( )" DG 1550 IFKC(C)-1THEN1580
E179,0:POKE180,216:nAHK KP 1230 GETKEYKS:IFKS="<"THEN8 HK 1560 IFC-8THEN1690
15:SYS3584 0 SA 1570 ONCGOTO1700,1710,1720,
BE 870 1FAS="5"THENPOKE2<18,255 SE 1240 IFVAL(KSX10RVAL[KS)>5 1730,1740,1750,1680,17
:PRINT"{2 HOME}{YEL}";: THEN1230 60,1770,1780,1790,1810
GOTO355 EP 1250 SM=>VAL(KS) :PRINT" ,1820,1830,1840
MJ 880 GETAS:IFA$=""THEN880 {HOME}(3>{5 DOWN}"TAB( BC 1580 POKEPL,P
RR 890 IFR2=1THENR2=0:RETURN 36);KS PS 1590 GETKS:IFKS="-;"THEN2120
PS 900 GOTOB0 JE 1260 PRINT"(3H2 DOWN}(RVS } PQ 1600 D1=D1+X:PL=PL+1:IFD1=D
MQ 910 REM — DISK DIRECTORY - T(OFF}EXT MODE OR 2THENP0KEPL,34:G0TO188
{RVS}G(OFF)RAPHIC MODE 0
EA 920 PRINT"(CLR}<3>(DOWN}PRE FQ 1610 IFPL>PSTHENPOKEPL,34:P
SS THE (RVS}NO SCROLL GM 1270 M2S="4":GETKEYMS: It"MS< OKEPL+1,59:PL-1313+AD:
{OFF} KEY TO PAUSE":SLE >"G"ANDMS<>"T"THEN12 70 AD=AD+40:LN=LN+2:PS=PL
EP2 BB 12S0 IFMS="T"THENPRINT" t27:GOTO1490
FX 930 PRINT"[CLR}[CYN)":DIREC (CYN!(RVS]4(OFF)0 OR PH 1620 GOTO1500
TORY (RVS}B{OFF}0 COLUMN?" GB 1630 IFRV=1THEN1540
QC 940 GOTO 880 EX 1290 IFM$="T"THENGETKEYM2S: KC 1640 RV=1:POKEPL,146:P=P+12
PA 950 REM — CHANGF. SCREEN CO IFM2SO"8"ANDM2SO"4"T S:PL = PLH:GOTO1660
LOR — HEN1290 HC 1650 RV-3:POKEPL,210:PL=PL+
QA 960 SC = SC + KU:IFEO16THENSC- FA 1300 CL"VAL(M2S)"10 1

54 COMPUTED Gazelle March 1990


FM 1660 rFPL>PSTHEN1610 (SPACE)THEN PRESS {3H
KB 1670 GOTO1530
MF 1680 XX=222:GOTO1850 BD 2080 PRINT"lYEL)AND THE COM
BK 1690 XX=23B:GOTO1850 PUTER WILL RETURN TO T
DE 1700 XX=133:GOTO1850 HE"
AJ 1710 XX^156:G0TO185B CK 2090 PRINT"MAIN MENU.(HOME)
EM 1720 XX=223:GOTO1850
PE 1730 XX 220:GOTO1850 MR 2100 GETKEYAS:IFAS="<"THENL
PR 1740 XX 15a:COTO1850 N=LX{K-1):GOTOB0
DD 1750 XX=159:GOTO1850 SK 2110 GOTO1470
XQ 1760 XX=193:GOTO1850 QX 2120 K=K-1:LX(K)=LH
QX 1770 XX=213:GOTO1853 JJ 2130 PRINT"{CLR)":IFED-1THE
PS 17B0 XX=214:GOTO1850 NED=0:LN{K)-0:LX(K)=0:
CQ 1790 XX=21S:GOTO1850 GOTO80
FQ 1S00 XX=216:GOTO1850 CM 2140 PR:NT"{HOME!(7 DOWN)";
MQ 1B10 XX=216:GOTO1850 :FORI=1TO6:PRINTLN(K):
AC 1820 XX=217:G0TO185B LN{K)=LN(K)+2:IFLN(K)+
KB 1830 XX-218:GOTO1850 2>LX(K)T]!ENED = 1:GOTO2L Save Your
HU 1840 XX»219 60
JH 1B50 POKEPL,XX:FORI=0TO15:K HK 2150 NEXT
Copies of
C(I)=0:NEXT:KC(C) ==1:PL
= PL + 1
AB 2160 PRINT"(HOME}{13 DOWNjG
GAZETTE
OTO2130";:POKE208,7:FO
JG 1860 IFPOPSTHEN1610 RI=842TO849:POKEI,13:N Protect your back issues of
JJ 1870 GOTO1530 EXT:PRINT"iHOME) COMPUTE!1! Gazette in durable
BP 1880 PRINT"{HOME}{13 DOWN)G (2 DOWN)":STOP binders or library cases, Each
SE 2170 PRINT"{2 HOME}[CLR]i3I binder or case Is custom-made
:AV=AV+40:LN=LN*2:POKE £2 DOWN}{RVS}PRINTER I
in pine green binding with
20B,7:FORI=84 2TO849:PO S NOT OHLINE...(OFF) C
KEI ,13:HEXT:PRINT" embossed white lettering. Each
ORRECT AMD HITANY KEY.
(HOME){2 DOWN}":STOP {2 SPACES}{CYN}HIT {3} holds a year of Gazette. Order
BQ 1890 PRINT"{CC.R}(3>"TAB (13) RUN/STOP (CYN}FOR MENU several and keep your issues of
"CODE A SCREEN" .":GETKEYD4S:GOTOB0 Gazette neatly organized for
KB 1900 PRINTTAB(13)"{13 Y>" SR 2180 REM — GET READY — quick reference. (These binders
XE 1910 PRINT"{CYN}{DOWN)LIHE ER 2190 DIMLNS (5,5) make great gilts, tool)
(SPACEJf'S USED... PA 2200 FORI=1TO5:READD1,D2:SL
[DOWN]":LX[K-1)=LM (I)=D1:CL(I)=D2:NEXT
CK 1920 FORI"1TO5:COLOR5,I+2:P JH 2210 DIMP(20):FORI=1TO20:RE Cases: Binders:
RINTLN(I)"TO"LX(I):NEX ADD:P(I)=D:NEXT:FORI=1
$7.95 each $9.95 each
T:IFK>5THENPRINT" TO8:KEY(I),"":NEXT
(DOWN)(CiN)YOU HAVE RE BC 2220 FORI=3584TO3709:READDT 3 for $21.95 3 for $27.95
fiCHED FIVE SCREENS1":S :POKEI,DT:NEXT:K=1:FOR 6 for $39.95 6 for $52.95
LEEP2:GOTO80 I=2048TO2094:READDT:PO
BC 1930 PRINT"{DOWN){CYNjENTER KEI,DT:NEXT:SYS2048:GO
STARTING LINE NUMBER. TO80
HJ 2230 DATA B192,9192,10192,1
CALL TOLL FREE
HX 1940 PRINT"MUST BE (RV5H3J 1192,12192,13192,14192 7 days. 24 hours
LARGER(CYN){OFF} THftN ,15192,4864,5864 1-800-972-5858
{SPACEJ2999 AND {RVS} JB 2240 DATA0,32,232,35,208,39
■f3*SMALLER{C¥N) {OFF} ,184,43,160,47,136,51,
{i SPACES)THAN 60000! 112,55,88,59,0,19,232, (Acid SI .00 per case/Oinder for postage

<3J":LN-0 22
and handling. Please add S2.50 per unit
MK 1950 PX=0:ZS="":INPUT LNS:L lor orders oulside ihe U.S.)
CC 2250 DATA 162,0,160,0,165,1
N=VAL(LNS) : IFLNS = I1<"TH 83,133,167,165,184,133 Send in your prepaid order with the
EN80 ,168,165,196,133,170,1 attached coupon
BH 1960 IFLN<3003ORLN>S9999THE 65,187,133,171,165,177
N1890 ,133,172,165,17B,133,1
BH 1970 IFLN<10000THENPX=1 73,165,179,133,174,165 Mall to: Jesse Jones Industries
CG 1980 PRINT"{5 UP}"+CHRS (27) ,180,133,175,132,199 Dept. GAZ
459 Easl Erie Ave.
■v " g " EH 2260 DATA 132,200,177,167,1
Philadelphia. PA 19134
RF 1990 PRINT"{3}ENTER WHICH S 45,172,177,170,145,174
CREEN TO CODE... ,24,165,167,105,1,133,
{6 SPACES]":PRINT" 167,165,168,105,0,133, Please send me GAZETTE
ICYNjl, 2, 3, 4, OR 5: 168,24,165,170,105,1,1 □ cases D binders. Enclosed Is my
12 SPACES}(YEL)YOUR CH 33,170,165,171,105,0,1 check or money order lor S
OICE —> I } " 33,171,24,165,172,105 (U.S. lunds only.)
EP 2000 GETKEYKS: I FK$= "< "THF.H8 SS 2270 DATA 1,133,172,165,173
B ,105,0,133,173,24,165,
FQ 2010 IFVAL(K$)<1ORVAMKS)>5 174,105,1,133,174,165, Name

THEN2000 175,105,0,133,175,24,1
65,199,105,1,133,199,1 Address
RP 2020 SM=VAL(KS):PRINT"
(HOME)i3}{12 DOMN}"TAB 65,200,105,0,133,200,1
City
(36);KS 65,200,201,3,208,177
EM 2030 PRIHT"(2 DOWN}{YELJWHE BE 2280 DATA 165,199,201,232,2
Stale ZIP
H READY, PRESS A KEY." 08,171,96
PQ 2040 PRIHT"THE COMPUTER WIL RE 2290 DATA 120,173,20,3,141,
L GO IHTO (RVS)FAST 25,8,173,21,3,141,26,8 SaTislQcllon guaranteed Or money refunded
(OFE1} MODE..." ,169,27,141,20,3,169,8 Please atow 4S wesvs 'or de . nr ■■
AX 2050 'PRINT"THE SCREEN WILL ,141,21,3,88,96,101,25 No. PO Box Numbers,
{SPACEjBLAHK." 0,165,212,201,59,240,4
QJ 2060 PRINT"IF DURING THE CO ,201,0,20B,6,169,0,133
DING PROCESS YOU" ,244,133,245,108,25,8
BF 2070 PRIHT"DECIDE TO ABORT XD 2300 DATA 12B G
COMPUTE'S Gflzarre March 1990 55
i
With Alias, you can eliminate these where A and B have the same meanings
Will Stelnslek and other problems. This program lets as in the 64 command. To restore a de
you change the device number as vice's number, simply set both A and B
signed to any device; commands that to the default for the device.
you issue are now redirected to the de In its present form, /I I fas does not
vice of your choice. For example, you reassign any device numbers when it's
can redefine device 8 as device 1 so that run. However, you can cause it to do so
Have you experienced the load command defaults to the disk by changing the second value in each
drive instead of the cassette drive. Simi pair of numbers in line 350. The first
problems while working larly, you can change device 8 to device number in each pair is the default num
9 so that the files on your second disk ber for each device; the second number
with external devices?
drive load properly and 128 DOS com is the device number that will be as
This utility banishes mands like SCRATCH work without a signed when you run the program. If
",U9" appended to the end of them. you modify this line, be careful not to
unfriendly device numbers assign the same number to two or more
Getting Started devices.
on both the 64 and the 128. Although Alias is written in machine For example, suppose you wished
language, it's listed here as a BASIC to change device 8 to 10 and device 9 to
loader that runs on both the 64 and the 8. To do this, you'd add the following
The Commodore 64 did a lot to popu
larize low-cost disk drives and printers. 128. To ensure accurate typing, use The line to the program:
Unfortunately, these devices are not al Automatic Proofreader, found elsewhere
350 DATA0A1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,8,10,9,8
ways user-friendly. In fact, working in this issue, to enter the program. If
you intend to use the program with a 64 Finally, to disable Alias, restoring
with the different device numbers com
mon to disk drives, printers, and cas only, enter lines 10-350. If you plan to the default device numbers in the pro
sette drives can be a major source of use Alias on a 128 as well, enter the en cess, press the RUN/STOP-RESTORE
frustration. tire program; be sure to type it in from key combination. To reenable the 64
Take the load command, for in 128 mode so that any BASIC 7.0 key version, type SYS 53052; to reenable
stance. When the 64 was introduced, words will be tokenized properly. the 128 version, type SYS 6952,
Commodore had no idea that disk When you run Alias, some general
instructions and a list of valid device Alias
drives would become as popular as
numbers are displayed. The machine HQ 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1990 COMPU
they are today. Instead, the company TE! PUBLICATIONS, INC. -
thought that most 64 owners vvould opt language is then POKEd into memory
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
for the cheaper cassette drives. That's and activated.
RB 20 M=1:PRINT"|CLR){RVSp'TAB
why LOAD and other commands de Once Alias is enabled, you can (15)"ALIAS":IFPEEK(615530
fault to this device. change device numbers from immedi )«5THENM=2:BANK15
Things are even worse when you ate mode or from program mode. To re ER 30 PRINT"(2 DOWN)THIS PROGR

have multiple disk drives or two print assign a device number on the 64, enter AM ALLOWS VOU TO DIVERT
(SPACElALL"
ers. When you try to load files from POKE 780,A:POKE 781,H:SYS 53O00 GK 49 PRINT"INPUT OR OUTFUT FR
your new 1581 disk drive, you need to OH ONE DEVICE TO "
append ",9" to the load command. To where A is a device's default number FQ 50 PRINT"ANOTHER.":IFM=2THE
and B is the number you'd like it to NPHINT
output to a second printer (device 5),
often you must unplug the printer and have. To reassign a device number on KD 60 PRINT"USE THE COMMANDS:"
the 126, use a command with the syntax :IFM-1THENPRINT"POKE7B0,
then plug it back in at least once before
A:POKE781,B:S¥S53OB0":GO
you're successful. SYS 6900,A,B TOB0

56 COMPUTEVs Gazette Marcn 1990


Qfi 70 PRINT"SYS690f,A,B" MF 240 DATA191,207,136,76,50,2 HC 390 RESTORE 3 50:FORI = 7086TO7
HP 80 PRINT"WHERE A = THE CURH 07,200,200,192,19,20B,2 101:READQ:POKEI,Q:NEXT
ENT DEVICE f AND":PRINT" 25,173,191,207 PJ 400 SYS6952:REM ACTIVATE
B = THE NEW DEVICE #." XQ 250 DATA172,192,207,174,193 PG 410 DATA141,171,27,142,173,
EM 90 PRINT"(DOWN}TO MAKE A AN ,207,96,173,26,3,141,18 27,140,172,27,160,3,185
D B THE SAME AGAIN, TYPE 3,207,173,27 ,171,27,205
MA 260 DATA3,141,184,207,169,1 RS 420 DATA171,27,208,17,173,1
PC 103 1FM-1THENPBINT"POKE78G, 27,141,26,3,169,207,141 71,27,153,171,27,200,17
8:POKE791,8:SYS530O0":G ,27,3,173 3,173,27,153
OTO120 CK 270 DATA48,3,141,186,207,17 HX 430 DATA171,27,136,76,30,27
ED 110 PRINT"SYS6900,8,e" 3,49,3,141,187,207,169, ,200,20(1,192,19,208,225
AH 120 PRINT"[DOWN}VALID DEVIC 133,141,48 ,173,171,27
E NUMBERS ARE:{DOWN)" BS 280 DATA3,169,207,141,49,3, CD 440 DATA172,172,27,174,173,
BE 130 PRINT"0 - KEYBOARD 173,50,3,141,189,207,17 27,96,173,26,3,141,163,
(3 SPACESJ4 - PRINTER 1 3,51,3 27,173,27
FF 290 DATA141,190,207,169,139 ES 453 DATA3,141,164,27,169,10
JS 140 PBINT"1 - CASSETTE ,141,50,3,169,207,141,5 7,141,26,3,169,27,141,2
{3 SPACES)5 - PRINTER 2 1,3,96,32 7,3,173
JX 300 DATA145,207,76,1B2,2(T7, GC 460 DATM8,3,141,166,27,173
FH 150 PRINT"2 - RS232 32,145,207,76,185,207,3 ,49,3,141,167,27,169,11
(6 SPACES)8 - DISK DRIV 2,145,207,76 3,141,48
E 1" QJ 310 DATA1S8,207,14L,191,207 DK 470 DATA3,169,27,141,49,3,1
EK 160 PRINT"3 - SCREEN ,140,192,207,142,193,20 73,50,3,141,169,27,173,
{5 5PACESJ9 - DISK DRIV 7,160,3,185,191 51,3
E 2" QD 320 DATA207,197,186,208,10, XK 480 DATA141,170,27,169,119,
SC 170 IFM=2THEN370 200,135,191,207,133,186 141,50,3,169,27,141,51,
JC 1B0 FORJ=53000TO53185:READQ ,136,76,50,207 3,96,32
:X=X+Q:POKEJ,Q:NEXT HH 330 DATA200,20H,192,19,208, RQ 490 DATAl25,27,76,162,27,32
BJ 190 IFXO26532THENPRINT"EBR 233,76,50,207,76,189,23 ,125,27,76,165,27,32,12
OR IN DATA STATEMENT.": 9,76,108,242 5,27,76
STOP FH 340 DATA76,78,245,0,0,0 EK 500 DATA168,27,141,171,27,1
SG 200 FORI=53186TO53201:READQ JM 350 DATA0,0,1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4 40,172,27,142,173,27,16
:POKEI,Q:NEXT ,5,5,8,8,9,9:REM ASSIGN 0,3,185,171
MX 210 SYS5J052:END:REM ACTIVA DEVICE NUMBERS FD 510 DATA27,197,186,208,10,2
TE AH 360 BEH 128 ONLY 00,185,171 ,27,133,186,1
FF 220 DATA141,191,287,142,193 XC 370 BESTORE410:FORJ=6900TO7 36,76,30,27
,207,140,192,207,160,3, 085:READQ:X=X*Q:POKEJ,O BP 520 DATA20 0,200,192,19,208,
185,191,207,205 :NEXT 233,76,30,27,76,139,239
EJ 230 DATA191,207,208,17,173, CG 380 IFXO19532THENPRINT"EBR ,76,108,242
191,207,153,191,207,200 OR IN DATA STATEMENT.": AD 530 DATA76,78,245,0,0,0
,173,193,207,L53 STOP

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Circle Rflddor Servlco Number 128 COMPUTE'S GazeKe March 1990 57


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Clrclo Rondsr Servlco Numbor 199


m

JKD ITHL It. *1 iimr riiinli'.


DUB LOttt*: ill's

Storm Across Europe Thor, Tliyra,


Comprehensive strategic Questor, and Merlin continue
simulation of World War II p. 60 their noble adventures

Shoot 'Em Up World Geography An elegant,


Construction Kit new package that teaches and
Design your own offers lots of fun p. 63
complete arcade game p. 62

Aussie Games six wacky


new games from the land down
under p. 63

COMPUTE!'* Gazene MarOi 1990 59


Reviews

Storm Across Europe naval combat follow an even more intri Gauntlet II
Storm Across Europe recreates war on a cate sequence, with land-based air sup Assuming multiple personalities may
grand and unprecedented scale. Its port, submarines, fleets, and escorts all be considered unusual in some circles,
sweep is far-reaching, encompassing converging in battle as convoys attempt but in the fantasy world of computer
the European theater of operations in to pass through different sea areas. gaming it's most desirable—and down
World War 11 in its entirety, from the The one place where the game errs right fun. Mindscape's Gauntlet U al
mountains of Morocco in the west to is in its treatment of movement. The lows players to assume the roles of four
the edge of Siberia in the east. rules allow you to redeploy your units heroes, each with different powers and
The design itself embraces practi across friendly territory without restric capabilities.
cally every important facet of the con tion and attack in the same turn. Now, Just as they fought against the
flict. You can undertake Battle of this would be fine if all of Europe had forces of evil at your local arcade, Thor
Britain-type strategic-bombing cam been serviced by unlimited high-speed the Warrior, Thyra the Valkyrie, Ques-
paigns, send German raiders to prey on trains. But seeing as how this wasn't so, tor the Elf, and Merlin the Wizard in
Allied shipping in the Atlantic, and the freewheeling maneuvers the game vade your personal computer to
even devote resources toward gaining lets you carry out are blatantly unrealis continue their noble adventures.
the technology to build the first atomic tic, even by modem standards.
bomb. It's all here in impressive detail. Questions of realism aside, in
game terms, the lack of limitations on
The most difficult part of
an army's ability to move and fight de

This game is a
tracts from play in two ways: ft greatly Gauntlet II? Trying to
reduces the importance of planning and
sophisticated, compelling Bquelches the effects of surprise. quit playing.
Caught off-guard by an Allied invasion
simulation of the of France while mired in your own of
fensive in the Ural Mountains? No prob A single player, or a second player
1939-45 war in Europe.
lem. The flick of a joystick transfers a acting as an ally, assigns any of the four
half-dozen armies across the continent heroes as his or her alter ego. Once
and drives the invaders back into the selected and empowered with unique
Despite its depth and breadth. English Channel. Historically, if the abilities, the players wade into a villain
Storm Across Europe rates no more than Germans had possessed this capability ous horde of monsters and evil traps
average in complexity because of some to shift troops between fronts, they that occupy 100 new mazes of the Dark
judicious abstractions and simplifica probably would never have lost the war. Dungeons.
tions. Taken individually, the land, air, Like many of the other war games If you enjoy arcade-style games,
naval, and economic subsystems are published by Strategic Simulations, Gauntlet II will consume you with fast-
very basic both in their specifics and Storm Across Europe is built around an paced shoot-'em-up action and mind-
their applications. But it's the interac extensive database. In fact, the game al bending puz/les. Time flies as players
tion of these subsystems that makes the most buries you beneath an avalanche delve deeper and deeper into the dun
game a sophisticated, compelling simu of numbers. For example, the map is di geon world. Trying to quit playing is
lation of the 1939-45 war in Europe. vided into more than 200 land areas, the most difficult part of Gauntlet II.
The sheer scope of decision mak each of which is rated for population, Players begin the game with 2000
ing the game requires is sometimes raw material, industry, garrison, and air- health points as they search the mazes
daunting, especially as the war expands defense levels. Armies, in turn, are made for treasure and instruments of magic.
into North Africa, Russia, and Asia. up of varying quantities of infantry, Time erodes a player's health as do en
Fortunately, the system for entering or mechanized troops, armor, paratroops, counters with any of the seven types of
ders simplifies the process considera and tactical air points. Get the idea? monsters that swarm to attack. Destroy
bly. Whenever you initiate an action, a Manipulating all these numbers the monsters and the Generators (the
set of prompts or markers appears on can grow tiresome after a while and machines that mass-produce them)
the screen, indicating your range of op leave you feeling more like an accoun before you are overwhelmed. Acid
tions. For instance, when an army tant than a general. The key to enjoying puddles, force fields, and traps that can
moves to a port, the computer informs and appreciating Storm Across Europe, sap your strength should also be avoid
you whether enough transports are pre then, is to keep in mind the larger pic ed, if possible.
sent to embark the unit. It also marks ture. The game depicts a continent Each level of the maze must be
every port that could serve as a legal engulfed by war, and you should con solved and an exit found before players
destination for the ships. In this way, struct your strategies in the same broad may advance to the next level. Food
the friendly user interface lightens your context and not concern yourself with and cider, found along the way, extend
responsibilities, freeing your mind to smaller details. your life by adding 100 health points to
concentrate on strategy rather than on Although the design is not without your score.

specific rules. its flaws, Storm Across Europe achieves Your session comes to an end
For the most part. Storm Across Eu perfection in fulfilling its intent. The when your health drops to 0. You must
rope addresses its subject from a strate game integrates the economic and mili then restart the game from the begin
gic perspective. Turns equal three tary aspects of World War II in a clean, ning. When two players tackle the
months, and units represent armies or engaging format that simultaneously game together, however, there are defi
fleets of ships and planes. In keeping entertains, instructs, and challenges you. nite advantages. The most obvious is
with this scale and focus, most of the —Jeff Seiken the ability to protect one another by
game's mechanics are straightforward: using each player's respective talents
You move; then you fight. However, Storm Across Europe against a diverse group of villains and
simple in design does not mean simple Strategic Simulations threats. Another important advantage
in execution. A range of factors affect Distributed by Electronic Arts is the ability to rejoin your partner after
the outcome of land battles, Including 1820 Gateway Dr. your health points have expired. As
terrain, troop efficiency, air support, San Maleo, CA 94404 long as one player continues to hold his
and supply. The routines for resolving $59.95 or her own against the horde, the com-

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Reviews
panion may return to the fray at the Enter Avantage. Now we have a (forward movement governed by the
present level, rejuvenated with 2000 legitimate excuse to roam through hero's action). Then the introduction
health points. strange landscapes blasting away at and its special effects provide the fin
Players may pick up and carry only purple aliens or enemy armies. Shoot ishing touches.
a limited number of items as they trek 'Em Up Construction Kit, which comes With Shoot 'Em Up Construction Kit,
about the game. Keys are very useful, as with three ready-to-play games, en you are guided through the intricate
are the powerful magic potions and am ables us to design our own games of process of layering and building until
ulets. Use the keys to eliminate barriers destruction. And what good game de you have produced a finished game of
that prevent your movement inside the signer doesn't check out his or her own reasonable arcade quality. Each compo
mazes. Amulets and potions, once creation? nent is available to you for design or
found, increase your powers in magnif Any game you create with Shoot modification. You have complete control.
icent ways. 'Em Up Construction Kit will be com A fascinating aspect of Construc
Treasure rooms appear randomly, plete with hero, enemies, weapons, and tion Kit becomes apparent when you
allowing players to sprint around, sound effects. There's even a screen toy with one of the existing games.
scooping up as much treasure as possi where you can write an introduction to Gradually modify pieces of it and then
ble. To keep the treasure, they must your hot new game for uninitiated check it out to see where the changes
find the exit and escape to the next level players. Since it takes time to create one turn up. Since everything is made of
before time runs out. Phony exits and of these games, you can save your cre linked components, changes you make
poisoned food, cider, and potions add ation at any stage. When you've fin can turn up in weird places as a modi
an extra element of danger and can ished designing your game, save it to its fied character or sprite is incorporated.
prove fatal to the unwary. own disk and it will run independently This is a great way to learn your way
A long list of foes stand against you of Construction Kit (a great gift for your around this program, but the first time
in Gauntlet II. The most formidable are fire-happy friends). you see the consequences and the capa
characters known simply as Death. bilities of what you're working with
They will try to attach themselves to strike home, it's awesome.
the heroes, drain up to 200 health Criticisms of this program are few.
Noio we have a
points from their victim, and then die Depending on the make of your moni
themselves. Fighting Death characters legitimate excuse to roam tor, your screen may not be large
hand-to-hand or shooting at them is enough to display the score (lower left
useless. Only certain magic potions can through strange border) or a couple of prompts used in
rid the screen of these dreaded leach- one of the editors. This was true of our
landscapes blasting away
like monsters. Commodore 1701. The character set
Gauntlet II is just what the wizard at purple aliens or enemy used in writing the front-end text can be
ordered for home dungeon-arcade ad modified. However, there are some
dicts. It's a quality arcade-style action armies. characters that we had trouble figuring
game that exercises the brain as well as out how to get on the screen. Pressing
the wrist and thumb. The option to as the logical keys didn't work, and there
sume a different hero's persona with You can either jump right in creat is nothing that tells you how to reach
different abilities each time you play ing your game from scratch or get your them. We never did get the hyphen.
spices up an already challenging feet wet by revising the games includ The only general drawback to this
adventure. ed: Space Hawk, Outlaw (a Western kit is that the block-and-pixel nature of
—Steve Hedrick shoot-'em-up), and Transputer Man. game construction limits you to a fairly
Either way, this kit is a powerful tutori geometric, even linear, design. For in
Gauntlet II al in game design. stance, we found it extremely difficult
Mindscapt The Main Menu is your doorway to to design a curved stretch of road,
3444 Dundee Rd. creation. The various editors are all (Heck, we found it impossible, but
Northbrook IL 60062 accessed from here. These include edi that's not to say that an extremely tal
$29,95 tors for sprites, objects, background, ented game maker couldn't do it.) Ev
sound effects, player limitations, attack erything else in the kit is great, and to
waves, levels, and the front end. Test reuse a word, awesome.
Shoot 'Em Up Game, also listed on the main menu, al Shoot 'Em Up Construction Kit,
lows you to test your game in either while setting out to be a toolkit for en
Construction Kit Regular mode or Cheat mode, the latter tertainment, is actually a deep program
Let's face it. Within even the most seri of which gives you an infinite number that helps you explore and gain com
ous-minded, efficient, hard-working, of lives. mand of the intricacies of game making.
dedicated computer user lurks a tiny A computer game is laid down in We played the games. We toyed with
gremlin whose only desire is to get out layers, rather like an animated cartoon. the editors. And while we may never
and shoot, bomb, blast, and otherwise Pixels comprise characters, which make have the dedication and patience it
annihilate anything in its path. up blocks; blocks, in turn, combine to takes to painstakingly construct a com
Some people have no problem in become the background. Other pixels mercial shoot-'em-up, we now have a
dulging this imp's appetite. Others of make the sprites that make objects— better understanding and respect for
us sidle along the aisle and grab a objects being a hero, an enemy, an ex the game designers who do.
shoot-'em-up off the shelf, telling the plosion sequence, or anything that —David and Robin Minnick
cashier, "It's for the kids." We wear moves. Sound effects are assigned and
trenchcoats and oversized fedoras as can themselves be modified in terms of Shoot 'lim Up Construction Kit
we slouch into arcade rooms to drop waveform, pitch, attack, and decay. Asantage
some quarters. Or we order games in Players' limitations are defined. Distributed by Accolade
plain brown wrappers from anony Enemies are placed and assigned routes 550 Winchester Blvd.
mous distributors in Paducah. After all, of travel. The map areas and pattern of Suite 200
we wouldn't be caught dead using our playing levels are chosen—scrolling San Jose, CA 95128
computer to play! versus still screen versus push screen $14.95 >
62 COMPUTE'S Gazetlo March 1990
World Geography played.) With a system like this, players from going head or feet first.
A program is good when it does what it are encouraged to keep playing. Those From Sydney you move to Mel
sets out to do. If it does it smoothly, who are just starting out are not daunt bourne for Beach Footy. Using the fire
uses eye-catching graphics and tuneful ed by facing a too-big chunk of materi button, kick the football as far as you
responses, and does it with a minimum al. Intermediate scholars persevere to can and then position your onscreen
of fuss, then it is elegant. This may be stay in ihe game, and smart players can partner to catch the ball. Catching it is
an unusual statement about an educa keep going forever. difficult but not impossible. Even if you
tional package, but elegant is the word There's nothing to dislike about miss the ball, you receive points for the
that best describes World Geography World Geography. Bear in mind, it's an distance it's kicked. Try to do well here
from Bobco. educational game with the emphasis on because the sheilas are watching.
The program sets out to help you education. But lovers of trivia games Next it's off to the bush for a go at
learn some essential facts about 175 of also will be satisfied with the format, boomerang competition. Getting the
the world's nations. These facts include and for learning these facts, it's a gem! hang of throwing the boomerang is
the country's location, capital, curren We checked some of the infor only half the battle. The boomerang is
cy, official language, and population. mation presented, and it appears to be going to come back. Then you must de
Considering the changing political accurate and up-to-date. The maps and cide whether to simply reach out and
boundaries and population figures, it is flags are excellently rendered, a tribute grab it, jump for it, or duck. As in Beach
laudable that Bobco periodically issues to the programmer's abilities. Assem Footy, you receive points for distance-
updated versions of World Geography. bling all this material and designing the extra points are awarded if you catch it.
(These can be purchased direct from necessary graphics is an awesome ac Mind your head with this one.
Bobco by current owners for just $7. complishment. The concept is educa Now, on to Ayres Rock for the Dry
The 1990 version should be available tionally sound, and the execution is River Race. This is not meant for the
early this year.) flawless. weak of arm because you and a friend
Any student will tell you: Memo have to carry the boat in this event. To
—David and Robin Mitnikk
rizing facts is b-o-r-i-n-g! Any teacher get your team going, move the joystick
will tell you that some things can't be World Geography back and forth quickly. Be sure to jump
learned any other way. The solution? Bobco over the many obstacles in the way. If
Make the dull as interesting as possible, 200 Seventh Ave. you stumble over one, it'll slow you
use multiple stimuli, keep the brain ac Suite III down or stop you completely; this
tive. Nothing stimulates like a game— Santa Cruz, CA 95062 means you have to build up your speed
whether you're playing against an op $24.95 again. You'll be ready for a breather
ponent or merely pitting yourself after this event.
against a previous score. World Geogra You get a break when you go to
phy is a package made-to-order to these Aussie Games Top End for the Beer Shoot because you
specifications. It uses multiple-choice Blokes and sheilas should have a bonza get to ride in the back of a truck. While
questions, visual aids in the form of time with this ripper from Mindscape your sober mate drives, another bloke
maps, a simple but accurate rotating titled Aussie Games. Even if you're a tosses beer bottles for you to shoot.
globe, and aural stimuli in the form of simple seppo like myself and don't un Easy you say? Not when the road
music played while the globe spins and derstand Strine, check out the manual's curves like this one does. By the way,
when questions are answered. glossary and get set for a fair-dinkum watch out for the birds flying by. You
Options to be selected at the outset treat. do not get points from bird lovers for
include 1-Flayer, 2-Player, or Review Aussie Games is a two-disk collec hitting them.
(answers automatically displayed); tion of six recreational, true-blue Aus Finally you reach Cairns for a little
Novice, Intermediate, or Expert; and tralian games. Don't expect to see these Marlin Fishing worthy of Hemingway.
Geographic Area: America & Pacific, events in the next Olympics though— This is an extremely tough event. You
Eurasia, Africa, and All. this Aussie six-pack is a half-dozen of must cast your line right next to the
The globe rotates in a window on the wackiest sports you'll find any swimming marlin or it won't bite. If it
the right side of the screen. As it spins, where this side of Alice Springs. doesn't hit your lure, keep casting until
the disk drive searches for a country. By the way, in case you aren't sure, it does. Once you've hooked the fish,
When one is found, the globe halts with you blokes and sheilas (guys and gals) reel it in carefully or your line might
the continent of the selected country might like to know that in Strine (the break. Watch out if you manage to land
facing front. A relief-type map of the Australian language) bonza means ex it—it will try to jump over the edge of
country appears on the left, with its flag tremely good, ripper is any excellent the boat.
displayed nearby. A blinking light lo thing, seppo refers to us Yanks, and fair- Aussie Games is an exciting pro
cates the capital city on both the globe dinkum is anything real. gram with fast-paced events. The
and the map. Aussie Games allows players to graphics are colorful and often funny,
The first question asked is the choose the order of events offered. Try particularly during the Belly Whack. In
name of the country. The other four all of the events in order by picking addition to the sound effects in each
questions—capital, language, currency, Aussie Safari, compete in the event of event, many of the games have Austra
and population—follow in random or your choice, or simply practice your fa lian tunes such as "Waltzing Matilda"
der. Throe possible answers are offered vorite event. and "Botany Bay" playing in the back
for each. The Safari takes you to a number ground for an added touch of authentic
Scoring is based on how long it of spots throughout Australia. Your first ity. Get ready for some fun with this
takes you to answer. A timer starts as stop is Sydney, where you attempt the one—you'll find it dinki-di.
each question comes up. The quicker sport made famous by kids on spring —Alison Fif ming
you answer, the higher your score. break: the Belly Whack. The objective is
You begin with five countries. to get the biggest splash without run Aussie Games
Each time you score 10,000 points, you ning out of time. First, your diver has to Mindscape
gain two countries and a Bonus Flag take a few good breaths; then you press 3444 Dundee Rd.
question. (Here you must choose a giv the fire button to begin the flop. The Northbwok, JL 60O62
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COMPUTED Gazelle March 1990 63
Peter M. L. Lottrup

ADD SENSATIONAL VIDEO EFFECTS TO YOUR


BASIC PROGRAMS WITH THIS POWERFUL MACHINE
LANGUAGE UTILITY FOR THE 64. DEMO INCLUDED,

Want to spice up text-screen presenta Proofreader, also found in this issue, and Speed determines the opening
tions in your BASIC programs? If so, try save a copy of the program to disk. speed of the window. Any value in the
Raster Master. This short machine lan range 0-255 may be used, with higher
guage routine creates a dramatic win Four Commands numbers representing slower speeds. If
dowing effect like none you've seen By using the 64's raster-interrupt rou you don't include this parameter, an av
before. tine, Raster Master lets you change a erage speed of 30 is used.
This effect is achieved using a two- vertical portion of the text screen to an The next command, SYS 49158,
step process. First, you position some other color. Four SYS commands are all closes an opened window. The window
text in a designated window area. To that's required. closes at the rate assigned when the
make the text invisible, you print il in The first command, SYS 49152, ac window was opened.
the color of the screen background. tivates the utility. Call it once near the The final command, SYS 49161,
Then you call Raster Master, At a rate beginning of your program. disables the utility and restores the
you specify, each screen line in the win The second SYS command is re standard IRQ interrupt vector. Use this
dow area is changed to a contrasting sponsible for opening the text window. command to turn off the utility while
color. As this process continues, the The syntax for this command is you change the background screen
hidden text within the window is grad color or when you've finished with all
SVS 49155,color,row[,tiumbcr of
ually revealed. window displays. To reactivate the util
rotvs\[,spced\
ity, use SYS 49152.
Typing It In Co/or (0-15) is the color you want in the
Raster Master is written entirely in ma opening window (also stored in loca The Demo
chine language, so you'll need to use tion 2). Row is the number of the screen When you're ready to see Raster Master
MLX, the machine language entry pro line (0-255) on which the window will in action, place the disk containing
gram found elsewhere in this issue, to be located. Remember: As with the 64's RASTER.ML in the drive; then load and
type it in. The MLX prompts, and the standard sprite-coordinate system, only run the demo. The demo illustrates a
values you should enter, are as follows: screen lines in the range 50-249 are on variety of effects: Small-width windows
the visible portion of the screen. are generated by concealing a portion
Starting address: CDOO
The two optional parameters are of the raster band with sprites, separate
Ending address: C13F
number of rows and speed. Number of areas of text are revealed in sequence,
Enter the data for Raster Master. Before rows determines how many screen lines windows are opened and closed at dif
you exit MLX, save a copy of the program in each direction (up and down) the ferent rates, and a selection-bar menu is
to disk with the name RASTER.ML window should cover. A value of 4, for simulated.
Raster Master Demo, written in example, creates a window eight lines To help you understand the setup
BASIC, illustrates some of the typical high. If you don't include this parame for each effect, the demo has been com
effects that are possible with Raster ter, Raster Master assumes maximum mented liberally. Note the use of loca
Master. Type it in using The Automatic size {the whole screen). tions 820 and 821 in this program. To
<H COMPUTE!rs GazetlB March 1990
prevent the screen from flashing, win DX 120 POKE53248+16,12:REM SET BAR"
HIGH BIT OF SPR2 AND S AQ 440 PRINT"!DOWN)[YEL)USE <U
dows are initially established offscreen
PR3 HORIZONTAL COORDINA P> & <DOWN> CURSORS TO
using these locations. Then they're {SPACE)MOVE"
TE
moved onto the screen with the SYS SA 450 PRINT"PRESS <Q> TO QUIT
DE 130 POKE53248+21,15:REM ENA
49155 command. BLE SPRITES 0-3 {BLK}"lPRINT
CF 140 POKE532B1,0:PRINT"{CI.R) cm 460 fori-1t09:print"
{BLK}"VS(12)TAB(5)"COMP (5 spaces)"}:forj=1to4:
RASTER.ML print"line"strs(i)" ";:
OTEl'S GAZETTE PRESENTS
C000 -4C 0C C0 4C 61 C0 4C FF 2E r M next:pr1nt:next

C008 ,C0 4C 19 Cl 78 A9 30 8D 94 KK 150 SYS49152:SYS49155,3,150 gk 470 fori=10to19:print"


CB10 :14 03 A9 C0 8D 15 03 5B BC ,10,50:REM OPEN WINDOW {3 spaces)";:forj=1to4:
C018 ;AD 21 D0 8D 3C Cl BD 12 Cl BF 160 GOSOB700:S¥S4915B:GOSUB print"line"strS(D" ";:
C020 :D0 AD 11 D0 29 7F 8D 11 18 700:REM PAUSE AND THEN next:print:next
C028 :D0 A9 81 8D 1A D0 5B 6S AA (SPACE)CLOSE WINDOW gc 480 getas:ifas-"[up]"then52
C030 :AD 19 D0 8D 19 D0 30 07 35 KB 170 POKE53250,40:POKE53251,
C038 ;AD BD DC 5B 4C 31 EA AD 9F 120:REM SPR1 X POSITION ff 490 ifas="(down)"then540
C040 :12 D0 CD 35 03 D0 0B A4 Al , SPR1 Y POSITION pj 500 ifaso"o"then4b0
C04B :02 8C 21 D0 AD 35 03 4C 83 X5 180 POKE53254,10:POKE53255, EF 510 GOTO560
C050 :5B C0 AC 3C Cl BC 21 DO 5C SF 520 VX*VX-8:IFVX<89THENVX=8
120IREM SPR3 X POSITION
C05B iAD 34 03 SD 12 D0 4C BC 20
, SPR3 Y POSITION 9
C060 iFE A9 FA 8D 34 03 A9 01 06
GM 530 POKE820,VX:POKE821,VX+9
CH 190 PRINTVS(12)TAB[5)"
C06B :8D 35 03 20 73 00 20 8A C6
(B SPACES}RASTER MASTER :GOTO480
C070 :AD 20 F7 B7 C0 10 B0 3F 32
{9 SPACES}" XC 540 VX=VX+B:IFVX>233THENVX=
C07B :S4 02 20 FD AE 20 8A AD 59
RM 200 SYS49155,6,12*8+54,10,5 233
C0B0 : 20 F7 B7 8C 34 03 8C 3 5 CB
0:GOSUB700:SYS49158:GOS SQ 550 POKE820,VX:POKE821,VX+9
C088 :03 EA 20 00
79 F0 2D C9 C9
UB700 :GOTO4B0
C090 ;2C D0 F7 20 73 00 20 8A C3
RX 210 POKE53248+21,0:REM DISA BD 560 SYS49L5B:GOSUB700:SYS49
C098 :AD 20 F7 B7 8C 39 Cl 20 60
BLE ALL SPRITES 161:POKE53281,0:SYS4915
C0A0 ;79 00 F0 ID C9 2C D0 F7 67
GQ 220 PRINT"(CLR)"VS(B)TAB{7) 2:POKE820,250:POKE821,1
C0A8 :20 73 00 20 8A AD 20 F7 5C
C0B0 ;B7 8C 3A Cl 4C C6 C0 A2 36 "FANTASTIC PRESENTATION BE 570 PRINT"{CLR)[CYN)YOU CAN
C0B8 :05 6C 00 03 A9 FF 8D 39 A9 S"VS!10)TAB(14)"FOR ALL VARY SPEED AND COLOR"
C0C0 :C1 A9 IE 8D 3A Cl EA A9 82 YOUR" RP 580 A=40:PORI-1TO7:A=A-5:5Y
C0C8 :0O 8D 3B Cl 20 2B Cl AD 10 BQ 230 PRINTVS(12)TAB(21)"PROG S49155,1NT(RND(1)*7)*7,
C0D0 134 03 F0 03 CE 34 03 AD 76 RAMS" 90,15,A
C0D8 135 03 C9 FF B0 03 EE 35 93 BH 240 SYS49155,11,12*8+42,50, CG 590 SYS4915B:GOSUB700:NEXT:
C0E0 :03 EE 3B Cl AD 3B Cl CD CE 20:GOSUB7 00:GOSUB700 POKE53280,0:POKE53281,a
C0E8 :39 Cl B0 i.2 C9 FF F0 0E EC BM 250 PRINTVS(9)TAB(7)"{4>ALL :POKE820,250:POKE821,1
C0F0 :AD 34 03 C9 00 D0 D5 AD EF CREATED"VS(11)TAD(14)" DK 600 POKE53248+21,15
C0F8 :35 03 C9 FF 90 CE 60 20 AF WITH THE HELP" SA 610 PRINT"{CLR)"VS(10)TAB(6
C100 :26 Cl EE 34 03 AD 34 03 E4 XM 260 PRINTVS(13)TAB(21)"OF R )"{RED}QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ
C108 ;CD 35 03 F0 BB CE 3 5 03 30 ASTER MASTER" QQQQOQOQQQ"
C110 :AD 35 03 CD 34 03 D0 E7 2C DF 270 SYS49158:GOStJB7H0:GOSUB EC 620 FORI=11TO13:PRINTVS(I)T
C118 :60 A9 00 8D 1A D0 78 A9 BD 700 AB(6)"Q"TAB(31)"Q":NEXT
C120 :EA 8D 15 03 A3 31 8D 14 90 CA 2B0 POKE532B0,0:PRINT"(CLR} FQ 630 PRINTVS(14)TAB(6)"(RED)
C128 :03 58 60 A0 00 A2 FF CA AE ":FORTT=1TO3 OOOQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQOQQOQ
C130 :D0 FD C8 CC 3A Cl 90 F5 71 KA 290 PRINTVSI8)"(3 SPACES} QQQ"
C138 :60 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 EB {BLKlTHIS IS THE CM 640 PRINTVS(12)TAB[10)"
(13 SPACRS)"VS(10)TAB(7 {BLK} (R)ESTART OR (E)ND
)"MIXUP EFFECT" {CYfJ)"
Raster Master Demo EA 300 PRINTVS(12)TAB(12)"MIXI FJ 650 SYS49155,3,150,10,100:G
HQ 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1990 COMPU NG SCREEN TEXT..." OSUB700
TE! PUBLICATIONS, INC. - GS 310 POKE820,250:POKF.821,1:S PD 660 GETAS:SYS4915B:IFAS=""T
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED YS49L55,6,12*8t50,50,lO HEN640
HQ 20 GOSUB710:REM GO SET UP C :GOSUB700 CE 670 IFAS»"R"THENSYS49161:RU
OVER-UP SPRITES CP 320 PRINTVS(7)"{3 SPACES) N
FM 38 IF PEEK(49L52)O76 THEN (BLU)SEE HOW THIS"VS(9) SS 6B0 rFAS<>"E"TH£N640
{SPACE}LOAD"RASTER.ML",8 TAB(7)"TEXT APPEARS AS" XQ 690 SYS49161:PRINT"{CLR)
.1 AR 330 PRINTVS(15)TAB(12)"THE {CYN}":END
PX 40 SYS49161:REM DISABLE ROU [SPACE}OTHER DISAPPEARS QH 700 FORDY»1TOS00:NEXT:RETUR
TINE IN CASE IT'S ACTIVE N
AP 50 DIMVSI25):VS(0)="{HOME)" JK 340 SYS49158:NEXT RA 710 FORI-832TOI+63:POKEI,25
:FORI = 1TO2 4:.VS (I) »VS(I-1 RX 350 GOSUB700:GOSUB700 5:NEXT:REM DEFINE SOLID
)+"{DOWN)":NEXT:POKE 5328 RC 360 PRINT"{CLR)<8fTHIS IS T BLOCK SPRITE
0,0 HE CURTAIN EFFECT(BLK}" KE 720 POKE5324B+23,255:POKE53
DF 60 REM CREATE 1-LINE WINDOW MQ 370 FORI=2TO22:PRINTVS(I)TA 24B+29,255:REM EXPAND A
OFFSCREEN TO PREVENT SC B(9)"COMPUTE!'S GAZETTE LL SPRITES IN X AND Y D
REEN FLASHES ":NEXT IRECT.
FF 70 POKE820,250:REM PLACE WI EE 380 POKE820,250:POKE821,1:S GE 730 POKE53248+27,255:REM SE
NDOW Y-COORDINATE IN 820 YS49155,15,250,2O0,20:G T SPRITE PRIORITY OVER
CJ 80 POKE821,1:REM ASSIGN NUM OSUB700:GOSUB700 {SPACE}FOREGRD COLOR
BER OF LIMES (1) IN WIND HS 390 PRINT"{!IOME) (37 SPACES) SS 740 FORI'5324B+39TOI+7:POKE
OW IN 821 I,0:NEXT:REM SET ALL SP
RM 90 REM POSITION COVER-UP SP BE 400 SYS49158:PRINT"{CLR)":S RITES TO BACKGROUND COL
RITES ON EITHER SIDE OF YS49161 OR
{SPACE}WIHDOW TO SIMULAT CK 410 POKEB20,250:POKE821,1:P EA 750 FORI=2040TO2047:POKEI,1
E MARGINS OKE53280,6:POKE 53281,6: 3:NEXT:REM SET POINTERS
HB 100 POKE53248,10:POKE53249, SYS49152 TO SPRITE DEFINITION D
120:REM SPRITE0 X POSIT QR 420 EYS49155,2,B9,1,50:VX=8 ATA
ION, SPRITE0 Y POSITION 9:POKE8 2 0,VX:POKEB21,VX QG 760 FORI=53248TOI+15:POKEI,
MP 110 POKE53252,40:POKE53253, +9 0:NEXT:REM LOCATE ALL S
120IREM SPR2 X POSITION JG 430 PRINT"iCLRH7>CREATE A PRITES AT 0,0
, SPR2 Y POSITION [SPACE)MENU OR SELECTOR BG 770 RETURN 6
COMPUTE'S Gazarto March 1990 65
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13 of Gazette's Best Programs
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Super Printer Driver—near lascr-qimlily printing for


Epson, Star, and compatible dot-matrix printers
Sked—outstanding arcadc-style game that runs as a GliOS YES! Send me copies of
desk accessory The GEOS Collection. I've enclosed SI 1.95
File Saver—run most any 64 program from GEOS (including shipping and handling) for each copy.
Ht!p Pad—fast, easy online help via menu
Name .
Word Count—quick, easy-to-use tool that counts words in
any geoWrile text file Address
Directory Printer—get complete GEOS directory printouts,
City State ZN»
including file size, author name, and even file comments
Quick Clock—large, readable clock and improved user Amount
interface
Sales Tan*
SlldcShow—create and display impressive slide
presentations Total
Flit Retriever—recover GEOS and standard Commodore
files; compatible with any Commodore drive or REU Mail personal check or money order for $11.95* lo
Screen Dumper—desk accessory that Ids you dump screens The GEOS Collection Disk
10 any printer P.O. Box 5188
Fonl Grabber—instantly turn your favorite Commodore Greensboro, NC 27403
character seis into GEOS fonts
GeoPuzzle—intriguing, multidimensional brainteaser 'RfllldcDtl of New York. Penniylwifl, and Norlll CftTOllna utld apprnpnrm1
lilies i.n fur your sinle. All ordrr* mint be paid in U.S. funds l>y a dicck
GeoConverter—write GEOS applications with your favorite [irjivn on 1 UK hank Plcasi' allow 4-f* weeks fur delivery. Per delivery
Commodore assembler oucftide the U.S. or Panada, .idd 11 for surface mail or 1.1 (or airmail
machine language
VSR and Floating Point
Jim Butterfield using the locations shown below. highest bit in the mantissa (which
would always normally be on).
Commodore 64: 785,786
Programs on Commodore 8-bit com Let's consider a short example for
Plus/4 and C16: 812,813
puters normally reside within a BASIC the Commodore 64. The BASIC pro
Commodore 128: 4633,4634 (bank 0)
operating system. To run a machine gram at the end of this column contains
language (ML) program, BASIC must USR passes its parameter from a machine language routine which tests
call it. The ML program often runs as a BASIC to machine language, and vice to see if the value supplied to it is 10 or
subroutine. When it has finished, con versa, using the floating-point accumu greater. If the value is too high, it's re
trol returns to BASIC, which continues lator found at the following locations: placed with 10; otherwise, it's left alone.
running a program or, if no program is The program POKEs the machine code
active, prints the READY prompt. C64, Plus/4, C16: 97-99 below into the cassette buffer and then
BASIC and machine language can Commodore 128: 99-104 accesses the USR command.
work together in splendid symbiosis, (all banks)
08BC LDA $61 ;check exponent for
each doing what it does best. This is a A
U
feature of these machines; high-end Floating-Point Format
08BE BEQ S08ED
computers don't have BASIC resident Numbers are stored in the floating
08C0 CMP #$84 ;rtow, for 10
in the system, and more work is neces point accumulator in floating-point for-
exponent
sary to graft together two languages. mat. The first byte contains the exponent
08C2 BEQ S08DA ;if OK, check
The most common way to call ma of the number; the next four bytes con
mantissa
chine language from BASIC is with the tain its mantissa. If the exponent is 0,
08C4 BCC SOBEO ;lf less than 10, exit
SYS command. This is a subroutine then Ihe whole number is 0; if the expo
D8C6 LDA #SB4 ;else, slore exponent
call, and the ML may return to BASIC nent is not 0, then it determines where
08C8 STA $61
with a simple RTS (ReTurn from Sub the binary point is placed in the mantis
08CA LDA #SA0 ;and mantissa for 10
routine) instruction. There is another sa. The mantissa multiplied by 2 raised
08CC STA S62
method which uses the USR() function. to the value of the exponent gives you
08CE LDA #S00
the value in the floating-point accumu
0BD0 STA S63
A SYS Substitute lator. Finally, the last byte contains the
0BD2 STA S64
USR is a function like RND or SQR. As sign. If the high bit is set, the number is
0SD4 STA $65
such, it must be followed by a numeric negative.
08D6 STA $66
argument in parentheses, for example, An example would be useful here.
08D8 BEQ $08E0 ;and exit
X=USR(123). You can see from this How would we write the decimal value
0SDA LDA $62 ;chcck mantissa
that the USR function is supplied with a 10 in floating-point format? First, con
08DC CMP #$A0 ;if too high, set to
value (in this case, 123) and delivers a vert the number to binary: 1010.000.
10
result (in this case, assigned to variable Then pack this value into the four-byte
08DE BCS S08C6
X). Only one number is passed each mantissa area so that the high bit is in
OSEO RTS
way; USR can't directly handle two- the high position. The first byte be
valued operations such as add or com comes 10100000; the remaining three This program works nicely. You'll
pare. But, because of the parameters bytes are 0. Now, the binary point is see the second number on each line re
that it can pass, USR can be quite handy four positions into that first byte. So the peat the first one until the value 10 is
as a substitute for SYS. exponent, which is always offset by exceeded. After that, the second value
Although USR passes a number to $80, becomes $84. Finally, the sign bit remains at this limit.
the subroutine and accepts a value is 0 for a positive number. The resulting But wait! There's a logic error in the
back, you don't have to use either val hexadecimal value for 10 in floating program. It tests only the value and not
ue. The machine language program can point format is 84 A0 00 00 00 00. the sign. A negative value might not
ignore the value that was supplied. And To read a floating-point number, produce the desired result for the USR
BASIC can ignore the return value, al you would reverse the process, writing function. Try it out. And if you feel up
though it will have to use it temporar out bits in the mantissa and then plac to it, modify the program to allow for
ily. In the above example, the return ing the binary point. Within a program, the negative-value situation.
value is set to X, but the BASIC program you would likely perform a series of
10 DATA 165,97,240,32,201,132,
could proceed without ever using vari shift/rotates to move the mantissa bits
240,22,144,26,169,132,133
able X again. Incidentally, if the ma into the proper position. It's important
20 DATA 9.7,169,160,133,98,169,
chine language program doesn't to note that floating-point numbers that 0,133,99,133,103,133,101
change Ihe value supplied as part of the you give back to the system should be 30 DATA 133,102,240,6,165,9B,2
call, the same value will be returned. normalized—that is, the most signifi 01,163,176,230,96
Thus, if the USR routine contained only cant bit must be shifted until it occupies 40 FOR J=82B TO 864:READ X:T-T
+X:POKE J,X:NEXT J
a RTS (return) instruction, PRINT USR the high-bit position of the mantissa.
50 IF TO4B65 THEN STOP
(77) would print 77. Floating-point values stored in
60 POKE795,60:POKE786,3:REM PO
How does USR know where to find variables or arrays occupy five bytes INT USR TO ML
the machine language subroutine? Its rather than six. The trick here is to take 70 FOR K-5 TO 15:PRINT K;USR[K
address is placed in the USR vector the sign bit and use it to replace the ):NEXT K 6

68 COMPUTE'S Gazette March 1990


ADVERTISERS INDEX

Raadar Service Kumb*r/Adv*rtiur P»H»

117 American Micro Supplies 3


102ARTIsoft 66
157 Berkeley Softworks BC
Brantford Educational Services 50
123 Briwall 40-41
Brown Soxes, Inc 66
107 Computer Craftware 66
199 Computer Direct, Inc 58
• Several readers have had trouble write-protected disks. Disk Inventory
196 Creative Micro Designs, Inc. .. 9
using Disk Doubter (August 1989) wilh detects whether or not a disk is in the
187 Damark International, Inc 51
their 64s. If you have experienced prob drive by watching the write-protcct in
128 Financial Services Marketing dicator. When a disk which isn't write-
lems with this program, you may wish
Corp 57 to read "Double Trouble" in the De- protected is inserted into the drive, the
197 Gemini Marketing, Inc 17 cember 1989 installment of write-protect indicator contains a value
112 Gosselin Computer Consultants 66 "Feedback." of 16; this indicator contains the value 0
108 The Grapevine Group .... 66 Many users have complained that when a disk is write-protected. When
186 iht Software 67 Disk Doubhr often stops with an error in you remove a disk from the drive, the
159 Jacobsen Software Designs ... 67 line 370. This line attempts to write the indicator changes to 0 as you pull the
new BAM to the side of the disk that it disk out and then changes back to 16
161 Keystone Software 66
just formatted. If the format was unsuc once the disk is clear of the drive. When
129 Lyco Computer 21
cessful, the program breaks with an er you place a disk that isn't write-protected
Montgomery Grant 25
ror. If you attempt to format the disk into the drive, the write-protect indica
185 Northern Star Software 67 tor changes to 0 as you insert the disk
once again, Disk Doubter says that the
NRI Schools 5 disk is already double-sided and re and then changes back to 16 once the
192 PA V.Y, Software 3 fuses to format it. The following modifi disk is all the way in.
183 Paradise Software 67 cations cause Disk Doubter to ask Disk Inventory's problem occurs
111 Practical Programs 66 whether you want to quit or format the when the disk you insert into the drive
195 Precision Images 46 disk anyway when this happens. is write-protected. In that case, the
160 Prof-Jones Inc 66 write-protect indicator never changes
510 PRINT"fRVS)DISK IS ALREADV
193 Ramco Computer Supplies ... 17 back to 16 when the disk is all the way
D0UHLE-SIDED":PRINT"(RVS}C
in the drive. To circumvent this prob
110 RIO Datel Computers 2 {OFFjONTINOE OB (RVSlQ(OFF)
(JIT? "; lem, the program counts as it waits for
Schnedler Systems 39
520 getk$:ifkso"c"andks<>"'c"a the indicator to change to 16. !f the
119 The Soft Group 6 nfikSO"q"andkso"q"thf:n52 3 counter exceeds 50, then the program
124 Software Discounters 530 printk5: ifk3 = "c"orks="c"ti! assumes the disk is write-protected and
of America 34-35 EN 190
tries to read it. The following lines im
543 CLOSE5:CLOSE15:RETIJRN
SOGMP Software 66 plement this counter.
104 Software Support International . 31 These changes are useful if you want to
390 CT=0:REM FULLY INSERTED?
Strategic Simulations, Inc. ... IFC try to format the disk several times
391 GF.TWS: IFWSO""THEN480
18BTRIT0N/Mediagenic IBC before giving up. They also enable you 392 PR I NT 415,"M-R"CURS(30)CURS
139 Utilities Unlimited, Inc 61 to destroy the second side of a disk that (0)
is already double-sided, so be careful. 395 GETil5,2S:IFZS-""THENZS«CH
126 Weaselgraphics 66 R$(3)

• Disk Inventory {December 1989) loses 394 CT=CT+l;IFftSC(ZS)=0ANDCT<5


0THEN391
Best of '88 Gazette Disk 71 track of the first file that it reads from
Classified Ads 70 the first disk. To correct this problem, If you find that the program at
COMPUTE! Books 78 change the 0 in line 150 to a 1. tempts to read the disk too quickly, you
COMPUTED Gazette Disk 13 can increase the 50 in line 394.
153 DIMR$(50G):CURRENT=1
COMPUTED SpeedScript Disk... 46
Gazette Back Issues 77 A second problem with Disk Inven • Crafix Converter (June 1989) doesn't
tor}/ is that it locks up while reading convert Micro Illustrator files correctly.
Gazette Disk Library 4
some disks. The program currently de MiCTO Illustrator files may be saved in
The GEOS Collection 67
termines when there are no more file- either a compressed or an uncom
names to read from a disk by the pressed format. Crafix Converter con
presence of the BLOCKS FREE message verts to the uncompressed format but it
at the end of the directory listing. In doesn't write the header to tell Micro

Give.
rare instances, this message may be po Illustrator that the file is uncompressed.
sitioned so that Disk Inventory doesn't To correct this problem, change line
see it. The following changes to lines 870 and add line 1390 as follows:
250 and 260 correct this problem.

250 GET#1,X5:S=ST:IFX5OCHRS{3 870 PRINT"K/I FILE INFO...":FO


R R=LTO20:READD:PRINT*2,CHR
American Heart 4)ANDS=3THEN250
S(D);:NEXTR
269 NS = "":IFSO0THEM35G
Association 1390 DATA 255,128,105,103,20,0
A third problem with Disk Inven ,0,232, 3,232,3,64 ,31,1,0,40
tory has to do with reading files on ,0,200,0,0 B

COMPUTE!'* Gazette March 1990 69


Classified
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1989 Fed Taxes (8-schds/12-forms) $44
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