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Zahra Inayat

Narrativetheory/structure

TodorovTheory:
Todorovinventedthenarrativetheory/structure.Hebelieves
thatforafilmtobesuccessfulorwellputtogetherithas
toinclude5stages.Theseinclude:Equilibrium,Disruption,
Recognition,AttempttoRepairandNewEquilibrium.

1.TheEquilibrium
Thisisthepartofthefilmwhereeverythingisneutral.
Everythingisbalancedandthereisnoproblemsthatthe
audiencecanvisuallyseeorareawareof.Generallythemoods
atthissettimearehappy,peacefulandenjoyable.Oftenfilm
includehappyorexcitingmusicwhichbringsupthemoodas
wellascreatesasenseofnormality.

2.TheDisruption
Thelevelofhappinessstartstochange.Theaudience,atthis
point,starttoseethechange.Aneventhappenswhichcauses
thischangetohappenanditseemstotheaudiencethatthe
remainingofthefilmwillbefocusedontryingtosolvethis
problem.Thisusuallytakesupthebulkofthemovie.

3.TheRecognition
Thisisthepointofthefilmwherethecharactersofthefilm
begintonoticethechangeandacharacter(usuallythe
protagonist)willattempttofixtheproblemafterseveral
attempts.Thisisagoalwhichisnormallyweavedthroughthe
filmandiseventuallyreachedtowardstheendofthefilm.

4.AttempttoRepair
Attempttorepairincludesthecharacterscomingtogetherto
resolvethesituationandtrytoachievetheequilibriumstage
again.Theyworkasateam/grouptoresolvetheproblemas
theyallwantthebestforthefuture.Thisisgenerallythe
partwherebytheaudienceseeagoodvsevilscene
happening.
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5.NewEquilibrium
Theproblemhasfinallybeenfixed.Thehappyandpeaceful
moodwhichwaspresentatthestartofthefilm(Equilibrium)
hasreturned.Thisisthepartofthefilmwhenallthegood
peopleachievetheirgoalandthebadpeople/personisleft
tosufferandfacetheconsequences.

HowdoesTodorovstheoryfitinourproduction?
OurproductiondoesnotstartwithEquilibrium,thisisdueto
thefactthatitstartswithHannahwakingupintheforest.
Thisisnotahappyscenetobeginwith.Wehavechosento
startourproductioninthiswaybecauseitcreatestensionas
wellasshowstheaudiencethatourproductioninuniquein
thefactthatitstartsinadifferentwaytomost
productions.ThisallowstheaudiencetoseeHannahandthe
statethatsheisinsotheycan,later,connecttothe
character(Hannah)whensheendsupintrouble.
Disruption:
AsHannahgetsupfromthegroundandtriestofindherway
aroundortofindherwayout,theaudienceknowsomethingbad
isgoingtohappen.Thecamerashotsoftheprotagonistgive
theaudienceaclearindicationastothefactthatsomething
badisgoingtohappene.g.severalcloseupshotsareused.
Thesenseoftensioniscreatedbyfacialexpressions,the
costumesaswellasthedifferentcameraanglesandshots
whichareusedthroughouttheremainingofoursequence.The
audiencearemostlikelytonowbeawarethattheremainingof
theopeningsequencewillfocusontheeventthatiscurrently
beingshown(Hannahrunningthroughtheforest).

RolandBarthes
RolandBartheswasaFrenchliteraryphilosopher.Hebelieved
asimilarideatoTodorov,whichincludedthefactthata
narrativehadtobesplitinto5differentcodes.Thesewere
usedtoevaluatethedifferentdimensionsofrealism.
1. TheHermeneuticcode(HER):
Thisisastory,whichhasnoexplanation,leavingthe
audiencecluelessaswellasguessingastowhatisgoingto
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happenthroughoutthefilm.Thisisdonebynotrevealingany
factsorinformation.Thiscodeisfrequentlybeingusedasit
makestheaudienceseagertoknowwhatisgoingtohappen,as
theyarelikelytofindoutwhathappenstowardstheend,when
thehiddenfeatureormemoryisrevealed.
2. TheProaireticcode(ACT):
Usedtocreatetensionandgivesanimpressiontotheaudience
thatsomethingbadisgoingtohappen.Atthispoint,the
audiencearestillunawareofwhatisgoingtohappen.
3. TheSemanticcode(SEM):
Thiscodeshowsanelementinthesequencethatsuggestsa
particularandoftenadditionalconnotation.
4. TheSymboliccode(SYM):
ThisissimilartotheSemanticcodeinthefactthatthey
bothfocusonstudyingconnotations.Symboliccodeallowsthe
directortodevelopmoreidease.g.conflictandopposition.
5. TheCulturalcode:
Thiscodelooksattheaudiencesculturalknowledge,morality
andideology.

HowdoesRolandBarthestheoryfitinourproduction?
BoththeHermeneuticcode(HER)andtheProaireticcode(ACT)
relatetoouropeningsequence.
Hermeneuticcode:
OuropeningsequencebeginswiththeHermeneuticcode(HER).
Thisisshownattheverystartofoursequenceasthe
audienceseeHannahinahorriblestateandareconfusedasto
whysheisinthisstate.Assheisgettingupbecausesheis
unawareofwhatishappening,theaudiencegetmoreofanidea
thatsheisintrouble.Ourgrouphasmadesurethatwedonot
giveawayanyfactsorinformationtoinformtheaudienceof
whatishappening;weleaveittothemtoguess.
Proaireticcode:
TheopeningsequencealsoincludestheProaireticcode(ACT).
ThisisusedwhenHannahrealisesthatsheisnottheonlyone
intheforestandthatsheisabouttogetchasedbyan
unusualcreature.Thisshowstheaudiencethatsheisnotsafe
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intheforestandsheisnotasawareassheshouldbeasto
whatisgoingtohappenifshedoesnotfindawayoutofthe
forest.