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!

The
Workbench
POPULAR ELECTRONICS _

ELECTRONIC - ' . . . . . . .

EXPERIMENTER'S
D=O&~[Q)[ID@@[Z1983
TOOLS & EQUIPMENT FOR ELECTRONIC WORKBENCHES _. _. _.. .. _. _. ..... _. .. .. . . . . ... .. .... . . . . ... . .... John McVeigh 3
HIGH-PERFORMANCE "SCRATCH & RUMBLE" FILTEAS .... . ........ . ...... ...... ..... . .. . ... . . .. ... . .... John H. Roberts 15
' METER . . ........ . . .. . . . . . . . . .. ......... . . . . . . . . . .. ..... .. Rush W. Hood
CHECK YOUR HEAT LOSS WITH A DEGREE-DAY 21
EXTRA KEYBOARDS FOR MICROCOMPUTERS .. . . . . .. .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . .. . .. .. . ... . . . ... . . ... .. Adolph A. Mangieri 26
A LOW-COST 16-LED LOGIC MONITOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tom Kronef'lwetter 29
BUILD A VOCAL "TRUTH" ANALYZER . . . . . . . . .............. . . ...... . ...... . ...... . ...... .. . Colleen McNeice & Roger Cota 32
EXPERIMENTING WITH A SOUND-EFFECTS GENERATOR . ... . ........... .. .. . . . .. . . . . ....... . .... . ..... . ... Frank I. Gilpin 39
ACCURATE WAYS TO MEASURE IN-CIRCUIT RESISTANCES ... . . . . .. . ... . ... . .. .... .. ... .. . Frank Witmer & Diane Jasinksi 44
BUILD AN INFRA-RED ROAD ICING ALERT . . . ... . . .. . . . . .. . .. .. .. . . . . . . .. ... . . . .. .. .. ... . . . .. ... . . . . ..... Thomas R. Fox 47
ACTIVE FILTER IMPROVES MORSE CODE READABILITY .. .. . . .. . . . . ... .. . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . ... .. . . ... . . . . .. . ... Lou Dezettel 51
BUILD A MOTION-DETECTOR ALARM . . . ... . . . . . ....... . . . . .... .. . . . .... . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . ............ . . . . Walter Gontowski 56
ADD A " KEY-DOWN" AUDIBLE SIGNAL TO YOUR COMPUTER . ............ . . .. . . ........ . ..... . . ...... ...... Roy Auer, Jr. 65
AN EXPERIMENTER'S GUIDE TO RELAY CONTROL ............. . .. . . .. . .. .. .. . . ... . . .. .. . . . ...... . . ........... AI Sydnor 67
WAH-WAH FOOT PEDAL .............. . ............... . ... ... ....... . ...... . . . .. . . . ....... . .. . . ... .. . . .. ... Fred Puccetti 72
DIGITALLY PROGRAMMED VARMINT ZAPPER . . .. .. . ... . . .. . ... .... ... . .... . . . . ... . . . .... . . . .... . . . . .. ... . . . Fritz Mueller 76
A LOW-COST A/D CONVERTER .... . ... .. ......... . . .. ..... . .. . . ... .. .. . . . . . .. .. .. . . . .. .. . .... . . . . ... ..... Sami A. Shakir 79
BUILD A METAL LOCATOR .. . . . .... . .. . . . ....... . .. . . . . .. . . . ... .. .. . . . . . . . ... . .. .. . . .. . . . . . ...... ... . . . . . Robert Krieger 82
BUILD A PERSONAL RADIATION MONITOR . . ... .... , . . ... ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .... J. Steidley, M. Nakashian & G. Entine 87
BUILD A PHOTO DARKROOM Slr-IK SENTINEL . .... ...................... . .... . .... . .......... ... . . . . . . ..... Frank I. Gilpin 92
HOW TO ADD TRIGGERED SWEEP TO AN OSCILLOSCOPE ........ .................. . . . ........... . . ... ... . David A. Israel 98
A 3-WAY DRIVE SYSTEM FOR SPEAKERS . ....... ... . ... ..... ... . .......... . ...... ... .. . . . . . ........ .... . J.F.P. Marchand 102
SPECIAL COUNTER CIRCUITS FOR EXPERIMENTERS . . . . . .. . . . . ... .. . . . . . .... . . . ... . . ...... .. ....... . .. Patrick J. Delaney 107
MEASURING LARGE CURRENTS WITH A DMM ........ . ... . . .... . . . . . . . ... . .... . .... ..... . . ... . . . . . . .. . .. Robert H. Johns 111
TROUBLESHOOTING PHASE-LOCKED-LOOP CIRCUITS . . . . . . . . . . ... . .. . . . . . .. . . .... . . . . .... . .... . . . . ... .. .. Harold Kinley 114
BUILD AN AUTOMOBILE WINDSHIELD WIPER CONTROLLER . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . ..... .. ...... . ..... . . . ... . ... William Kraengel 118
INEXPENSIVE AUTO BATTERY TESTER . . . . ... . ... . . ... . . . . .. ............ . ................... . ... . . . . .. . . ... . Hank Olson 121
HOW FAR DID YOU CYCLE TODAY? ....... . . .. ... ... ... . .... ..... . ........... . ........ . ... .. . . . ... . ....... Arthur V. Clark 123

ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK is published annually by Ziff-Davis Publishing Company at One Park Avenue
New York, New York 1001 6. Richard P. Friese, President; Furman Hebb, Executive Vice-President; Selwyn Taubman, treasurer; Bertram A. Abrams, Secretary

COPYR I G HT~ 1982 BY ZIFF-DAVIS PUBLI SHING COMPANY. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

PERMISSIONS: Material in this publication may not be reproduced in any form without permission. Requests for permission should be directed to
John Babcock, Rights & Permissions, Ziff-Davis Publishing Company, One Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016.

The publisher has no knowledge of any proprietary rights which will be violated by the making or using of any items disclosed in this Handbook.

ARTHUR P. SALSBERG, Editorial Director ALEXANDER W. BURAWA, Managing Editor


EDWARD I. BUXBAUM, Art Director ANDRE DUZANT, Technical Illustrator
JOSEPH E. MESICS, Publisher RtCHARD GOVATSKI, Advertising Director

1983 EDITION

)
4!!11!101 ZIFF-DAVIS PUBLISHING COMPANY

APPLI President
RICHARD P. FRIESE

President, Consumer Magazine Division

FBIAIS! ALBERT S. TRAINA


Executive Vice President
FURMAN HEBB
Here's the book Senior Vice Presidents
you've been looking for! PHILLIP T. HEFFERNAN
SIDNEY HOLTZ .
a&;R!k>...,.
.. EDWARD D. MUHLFELD
PHILIP .SINE

TilE Vice Presidents


GP6Mive ROBERT BAVIER
PAUL H. CHOOK
APPLE BAIRD DAVIS
GEORGE MORRISSEY
~

.......
-1-- - _.~ Vice President, Annuals
,-.......-.\ JERRY SCHNEIDER

Treasurer
SELWYN TAUBMAN

Secretary
BERTRAM A. ABRAMS

THE COVER

THE CREATIVE APPLE


The Creative Apple brings you 450 pages of the Editorial and Executive Offices
Personal computing has become one of One Park Avenue
best articles and features on the Apple to appear
in the past four years of. Creative Computing. Re the most popular of electronic New York, NY 10016
vised and updated, this wealth of material gives 212-725-3500
hobbyist/experimenter pursuits.
you dozens of ways to tap the treq1endous poten-
tial of your Apple, improve your programming Among the various items required to Publisher
skills, and expand your computing knowledge. Joseph E. Mesics
Graphic utilities, animation, digitized images, make a personal computer into a practi- 212-725-3568
music editing, educational software and applica- cal reality for the hobbyist is the Heath
tions, telecomputing, home control systems, Visi- New York Office
Calc and many other timely topics are thoroughly No. H-88-5 cassette input/output (110) Advertising Manager:
examined and discussed. Ready-to-run programs interface assembly shown on the cover. Richard Govatski (725-7 460)
give you immediate use of this informative and
stimulating collection, while a chapter on tips and Designed to plug directly into the Heath Eastern Advertising Representatives:
tricks for easier programming lets you unlock the Tom Ballou (725-3578)
versatility of the Apple computer-and your own Model H-89 all-in-one microcomputer
Ken Lipka (725-3580)
resourcefulness. (supplied in kit form), this assembly
Whether for business, personal budgeting, the
thrill of computer games or the development of provides an inexpensive means for Midwestern Office
educational applications, you'll find plenty here to Suite 1400, 180 N. Michigan Avenue
loading prepackaged programs (soft- Chicago, IL 60601 (312-346-2600)
help you get the most out of your Apple.
The Creati ve Apple; edited by Mark Pelczarsk:i ware) into the computer from, and sav- Sales: Bob Vanek
and Joe Tate. 8Yz" x ll", softcover, 450 pages, ing locally generated programs on, tape
illustrated. $15.95. Western Office
Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. using an ordinary low-cost audio cas- 3460 Wilshire Boulevard
Los Angeles, CA 90010 (213-387 -21 00)
rG~ati V(;(';OrltJHl ti l'-J..! Dept. N-;;; l sette recorder/player. Heath and most Sales: Ted Welch
39 East Hanover Ave nue, Morris Plains, NJ 07950 other manufacturers offer special cir-
Please send me copies of Creative Apple at Representation in Japan
$15.95 each plus $2 pcstage and handling. # 18R cuit board assemblies designed to plug J.S. Yagi ,
All foreign orders (except Canada and M exico) add $3 to into their computer buses and provide a lwai Trading Company, Ltd.
regular postage and handling charge. Shipped airmail 603 Ginza Sky Heights Building
only. means for experimenting with user-de- 18-13, Ginza 7-Chome
NJ residents add 5% sales tax
Tokyo, Japan 104
B PAYMENT ENCLOSED$_ _ _ __
CHARGE MY:
_
signed or published circuits, such as
vocalizers, fire and security alarms, en-
Telephone: (03)588-0165, 545-3908
0 American Express 0 MasterCard 0 Visa
vironment (cooling and heating) and

;:0:: .
Card No._ _ __ _ __ ___LXp. Date _ _ __
Signature _ _ __ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ lighting control, etc.
~
Mr./Mrs./M s. - --,(p;;;:lea
=seCOp::C 1"-
nn;:;- ru"n :n::a:;;:
m::;e)_ _ _ _ __ "" ' Member Audit Bureau
of C 1rc ul atio.1S
~
Address _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __Apt. _

City _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ COVER PHOTO: Barbara & Justin Kerr

State tp _ _ _ _ __ _ 1983 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK is


for faster service, PHONE TOLL FREE: 800-63!-8112 published annually by the Ziff-Davis Publishing Compa-
(In NJ call201-540-0445) ny. One Park Avenue. New York. NY 1001 6. Also pub-

'L _ :::== institutions only-


~e~n~$~o_::c~e~ _ J
lishers of Computers & Electronics (fqrmerly Popular
Electronics). Invitation To Electronics, Stereo Review,
Tape Recording & Buying Guide, Stereo Buyers G~ide .

2 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


BY JOHN McVEIGH

"A craftsman is only as good as the tools possesses have a direct beanng on which
with which he works" is as true in the areas of personal electronics he will be
field of hobby electronics as any other. able to explore.
Tools are no substitute for knowledge, of In this editorial focus, we discuss how
course, but lacking key it~ms or using an electronics workbench should be set
improper ones can put severe limitations up and consider several factors that
on an experimenter~s activities. should be taken into account in deciding
The type and variety of tools and test what items you need for your workbench
equipment that an electronics hobbyist as related to your electronics interest.

for maximum user comfort and safety, pair of wood saw horses can form the
and minimum fatigue. !(space availabil- nucleus of a fine workbench.
ity arid resources permit, the electron- In any event, the work area should be
ics .workbench should be just that and at least 24 inches (61 em) deep and 48
only that, because many projects inches (122 em) wide. Having a work
require more .t han just a day's work. area of that size or larger v.ill allow you
Thus, a partially assembled (or re- to spread out components, a schematic
paired) project can be ieft undisturbed drawin!;l or assembly manual, a chassis,
until th~ next time it is to be worked on. and tools, and still hal(e some elbow
In contrast, a wo rk area that serves room! A smaller work area will likely leE!d


double duty, as, say, a kitchen table, to crowding, fatig!Je, impatience and wir-
would cause gross inefficiency and ing errors.
frustrations. In this case, everything A highly desirable featur~ is having
would have to be periodically removed one or more shelves above the main
The Work Area


so that the "work area" could be !JSed work area. Such $helves allow one to
for its original purpose. mount frequently used test equipment (a
The fundamental requirement for an multimeter, oscilloscope, power supply,
The workbench is the one place above electronics workbench is that it provide etc.) within easy reach without perma-
all others where the el~ctronics buff a solid, flat, rugged, nonmetallic surface nently tieing up substantial portions of
p!Jrsues his hobby. It is there that he on which one can work. Of course, an limited work space.
takes a circuit idea 0 r description and a9tUE!I workbench - a structure specifi- The work area surface should be cov-
reduces it to a working rrodel. Since a cally designed and constructed for this ered with a ribbed rubber runner. This
serious hobbyist spendE' a substantial purpose-can be used. However, if runner will absorb punishment that would
amount of his special - i:~terest time at budgetary constraints rule this out, a otherwise damage an unprotected work
his workbench, it should be designed sheet of 112- or 314-inch plywood and a surface. Also, its ribbeq surface will pre-

1983 EDITION 3
vent hand tools, hardware, and small
components from rolling off the work-
bench and onto the floor.
Selecting a chair will largely be
influenced by the physical characteris-
tics of the workbench. The chair should
be high enough to put one's elbows at
the same level as the work area. If the
workbench is much higher than the aver-
&ge kitchen table, use of a common
kitchen-type chair would be inadvisable.
The ultimate in work chairs is a drafting
chair with adjustable seat height and
back support.

Lighting and Power. The area in


which the workbench is installed should
be well illuminated. If possible, the work-
bench should be directly below a ceiling
light fixture. Light from this fixture can be
supplemented with th&t from a lamp ori
the workbench. A compact high-intensi-
ty type will provide good spot illumina-
tion, but many experimenters prefer to
use a drafting lamp with an articulated
support aim, such as the Luxo Model
LS- 1 I A. This lamp ca'n accommodate a
100-watt incandescent bulb, has a 45-
inch adjustable arm, and includes a
clamp so that it can be mounted on the
edge of the workbench . For work on
~ densely packed circuit boards and com-
~ pact projects, a si~ilar lamp with an
~ illuminated magnifier is an invaluable aid .
g If the need for an illuminated magnifier
~ arises only occasionally, a less costly,
~u hand-held unit such as the GC Electron-
~ ics Model 22-282 is a good choice.
if
A well-planned electronics work area includes room
for the project, test equipment, and storage.
....
Use of pegboard and hooks
permits convenient
storage of tools.

Jleath Afodel lllJ1274


power distribution strip.

4
ELECTRONIC EXPEf>1IMENTER'S HANDBOOK
There should be a source of ac elec- inets can be stacked either vertically or scavenging purposes. Such items are
trical power near the workbench. The horizontally on shelving above the main usually much too large to fit in modular
bench should therefore be positioned work area. storage cabinets. A nearby closet that is
near at least two electrical wall outlets, After a few years, most electronics not being put to another use is ideal for

\
and a bench-mounted power distribution hobbyists build up a respectable "junk junk-box storage. If one is not available,
strip with a minimum of six sockets box" of discarded chassis, old projects, a wooden toy chest or a free-standing
shOuld be plugged into one of them. The etc ., which are kept around for parts metal cabinet will probably do.
strip will be used to channel power to
test equipment, lamps, soldering tool,
etc. Choose a strip with a minimum cur- a molten state. This section will deal
rent rating of 15 or 20 amperes and with implements needed to do this
three-conductor sockets. One with a work, as well as other facets that relate
master on/ off switch or individual to electrical assembly.
switches for each outlet is convenient to
use. Some include a master fuse or cir- Soldering Irons. A soldering tool
cuit breaker, or even individual ones for should supply sufficient heat to melt
each outlet to back up the line's master solder by heat transfer when the iron tip
ful>e or circuit breaker. is applied to a connection to be sol-
dered. There are two general classes
Stora~e. A key to high workbench utility of soldering irons-guns and pencils.
is organization. Tools, hardware, electri- A typical soldering gun is larger,
cal components and similar items should
be stored in a logical manner that
ensures quick accessibility. Certain
tools, for example, can either be kept in
nearby drawers or hung on a piece of
pegboard mounted on a nearby wall.

Tools for Electrical
Work
heavier and generates more heat than
the average pencil. Soldering of heavy-
duty conductors or connectors calls for
use of a gun because it can generate
enough heat to quickly bring a heavy
metal joint up to the proper soldering


The best way to store hardware and temperature.
sm~ll electrical components is in suit- Soldering irons in this category are
ably sized storage bins. There are mod- called guns simply because they re-
ular ones with drawers that are made of semble pistols, as shown in an accom-
transparent styrene to allow quick visual Much electronic-building and service panying photo. The gun's "trigger" is
inspection of their contents. work is centered around tlw process of actually a switch that controls applica-
Hobbyists with many items to store making secure connections between tion of ac power to a built-in transformer
can buy several such small storage cab- conductors by soldering. That is the and thence to the heating element. The
inets. Some manufacturers models with process by which two or more pieces working temperature is reached almost
different characteristic drawer sizes to of metal are bound together by a metal immediately. Some models feature mul-
hold certain items. Modular storage cab- alloy that's applied to the connection in ti-position trigger switches to provide

Luxo Model LFM-1/A


illuminated magnifier.
1983 EDITION
different heat levels. For example, a
two-detent switch mi~ht give the user a
choice of generating 100 watts or 150
watts, depending on whether the trigger
is fully or partially depressed.
At the other end of the spectrum are
small, lightweight soldering pencils.
They can generate as little as 12 watts
of heat, or as much as 50 watts,
depending on the particular model. A
relatively low-power pencil such as a
25-watt unit is well suited for light-duty
work such as soldering on printed-cir-
cuit boards. Some medium-duty appli-
cations like chassis wiring require a
higher-wattage heating element. Many
Wahl Model 7295 safety stand
holds iron and cleans tip.
pencils, called modular soldering irons,
use interchangeable heating elements
and tips which mate to a main pencil
body. Such 'elements screw into a
threaded receptacle at the end of the
pencil.
Some heating elements have ceram-
ic bodies with tips of various shapes
permanently bonded to them. Others Ungar Solder-Off desoldering bulb.
are ceramic or stainless steel units that
are terminated with threaded studs on A lpha STRP-25
which any one of several different- plastic-blade
shaped tips can be mounted. The wire strippers
advantage of such a modular solderfng
pencil is that it can be assembled in any
of several permutations that is optim-
ized for a specific soldering job.
There are tips available for modular
soldering pencils to handle most - sol-

dering tasks. Very fine, almost needle-


like tips are used on printed-circuit Ungar 776 modular
boards with IC and component foil pads soldering pencil.
that are very closely spaced. Larger,
blunt chisel and pyramid tips can store
and transfer greater amounts of heat for
more massive, widely spaced connec-
tions. Bent-chisel types can get into
difficult-to-reach areas. Whatever size
and shape t ips are chosen, it's best to
buy plated (as opposed to raw copper)
tips. Plated tips cost more, but they rast
up to ten times longer than raw copper
tips. The principal advantages of raw
Channellock
copp ~ r t ips are low cost and more effi-
long-nose
cient heat transfe r. Plat ed tips, howev- pliers.
er, transfer heat with enough efficiency
for almost any soldering job. Note that
before any tip is mounted, its threads
and those of the heating element stud
should be treated with an antiseize
compound to facilitate tip removal.
Power is usually applied to a solder- Wahl Model 7500
ing gun on an intermittent b asis. The t ip
l sotip cordless iron
and recli,arging stand.
6 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK
of the gun will heat up to working tem-
Weller Model 8200 perature very quickly, and it will cool off
soldering kit. soon after power is removed. There-
fore, the gun can'be left lying on its side
on the workbench, picked up and pow-
ered to make the required connection,
AP Products POWERACE 103 and then laid on its side again. A typical
solderless breadboard pencil, however, takes a few minutes to
attain working temperature. This means
that during a typical work session the
. pencil will be continuously powered and
its tip will remain hot for the entire inter-
vaL Therefore, some method must be
employed to keep the iron secured in a
safe place at working temperature.
One solution to this problem is a spe-
cial soldering iron holder. This may be a
coiled steel form into which the hot
soldering iron can be inserted. Most
stands of this type also include a
sponge which can be kept moistened
and used periodically to clean the sol-
dering tip. A more deluxe solution incor-
porates the foregoing with an iron and a
control console that offers switch-
selectable temperatures, usually . low,
medium, and high. This system is called
a soldering station. Obviously, this is
Ungar Model 6966 more convenient than waiting for a mod-
heat gun f or ular pencil's heating element to cool,
heat-shrink tubing unscrewing it from the holder, and then
replacing it with another heater I tip
combination. Predictably, however, sol-
dering stations are expensive com-
pared to basic soldering pencils.
Among the manufacturers that produce
soldering stations are Weller, Ungar,
and Heath.

Special Considerations. The prolifer-


ation of metal-oxide semiconductor de-
vices has focussed the attention of
some manufacturers upon characteris-
tics of certain soldering irons that were
largely ignored until recently. As you
may know, MOS devices have gate
structures that are extremely suscepti-
ble to damage by electric potential gra-
dients such as those which can be gen-
erated by friction (i.e., static electrici-
ty) . A source of such electric fields can _
be the soldering equipment itself.
There are two sourc es of trouble-
some potential differences associated
with soldering irons. The first is com-
mon to most soldering irons- electro-
static tip potentiaL Static electricity can
Making a pc board be set up in an ordinary soldering tip
using Bishop Graphics and can be transferred to the c ompo-
E -Z CIRCUIT aids and nent to be solde red when the tip is
an X-acto knife. placed next to one of its leads . It the
electrostatic potential is high enough
AP Products Logical Connections and the MOS device is unprotected, its
f or interconnecting breadboards delicate gate structure will be de-

1983 EDITION 7
strayed. The solution to this problem is
to place the tip at ground potential so
that static charges do not have a
chance to accumulate. Several manu-
facturers now produce special solder-
ing irons whose heater I tip assemblies
are grounded. These units are readily
identifiable by their three-conductor
NEMA plugs for insertion into three-con-
ductor power sockets.
Another source of potential trouble is
peculiar to a certain type of solqering
iron . Some of the more sophisticated OK Machine & Tool
soldering implements (most of them
HSU-30 Hobby- Wrap
tool strips (right)
soldering stations) feature automati-
wraps, and unwraps
cally controlled tip temperature. These (above) wire.
implements employ some type of heat
sensing and closed-loop feedback con-
trol to gate power to the heating ele-
ment. This allows the control circuit to
compensate for variations in the
amount of heat being drawn from the
soldering tip and keep the tip at a con-
stant temperature. The switching action
of some controlled-output soldering im-
plements can generate voltage spike
which can be transmitted to . nd
adversely affect a MOS device. S
Channellock 40GS
Little Champ
designed their controlled-temperature
diagonal cutters.
soldering stations and irons in such a
way that voltage spikes are kept to a
low value.

Cordless Irons. All of the soldering


irons discussed so far rely on ac power
cords. However, there are times when it
is inconvenient to be tied to a 117-volt
line. Here, a cordless, battery-operated
soldering iron serves well. These com-


pact, hand-held tools employ recharge-
able NiCd batteries as a power source.
Recharging is done automatically when
the iron is placed in its recharger I stand
(assuming the charger is plugged into
an ac outlet, of course).
In operation, the tips come up to P anavise
working temperature in five to eight circuit-board
seconds and cool off to ambient tem- work station.
perature in one minute or so. They can
be used to make the same kinds of
solder connections that pencils do.
The number of solder connections
able to be made before recharging is
required varies acc;ording to a particu-
lar model. Typically, about 125 or so
soldering connections can be made on
one c harge. For a standard iron, !'l typi-
cal charging interval of approximately
14 hours is needed to return the cells to
full strength. There are quick-charge
irons, however, that require only one OK Machine & Tool
hour. Others take three or four hours. BW-2630 motorized
Many optional tips for battery-pow- wrapping tool.

8
ered irons, all differing in shape and
size, can be snapped into the bodies. A
light is often built into the case of the
iron to illuminate the work area whenev-
er battery power is applied to the heat-
ing element.
It is obvious that there are many dif-
ferent types of soldering irons avail-
able. Some are better suited for a par-
ticular kind of soldering job than are
others. An experimenter who works
only with printed circuit boards will find
that a soldering pencil (especially a
modular one) will be adequate for most
(if not all) of the soldering connections
he has to make. Someone who builds
projects employing coaxial connectors
and heavy-gauge wiring will need a
higher-power soldering gun. Another
person will find a cordless soldering
iron an invaluable implement for work
far from ac outlets.The choice is often
easy for hobbyists with broad electron-
Continental Specialties ics interests. They own one of each. In
Proto Board 103.
fact, many hobbyists have more than
one modular pencil body so that much
tip switching is avoided.

Solder. No solder connection can be


made without solder. The most common
type of solder used in electronic work is
Ungar 50 DK
an alloy consisting of 60% tin and 40%
desoldering
implements. lead. This alloy is drawn into a hollow
wire whose center is filled with an
organic paste-like material called rosin.
The resulting product is known as "60/
Heathkit Model GH-17 40 rosin-core solder." It is completely
soldering station. molten when heated to approximately
375 oF ( 190 C) and solidifies as it
cools. If conditions are right, it will form
a rigid, conductive bond with the metals
to which it has been applied.
There are other solder alloys con-
GC Electronics taining different proportions of tin and
Model 22-306 lead that are sometimes used in elec-
Deluxe Soldavac tronics work. The eutectic alloy of tin
desoldering tool. and lead, that mixture having the lowest
melting point, is 63 I 37. It melts at 361 o
F ( 183 o C) and is used in applications
where applied heat must be kept to as
low a level as possible. An equal mix-
ture of tin and lead, called 50 / 50 sold-
er, is completely molten at 415 oF
(213 C), while a 40 / 60 tin / lead alloy
has melted completely by the time it
attains a temperature of 455 F (235
C) . The latter two alloys are not used
very often in electronics work today
because their higher melting tempera-
tures require more heating of the solder
joint, which might damage heat-s~nsi
tive semiconductors.
For almost all electronics work, 60 /
40 rosin-core solder should be used.
9
This alloy is available in wire form in called "third hand" circuit-board holder purists who insist on removing all of it.
several gauges. Thinner gauges are to a valuable aid. This type of device The circuit board can be scrubbed with
be preferred over thicker ones. For usually includes a pivoting head that a toothbrush and an organic solvent like
general-purpose soldering, 18-gauge can rotate to just about any desired Toluene to remove flux, or it can be
wire solder is a good choice. Close angle to facilitate soldering . sprayed with a product such as GC
printed-circuit work calls for the use of Electronics No. 22-270 Flux Remover &
No. 20 or 22 solder. Finely drawn solder Desoldering Equipment. On those Cleaner Spray.
is not only easier to position above a occasions when a component must be
connection on a densely packed board, replaced or a circuit rewired, deso/der- PrintedCircuit Aids. For those who
but also requires less heat for the for- ing must be performed. There is a intend to make their own printed-circuit
mation of a given joint. This is true whole series of desoldering implements boards, special items are needed for
because fine solder sinks away less and aids available to today's electron- layout and fabrication. If pc foil patterns
heat into the roll of solder than do thick- ics hobbyist. Most rely on either vacu- are to be taken from the page of a
er gauges. um or capillary action to remove the magazine, a kit like GC Electronics' Lift
To allow solder to form a good joint, solder after it has completely melted. It (No. 22-326 or 22-318) is ideal.
rosin flux must be applied to the con- A common desoldering tool that Those who are designing complex
nection. The flux is available separate- employs the vacuum principle is a rub- boards from scratch might choose to
ly, as well as imbedded in wire solder. ber suction bulb with a Teflon tip. The employ Bishop Graphics or similar pc
Even with the latter, it's a good idea to bulb is employed in the following man- materials and photosensitizing com-
have extra flux on hand so that some ner: A soldering iron is applied to the pounds to produce sharp, detailed foil
can be added to a stubborn joint that connection to be undone until the solder patterns. A glass or plastic pan,
won't readily accept solder. Flux is has melted completely. Then the bulb is etchant solution, rubber gloves, blank
needed to scrub away the microscopic squeezed and its tip butted up against boards, a heat lamp, a thermometer,
film of oxides on the surfaces of metals the solder joint. The bulb is allowed to and a small drill will also be needed.
to be soldered, and it forms a protec- expand quickly, creating a mild vacuum Complex circuit boards are best pro-
tive film that prevents reoxidation while which draws the molten solder up into duced by means of photographic tech-
the connection is heated to the point at the bulb. Another vacuum type uses a niques employing master artwork or the
which the solder melts. spring-loaded plunger. copying of etching and drilling guides
For applications other than electrical The other method of removing solder published in magazines. Simple boards,
wiring, solders with acid fluxes are is to employ capillary action. If a copper however, can be fabricated by the
available. However, the acid is highly braid is placed over the solder to be direct application of etchant-resist ink
corrosive and will damage both electri- removed and a soldering iron placed by means of a felt-tip pen made espe-
cal components and wiring. Accord- over it, the solder will melt and be cially for this purpose. Whichever
ingly, it should never be used in elec- drawn up by the wicking action of the means is employed to produce a
tronics applications. copper braid . Specially constructed printed-circuit board, it should be pre-
braids are available for this purpose. pared to accept solder well . One item
Other Soldering Tools. Very useful in Removing multi-lead components that's well suited for this application is
soldering work is a small hand tool such as ICs presents a special prob- a nonmetallic scrubbing pad such as
called the soldering aid. It consists of a lem. If the component to be removed is the Scotchbrite pad. It can be used to
plastic or wood wand with a pointed still functional, it must be unsoldered remove etchant resist from the board
metal tip at one end and a notched quickly lest it be damaged by heat. prior to drilling as well as to remove
metal tip at the other. The blunt end of Alternatively, if the device is defective, oxidation from toil.
the aid is used to clear solder from it must be removed fairly quickly or else
holes in pc boards and from solder printed-circuit foil conductors might be Wrapping Wire Equipment. A fairly
lugs. The notched end can be used to lifted from the board by excessive heat. new method of making connections
make right-angle bends in components The solution to this problem is to between points in a circuit is the wrap-
leads, to hold leads and wires while the employ specialized devices. These ped-wire technique. This involves tight-
solder joint is made, and to pry leads might be a special DIP-shaped solder- ly wrapping the stripped ends of a wire
away from pc boards and lugs during ing iron tip and a spring-loaded IC around square (usually 0.025-by-0.025-
desoldering operations. There are sev- extractor tool. The tool is placed above inch or 0.6-by-0.6-mm) terminal posts.
eral other soldering aids available, the IC to be removed and locked into Wrapped-wire connections are quickly
each with different types of tips (metal position. The special tip is then and inexpensively made, and are used
brushes, reamers, scrapers, etc.) mounted on the heating element of a most often in digital circuits assembled
suited for a specific task. modular iron . When the tip is hot, it's on perforated board.
To protect heat-sensitive compo- applied to all the dual-inline IC's pins on There are many tools available to
nents during soldering, heat sinks are the foil side of the board. The extractor those who want to assemble projects
required to divert potentially damaging tool lifts the IC off the board as soon as using the wrapped-wire construction
heat from delicate components. A set the solder holding it melts. There are method. These include a manual, multi-
of all igator clip s or commercial clip-on desoldering tools available for use with function tool that strips insulation from
heat sinks made for thls purpose can
Q\.~~ Lo11S. - ..4 ._...., _ ~

The final item ws will mention with


- ~A A.AA
;jedWfBpp~a~'WJrffir~,fJ\NHJ\ . Q ' modi
be used. They are c lipped onto compo- aaaB 'ai.Jvul 1 '~~ twrn" a # iftlwlafal'l wir8 tO
nent leads while the soldering job is respect to solder is flux remover.
Although rosin ttux IS nor very corro:;Jv" onkM6~ Maaka ft lbAI lltAkilitv\ And un
accomplished.
Those who work with printed circuit and can usually be left on a circuit wraps the wire when aconnectionia1o
or perforated boards will find a so- board with no ill effects, there are some be changed or removed.
10
ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK
Besides the manual wrapping-wire Wire Cutters and Strippers. We now electrical tape can be used for this pur-
tools manufactured by OK Machine and move into the area of hand tools pose, heat-shrink tubing is far more con-
Tool Corp., Vector Electronics Corp., designed for the manipulation of electri- venient. It is composed of a special
and other companies, there are motor- cal wires. Before a wire can be sol- plastic material which contracts when
ized tools available for wrapping-wire dered, wrapped, or a connector crimped heated to a relatively high temperature.
applications. One such motorized tool is onto it, it must be cut to length and its Heat-shrink tubing comes in a variety of
the Model BW-2630 by OK Machine and insulation removed. lengths and diameters to suit any num-
Tool Corp. It's powered by two NiCd C The most popular implement used to ber of applications. There is even heat-
cells (not included) and accepts one of cut electrical wires and the leads of shrink electrical tape available for a
two bits-one for No. 30 wire, the other electronic components is the diagonal- really tight fit.
for No. 28 or 26 wire. cutting pliers, usually called diagonals or
Besides a wrapping tool, there are dykes. The diagonal cutters intended for Pliers. One of the most commonly used
several other items the hobbyist inter- electronics applications should be used class of tools is pliers. In electrical work,
ested in utilizing this construction tech- only to cut soft metal conductors-nev- needle- and long-nose pliers are neces-
nique must have. The most obvious addi- er to cut iron or steel wire. sities. Mechanical work, on the other
tional one is wrapping wire. This special The size of the diagonals to be used hand, often involves the use of slip-joint
wire is available in a variety of colors is determined by the diameter of the or gas pliers.
and comes in spools or in packs of pre- wires to be cut. Cutters up to 5 inches Frequent tasks for long-nose pliers
cut lengths with stripped ends. Also nec- long are often employed in electronics include holding wires in place during sol-
essary are IC sockets designed for applications. Any cutters chosen should dering, acting as a heat sink to protect a
wrapped-wire applications and perfo- be made of high-quality tool steel so delicate component, bending component
rated circuit boards with holes of the that they will make a sharp, clean cut. leads to fit mounting holes on a circuit
proper spacing. The tips of the cutters should be tapered board, and pulling wires through a panel
to allow !he user to reach a particular or chassis hole.
wire in a crowded area. Cutter jaws Such pliers are available in a wide
Solderless Breadboards. Ideal for de- should be very well aligned so that cut- range of sizes and configurations. A
signing or experimenting with circuits is ting edges meet squarely and allow little small size (about 4.5 inches) with a long,
a solderless breadboard. This is a plas- or no light to pass through when held thin nose is best for electronics applica-
tic block with arrays of holes spaced 0. 1 together. Cutter action should be tions. A single pair of longno$e pliers is
inch (2.5 mm). The block is mounted on smooth and clean. adequate for most jobs, but having sev-
a supporting structure and has embed- There are, too, a wide variety of spe- eral on hand can simplify a task.
ded in it a series of electrical conductors cialized cutters-tip cutters, end nip-
which interconnect adjacent rows or col- pers, etc.-that are handy to have if the Alignment Tools. If a hobbyist intends
umns of holes. These boards readily budget allows. Diagonal cutters can, if to work on communications projects, he
accept IC pins and the leads of other used with care, be employed to strip should have a set of alignment tools on
electronic components, allowing the insulation from wires. Also suited for this hand. Among the items in this category
hobbyist to build up a circuit with secure, purpose is the familiar, inexpensive, yel- are a neutralization tool (a plastic or
reliable connections without having to low-plastic-handled wire cutters I strip- wooden tubular holder with a small metal
resort to soldering or wrapping wire. pers. The object of wire stripping is to blade inserted in one end), a nonmetallic
A typical solderless breadboard is remove insulation from the wire without screwdriver, and a plastic hexagonal
Continental Specialties' Proto Board No. nicking or cutting the conductor. slug-alignment tool. Most alignment
103. This board has binding posts for Far more convenient than traditional tools are nonmetallic and fairly long in
ground and three supply or signal volt- wire cutters I strippers are precision, au- size. Using a nonmetallic tool enhances
ages and offers enough tie points for a tomatic strippers. Although such tools safety because of the tool's insulating
fairly complex circuit. AP Products, in are expensive, they can be real timesav- property. It also prevents disturbance to
turn, offers three sophisticated bread- ers when there's a lot of point-to-point sensitive r-f circuits that can be detuned
boards. These POWERACE models include wiring to be done. merely by bringing a metal tool near fre-
power supplies and, depending on mod- Sometimes a situation arises where quency-determining devices. Similarly,
el, logic indicators, one-shots, pulse insulation is to be added to a wire or the use of a long alignment tool mini-
detection, two-phase clock, and data wire splice. Although PVC (not cloth!) mizes the effects of hand capacitance.
switches. Among other companies offer-
ing breadboard products are the OK
Machine and Tool Corp. and the Heath
Company. There are a large variety of
finished breadboards available, ranging
from simple units with perhaps two bind-
ing posts to complex models with built-in
Tools For

fixed ~r variable regulated supplies, sig- Mechanical Work


nal generators, potentiometers, etc.
Solderless breadboards are valuable
design and experimenting aids that
greatly facilitate circuit prototyping. No Drivers. This category includes screw-
well-appointed electronics workbench is drivers and nut drivers. Both are
complete without one! extremely important to the mechanical

1983 EDITION 11
work ancillary to personal electronics shafts, slotted screwdriver shafts, and Wrenches. There are several types of
hobby activities. Phillips screwdriver shafts. wrenches that the electronics hobbyist
There are two basic types of screw- Nutdrivers are available with either will need from time to time. Among them
drivers-blade and Phillips. A typical solid or hollow shafts. The major advan- are the open-end wrench, the box
electronics project will employ a dozen tage to hollow-shaft drivers is that they wrench, and the plier wrench or "vise-
or more screws to fasten circuit boards, allow the user to keep a grip on the nut grips" tool.
terminal strips, etc., to the chassis or even though the screw on which the nut Open-end wrenches are used primari-
enclosure. Therefore, a complement of is mounted is protruding. Stubby nutdriv- ly on the large hexagonal nuts that
screwdrivers must be kept on hand. ers are handy when work is to be done in secure switches and controls to project
Blade screwdrivers come in a great tight places. These can be bought in panels (actually, a large nut driver is
number of sizes. A minimum of three sets that include a large slip-on handle better suited for this application) and to
should be at hand for electronics work, that multiplies torque. Extra-large nut operate chassis punches. The box
with the following blade sizes: l ie inch; drivers permit the installation of potenti- wrench has similar applications but has
31,6 to 114 inch; and 5116 inch or larger. If ometers and rotary switches without the advantage of completely enclosing
possible, a larger selection of blade risking damage to the control panel. the nut, thus eliminating the danger of
screwdrivers should be maintained. slippage that can mar a finished front
There are several " specialty" screw- Selecting Drivers. As in the case of panel. Box wrenches are not essential,
drivers which are not necessary, but are pliers, cutters, and other hand tools, but are handy to have around if the
on occasion very handy. One is a "stub- there are many, many companies manu- workbench budget permits.
by" screwdriver with a short shaft. It's facturing drivers. It is better and more The plier wrench or "vise-grips" is a
very useful in tight quarters. In really economical in the long run to buy high- tool that is not found on every electron-
tight situations, an offset screwdriver quality tools than so-called "bargains." ics workbench, but it should be. Not only
can be especially helpful. Another useful How can the electronics hobbyist tell is this an excellent tool for applying
"specialty" screwdriver is one that that the tools he is thinking of buying are brute torque to the task of turning bolts,
holds a screw against the blade of the of high quality? Here are a few things to nuts and shafts, it can also serve as a
driver. The Stanley Works makes such a look for. restraining tool and as a "third hand" for
device, called the " Screwstart", which The handles should be sturdy, made holding small parts, circuit board assem-
can be added to an existing driver. of heavy-duty plastic, and preferably blies, etc. A pair of vise-grips can be
Phillips screws, those with star- have rubber grips for comfort. Tool adjusted for a given jaw opening and has
shaped holes in their heads as opposed shafts should be deeply and firmly a locking lever and in some cases a
to straight slots, are often found in elec- embedded into handles in the case of separate unlocking lever for quick-action
tronic equipment. Phillips screwdrivers, individual drivers (as opposed to plug-in clamping and release. Vise-grips come in
like many other hand tools, come in a sets) . The shafts of plug-ins should lock several sizes, but a 10-inch model is suffi-
variety of sizes. There are four standard firmly into place when inserted in the cient for most workbench applications.
points, No. 1 through 4. The star-shaped master handle. Tools should have shafts
hole in a Phillips screw and the tip of a of tempered, plated steel and have MetaiWorking Tools. Experimenters
Phillips driver must fit together properly ground tips. They should be well-bal- who mount their projects in metallic
so that the walls of the screw head or anced and comfortable in the hand. Per- enclosures will need an assortment of
the tip of the driver or both will not be haps the easiest way to choose high- metal-working and metal-finishing imple-
damaged. In electronics work, No. 1 and quality tools is to sticl< with established ments. A hacksaw is used to cut large
No. 2 Phillips drivers are those usually names such as Xcelite, Stanley, Vaco, and irregular-shaped chassis holes, to
employed. Channellock and Sears Craftsma n. trim control shafts, to cut off brackets,
One way to satisfy screwdriver re- etc. Most hacksaws are adjustable so
quirements is to buy a driver set contain- Allen Wrenches and Miniature Driv that they can accept blades of several
ing a handle into which any of several ers. Many control knobs have small Al- different lengths. More important than
driver shafts can be inserted, such as len or slotted setscrews. To install or blade length, however, is coarseness.
Xcelite' s Model CK-5 driver set. Each of remove such knobs, a set of Allen The number of teeth per unit length
the shafts is doubled-ended, yielding wrenches and miniature screwdrivers determines blade coarseness. For gen-
two different tips on each shaft. should be kept on hand. There are other eral-purpose work, a hacksaw blade
uses for miniature tools, especially in should have between 14 and 18 teeth
Nutdrivers are like screwdrivers ex- such fields as remote control modeling, per inch. A relative of the hacksaw, the
ce'pt that they fit nuts instead of screw- model railroading and slot-car racing, "coping saw, " has a thin blade and is
heads.They are very useful in mounting a and the fabrication of miniaturized elec- very handy when cutting curved and
nut on a captive threaded stud and in tronic projects. Performing such work irregular-shaped holes.
holding a nut while its screw is being when equipped with a precision minia- Metal shears allow the hobbyist to
tightened. (A pair of pliers should not be ture tool set is so much easier that the cut sheet metal for chassis, brackets,
used to hold hex- or square-head purchase of such a set is well justified. shields and other items. Chassis
sc rews.) Nutdrivers are available as One of the big names in miniature punches take muc h of the drudgery out
individual drivers with separate handles, precision tools is Moody Tools, Inc. (42- of cutting large holes in chassis and
as individual driver shafts that plug into a 60 Crompton Avenue, East Greenwich, panels for meters, connectors, sockets,
common handle, or as individual sockets Rl 02818). Jensen Tools & Alloys is etc. Chassis punches, which are manu-
that plug into a universal handle I shaft another, with a host of precision tools, factured by such companies as Green-
combination. There are master driver including many tool kits ( 1230 So. Priest lee Tool and GC Electronics (both in
sets available that inc lude nutdriver Dr., Tempe, AZ 85281) . Rockford, IL), come in a variety of

12 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


shapes and sizes, and should be select-
ed for the types of holes that might have
to be made.
A metal nibbling tool can be used to
make just about any needed chassis or
panel opening. This tool starts at a pre-
drilled hole and is guided along the area Moody Tools
to be cut out, taking bite-size chunks out miniature precision tools.
of the metal as it is moved along. Cutting
a large hole. in a piece of sheet metal
can be a tedious procedure with a nib-
bling tool, but the nibbler will provide
good results if care is taken in using it.

Drills. Perhaps . the most commonly


used metal-working tool from the elec-
tronics hobbyist's point of view is the
electric drill. A drill for the electronics
workbench should have a chuck capac-
ity of 114 or 3/a inch (~.4 or 9.5 mm) and
should have variable-speed control.
(Slow speeds are ideal for starting holes
and for drilling through soft materials.)
The drill should also have either a
three-conductor power cord and a metal
body or a two-conductor cord and a dou-
ble-insulated plastic body. Its motor
should be rated at a minimum of 114
horsepower. For maximum user comfort,
the drill should fit comfortably in the
hand and should be well balanced.
The piece of metal that does the
actual cutting of the material being
drilled is called a drill bit. There are two
general classes of drill bits-those
composed of carbon steel and those
composed of tungsten-molybdenum
steel. The latter is called "high-speed Xcelite Model PS-89 Allen drivers. Crescent Tool
steel" and is used in the manufacture of adjustable
high-speed drill bits. Because of their offset wrench
superior cutting and wearing character-
istics, high-speed bits are the clear
choice for the electronics hobbyist. The
most economical way to purchase an
array of high-speed drill bits is in a set
that includes units with diameters rang- Many small tool sets include torque-multiplying handle.
ing from approximately 3/32 inch (2.4 mm)
to 114 or 3/a inch (6.4 or 9.5 mm).
Ancillary items for drilling and other
I
metal work are a center punch, a ball-
peen hammer, a reamer, a heavy-duty Wiss metal
bench vise and a set of files. shears. Stanley Screwstart 8 screw holder.
At least one centerpunch is needed to
make indentations in the material to be
drilled at the exact centers of the holes
to be made. These indentations will pre-
vent the bit from wandering around the Wahl Model 6500 PC drill attachment
surface when first brought up to speed. for lsotip soldering irons.
A reamer is used to enlarge holes in
sheet metal, and can also be used to
remove burrs around the perimeter of a
freshly drilled hole. General-duty work
calls for a 112-inch ( 1.3-cm) tapered
reamer. A heavy-duty bench vise will be

1983 EDITION
needed if a lot of metal working will be
done. It is very useful in holding chassis
and other items as they are drilled or
sawed. The jaws of the vise should be at
least 2 inches long, and the vise should
be a swivel unit which rotates in the
horizontal plane. This will allow its jaws
to form any desired angle with respect
to the edge of the workbench.
1111111
At least four files should be kept on
hand for metal work. Round, half-round,
and "rat-tail" files are especially useful
in opening up a hole or deburring. Most
electronics metal work involves alumi-
num chassis. Because aluminum is rela-
tively soft, coarse files are the best.
Stanley Model 61-130
Miniature Power Tools. Hobbyists nut driver- set.
who do a lot of printed-circuit work will
find most power tools to be too big and
unwieldy. The answer to their problem is
a miniature electric hand drill designed . Crescent Tool
especially for pc applications. Among adjustable wrench set.
the companies that make such tools are
Micro Electronics Systems, Weller, Ore- speed drill and grinder, which comes in close circuit-board work wouldn't be
mel, and the Wahl Clipper Corporation. models ranging from the general-pur- without one.
Those printed-circuit enthusiasts who pose Model 260 to the heavy-duty, vari-
already have a Wahl "lsotip" cordless able Model 380. Light in weight, the tool In Conclusion. Hands-on personal
soldering iron will no doubt be interested is easy to handle and accepts drill bits eleCtronics calls for a work area
in Wahl's Model 6500 PC Drill attach- ranging from No. 80 to No. 30, depend- stocked with a considerable assortment
ment. This unit plugs into the body of the ing on which of three chuck collets is to of tools, test equipment, hardware, etc.
soldering iron and converts it into a bat- be used. Some items are absolutely necessary;
tery-powered electric drill with a No. 56 Another flexible hand-held power tool others are convenient and enhance work
bit and an operating speed of 10,000 to is the Weller Model 651K variable- efficiency. Many implements can be
12,000 rpm. Wahl also makes special- speed Mini-Shop Kit. This kit inclu_des a found in any well-stocked hardware
ized Electronics Technician Drills with handheld power tool and a whole store. Others are specialty items that
collet chucks designed specifically for complement of drilling, grinding, polish- must be obtained from more exotic
pc applications. ing, sanding and cutting attachments. sources. Look into your needs now so
A good tool to use for circuit-board Such mini-tools are not for everyone, but that your future electronics work will be
work is the Dremel Moto Tool high- those who do a considerable amount of more enjoyable to pursue. ()

l:.Mt:R"GENCy
TV REPAIR
COMPANy

/!Jzl:t iv]
" THIS NEW MICROCOMPUTER REPLACES THAT UNIT.
WHERE DO YOU WANT IT?"
14 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK
I N THEORY, "scratch" and "rumble"
filters are useful additions to an audio
tion. This circuit is commonly known as
the Sa lien I Key design because it was
The cutoff (- 3-dB) frequency of the
high- or low-pass filter can be calculated
system. In practice, however, the filters described in a paper by R.P. Sallen and from fc = 11[21r(R1R2C1C2)%].1n the
built into many components have either E.L. Key that appeared in the March high-pass filter of Fig. 1A, the value of
inappropriate cutoff frequencies or too 1955 issue of the IRE Transactions on C 1 is chosen to equal that of C2 and the
gradual slopes (or both) to adequately Circuit Theory. Shown schematically in resistance of R 1 is chosen to be half
perform their intended functions. If Fig. 1 are second-order, high-pass (A) that of R2. This simplifies the equation
you're dissatisfied with those contained and low-pass (B) active filters employing for the cutoff frequency so that it takes
in your preamplifier, integrated amplifier, operational amplifiers. Although op the form: fc = 112.8281rC1R1. Similarly,
or receiver, try the quartet of high-per- amps as we know them were not avail- in the low-pass filter of Fig. 1B, the
formance active filters presented here. able in 1955, Sallen and Key's paper is resistance of R 1 is chosen to equal that
These filters are designed around a applicable to filters employing more of R2 and the capacitance of C2 is
quad BIFET operational amplifieriC, and recently developed active devices. chosen to be half that of C 1. The simpli-
can be inserted into or removed from the These filters have unity gain within fied equation for the low-pass cutoff fre-
signal chain at the push of a switch. The their passbands, a gain that is indepen- quency is: fc = 1 I 2.8281rR2C2. Note
project can be built at low cost, and its dent of resistor values. They have sec- that the low-pass filter resembles the
compact size allows it to be tucked into ond-order responses, which exhibit an high-pass design except that the posi-
an existing audio component. Also, its attenuation of 3 dB at the cutoff frequen- tions of the resistors and capacitors
modest power requirements can easily cy and an ultimate slope of 12 dB I have been interchanged.
be satisfied by the host component. octave. For audio applications, the most If optimal filter performance is to be
useful VCVS filter is one whose achieved, the passive components used
About the Filters. One of the simplest response is "maximally flat," whose Q should be of high quality. For example,
active filter designs is based on the volt- is 0. 707. This is true of the filters the resistors should be carbon- or metal-
age-controlled voltage source configura- described in this article. film components and the capacitors

BY JOHN H. ROBERTS

Low-cost
ultrasonic I
infrasonic
circuit
plugs into
preamp's
external
jacks

FILTERS
1983 EDITION 15
should have mica, polystyrene or Mylar
dielectrics. The criteria for choosing the
operational amplifier are those that Rl
Cl
make an op amp well suited for use as a
voltage follower-high input impedance, Cl
Rl RZ
low input current, and high speed. The OUTPUT OUTPUT
author's choice is the Texas Instruments
TL074CN, a quad BIFET op amp that
satisfies these requirements handily.
IN='

j_ 1
INPUT

j_ CZI ' 1
The complete schematic of the pro
ject is shown in Fig. 2. In all, four filters (A) (8)
appear in this diagram-a low-pass and
a high-pass filter for each stereo chan- Fig. 1. Second-order high-pass (A) and low-wss (B) filters.
nel. The component designations not
shown in parentheses pertain to the left ground (which will be tied to system cial and system grounds should be tied
channel circuit. Those component num ground), but the artificial ground gener together. Direct coupling can be em-
bers given parenthetically pertain to the ated by the passive components must ployed between the stage preceeding
right-channel filters. be kept isolated from it. The artificial the filters and the project input terminals
If both selector switches (S 1 and S.2) ground will be at a de level equal to one as well as between the project output
are in their ouT positions, the filter out half of the supply voltage, and the chas terminals and the input of the next stage
puts are left floating. Placing HIGH PAss sis (system) ground will act as the - V in the signal chain. However, if the circuit
selector switch S 1 in its IN position con negative supply for the quad op amp. is powered by a single-end supply,
nects the outputs of the high-pass filters If a bipolar supply is used, the artifi capacitive coupling should be used.
(IC1A, IC1B and their associated com
ponents) to the ouT positions of Low PAss +V
selector switch S2 and to the inputs of
the low-pass filters (IC1C, /C1D and
their associated components).
If S2 is in its IN position, signals pass
through the low-pass filters before they SIA(SIB)
appear at the project's output. Other- HIGH PASS OUT
+Vo-"""'1~---,
wise, they are routed to the output termi INPUT L
(INPUT R) R9
nals without being high-pass filtered. 2K

This switching arrangement allows the


connection of either filter alone, both
,.1., ICI =TL074CN CIRCUIT
GROUND

...L RIO
ZK
together, or neither in the signal chain.
The circuit can be powered by either
a bipolar or single-ended supply. Maxi
mum voltages are 15 volts for a bipo R3(R4)
lar supply and + 30 volts for a single
ended one . Current demand is approxi
mately 10 rnA. Components C9, R9, and SEE TEXT FOR RESISTANCE VALUES

R 10 are required only if a single-ended Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the complete project.
power supply is used. They generate an
artificial "circuit ground" which is desig PARTS LIST
nated in Fig. 2 using the conventional C l,C2,CS,C6-0 . l-~F 5% Mylar, mica or suitable power supply and enclosure,
chassis-ground symbol. Contrast this polystyrene hookup wire, shielded cable, circuit
with the system signal ground appearing C3,C4-0 . 0022-~F 5% Mylar, mica or board standoffs, hardware, solder, etc.
polystyrene These components are required only if a
at the input and output terminals of the
C7,C8-0.00I-~F 5% Mylar, mica or single-ended power supply is used.
project. An earth-ground symbol sig polystyrene
nifies system signal ground to differen C9*-0.0l-~F Mylar, disc ceramic, mica NOTE-The following are available from
tiate it from the artificial "circuit or polystyrene Phoenix Systems, 91 Elm St., Manchester,
ground." JCl-TL074CN quad BIFET op amp CT 06040: kit ofparts including printed cir-
The following are carbon-film, l/4-watt,
A single-ended supply is represented cuit board, IC, switches, and resistors and
5%-tolerance (or metal film, 1/4 or
to the right of the passive components 1/8-watt, I% tolerance) fixed resistors capacitors for two 20- or 50-Hz high-pass
as a battery generating voltage V suPPL v unless otherwise specified. and two 13,000- or 19,000-Hz low-pass fil-
Traditionally, the chassis on which a R I,R2,R5,R6-see text for value. ters, No. P-9/S for $15.00. Also available
R3,R4-see text for value. separately are; TL074CN quad BIFET op
positive, single-ended power supply is
R7,R8-see text for value. amp IC. No. P-9JC. for $2.50; etched and
mounted becomes the negative return R9*,RI0*-2000 ohms, 1/2-watt, 5% or drilled printed circuit board, No. P-9/B, for
and is also used as the signal ground for 10% toleranj:e, carbon-composition or $5. 00; push-on/push-off dpdt switch, No. P-
the circuit powered by the supply. In the carbon film. 9JSW, for $1.00 each. Connecticut resi-
case of these active filters powered by S I ,82-Dpdt switch
dents, add 7% state sales tax. If order is less
Misc.-Printed circuit or perforated
a single-ended supply, the chassis can board, IC socket or Molex Soldercons, than $10.00, add $1.00 shipping and
be used as the input and output signal handling.

16 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


EverY.body!s making money
seUin~ m~rocomputers.
Some.~dysgong to~kemoney
serv1c1ng them.
New NRI Home Study Course Shows
Yo!l How to Make Money Servicing,
R~pairing, and Programming
Personal and Small
Business Computers
Seems like every time you turn around,
somebody comes along with a new computer for
home or business use. An(! what's made it all
possible is the amazing microprocessor, the tiny
little chip that's a computer in itself.
Using this new technology, the industry is
offering compact, affordable computers that handle
things like payrolls, billing, inventory, and other jobs
for businesses of every size ... perform household
functions including budgeting, environmental sys-
tems control, indexing recipes. Alld thousands of
hobbyists are already owners, experimenting and
developing their own programs.
Growing Demand
for Computer Technjcians
This is only one of the growth factors influenc-
ing the increasing opportunities for qualified com- on by so many
puter technicians. The U.S. Department of Labor people. And it's yours
projects over a 100%increase in job openings for the to keep for personal or busi-
decade through 1985. Most of them new jobs created ness use.
by !he expanding world of the computer. You get plenty of practical ence in the operation and application of computers
Learn at Home in Your Spare Time experience. Using the NRI Discovery Lab'" that also to business and personal jobs. You're trained to
NRI can train you for this exciting, rewarding comes as part of your course, you build and study become the fully rounded, new breed of technician
field. Train you at home to service not only micro- circuits ranging from the simplest to the most who can interface with the operational, program-
computers, but word processors and data terminals, advanced. You analyze and troubleshoot using the ming and service facets of today's computers. You're
too. Train you at your convenience, with clearly professional 4-function LCD digital multimeter you ready to take your place in the new electronic age.
written "bite-size" lessons that you do evenings or keep to use later in your work. Then you use the lab Other Opportultities
weeken<js, without going to classes or quitting your and meter to actually access the interior of your NRI has been giving ambitious people new
present job. computer... build special circuits and write pro- electronic skills since 1914. Thday's offerings also
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Your training is built around the latest model include 1V/Audio/Video Systems servicing with
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ing TRS-80 Model III, with capabilities and fea- Computer Assisted Instruction programmable 25" diagonal color 1V. .. Industrial
tures to perform a host of personal and business Your TRS-80 even helps train you. You receive Electronics, Design Technology...and other state-of-
functions. No other small computer has so much 4 special lesson tapes in BASIC computer language. the-art courses.
software available for it, no other is used and relied Using them in your microcomputer, you "talk" to it Free Catalog ... Mail Card
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of the Radio Shack catalog showing all courses with equipment and
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complete lesson plans. There's no obligation other
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.J J 3939 Wisconsin Ave.
f"y "- Washington, DC 20016
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We'll give you tomorrow.
Construction. The project is relatively accessible. If the project is placed uate the low-frequency rumble without
simple, so point-to-point, wiring, wrap- inside an existing audio component, the significantly altering the spectral power
ped-wire, or printed-circuit assembly simplest way to satisfy the project's density of the program material. Most
t~chniques can be used. Etching and modest power requirements is to tap the musical recordings contain !ittle informa-
drilling and parts placement guides for a host'~ supply. A high-voltage supply can tion in the bottom !;lass octave, so 50 Hz
suitable printed circuit board are shown be used to power the project by intro- is an acceptable cutoff frequency . Com-
in Fig. 3 . If another assembly method is ducing :Zener voltage regufation. ponent values that will produce a 50-H~.
chosen , observe sound construction You will note that the values of all of - 3-dB frequency are: C 1, C5, C2, C6-
practices for circuits containing high the RC components in the active filters 0.1 ~F; R3, R4.:._22,000 ohms; Rl, RB-
gain-bandwidth devices. Keep leads have not peen specified in the schemat- 47,000 ohms. Those readers who want
short and run grounds carefully. ic or the Parts List This has peen done any deep bass present in their record-
The use of Molex Soldercons or an IC to allow you to choose the cutoff fre- ings to come through unattenuated will
socket is recom.m ended . Be sure to quencies of the filters that you assem- prefer a lower cutoff frequency. Compo-
orient the IC correctly and pay attention ble. The design equations tor the low- nent values that will resu lt in a cutoff
to polarities when making connections and high-pass filters were given earlier. frequency of 20 H?: are: C 1, C5, C2,
to the power supply. Use the minimum In ~he high-pass design, use equal val- C6-0 . 1 ~F ; R3, R4-56 ,000 ohms; Rl,
amount of heat and solder consistent ues of capacitance (0.1 ~F) for C1, C5, RB-11 0,000 ohms. For a cutoff tre-
with the formation of good connections. C2, and C6. S~lect the resistance of R2 quency other than the two just give.n,
The circuit board has been laid out to so that it is double that of R1. The value calculate new resistance values.
accommodate pc-mount push I push of R 1 can be calculated using the hi9h- Low-pass filters are frequently em-
switches. These switches are available pass design equation. In the low-pass ployed to attenuate FM hiss and disc
from the source given at the end of the filters, use equal values of resistance for surface noise. They are also useful to
Parts List. If you want tci employ an~ther R 1, R5, R2, and R6. The capacitance of attenuate 19,000-Hz FM stereo subcar-
type of switch, simply interconnect the C7 and CB should be half that of C3 and riers that can interfere with the taping of
foil pa<;ls with the appropriate lugs of the C4. Recommended values are 0.0022 broadcasts off the air. To be an effective
remotely mounted switches with lengths ~F fo r C3 and C4 and 0.001 ~F for C7 hiss or subcarrier filter, the circuit
of flexible hookup wire. and CB. Resistance values for any should attenuate high-frequency noise,
Mount the filter board either in the desired cutoff frequency can be calcu- etc., without the loss of program content
enclosure of a host audio component or lated using the low-pass design data. at lower frequencies. Most musical pro-
in an l;)nclosure specially selected for The most common application for the gram material contains little information
this purpose. The board should be high-pass filter is to atten~ate low-fre- in the extreme highs, so 13,000 Hz is an
installed in such a way that board- quency turntable rumble. To be an effec- acceptable cutoff frequency . Compo-
mounted switches (if used) are readily tive rumble filter, the circuit should atten- nent values that will prqduce this
response are: R1, R5, R2, R6-8200
ohms; C3, C4-0.0022 ~F; C7, CB-
0 .001 ~F. For a higher cutoff frequency,
say, 19,000 Hz, use the following com-
ponent values: R1, R5, R2, RB-5600
51 ohms; C3, C4-0.0022 ~F ; C7, CB-
HiGH
PASS 0 .001 ~F . If you prefer a Cljtoff frequency
other than the two just given .. calculate
new resistance values.
CI RCU IT
GROUND- . 52 ln$tallation and Use. The project can
...L LOW
PASS be introduced into the audio system at
any point where signals are at line level.
Two possipilities are at a tape monitor
0 -v loop and between the preamp RUtput
and power amplifier input. It's good prac-
tice to insert a 51-ohm resistor between
the "hot" output terminal of each chan-
nel 's c ircuit and the inner conductor of
the cable which carries signal;:? to the
il)put of the next stage.This car) prevent
oscillation due to the effects of cable or
Fig. 3. Full-size etching load capacitance.
and drilling guide for
printed-circuit board In Conclusion. The active filters pre-
is shown at left.
sented in this article offer a hig"her level
Diagram for layout
of components is above. of performance than those included in
many audio componel)ts . A bit of exper-
imentation will convince you how useful
properly designed low- and pigh-pass
aupio filters really are. 0
20 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S H ~ NDBOOK
BY RUSH W. HOOD

Find out how well your


weatherproofing and

CHECK YOUR insulation work

HEAT LOSS
L arge amounts of money are being

WITH A. spent by homeowners today on insu-


lation, storm windows and other means
of reducing energy use and cost for heat-
ing homes. Gauging the effectiveness of

DEGREEDAY these improvements, however, often re-


quires months or even years of tabula-
tions. Data garnered from supplier bills

METER are often misleading owing to changing


weather conditions that directly affect
the amount of energy needed to main-
tain a desired temperature. The degree-
day meter described here will allow you
to compensate for changing weather and
assess the true efficiency of your home's
added weatherproofing : Moreover, us-
ing this device, only a day or two of
observation will be needed to determine
the effect of any improvement in insula-
tion you have made .

Theory of Heat Flow. Were your


home perfectly insulated, it would main-
tain a constant temperature without
drawing on a source of additional ener-
gy. The temperature of an object is a
function of the heat energy it contains,
and cannot change without an inward or
outward flow of energy. Unless artificial
means (e.g. refrigeration) are used, heat
always flows from a warmer reservoir to
a cooler one, and at a rate proportional
to the difference in temperature.
Insulation impedes the flow of heat
between the two reservoirs . The situa-
tion is analogous to the flow of current
in an electric , circuit. The temperature
difference, Thigh - Tiow is equivalent to
voltage; heat flow, Q, to current; and
insulation value, R, to resistance. Thus,
the equation Q = (Thigh - T 10w) /R
resembles Ohm's law.

1983 EDITION 21
Degree-DayAleter____________________________________________________

Fig. 1. To d.etermine degree-days, the indoor and


outdoor sensors measure temperatures
and convett them to voltages, which are subtracted,
integrated (averaged) and applied to readout.

If the temperatures inside and outside the temperature of the outside air reference temperature, usually 68 F,
your home were constant for a long peri- changes too rapidly to allow such proce- and the differences are averaged over
od of time, you could simply measure dure, the degree-day was devised. one day. If a day is reported to have had
the temperature difference and the rate A degree-day is computed from tem- 15 degree-days, for example, the energy
of en.ergy use by reading the gas or elec- perature readings taken at frequent, needed to heat your home would have
tric meter and calculate i:he average in- regular intervals throughout the day. been the same as if outside had been 15
sulation value of your building. B.e cause These readings are subtracted from a degrees cooler than inside all day.

+I V

+SV

TO
FIG
2

Rll

u'~''
27K

Fig.2. Circuit composed of /C 1 and 03 is a vco whose


frequency varies with temperature.

PARTS LIST IC10- 7805 + 5 -V regulator R14- 51 kr!


IC11 .:_7912 - 12-V regulator R17,R18-1 kr!
C1 - 10-,uF,25-V Mylar or polyester capac- J 1 - Open-circ;;uit stereo phone jack R 19- 4.7 kr!
itor P 1-Stereo phone plug R20 through R4 1 - 1.2 k!l
C2-0. 1-,uF ceramic capacitor Q1,02,04,05-2N2222 transistor S 1-Spst normally open pushbutton
C3-1000-,uF, 25-V electrolytic Q3-2N5457 FET transistor (Radio Shack switch
C4 - 100-,uF, 25-V electrolytic 276-2028) . T1 - 12.6-V, 1-A tran!)former
C5,C6 - 0 .33-,uF, 25-V tantalum ca- The following are 114-W, 5% carbon resis- Misc. -Aluminum enclosure, printed circuit
pacitor tors unless otherwise noted: or perforated board, IC sockets, red
D 1 through 04- 1N9 14 R1 ,R3-'-- 10 kr! plastic for display window, line cord and
D5,D6- 1N4001 1-A, 50-V rectifier R2,R16- 22 kr! plug, strain relief, etc. '
DI SP 1,DISP2,DISP3- Common-a node R4- 50 kr! trimmer potentiometer
display (MAN4610 or sim ilar) R5-4l kr!
i= 1-1-A, fast-blow fuse Note: The following is available from
R6- 100r!
IC 1- TL07 4CN quad BIFET op amp R7 -500 kr! trimmer potentiometer
HLW, P.O. Box 1026, Sflaverton, OR
IC2- 74LS93 binary counter 970!5: complete ~It _of paits 'for
R8- 560kr!
IC3,1C4,1C5- 74LS90 BCD counter R9-270 kn
$97.50, plus $3.50, postage .and han-
IC6,1C7,1{18- 74LS47 BCD-to-seven seg- dling. Also avalla/;lle from the same
R10,R11-27 kr!
ment dec oder source Is an e(ched and drilled printed
R12- 130kr!
IC9 - 78 12 + 12-V regulator circuit board for $9.00.
R13,R15- 100 kr!
22 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK
Circuit Design. The subtracting and
integrating circuits are shown in Fig. 2.

\ Indoor and outdoor temperatures are


sensed by silicon transistors QJ and Q2,
which are connected as diodes. A con-
stant current passing through a silicon
diode junction develops a voltage drop
that varies approximately linearly with
temperature at a rate of 1.2 mY ;o F.
The two sensors are connected in series
opposition, so that the voltages across
them are subtracted. The difference
voltage taken from the junction of the
two transistors is proportional to the dif-
ference between the two temperatures.
Integrated circuit ICJ A supplies
enough gain to boost the difference sig-
nal so that it varies at a rate of 100 m VI
F . It also acts as a half-wave rectifier,
making the meter insensitive to situa-
tions in which the outside temperature
exceeds the inside temperature, which
could happen on sunny days. Sections,
B, C, and D of JCJ and FET Q3 with its
SIJ
RESETl
associated components form a voltage-
controlled oscillator (VCO) whose aver-
age output frequency is 160 cycles per
degree-day. The output of JCJ A is cou-
pled to the inverting ( - ) input of inte-
gra tor I C JC (which averages the signal)
Fig. 3 . Other than the divide-by-16 counter (IC2), via R9 and to inverter ICJ B through
digital circuit is conventional 3-digit RJO. The output of ICJ B is coupled
counter, decoder and display. through Rl2 and FET switch Q3 direct-
ly to the inverting input of ICJC. When
Q3 is turned on, its drain-to-source
Degree-da ys reported by your local How it Works. The meter continuous- channel resistance, coupled with R12, is
weather service can be useful, but t hey ly senses the indoor and outdoor temper- one-half the value of R9 and the /CJ B
may not be sufficiently accurate for crit- atures, subtracts thein and integrates signa l to ICJ Cis twice tha t from R9 and
ical measurements. Your inside temper- the difference. Ana log a nd digital cir- is of the opposite pola rity. Thus, the
ature may not be the standard 68 de- cuit techniques are used to maintain the integrator is fed with either a plus or
grees, and may vary through a 24-hour integration accuracy over long periods minus 100-m VI F signal depending on
period. This degree-day meter project of time and to provide a numerical read- the state of switch Q3. A negative volt-
calculates the degree-days from the out. The block diagram in Fig. 1 sum- age applied to the gate of Q3 turns the
temperatures inside and outside your marizes, in a n easy-to-follow method, transistor off.
particular home. the device's operation. The integrator output is coupled to
compa rator ICJ D, which has a hystere-
sis of 10 volts. The output of ICJ D at pin
7 is either + 10 V or - 10 V depending
on the polarity of the input signal with
respect to ground. This output is coupled
to the gate of Q3 through diode D3.
Assume that t he integrator is developing
a positive-going ramp at its output.
When this reaches the trigger voltage of
the compa ra tor, the latter rapidly
switches to its ma ximum positive out-
put, which reverse biases D3. This turns
Q3 on and routes the inverted signal to
the integrator, which now develops a
negative-going ramp until the compara-
tor switches to its maximum negative
output. This turns off Q3, and the cycle

~
is repeated.
T he output of comparator I C J D is
converted into a TTL-level signal by Q4.
Fig. 4. The three voltage sources are
derived from regulators. Note the
Diode D4 is used to limit the negative-
7805,781 2 IN GND. OUT pin-out differences between the /Cs. going signa l to the base of Q4, while
791 2 GND IN OUT RJ6 is the base-current limiting resistor.

1983 EDITION 23
Degree-Day Meter----~

The TTL signal is used to drive the con-


ventional 3-digit counter, decoder and
display shown in Fig. 3.
The 160 cycles per degree day output
from Q4 is divided by 16 in IC2 to pro-
vide a square wave having one cycle per
tenth of a degree day. This signal is cou-
pled to pin 14 of LSB counter IC3. Zero
set is provided by depressing RESET
pushbutton S1 which places a ground on
pins 2 and 3 (reset to zero) of the four
counting ICs. Note that DISP2 has its
decimal point (pin 9) permanently acti-
vated by a resistor to ground.
The power supply, shown in Fig. 4,
provides + 5 volts for the TTL logic,
12 volts for the analog circuit, and
+ 12 volts for the seven-segment com-
mon-anode readouts. Be sure to observe
the pin-out difference between the regu-
lator ICs.

Construction. The meter can be con-


structed using the foil pattern shown in
Fig. 5, or perforated board and Wire-
Wrap techniques. If you design your
own layout, arrange it so that the digital
portion- especially IC6, IC7 and /C8-
are along one long edge. In this way, the
three-digit display can be mounted on a
separate small board that uses the dis-
plll.y current-limiting resistors for elec-
trical and mechanical interconnection.
Select an enclosure large enough to
accommodate the circuit board and T1.
A rectangular front-panel cutout (cov-
ered by a red filter) should be made for
the three-digit display. RESET switch S 1
is also mounted on the front panel. Jack
JJ, the fuseholder and an insulating
grommet for the line cord can be
mounted on the rear apron. The 5-volt
regulator ICJO and + 12-volt regulator
IC9, which handle appreciable power,
should be mounted to the rear apron to
a llow this wall to a ct as a heat sink.
Capacitors C5 and C6 can be soldered
directly to the respective pins on their
regulators.
The sensor circuit (Fig. 2) is made by
soldering the base and collector of each
transistor together to form one lead. Se-
lect a length of slender two-conductor
zipcord having sufficient length to reach Fig. B. TIHI/tlrge loll pattern (oppos/tll)
the meter from each selected loca tion. Is for the electronic (;lrcult, while the
At one end, separate the leads for an smaner bosrd IHI/ow It Is for the d/spllly.
inc.h or so. Remove about 1/4-inch of TIHI two boards lire Interconnected by the
insulation and slip a short length of nar- current limiting JWJ/stors. lnstllllstlon
row heat-shrinkable tubing on each Of these liM other Co/nponehttlls IIMWn llbollfl.
lead, solder one to the base-collector
lead and the other to the emitter lead.
Slide the heat-shrinka ble tubing down
over the soldered connection and shrink
it. The outdoor sensor ( Q 1) can be en-
capsulated in epoxy if it is not mounted
in a weatherproof location. After both
sensors are fabricated, connect the far
ends of both pairs to the stereo-type
phone plug.

24
Operation. To calibrate the degree-
day meter, all you will need is a de volt-
meter and an ordinary thermometer.
Then proceed as follows : Connect the
voltmeter between the test point shown
in Fig. 2 and ground . Set the voltmeter
for its most sensitive de voltage range,
and place the sensors close to each other.
Turn on the degree-day meter, allow it
to stabilize for I 0 to 15 minutes, and
then adjust R4 for exactly zero volts on
the de voltmeter. Then place the outdoor
sensor in a cool place (outdoors or in the
refrigerator), and adjust R7 until the
voltmeter indicates -0.1 volt for every
degree of difference in the temperatures
between the sensors. For example, if the
inside temperature is 70 F and the out-
side sensor is at 40 F, adjust R7 for
(70-40) X -0.1 or -3 .0 volts at the
test point. Install the sensors where de-
sired and you're ready to measure de-
gree-days. The outside sensor should be
mounted in a shaded location away from
the house and protected from the weath-
er . The inside sensor should be mounted
in a central location away from heat
sources.
To start a measurement, depress RE-
SET push button S 1. The display should
be "00.0" and should be observed to
increment through the day if the outside
sensor is cooler than the inside sensor.
The greater the temperature differ-
ence between outside and inside, the
faster the display will increment.
To measure actual energy efficiency
of your home, you must measure the
energy used over the same time interval
that you measure degree-days . Your
utility company can tell you how to read
your gas or electric meter, or an elapsed-
time meter may be connected to meas-
ure the total length of time the furnace
is heating. Simply divide the energy
(therms, BTUs, or kilowatt hours) by
the degree-days to obtain a figure in en-
ergy per degree-day. This number
should be nearly constant from day to
day, and any improvement you make in
your building's heat retention will lower
this factor .
The degree-day meter can also be
used to check your home's heat gain
while air-conditioning is in use. Simply
reverse locations of the inside and out-
side sensors . It is suggested that regular
records be kept throughout the season to
enourage conservation . It will be obvious
from the efficiency determinations when
real improvements are made in the
weatherization of your home. (Note that
frequent opening and closing of doors is
tantamount to a reduction in insulation
efficiency.)
Use of the degree-day meter can help
a homeowner accurately estimate the
payback period on money spent weath-
er-proofing his building . 0

25
Extra Keyboards tor Microcomputers BY ADOLPH A. MANGIERI

A keyboard can be connected directly in tandem with the


main board of most computers to expand operating versatility.

A N ADDITIONAL keypad or keyboard


in tandem with the main keyboard
puter, but the modification can
applied to many other makes.
be appearance of character A on the moni-
tor screen .
of a computer can have a myriad of To add a remote keypad or a full
uses. A small numeric keypad ca~ be Circuit Operation. Most computer keyboard in tandem, you merely carry
convenient for entering arithmetic data keyboards employ normally-open spst out the required row and column lines to
and allows players to ent er game moves keyswitches wired with keyboard char- the switches of the remote keyboard.
easily. A full typewriter keyboard dupli- acters assigned to row and column lines Just how the computer encodes key clo-
cating the main one makes one comput- of a matrix. As shown in the diagram, the sure is not material. In the TRS-80,
er setup almost as useful as two for TRS-80, keyboard is arranged as an 8 encoding of the keyboard is accom-
group use and instruction. In any case, a X 8 matrix. The eight DO through D7 plished with a program in ROM. (See the
second keyboard, can be used for column lines connect to column line out- TRS-80 Microcomputer Technical Refer-
remote data entry. put buffers (not shown) that, in turn, con- ence Manual for details.) Many comput-
The tandem k eyboard connects di- nect to the data bus. The eight AO ers employ a chip encoded keyboard.
rectly to the computer keyboard matrix through A? row lines are driven by row- The only consideration to be taken
lines and requires no additional compo- line buffers connected to the address into account when connecting a tandem
nents. Once the warranty on your com- bus. Each intersection of the matrix has keyboard into an existing microcomput-
puter expires, there is no reason why an spst keyswitch, as shown for column er system is whether cable capacitance
you should not open the cabinet and lines DO and D7. When the A key is and stray pickup will affect computer
bring out the keyboard matrix lines. It's pressed, ro~ line AO and column line D1 operation. Fortunately, almost any key-
both safe and simple. Details are given are connected to each other to generate board can tolerate several feet of con-
here for the Radio Shack TRS-80 c om- an output on column line D 1 and the nect ing cable to the t andem keyboard.
26 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK
Before you install the connecting socket installed is a male IDC (insulation dis- insertion and install using longnose
on the computer, make temporary con- placement connector) made up of Wire pliers. Wire the connections to the
nections to a row and column line to Wrap posts inserted on the keyboard to marked row and column lines. Use the
determine whether this method is suit- allow use of fem11le IDC patchcords. four extra wires on the 20-conductor IDC
able for your keyboard. Once you have Also, IDC cables are more rugged, easy cable as a ground screen. Assign the
determined that your computer can, to assemble and patch end-to-end with outermost and two intermediate conduc-
indeed, tolerate a tandem keyboard, you homemade adapters. tors to ground. Check soldered connec-
can proceed to modify it. Cover the main circuit board to tions for presence of solder splatter and
exclude debris and solder splatter. With excessive solder. Install the keyboard
Cable Connections. Open the TAS- a wood-block backup, drill the keyboard into the cabinet and straighten any mis-
SO's cabinet, following instructions de- to accept the 16-pin socket, using p- aligned wrap posts on the top with long-
tailed in the Technical Reference Manu- pattern board retained with double-stick nose pliers.
al. Carefully raise the keyboard to avoid tape as a drilling template. For the male Install a 12" (305-mm) cable for front
any strain on the short ribbon cable that IDC, drill 0.042" ( 1. 1-mm) holes to exit. Fabricate the IDC cable using Vec-
connects the two boards. Pull off the accept 20 Vector No. T46-5-9 wrap tor No. KS2-20 20-pin female IDC plugs
board spacers and set the keyboard on posts. For front exit, position the discon- and mating cable No. KW2-20-1 0. Press
its keytops in front of the cabinet with nect as far from the edge as possible, the IDC plug onto the end of the cable
the main circuit board riding loosely in but do not drill into board traces! Nor- using a smooth-acting vise or use the
the bottom half of the cabinet. Although mally, the male IDC is formed using the P 187 IDC fixture. For a longer cable run,
the CPU and several other MOS devices No. MB45-20 perforated alignment block make a second 24" (610-mm) cable and
wired into the circuit are largely pro- to back up the board and maintain the fabricate a male IDC adaptor to join IDC
tected from static discharge, it still pays installed pins perpendicular. However, to cables end to end. Cut the top half or
to observe standard handling precau- use this block, you must remove both long end of the No. T 46-5-9 wrap post
tions when working with MOS circuits. boards from the cabinet to obtain clear- down to 114 " (6.4 mm), round off the burr
Locate the eight column line resis- ance. Lacking the alignment block, use and install posts on a small piece of
tors, which are clearly identified on the a hardwood block for board backup, perforated board. Note: you can face
keyboard. Mark the solder pad at the keeping it very close to the pin. If you IDC plugs the same way or one up and
lower end of each resistor with its asso- remove the main board from the cabinet, one down on a cable. If you use a cable-
ciated column line. You may or may not do not disturb trimpots on it. splice adaptor in lieu of changing the
be able to locate row lines at row-line Use a Vector No. P205 board-pin entire cable, y~u must use the adaptor in
buffers because some buffers were insertion tool to instali No. T46-5-9 wrap every setup because cable line transpo-
interchanged in some keyboard models. posts for the male IDC. This tool eases sitions occur at the splice.
A better approach would be to identify installation of pins with cross bars in
row lines directly at the key terminals. alignment as required to accept a Keyboard Assembly. Inexpensive sur-
For the. TRS-80, touch the negative female IDC plug. Lacking this tool , over- plus desktop calculator keyboards as
(coM) lead of an ohmmeter set to a drill board holes slightly to ease pin shown in the photos are suitable for tan-
medium range, to limit current, to column
line D 1 at the lower end of resistor R5
and the other test lead to either terminal
of keyswitch A (see board labelling). If
you obtain a zero resistance reading,
the remaining terminal is row line AO; but
if resistance is infinite, the terminal being
tested is row line AO. Label the solder
pad as AO. Similarly, select other keys
and locate all row lines. Keyboard
ground is line 19 on the board's intercon-
nect cable. Line 1 is at the extreme
edge of the keyboard. Trace ground to a
convenient solder pad location.
Decide how you wish to route a cable
from the computer's or terminal's cabi-
net. There is ample unused space at the
edges of the keyboard in the TRS-80 for
installation of an internal disconnect. For
a clean cable exit away from heat sinks
and main-board adjustment pots, locate
the disconnect at the front edge and
pass the cable through the front.
A 16-pin DIP socket that mates with a
DIP patchcord is very easy to install.
When not in use. the exposed male pins Desktop calculator keyboard can be cut apart to make smaller keypads.
at the other end of the patchcord can be The pencil at right points to removed top part of keyswitch.
protected with a DIP socket. Less easily Topside brass stampings form part of switch and key strings.

1983 EDITION 27
Using the full keyboard, install in the
Vee Vector No. 51X-1 aluminum frame. Trim
the keyboard to length to fit frame
FROM R8 R5 R3 R2 R7 R1 R4 R6
ADDRESS grooves and cut a top panel to size.
~INE rFEi~ J!tl
Secure the keyboard to the punched
panel using four machine screws and
AO ,. ____;t..._ extra nuts for spacing. Finally, mark key-
@ A B c D E F G
switch terminals with the required row
;!" J!tl and column lines and wire to an IDC male
A1
> i/!. H I J K L M N
;t.
0
connector or DIP socket. The aluminum
frame accepts the M6088-3-1 perfo-
rated bottom plate; otherwise, cut a
~.~ ;!~
;t. plate to size and install.
A2
> p 0 R s T u v w Assign extra keys to any desired
matrix character or command. Six keys
>!"
;t.
already wired in a 1 x 6 key string pro-
A3
> X y z --- vide hex letters A through F. With some
trace cutting, remaining keys can be
;!~
A4
> z 0 , ! ..
2
#
3
$
4
%
5
&
6
f" assigned to the TRS-80 T -Bug monitor
commands. Two keys on this keyboard
were latching on I off switches. We

A5
>
;!~
~ (
8
I
9
*: +
;
< .- >
~
Y" removed the top part and snap disk from
two switches of a spare keyboard and
' installed them in the on I off switch bod-
ies. Then we relabelled keytops.
;!" ~~ Keyswitches on a full typewriter key-
A6
> fl. ENTER CL EAR BREAK + t
---- - SPACE board are usually fully isolated, normally-
open spst types, but check before you

A7
> 1." r-s_ SHIFT
---
buy. The surplus typewriter keyboard
may differ in some respects and may
KEYS contain extra keys and keytop label vari-
(L&R)
TO DATA
LINE BUFFERS
ations. With some relabelling of keys,
these make excellent tandem key-
'----DO D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
boards that allow a student and instruc-
tor to operate the same computer from
Schematic shows 8 X 8 matrix layout of the TRS-80 keyboard, which is different locations.
typical of boards of this type. A keyswitch is located at each The possibility of connecting several
intersection of the matrix to generate an output for a specific character. additional keyboards in tandem may
occur to some readers. However, you
dem hookups and require only slight common side of the switches connected cannot run long lengths of ribbon cable
alterations. The key bodies are thermal- to row line A5 and remaining switch ter- with wild abandon. Our tandem key-
ly staked to the phenolic board, and one minals connected to column lines DO, board was tested using 10' (about 3
terminal of each switch is available on D 1, and D6. The numeric set of this meters) of KW2-20 ribbon cable with
the bottom. A top-side circuit made up of keyboard was a 1 X 10 key string, with four lines assigned as a ground screen.
thin brass stampings serves as switch keys 8, 9, and decimal point at one end This is not good practice -because the
contacts and interconnecting lines to of the string. lengthy cable is not adequately buffered
form key strings that have a common _. To separate the required 1 X 3 key and is not fully ground-planed. Also, its
connection. The top portion of each string, cut off four plastic nubs on the lines are not terminated. The TRS-80
switch is removable to reveal the work- bottom and remove the number 7 key performed satisfactorily but in all likeli-
ing parts and snap-action disc. body. Use a fine-toothed, broken-off hood with a reduction in noise margin. It
Let us implement a numeric keypad hacksaw blade to cut the metal band is recommended that cable length be
for the TRS-80. From the keyboard alongside key 8 and remove the top part limited to 4' or 5' ( 1.2 to 1.5 m) and no
matrix diagram, keys 0 through 7 require of the switch body. Sparingly, apply more than required in any case.
a 1 X 7 matrix or key string, with the epoxy cement to the plastic pegs of the
common side of the switches connected key body and install using a clamp for a Conclusion. From the foregoing, you
to row line A4 and the isolated side of tight fit. Clean switch parts with alcohol can readily see that adding a keyboard
the switches connected to the column and reassemble the switch. in tandem with one in an existing com-
lines. Keys 8, 9, and decimal point Trim and install the keypad in a small puter system or terminal is a relatively
require a 1 X 3 key string, with the case. The numeric keypad shown is simple matter. Although we used a
common side of the switches connected housed in a Vector No. W20-46-31B Radio Shack TRS-80 computer to
to row line A4 and the isolated side of Multi-Mod case. The trimmed keypad demonstrate how to perform the modifi-
the switches connected to the column slides into case-card grooves. Punch cation, the procedure is readily adapta-
lines. Keys 8, 9, and decimal point holes in the panel using a Greenlee ble to most other types of personal com-
require a 1 X 3 key string, with the chassis punch to pass the key shanks. puter systems. 0
28 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK
ALOW-COST
16-LED
.LOGIC
MONITOR

BY TOM KRONENWETTER

Checks all signals


on an IC simultaneously

U SING single-LED logic probes is


the most common way to dheck the
14- or 16-pin DIP packages. If
desired, it can be expanded to han-
dle 40-pin devices. The monitor is
Start assembly in one corner of
board. Skip two holes and install a
LED in third and fourth holes with
logic operation of a digital IC. This is
fine as long as all you want to know is powered from the circuit under test. Op- the LED cathode in hole 4 as shown in
whether a particular pin is high or low erating characteristics are given in Table I. Fig. 2. Install the transistor in the sec-
or is switching between these two states. ond column with the collector lead in the
But most logic circuits require that cor- Basic Circuit. As shown in Fig. 1, the same row as the LED cathode, the base
rect timing be maintained between a basic circuit consists of a relatively high- lead in the fifth row hole and the emitter
number of signals from the same IC. input resistance (100,000 ohms) Dar- lead in the sixth row hole. The cathode
This is something that a single-LED lington transistor driving a LED. Resis- of the LED is thus connected to the
probe cannot test. tor R2 ensures that when the input is transistor collector internally.
The logic monitor described in this ar- logic 0 (low), the transistor will be cut Cut one lead of a pair of 100,000-ohm
ticle allows all of the pins of an IC off and the LED will remain dark. This resistors to 0.7" and the other lead to
to be examined simultaneously, which circuit is duplicated for each required 0.3" . Each of these resistors will be
means that timing can be observed. The pin connection. Current-limiting resistor mounted vertically. Insert the short lead
monitor reads out via 16 LEDs, each R3 is common to all LEDs. of R2 into the second hole past the
connected via a high-input resistance LED, then bend the longer lead over and
driver to a pin of the IC. Interconnection Construction. In constructing the insert it into the hole adjacent to the
between the monitor and the IC is logic monitor, a solderless breadboard LED. Thus R2 is connected between
through a length of ribbon cable termi- (see photo) is used. In this breadboard, the base and emitter of Ql. Insert the
nated to a clip that clamps on to the IC. the five holes across each row are inter- long lead of the remaining resistor into
The project can be constructed for 8-, connected inside the plastic housing. the hole above the base of Ql so
1983 EDITION 29
logictnonftor __________________________________________________________

that h connects to the base of QJ. The LEDs into a common bus. This bus is with scissors along the upper edge of the
shor~ upper lead of this resistor will be then connected is to R3. masking tape. Separate the leads to a
connected to the cable later one At this time, each LED must be iden- length of about one-inch, then strip
If you are making a 16-pin arrange- tified as to pin number. Make up some about 0 .2" of insulation from each lead.
ment, follow the above assembly proce- small stick-on labels, each identified in Tin each lead and form into small closed
dure seven more times to produce eight numerical sequence from 1 to 16, and loops so that they will fit over the ends of
LEDs on one side. If you are making a affix one to the top of each transistor. the leads at the top of each Rl.
14-pin array, then only seven LEDs are The sequence should be 1 through 8 Place the prepared end of the cable in
needed. from top to bottom on the left side, and 9 the center of the breadboard, rainbow
To complete the assembly, start the through 16 from bottom to top on the side up. Connect the second shortest
component installation at the diagonally right side. lead (green) to the short lead of the Rl
opposite corner (no hole spaces), and The final step is wiring the 1.5-foot for the first LED. This corresponds to
work up the other side. Resistor R3 is ribbon cable from the clamp-on connect- pin 1 of the connector. The shortest lead
installed in a hole near the last LED. or to the breadboard. Lay the connector (blue) is connected to the Rl associated
Cut 32 one-inch long jumpers from down with its color-coded side facing up. with the sixteenth LED. Using the cable
#22-gauge solid insulated wire and strip Using Fig. 3 as a guide, from the tip of color-code chart shown in Table II, con-
0.3" of insulation from each end. Six- the brown conductor at one edge of the nect the remainder of the ribbon-cable
teen of these jumpers are used to inter- cable, measure a diagonal 3-inches long leads to their respective RJ's.
connect the 16 ground points to form a to the blue conductor on the opposite When all the connections are com-
common bus. The remaining jumpers side of the cable. Use masking tape to pleted, fold the ribbon cable over on
are used to couple the anodes of all the mark this diagonal. Cut the ribbon cable itself, slightly above the breadboard,

+V TABLE I - TABLE I I -
R~ OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS CABLE COLOR CODE
56.fi

COMMON
TO
ALL
LEOS

Fig. 1. Basic circuit consists of


a Darlington transistor driving a LED.

Fig. 2. Start the assembly


as shown here in the
upper left c orner of board.

30 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


r-

Fig. 3. The 16-lead ribbon cable is prepared as


shown here with the leads cut diagonally so that
they can be connected easily to circuits on the board. INPUT -+-J.M/IIIM,....._
16

and use a tie wrap to act as a strain


relief for the cable.
Most 16-pin DIP packages use pin 16
as the de source and pin 8 as ground. If
you want to follow this convention,
jumper input 16 (blue) to the common
LED bus, and input 8 (brown) to the
common ground bus. This means that
the sixteenth LED will always glow and
the eighth LED always remain dark.
some digital IC's, the 7490 as an ex-
ample, use pin 5 as the de input and pin
10 as the ground. In this case, the circuit
sJ:!own in Fig. 4A may be useq. Here,
two silicon diodes are used to pick off COMMON
the dcvoltage from either the pin-16 or GRO~~~-= A
pin-5 inputs for application to the com- Fig. 4. If pin 5 of the
mon de bus. A separate ground lead can IC to be tested is the +5V~------------------------~
be connected between the monitor com- de input and pin 10 is R3
ground, use the circuit
mon-ground bus and the ground of the
at (A). To keep each
circuit under test. It is also possible to input isolated from
keep each input isolated from either de de or ground, use
or ground, and use a separate lead con- the connections at (B). CIRcuW
nected between the monitor de bus and UNDER
TEST
the 5 volts of the circuit under test as ALL
LEOS
shown in Fig. 48. In this latter case, all INPUT -/IIIMrw..-.-
the LEDs will be active. The human eye
can distinguish flashing of the LEDs at
rates up to about 15 Hz. Above that fre-
quency the LEDs will appear to be con-
COMMO
stantly "on." 0 GROUN
BUS -

1983 EDITION 31
stress. Even then, the measurement is
indirect. Basically, the device makes its
determination by sensing an effect of
one type or another that many research-
ers believe is an accurate indicator of
stress. Validation studies have been
used to compile an impressive r~cord of
suc;cesses, but it should be remem-
bered that a high degree of interpreta-
tional skill is required and there is
always an appreciable probability for
error in using such an instrument.
bne popular indicator of stress has
been the relative amplitude of certain
vocal modulations in a p~rson's speech.
The Voice Stress Analyzer described
here is a small, readily portal:!le 4nit. It i~
designed to operate on the principles
pioneered by Dektor and other compa-
nies in the field whose products have
received wide acceptance.

B~sic Theory. Extensive military re-


search and wartime counterintelligence
work have yielded several theories and
device~ that have been used during
interrogation in an attempt to separate
truth from falsehood . One of these theo-
ries is that human voices, which have
fun.damental frequencies ranging from
about 90 to 200 Hz, are normally modu-
lated by an 8-to-12-Hz "microtremor"
signal. The latter's effect is usually
masked by other voice components: but,
acc~rding to these researchers, reason-
ably simple electronic circuitry . can
detect and measure the microtremors.

BY COLLEEN McNEICE
AND ROGER COTA
S O-CALLED "electronic lie detec-
tors" have become controversial
items. Some workers in the fields of
security and law-enforcement swear by
them, while others (including some psy-
Hand-held LED- chologists) hold that the principles on
which the devices are based are ill-
display instrument founded and unscientific. Still other inqi-
viduals denounce the application of lie
is said to detect detectors as an invasion of privacy. LEDs are positioned in window
Actually, the best that these detec- area, miniature microphone is put
voice stress tors can do is measure psychological in center cutout at top of case.
32 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK
When a person is under stress, says
the theory, normal vocal microtremors
diminish greatly in amplitude. Th!3 auton-
omic nervous system, preparing the
body for emergency reactions, causes
the pupils to dilate, blood to rush away
from the limbs : and the muscles to
tense . Since the vocal chords ar11 princi-
pally muscular tissue, they, t90 , 'tighten
and decrease the amplitude of microtre-
mors. Thus, it is claimed, measuring the
relative amplitude of vocal microtremors
gives an indication of stress . The wave-
form of a human voice with microtremor,
indicating no or very little stress, is
shown in Fig . 1A, its spectral content in 90
Fig. 18.

System Operation. Basic operation of


th!3 Voice Stress Analyzer is shown in
Fig. ~. while Fig. 3 illustrates typical

waveforms (not drawn to scale) that
Fig. L Waveform of the human voice with microtremors
is shown at (A), spectral content of voice is at (B).
occur in the circuit
The input voice sig[lal in Fig . 3A illus-
trates the sqrnewhat closer peak spac- produces the 1.5-ms pulses shown in The Circuit. Figures 4 and 5 illustrate
'ing attribute~ to microtremors as com- Fig . 30. the complete schematic diagram of the
pared wi ~ h the "normal" spaying of the As the 8-to-12-Hz microtremor modu- Voice Stress Analyzer. The IC2D circuit
peaks in the voice signal. After amplifi- lates the fundamental, spacing between (Fig . 5) supplies the ground tap required
cation , the composite voice signal goes pulses changes . Pulses from the one- by the op amps . Resistors R 1 and R2
to a voice-frE)quency bandpass filter to shot then pass through a 20-Hz low- and capacitor C 1 provide power from
re111ove extraneous noise. Then the sig- pass filter and an 8-to-12-Hz filter, after battery B 1 for the condenser micro-
nal input is half-wave rectified. In a 150- which it is rectified and integrated to phone. Jack J 1 is a transfer type that
Hz low-pass filter, the higher voice fre- form a smooth voltage. This signal may disconnects MIG when an external audio
quencies are attenuated, leaving only rise above a preset threshold when the source is plugged into it (The external
the lower frequencies , including those of microtremors are closely spaced, in a source can be a telephone pickup,
the microtremors (Fig . 38). The positive- manner similar to that of the vertical- dynamic microphone, or output from a
going output then toggles a Schmitt trig- sync scheme used in a TV receiver. tape recorder.)
ger (Fig. 3C) to produce a squared-off When the integrated output is above the Audio amplifier IC1A operates close
waveform . The latter is suitable for tog- threshold, it causes the LEOs to come to its open-loop gain whose output goes
gl ing a one-shot multivibrator that then on ip a particular sequence (Fig . 3E) . to the IC 18 bandpass-filter circuit Recti-
INPUT

jiOiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii.,~~.iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii FUNDAMENTAL RECOVERY

~~============~~~~==============~~
MICROTREMOR OETECTOR

Fig. 2. The analyzer circuit is designed to extract the 8-to-12-Hz microtremor fro m
the voice input and use the resultant signal to turn on a LED display.
1983 EDITION 33
fier D 1 half-wave rectifies the signal to
recover the fundamental modulating fre-
quency. Higher harmonics are removed
by IC1C, an 18-dB/octave filter that
passes only those frequency compo-
nents below 150 Hz.
Schmitt-trigger circuit /C 1D converts
the recovered fundamental into steep
rising and falling edges that are suitable
for driving timer /C4. As shown in Fig. 3C
and D, the Schmitt trigger's sharp rise
time toggles the timer, which produces a
1.5-ms pulse.
The generated pulse train goes
through low-pass filter IC2A to remove
the waveform's sharp edges and amplify
any frequencies below 20Hz. Bandpass
filter IC2B is "tuned" to the 8-to-12-Hz
microtremor frequency and amplifies any
signal within this range
Full-wave rectifier /C3AI IC3B ac-

cepts th is signal and produces a de out-
put voltage that is proportional to the
amplitude of the microtremor (fig. 3E).
This voltage is developed across C 19,
which is constantly being discharged by
time-constant resistor R32. Fig. 3. Typical waveforms within the analyzer. According to
Display drivers IC3C and /C3D are the authors, the "trick" lies in detecting the presence of the narrower
microtremor peak spacing within the voice frequencies. Integrated
Continued from page 38
one-shot pulses derived from these signals are used to toggle the readouts.

C7
.047)1F
+9V

R9 RIO.
75K 75K

+
Cl C6
22pF .OI)lF

Cll
.047JIF

+9V

R20 R21
8 6.8K 3.3K
RIS Rl9
150K 150K

Cl2
.047pF + Cl3
4 -.7)1-F

-9V +9V -9V


FIG 5 FIG 5

Fig. 4. The voice processing circuits of the analyzer result in 20-Hz signals from IC2A and 8-to-12-Hz
signals from IC2B. These signals drive the rectifier/display section shown in Fig. 5.
34 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK
If you like to make things work ... and
then find out why they work-

you could be getting paid


fordoing something yo11
. re*
Learn electronics ... right on up to an
Associate Degree ... in your own home
enjoy!
without giving up your present job
or income.

People who really like their work get ahead


faster. And, when your natural abilities
match the job requirements, you have an
extra advantage. When you use
practical training to sharpen your
skills,1your odds are better for
keeping your job even if others
START MAKING
are losing theirs. So, if you find THINGS WORK
satisfaction and interest in
making things work, a career
FOR YOU
in electronics may be for you. Send today for the CIE school
catalog and complete package of career
information. It's all FREE, and it will help
WHY ELECTRONICS you decide where you want to start and how
IN A CLASS BY
IN THE 80's far you want to go. For your convenience,
Opportunity. YOURSELF we'll try to have a school representative con-
The field of electronics simply offers more One of the great benefits of home study is tact you to review the various educational
career opportunities - and more job se- the independence it gives you. You study programs and assist in course selection. Just
where and when you want to. You move as mail the postage-paid card or write, men-
curity - than most other fields today. Take
fast as you can handle it. There's no class- tioning the name and date of this. magazine.
digital technology, for example. Much of the
room to go to because with CIE, the We want to help you make things work, so
new telecommunications, da.a processing,
classroom comes to you! But, you're never send for :rour FREE school catalog today!
and production equipment depends upon
sophisticated microprocessors to receive, alone. When you request help, the CIE
sort, and send digital signals in micro- electronics expert best qualified will
seconds. Two of CIE's newest home study personally respond in writing.
courses combine digital electronics theory
with actual experience on digital equipment. SET YOUR OWN GOALS
Successful completion of either one of those CIE's wide selection of courses gives you
courses is creditable toward. CIE 's Associate many options. You St!lrt with a Career
Degree program. That's right. . . you can earn Course that suits your talents. Then, since
an Associate Degree without attending a more than half. of CIE's courses include a
single class session. series of optional lessons to prepare you to
pass the government-administered FCC
License exam, you can get an FCC License
MAKING THINGS WORK . .. a requirement for some electronics jobs CIE's Microprocessor Training Laboratory,
Many of CIE;s Career Courses stress "hands- and a credential for all electronics jobs. You an integral part of the Associate Degree
on" training. We believe textbook know!- may then go on and earn an Associate in program, lets the advanced student apply
edge is important - but it's just as important Applied Science Degree in Electronics digital technology in many of the same
to know to apply your book learning Engineering Technology. It's all up to you! ways electronics professionals do.
in practical situations. From basic circuitry
in CIE's Personal Training Laboratory in
several Career Courses, through the
Cleveland Institute of Electronics, Inc.
Microprocessor Training Laboratory, CIE
helps channel your desire to "make things
work" into skills you can sell . CIE 1776 East 17th Street, Cleveland, Ohio 44114
Accredited School National Home Study Council EH-3 1
connected as comparators, using the nents on pc board, be sure to properly able battery for B 1, mount a suitable
voltage generated across R33, R34, and orient diodes, LEOs, ICs, and electrolyt- power jack on the plastic case and wire
R35 as the reference . The comparators ic capacitors, as shown in the compo- it to the battery.
then drive the LEOs. When LED 1 comes nent placement guide. Now, use a dry-transfer lettering kit to
on, presence of microtremors is indi- With exception of the microphone, label the LEDs in the display. Label
cated, meaning .no stress. When these auxiliary input jack, power switch, and LED 1 NORMAL and LED4 STRESS. Leave
frequencies are missing, LED4 comes battery, all components mount directly transitional LED2 and LED3 without
on to indicate high $tress. As microtre- on the circuit board. The microphone legends. This completes construction.
mors come and go, LED2 and LED3 and auxiliary jacks mount in holes at the
come on. top of the plastic case. (Make certain Construction. Using the actual-size
The display also receives a control that the pickup end of the microphone controls, it should be operational as
signal from the 20-Hz filter that turns off points outward.) Mount the power Switch soon as power is turned on. As you
the LEOs when no input signal is pres- on the upper surface of the case, below speak into the microphone, you should
ent, conserving battery life. the display window and label its oN posi- note that the LEOs flicker, with the NOR
tion with a dry-transfer lettering kit. Con- MAL LED on most of the time.
Construction. Using the actual-size nect and solder the positive lead of B t's A number of tests were performed on
etching anci drilling guide shown in Fig . battery connector to the hole A-pad on the Voice Stress Analyzer by one of the
6, the Analyzer was designed to fit in a the circuit board, the negative lead to authors. Using the audio from a TV-
calculator:type case. Referring to the the hole 8-pad . network news broadcast, it was noted
component-placement guide in Fig. 6, Examine the jack and schematic dia- that when the newscaster spoke, the
mount the components in their respec- gram and. connect and solder lengths of NORMAL LED was on most of the time.
tive locations, taking care to properly hookup wire from the jack's lugs to the When actors and actresses were
orient the diodes, polarized capacitors, appropriate E, F, and G pads on the speaking their roles, basically the same
ICs, and LEOs . When installing compo- circuit board . If you choose a recharge- results were observed . However, when

+9V -9V -9V

8
+ C20
R28 R30 22)1F
lOOK lOOK
R25
22K

R23
22K Bl
9V
~ED/
/ s1 ~111---....,....---1
LED
3 +9V
R29
lOOK

R32 R33 -9V


Cl9 220 IK
.047~F
K

Fig. 5. The 8-to-12-Hz signals are rectified in IC3A and IC3B, integrated in C19 and used to
turn on a comparator (IC3C, IC3D) that causes the LED (s) to glow. IC2C shuts down the LEDs when
there is no 20-Hz signal, while IC2D creates a bipolar supply from a single 9-volt battery.

PARTS LIST
B I ~9-volt battery LED I through LED4- red LED R36,R37- 390 ohms
C I ,C 17 ,C 18,C20---22-!LF, 16-volt tanta- The following are \4-watt 5% resistors: Misc.-'""suitable enclosure, battery clip,
lum R I ,RI ?:RI5,RI7,R23,R25- 22,000 hook up wire, mounting hardware, etc.
C2,C4,C5--0.002-!LF, I 00-volt Mylar ohms
C3,Cl6~ 1-!LF, 100-volt electrolytic .R2,R8,R27 ........ 10,000 ohms Note: The following is available from Video
C6~0 . 0J -!LF, I 00-volt Mylar R3,R22,R32- 220,000 ohms Control, 3314 H St., Vancouver, WA 98663
C7,CIO,C li ,C I2,CI9~0. 047-!LF , 100- R4- 2700 ohms (Tel: 206-694-7905): complete kit includ-
volt Mylar R5,RI4-..,.. I megohm ing microphone, battery clip, pc board,
C8~0.0056-!LF, I 00-volt Mylar R6,R 16~33,000 ohms case, and manualfor $96.00. Also available
C9~0.1-)LF, 100-volt Mylar R 7 ,R24-680,000 ohms
C 13- 4.7-!LF, 35-volt tantalum separately: etched and drilled pc board at
R9,RIO,RI i-75,000 ohms
C!4,CI5---0.47-!LF, 35-volt, tantalum R13,R20-6800 ohms $12. 50; hand-held case, battery clip with
Dl through D4-IN9'14 RI8,Rj9-1 50,000 ohms power jack and condenser microphone at
ICI ,IC2,1C3-LM324 quad op amp R21 ...........3300 ohms $18.00. Please add $3.50 for postage/han-
IC4-LM 3905 precision tLmer R26- 15,000 ohms dling. washington state residents, please
J !-subminiature phone jack with R28 through R31 ,R35-I 00,000 ohms add 5.1% sales tax. Allow four weeks for
switch R33 ,R34,R38-I 000 ohms delivery.

(Continued on page 52)


38
U NTIL a couple of years ago, experi-
menting with sound-effects circuitrY
.;,.as difficult. requiring a large bread-
6.oard to accommodate oscillators of
various descriptions, modulators. noise
sources, mixers, envelope generators,
etc. Now, thanks to Texas lnstrumef!ts'
EFFECTS
SN76477 complex sounc~ generator. an
integrated circuit that sells nationally for
about $3.00, sonic experimentation is GENERATOR Inside the 1<: Pckage. By considering
its complex Qircuit as a series of function

With a minimum of extra components and a singleTexas Instrument


SN76477 IC, you can create a host of different sounds
"blocks," it i~ relatively easy to under- a nominal 0.1-to-30-Hz range, contingent signal is present or absent, the system
stand and follow the 76477's operation. on the values d resistance (F{) anq inhibit logic controls the output of the
In Fig. 1; the IC's function blocks are capacitance (C) connected from pins 20 envelope generator and modulator. This
redl!Ced to simplest form , with basic and 21, respectively, to ground. Two out- signal also toggles th~ one-shot multi~i~
so"und-generating blocks in gray shading puts are available from this oscillator: a brator that is used to generate the short-
and' supplemental control blocks in 50% duty-cycle square wave that is duration pulses used to simulate the
color. Typical waveforms available at applied to the mixer and a triangular sounds of gunshots, bells, and explo-
various points in the system and '!"'hat wave that can be routed to an external sions. Time duration of the ml!ltivibra-
the final output before amplification voltage-controlled oscillator (vco) via tor's output signal is determined by the
in.i ght look like are also shown. pin 16 or through the SLF's select logic R and C vall!es connected from pins 24
A more complete picture of all the block to modulate the internal vco. and 23 to ground. Maximum usable peri-
function blocks contained in the IC's 28- Modulation of the internal vco covers od is approximately 10 seconds .., ..
pin package is shown in Fig. 2. Fabri- a 10:1 range, with the lowest frequency The-output .from the one shot multivi-
cated from bipolar analog and 12L digital determined by the R and C values con- brator is passed through the envelope-
blocks, this IC contains all the active nected between pins 18 and 17 to seleCt circuit tbat determines envelope
circuitry needed for a user to cre~te an ground. This vco's output goes to the shape and is used to ' moduiate the
almost unlimited range of sounds. mixer and envelope-select circuits. envelope . generator and modulator.

Fig. 1. This simplified block


diagram of the operation of
the 76477 shows, in gray
shading, the blocks that
generate the basic sounds.
Supplemental control blocks
CONTROLLED BY EXTE RNA L are in colored tints.
CAPACITORS & RESISTORS

Desired sounds are all user defined. Output pulses from the noise clock, Modulator attack and decay are con-
You simply switch into and out of the whose frequency is determined by the trolled by the R and C values connected
IC's circuit resistor and cap~citor values resistance values co~nected from pins from pins 7, 8, anc! 10 tq ground.
and set a few logic states to "tailor" the 3 arid 4 to ground, are used to control Th~ final signal is applied to the audio
audio parameter you require. Sounds of the noise generator. The outpuffrom the amplifier, which develops a 2.5-volt
gunshots, explosions, sirens, musical noise generator is passed through a peak-to-peak maximum low-impedance
instruments, "phaser" guns, etc., c;:tn be variable-bandwidth noise filter, con- output at pin 13. A feedback resistor can

;~:u~~::; ~eoaur;~:f~~=~ create sounds


trolled by the Rand C values from pins 5
and 6 tO' ground, to the mixer.
be connected between pins 12 and 13 to
modify the amplifier's gain.
An au.dio amplifier is built into the IC, The mixer combines the three inputs There are 23 variables under user
but you can route its output to a high- (from the noise filter, the SLF's square- control with the 76477 sound generator.
quality ~udio amplifier to obtain a louder, wave generator; and the vco) and, con- Hence, you can Qe kept OCCL!pied for a
~ich~r sound. tingent on the de states of fts three 'considerable time exploring the effects
se'l ector inputs, at pins 25, 2!;>, and 27, th'a t can be obtained with various combi-
Chip Operation. The super-low-fre- determines type of mixer-output "signal. nations of controls.
quency (SLF) oscillator in the 76477 has Depending on whether a 5-volt control ' (continued on next page)

40 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMEN!ER'S HANDBOOK


Fun Circuits
A B
You Can Build GV"' S.HOT
OR
In this section, we. present five fun circuits EXPLOSION

that typify some of the uses to which the


SN76477 complex sound generator IC can
be put. All are relatively simple and inex-
pensive to build, because the IC contains
all the active circuitry needed.
Circuits A, B. and C can be used to add
realisiic sound effects to the animation in
video games. The model railroader will find
circuit D useful, while the electronic "or-
gan" in circuit E should appeal to all, espe-
cially children. Finally, circuit F illustrates
how an outboard transistor amplifier stage
can be added fo increase the power deliv-
ered to the speaker.

+5V

--~ e
ORGAN
+5V

_,_ ___ ----------,


4 ~K I
~--'N33WOWK....... LORUr,ll
yr(OPTl!
+sv I
- - - - - - - ' - _______ j

Practical Breadboard. Shown in Fig. 3


is the circuit of a practical experiment-
er's "breadboard." Although the circuit
is really quite simple, to utilize the full
capabilities of the 76477 sound genera-
tor, a rather large cabinet is required to
accommodate all the switches and
jacks shown .
You can use a small piece of perfo-
rated board on which to mount /C 1 (a
socket is recommended) and the Q 1I
02 audio amplifier circuit. Alternatively,

1983 EDITION 41
VCO EXTERNAL PITCH
SELECT VCO CONTROL CONTROL

------.'n--1} 19

lJ: 76477 (A)

SLF ~~ :~~~~':. Jc---- - - -.. ."'"J_ EXTERNAL VCO


OR SLP
SELECt
~ vco
A ,"'\
VCO
CONTROL

CONTROL~~

21
(C)
1 1 r-r ~ 17
(C)

I
IAI
/1 5

~
I
CLOCK
CONTRO
NOISE :
(A)
..__jf-- NOISE
Cld<:K
J NOISE:
GENERATOR
~ NOISE
FILTER A I
NOISE
FILTEA
CONTROL

'I
I
... r
EXTERNAL
NOISE CLOC ~ 6
(A) 3 -p' IC)

~
15
'
+ 5V

/1 ~14

9 J
M

::.-::; lfi.
:J MIXER
~
R-EGULATOR
1\,.
~
I,
+ 9V in

r
:I
SYSTEM
LOGIC GND

...~-
INHIBIT-r1

1 ~
--------(A)
12

~J
FE EDBACK

ICI ""-

\~ ONE --1 ENVELOPE ~ ENV. GEN ~ ~ I 13

ONE SHOT ~~ SHOT ~I SELEC f OD~~TOR ~ AMP f.-,-,- A UDIO

,,:::,..,"'~ ~ ~ ~~
OUTPUT

:,.r-..,..,....111"-----.,,.
u:u
CONTROL

(R) ~ I-I"'"--26L=t;
.. ~ 1----:...t~ l~-1"'"..;._---1
:~: = ~~~~~~~~R ~
ENVE LOPE
-------
MIXER
ATTACK /
DECAY
ATTACK
CONTRO L
DE LAY
CONTROL
AMPLITU D E
CONTROL
SELECT SELECT TIMING (R ) (A ) (R)
(C)

Fig. 2. The block diagram of the internal operation of a


76477 complex sound generator IC shows how it contains
a complete sound-effects lab in a 28-pin package.

you can design and fabricate a printed- function. Group arrangements can be
circuit board. If you use perforated TABLE I-JACK IDENTIFICATION outlined on the control panel with a
board, you can Wire Wrap or pencil wrap J1 Input for external noise oscillator heavily inked or painted line.
the components into the circuit. J2 Input for external voltage-controlled , Once the various components are
Although the system will operate from oscillator mounted on the front panel, refer to
a standard 9-volt battery, you might opt J3 Noise filter resistance measurement Fig. 3 and wire them into the circuit.
jack with R4
for a small power supply that can deliver
J4 Decay resistance measurement jack
7.5 to 9 volts instead, if only to free with R6 Use. Note in Fig. 3 that each IC pin that
yourself from having to replace batteries JS Attack resistance measurement jack terminates in a potentiometer has both a
periodically. Make sure, however, that with R8 switch and banana or tip jack in series
the cabinet you select will accommo- J6 Audio output
with the pot. This permits you to use an
J7 External vco measurement jack with
date all controls, jacks, and circuitry. ohmmeter to measure the resistance
R15
All 28 switches, 12 banana or tip J8 Vco control resistance measurement required for a given sound, arrived at
jacks, and 8 potentiometers should be jack with R 18 experimentally. After obtaining the de-
mounted on the front "control" panel J9 Pitch control resistance measure- sired sound, you simply open the switch
ment jack with R23
and suitably identified with a dry-transfer for the pot and use the ohmmeter to
J 10 SLF oscillator control resistance
lettering kit. To simplify experimenting, measuFement jack with R25 measure the resistance from the asso-
switches, jacks, and pots should be J11 One-shot resistance measurement ciated jack to ground. If you keep a log
identified according to function as jack with R27 of the various resistances and capaci-
shown in Tables I through Ill. Table IV is J12 Common ground
tances required for particular sounds,
an example of grouping according to they can be duplicated on demand.
42 (continued on page BO)
R4
IM R2 R27
NOISE 47K IM
0 I I 0


FILTER
+5V
ONE-SHOT

0
511 R3 +5V

NOISE FILTER 2.7K


0

!
Sl6
MIXER
c
+5V
+5V

2 27
Sl7
MI XER
ll 0

520
ONE-SHOT
CAPACITOR

t'
A
R6 Sl8
C5 IM Jl 26 MIXER
.OipF DECAY EXT B
NOISE
CLOCK 3
25

4
Sl3 R26

"
NOISE OSC. 2.7K
59 SLF OSC.
ce 5 CAPACITOR
ATTACK/DECAY

~ CAPACITOR Sl2 522


NOISE

~
FILTER 6

CIO
F R7
2.7K '
IOpF 510 IC I
DECAY 76477
+ R8 J4 8
IM
ATTACK 58 R24 R25
.....1,_ 2.7K IM
9 SLF OSC .
R9 +5V~
ONE SHOT
CONTROL
22K
+5V
57 R22 R23
RIO R7 50K 50K
47K 2.7K 10 PITCH
56 526 Rl9
Rll J5 lOOK
lOOK 55
ATTACK
II 525 vco
VCO CONTROL
AMPLITUDE CONTROL J8 RESISTOR R20
Rl2 +5V IM
220K 17

Rl 3 INT R21
330K J7 IOM
16 528 EXT
Cl2
53 vco IOOpF
OUTPUT SELECTOR

~
J2
14 15 T:EXT VCO
JS CONTROL
F

Rl5
50K
vco
S27 ~ .05pF

~
an Sl CONTROL VCO CONTROL
SPKR POWER CAPACITOR

Rl RIS
3.9K 50K

+9V
T +5V
T +5V
.47pF
6

+
Jl2
IN TO CIRCUIT GND Cl7
IJJF

Fig. 3. The circuit for a complete sound-effects generator uses


28 switches, 12 banana (or tip} jacks and eight potentiometers
to allow a broad selection of controllable parameters.
PARTSUST

Bl - 9-volt battery (see text) J3 through J 12- pin or banana jacks R21 - IO megohms
CI - ISO-pF capacitor Q1 - 2N3703 transistor S I through S4,S6,S7 ,S I O,S 12 through
C2- 360-pF capacitor Q2- 2N3704 transistor S 19,S2!,S23 through S2S- Spst slide
C3- 0.001 -!LF capacitor The following are 1/2-watt, 10% resistors or toggle switch
C4,CS-0.0 1-ILF capacitor unless otherwise noted: SS,S20,S22- Single-pole, S-position non-
C6,C 14,C 19-0.0S-!LF capacitor Rl-3900 ohms shorting rotary switch
C7 ,CIS,C20,C23- 0.1-ILF capacitor R2,RlO,RI4- 47,000 ohms S8- Normally open, momentary-contact
C8,Cl6,C2!,C24- 0.47-!LF capacitor R3,RS,R 7 ,R 17 ,R24,R26- 2700 ohms pushbutton switch
C9,CI7,C2S- l -!LF capacitor R4,R6,R8,R 18,R2S,R27- l-megohm S9,S27- Single-pole, S-position nonshort-
CIO,Cll,C22,C26- 10-!LF, IS-volt elec- linear-taper potentiometer ing rotary switch
trolytic R9- 22,000 ohms 8 11,826-Single-pole, 4-position non-
Cl2- 100-pF capacitor R I I ,R 19- 100,000 ohms shorting rotary switch
C 13,C 18- SOO-pF capacitor R 12- 220,000 ohms 828- 8pdt slide or toggle switch
C27- SO-!LF, IS-volt electrolytic R 13- 330,000 ohms Misc.-Battery holder; 28-pin DIP socket
lC!- SN76477N complex sound genera- R 1S,R23- SO,OOO-ohm linear-taper po- for lCI; dry-transfer lettering kit; suit-
tor (Radio Shack 276-176S or similar) tentiometer able enclosure; control knobs and dial
J I ,J2- RCA phono jacks RI6,R22- SO,OOO ohms plates (7); etc.
R20- 1 megohm

1983 EDITION 43
I N-CIRCUIT measurement of a re-
sistance offers several advantages
compared to the alternative method of
unsoldering one lead of the component
to be measured. For example, it saves
time and does not pose the risk of dam-
BY FRANK WITNER AND DIANE JASINSKI age to printed-circuit boards and the
components mounted on them. Pre-
sented in this article are techniques that
provide accurate in-circuit resistance
Save time and avoid possible measurements. These are not to be con-
fused with the use of so-called "low-
circuit damage with little-known power" ohmmeters that measure in-cir-
cuit resistance if the only shunting com-
ponents are semiconductors. Rather,
techniques of component testing. these techniques give accurate in-circuit
resistance measurements even if the
component to be measured is shunted by
other res is tors!

~~~QDOO~U~ Measurement Basics. If an ohm-


meter is used to measure the resistance
of a component wired in a circuit, an

WAYS TO MEASURE inaccurate result will be obtained if


there is any resistance in parallel with
the resistance to be measured. Obvious-

O~o~OOO~QDDU
ly, the parallel resistance causes a de-
crease in the overall resistance. The
amount of error depends upon the ratio
of the shunting circuit resistance to the

OO~~D~U~~~~~

44 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


value of the resistance to be measured. 5

It is shown graphically in Fig. 1.


Seldom is a resistor in a given circuit
1-
....uz
10
~
,.,.
"
placed directly in parallel with another
resistor. Rather, any resistors connected
a:
....
Q. 20
..,~
to either side of it usually run to other
a:
0
I
I
circuit nodes. The delta-network model
a:
a:
.... I
....
of a typical circuit shown in Fig. 2 ~ J
reflects this. The resistor whose value is 1-
!ffl /
to be determined is designated Rl, and ""'....z
the shunting circuit paths are embodied J
in R2 and R3. 50 1/ " 9
The node at the junction of R2 and 1 4
CIROJIT RESISTANCE
19

R3 makes it possible to electrically iso- RESISTANCE TO BE MEASURED RATIO


late the resistor to be measured without
Fig. 1 Graphics/ snslysis of the error
physically disconnecting one end of it. in s resistance measurement
This is accomplished by placing each caused by uncompensated
end of part of the shunt path at the same shunting circuit resistances.
voltage. Because there is no voltage drop
across part of the shunt path, the entire
shunt path behaves like an open circuit verting or noninverting input terminals. causes the ohmmeter to provide an accu-
and will not affect an in-circuit resis- Secondly, in a noninverting amplifier rate resistance reading.
tance measu rement of the component with 100% feedback, there is no voltage Two factors determine how much cur-
under test. This technique can be used difference between the inverting and rent the follower must source through
even in a complex circuit because any noninverting inputs. These statements R2- the measuring potential impressed
number of shunt paths can be reduced to are true of ideal, not practical, opera- across the network by the ohmmeter and
an equivalent of a single path by con- tional amplifiers. However, contempo- the value of the shunt resistance driven
necting together their junction points rary practical op amps can, within cer- by the follower (in this case, R2). If the
(homologous to the node R2R3). tain limits, offer levels of performance voltage impressed across the network by
There are several circuits, most of closely approaching those of ideal am- the ohmmeter is too high, the necessary
them designed around the operational plifiers. The differences are then slight current level might exceed the maxi-
amplifier, that can perform the required enough that they can be ignored. mum amount of current the follower can
isolating function. Two of the qualities safely provide or the heat generated by
of the ideal operational amplifier make The Voltage Follower shown in Fig. the driven shunt resistance might exceed
it well suited for this application. First- 3 can electrically isolate the resistance the component's dissipation capability.
ly, no current flows into either the in- to be measured from the shunting cir- Reversing the follower leads might
cuit resistances in the following manner. prove helpful if either of the problems
This stage has unity voltage gain and just mentioned is expected to be encoun-
sets up at its output terminal the same tered. This will cause the follower to
voltage that appears at its noninverting source current into the other shunt ele-
input. When the ohmmeter is connected ment (R3), which might have a higher
to the delta network as shown, a positive resistance. The best solution, however, is
)voltage appears at the HIGH TERMINAL to use an ohmmeter that employs a low
and the follower's noninverting input. measuring potential. A moment's reflec-
The follower then sources current into tion on the familiar equation P = E2/R
R2 so that the node R2R3 is at the same / RESISTANCE TO BE MEASURED
voltage as the HIGH TERMINAL. There-

~
fore, no voltage drop appears across R3,
and effectively no resistance is in paral-
lel with Rl, the component whose resis-
tance is to be measured. This isolation

I1V1I S HUNT RESISTAN CES

Fig. 2 . Generalized model of s circuit


containing s resistance to be
measured snd shunting components.

1983 EDITION 45
in-circuit resistances--------------------------------------------------

reveals that the power dissipated by a several meter scales and either a number pacitor to attain its ultimate voltage
resistance decreases according to the of current sources with different output considerably faster than is the case
square of the reduction in voltage but ratings or a single current source whose when a constant-current source charges
only linearly to an increase in the resist- output can be varied in fixed, accurate it, and allows for much shorter settling
ance value. increments. times during in-circuit resistance tests.
Miller-effect analysis of this circuit
The Inverting Amplifier shown in reveals that resistances are reflected be- Bridge Measurements. A form of
Fig. 4 is another op-amp circuit that can tween the HIGH TERMINAL and ground the classic Wagner bridge that can be
be used for in-circuit resistance meas- and between the LOW TERMINAL and used for in-circuit resistance measure-
ground. These reflected resistances par- ments appears in Fig. 6. It can be
OHMMETER
+ allel shunt components R2 and R3 such thought of as two resistive bridges shar-
that R2 is in parallel with a resistance ing common elements R7 and Rl, which
HIGH equivalent to RI I (I - (1 I A)) and R3 is is the component whose value is to be
COMMON Rt
TERMINAL
TERMINAL in parallel with a resistance equivalent measured. As was the case in the cir-
to RII(l-A), where A is the voltage cuits presented earlier, R2 and RJ are
R2 R3 gain of the stage. The effective resist- the in-circuit shunting components.
ances of the shunt paths thus depend Shunt resistor R3 is placed across the
upon both the value of the component to null meter when S I is switched to its
be measured and the values of the shunt WAGNER position. This reduces the sen-
components-not upon the values of the sitivity of the null indicator for the
shunt components alone. Because of the Wagner adjustment but does not affect
Miller effect, in a practical circuit, the the balance of either bridge. Successive
operational amplifier can work with a balancing of the bridge by means of po-
lower value of shunt resistance between tentiometers R4 and R6 (with S/
the LOW TERMINAL and ground than be- switched alternately to each of its posi-
Fig. 3. Here, the voltage follower tween the HIGH TERMINAL and ground. tions) results in no voltage drop across
prevents shunting components from Another inverting op-amp circuit that R3, the nondriven shunt resistance.
influencing theohmmeter reading.
can be used for in-circuit resistance
measurement appears in Fig. 5. Here,
urement. One well-known property of the resistance to be measured (R/) Rt

the inverting amplifier is that its voltage functions as the stage's input resistance
gain equals t'he ratio of the feedback and a constant-voltage source drives the
resistance to the input resistance. In the network. The output voltage generated
in-circuit measurement application by the op amp is inversely proportional
-ADDED
shown in Fig. 4, the component whose to the value of the component to be - GROUND
resistance is to be determined (R/) measured, and is monitored by a volt-
R4
functions as the feedback resistance. meter placed across the feedback resis-
Resistor R4 behaves as the stage's input tor. As was the case in the previous cir-
resistance. If the input resistance is a cuit, feedback forces the HIGH TERMI
stable, known value, the op amp's output NAL to virtually ground potential. No
voltage is proportional to the feedback voltage drop exists across R2, so the de-
resistance. sired isolation of RI is achieved. Shunt
The inverting op amp can be used to component R3 has no effect on the re-
measure an in-circuit resistance if the sistance measurement because it is con-
junction of the two shunt components nected directly across the constant-volt- Fig. 4. An inverting opamp
(the node R2R3) is connected to ground. circuit that can be used for
age source.
in-circuit resistance measurements.
A constant-current source drives the in- There are advantages that this invert-
put resistance, and the op amp sources ing op-amp circuit has over the one pre-
current into R3 so that the same voltage viously presented. For example, the pos-
appears across it as appears across Rl, sibility exists in the constant-current
the resistance to be measured. Because case that the driven shunt resistance will Measurement of the unknown value
of the feedback provided by Rl, the be called upon to dissipate more heat of Rl now depends on the balancing out
HIGH TERMINAL is forced to virtually than it is rated to do. This tends to be of shunt resistance R3 such that the fol-
ground potential. Therefore, no voltage less of a problem when the constant- lowing relationship holds true:
difference appears across shunt compo- voltage circuit is employed. Also, the RljR7 = R2jR4 = R5IR6.
nent R2, and the desired isolation of Rl constant-voltage measuring circuit pro- Note that this statement includes the
is achieved. vides a faster response time when the standard balance equation of a four-arm
If the amplitude of the driving con- resistance to be measured is shunted by resistive bridge.
stant-current source is accurately one or more capacitors. The reason for An alternative bridge configuration
known, the voltmeter reading can be this is simple. When a constant-current has the side of potentiometer R4 that
converted to a resistance measurement source is connected to a capacitive cir- was formerly connected to the node
by simple arithmetic. Alternatively, if cuit, the voltage across the capacitor in- R6R7BJ - shifted to the node R5R6SJ.
an analog meter is used along with a creases linearly to its maximum value. In effect, this is the same as interchang-
constant-current source of known out- However, when a constant-voltage ing the ba ttery and the null detector in
put, the meter's scale can be redrawn so source is connected to an uncharged ca- the bridge of Fig. 6. Measurement of Rl
that it reads directly in ohms. For resis- pacitor, the voltage across the capacitor now depends on the ba lancing out of
tance measurements over a wide range, increases exponentially until the capaci- shunt resista nce R 2 so that:
it will probably be necessary to employ tor is fully charged. This causes the ca- RIIR5 = R3IR4 = R 7IR6.
46
(Continued on page 81)
R OAD-SURF ACE icing is one of
the most dangerous hazards of
BUILD AN making direct contact with it. In some
remote cases, thermistor body tempera-
winter driving. To warn drivers, ice- ture changes can occur by heat flowing
warn~ng indicators for automobiles have
indeed been developed. However, most
of these indicators merely monitor air
temperature a few inches from the road
and alert the driver when that tempera-
I"FRA along the thermistor leads. In all cases,
the heat flow continues until the ther-
mistor is at the temperature of the heat
source and thermal equilibrium between
the two is reached.

-RED
ture falls to about 36.F. Unfortunately, Temperature change through radia-
this approach can deliver false alarms tion occurs when the thermistor inter-
or, worse, fail to indicate danger when cepts infrared radiation, that is electro-
air and road temperatures are different. magnetic radiation whose wavelength is
The infrared road icing alert (IRIA) just longer than visible light. When ex-

Road
system described here overcomes this posed to infrared radiation, the thermis-
problem by responding to both air and tor increases its internal temperature
road temperatures. It senses infrared ra- until it re-radiates energy at the same
diation emitted by the road and warns rate as it is being absorbed, and thus
drivers both audibly and visually that reaches equilibrium. Its electrical resist-

Icing
the conditions for icing are present. ance, of course, changes accordingly.
A thermistor can also be heated by
Sensor Operation. The sensor used current flowing through it. However, in
in this project is a thermistor-a semi- most applications, this current heating is
conductor device whose electrical resist- small enough to be ignored.

Alert
ance varies with temperature. Like any While one does not usually consider
other material body, a thermistor can ice or a road surface at or below freezing
change temperature by conduction or to be a source of infrared radiation,
radiation. As shown in Fig. I, conduc- these objects like any in the universe
tion is the exchange of heat between the that are above absolute zero
air surrounding the thermistor and the (-273.16"C.), emit some electromag-
thermistor, or the exchange of heat be- netic energy. The magnitude and spec-
tween the thermistor and any object BY THOMAS R. FOX trum of the radiation vary with temper-

Detects when conditions for ice on the road exist,


even in the dark or if air temperature seems too warm
icing alert _______________________________________________________________

ature and the characteristics of the ra- flashlight. Other sizes of reflectors can Mix a small batch of quick-setting
diating body in a fairly complex way, be used, but experiments show that a epoxy and place some on each thermis-
but it is sufficient for our purposes to 2'/2" diameter is the smallest that can be tor lead from the body to about 1'/4
note that as temperature rises, the ra- used efficiently. inches down. Slip the sleeving over each
diation increases in intensity and the To determine the focal point of your thermistor lead as shown in Fig. 3B.
peak of its spectrum moves to shorter reflector, remove the bulb and holder Insert the bare (unsleeved) thermistor
and shorter wavelengths. Objects at nor- and temporarily attach a piece of styro- leads through the two I/16-inch holes
mal temperatures (including the freez- foam or balsa wood to the back of the drilled through the wooden support. As
ing point) radiate substantial infrared, reflector so that it covers the bulb holder shown in Fig. 3C, adjust the height of
to which a thermistor can r~spond. hole. Stick a thin wood toothpick into the thermistor body so that it is centered
the exact center of the holder hole so
that it is supported by the styrofoam or
balsa. On a clear, sunny day, aim the PARALLEL RAYS FROM IR SOURCE
open end of the reflector to the midday
sun until the toothpick begins to smoke. IR PASSING
AIR- TIGHT
Remove the reflector from the sunlight COVER
and note that the charred part is at the
THERMISTOR
BOOY reflector's focal point. Carefully meas-
ure and record the distance from the THERMISTOR AT

[j
._,__
bottom of the reflector to this focal point
as this is where the thermistor will be
placed for maximum effect.
The reflector is mounted on a short
FOCAL POINT

HEAT FLOW
VIA LEADS length of I " x 2" wood board, which in LEADS
Fig. t. How the temperature of
turn, is affixed to the car underside, far
enough from the front so that direct sun- Fig. 2. A parabolic reflector focuses
a thermistor can change.
light will not strike the sensor. Once you infrared rays onto the thermistor.
determine where the wood element is to
be mounted, you can then determine its
The Sensor Head. If a thermistor is length and method of mounting. at the "focal point" previously recorded.
mounted at the focal point of a parabolic After the wood has been cut to length, Use a dab 'of epoxy at each lead to
reflector (a curved surface that has the the reflector is mounted to it using a pair sP-cure the two leads to the board. Make
property of focusing all incoming rays to of wood screws or epoxy as shown in Fig. sure bare leads do not make contact with
a single point), and if the open end of the 3A. After securing the reflector, care- the metal reflector.
reflector is covered with a material that fully drill two I/J6-inch holes, '14 inch On the underside of the board, mount
keeps air from circulating around the apart and straddling the center point, a two-lug terminal strip and connect
thermistor but allows infrared radiation through reflector and wood support. Cut both the two thermistor leads and a
to pass through, a sensor for infrared two pieces of small-diameter insulated small two-conductor cable to the two
radiation is produced. This is shown in sleeving, about 'Is inch shorter than the terminals as shown in Fig. 3C. After the
Fig. 2. Since the reflector and thermis- "focal length" previously determined. epoxy is cured, paint a thin coat of flat-
tor are not therma lly insulated, the ther-
mistor will have some response to am-
bient air temperature.
The reflector arrangement shown in
Fig.2 is the approach used in the IRIA
project. Such a sensor is mounted to the
underside of the vehicle front bumper,
with the open end facing the road under-
neath the vehicle. The temperature of
the thermistor represents a weighted av- (A)
erage of the road and air tempera-
tures- with the road temperature pre-
dominating. If there were a perfect vac- THIS SPAGHETTISLEEVING~Tl
SHOULD BE 118" SHORTER 11/4"
}
BEFORE YOU SLIP ON THE SLEEVING
uum surrounding the thermistor, and THAN THE EFFECTIVE PLACE A BIT OF EPOXY ON THE
FOCAL LENGTH OF YOUR LEADS OVER TtitS DISTANCE
the thermistor leads had the absolute REFLECTOR
minimum of support, the thermistor
temperature would closely approximate (B)
that of the road.
Fig. 3. Diagrams showing
THERMISTOR AT FOCAL POINT the procedures for mounting
The Sensor Assembly. The ther- the reflector on its
mistor used in the author's prototype support (A), preparing the
has a resistance of 1000 ohms at 25 C, thermistor (B), and
is relatively small and inexpensive. It mounting the thermistor (C).
has a time constant of I 0 seconds, and a
diameter of 0.1 inch (see Parts List).
The parabolic reflector used was a 4" SOLDERED
type salvaged from a discarded la ntern (C)

48 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


F1 51
PA~TS LIST
~!~)~--.---~~~~~~~---.-----,
A 1-6- or 12-volt alarm (Son alert or simi-
lar)
C 1,C2-2.2f.LF, 25-volt tantalum capacitor
C3-0.1f.LF, 25-volt ceramic capacitor
R1 R4 D1-1N914 or similar diode
6.2K IOK
TORI - F 1- "4ampere fuse and holder

--
IC1-LM324N quad op amp
LED1-orange or red LED
The following are 1!4-watt composition re-
sistors unless otherwise specified:
R 1 - 6.2 kfl, 5%, film
R2 R5 R2 - 3.3 kri, 5io, film
3,3K 10K . R3-82fl
R4,R5,R6 - 10 kfl, 5%, film
R7 -10 kfl, 10-turn pc mount potentiome
ter
RS-2.2 kfl
R9,R10-2.2 Mfl
A11.:_330fl
S 1-Spst. switch
TDR1-1 kfl@ 25C thermistor, (Fenwall
JB31J1 or similar)
Misc.-'2 112" or larger parabolic reflector
(lantern or flashlight component), spagh
etti sleeving, epoxy cement, 1" x 2"
wood board, wood sc;rews, machine
screw, twolug terminal strip, two-con
ductor cable, cable ties. etc.
Fig. 4 _ The thermistor is part of a bridge that Note: The following are available from
drives comparator ICtA. When this comparator Magic/and Electronics, 4380 South
tums on (detected temperature below preset), 'Gordon Ave., Fremont, M/49412: Fen-
it activates a u;o and ~n audible alarm. _
wa/1 jB31J1 tf!ermistor at $2.95; ther-
mistor and LM324N at $4.25 (kit
/RIA 1).

black, oil-based paint on the thermistor applied at pin 2. This causes !CIA to about 2.5 volts developed by network R6
body. Cover the open end of the reflector switch "on" which, in turp, forces buffer and R8. Therefore, ICI D will switch on
with a thin transparent plastic shield ICI B to supply current to LEDI causing only when its noninverting input is
(transparent food packaging material or it to glow. This visually indicates that greater than the reference voltage (2.5
other thin flexible plastic is fine). Trans- there is the possibility of an icy spot in volts) . When ICI D is activated, it sup-
parent piastics pass more infrared ener- the road. plies current to alarm AI via current-
gy than does glass . The output (pin 1) of ICI A is also limiting resistor RJ I. This alarm turns
coupled to buffer ICIC, which drives a on a fraction of a second after ICI A
Circuit Operation. The circuit is differentiator consisting of CI and R9. operates. After a time period deter-
shown in Fig. 4 . At a temperature of The output of this differentia tor consists mined by the values of R6, R8, R9, and
32 F (0 C), the thermistor called for in of a positive-going pulse when ICI A CI, the alarm goes off. When the ther-
the Parts List has a resistance of approx- switches off. Diode DI allows only the mistor ''sees" a higher temperature, its
imately 2.8 k;fl. Thus, at 32 F, pin 3 of positive-going pulse to pass to the nonin- resistance drops, turning off ICJ A and
op amp ICI A is just under 6.8 volts (as- verting input (pin 12) of ICI D . The ICJ B, and the LED goes dark.
sumin'g the vehicle's electrical system is inverting input (pin 13) is referenced to The circuit is protected by fuse FI ,
delivering about 13 .6 volts when the
generator is operating) .
The output of ICI A is coupled to fol-
lower ICI B which in turn drives LEDI
through current-limiting resistor R3.
Reference voltage control R7 is !id-
justed so that the LED is just below the
point of glowing at the user-selected
"critical p()int" (this is usually between
32 and 36F). Once R7 has been ad-
justed, the reference voltage at pin 2 of
ICI A is just a fraction of a volt below Fins/assembly of tl)e
that at its noninverting input (pin 3) . author's prototype Icing
The non inverting input of ICI A is Alert is shown at left.
connected to the junction of RI and Head assembly is mounted
TDRI in series with R2 . As the temper- on piece of wood
atu're of TDRI drops, its resistance in- with the thermistor
at the focal point.
creases, and the voltage ai !CIA pin 3
increases above the reference voltage
1983 EDITION 49
icing alert ________________________________________________________

Since the temperature of the sensor is


now approximately 37" F (the usual
temperature that a refrigerator is set
to), adjust R7 until the LED just turns
op. The system is now set up ~o sound off
when the sensor "sees" a temperature
below 37F.

Installation. The sensor must be


mounted under the vehicle, the open end
pointed down at the road, and protected
from direct sunlight. Any means can be
used to affix the wood sensor support to
the vehicle frame. Make sure that the
reflector does not extend too far below
the vehicle, or it will be knocked loose at
the first large bump.
After ~he sensor is mounted, carefully
Fig. 5. Actual-size etching and drilling guide for
a printed circuit board for the Infrared Road Icing
pass its cable through the engine com-
Alert is shown above right. Component layout above left. partment making sure that the cable
does not contact any hot or moving ele-
ments. Cable ties can be used to secure
the twin-lead conductor to appropriate
and capacitors C2 and C3 remove volt- and LEDJ are mounted to the front pan- supports.
age transients that might produce a el. The two leads to TDRJ and the pow- The slender sensor cable is passed
false alarm. er-ground leads exit via small holes at through the firewall and snaked to. the
the re.ar. upper part of the dashboanl where it is
Circuit Construction. Although the connected to the electronics. The ground
circuit is simple enough to use direct Initial Test. Connect a source of 12 to can be made to any metal part of the
point-to-point wiring on conventional 15 volts de to the pc board, and turn chassis, and the + 12-volts should be ob-
perforated board, an actual-size foil pat- power switch SJ on. Adjust trimmer po- tained from ;iny source that is "live"
tern is shown in Fig. 5 along with the tentiometer R7 until the alarm sounds when the ignition key is used.
component installation. Note that and LEDJ glows. Carefully back down If the sensor has been calibrated at
TDRJ, Fl, SJ and Al are not mounted on R7 to the point where the LED just 37 F, you will have to wait until the
on the small board. Though a single- turns on. ambient temperature drops into the
turn potentiometer can be used for R7, a Place the palm of your hand near the 30's. A nearly perfect day would be one
10-turn type is recommended. If your al- open end of the reflector for a brief peri- with cloudy skies and a temperature
arm (Al) is a 6-volt version, use Rll. If od of time and note that the LED goes well below freezing in the morning, "and
Al is a 12-volt type, Rll can be elimi- dark. Remove your hand, and note that an afternoon temperature over 38 F.
nated. Resistor RB determines the "on" after a few seconds, the LED glows and Park the car in the shade so that the
time for the alarm. Making this resistor the alarm sounds off. reflector is positioned over an accurate
smaller in value increases the Al "on" To create a "home-made" 37 F day, thermometer placed on the ground. If
time. Conversely, for a shorter "beep," place the detector-reflector assembly in you are on the cautious side, acljust R7
increase the value of RB to 3.3 kQ. a common brown-paper bag and lay it until the LED barely lights with a
The circuit board can be mounted in on a shelf in the middle of your refriger- ground temperature of 36 F. If desired,
almost any type of small (usually plas- ator (not the freezer!). Leave the sensor you can make the calibration at lo~et
tic) container. Power on-off switch SJ in this position for about 15 minutes. temperatures of about 32 or 33 F. If the
weather is too warm, you can always use
a pan of ice under the reflector to' simu-
late 32f.
The only maintenance required is
keeping the reflector clean. You should
wipe the reflector transparent cover at
regular intervals. Contingent on the
Internal view of the author's amount of road tar, sand, pebbles, etc.,
prototype shows circuit board on the roads you use, you might have to
in container with LED and
replace the reflector cover when it be~
switch on front and power
leads exiting through back. comes damaged.
Terminal strip on side is for Note that the IRIA does not detect
ieads to the thermistor. road ice per se. Like conventi"onal al-
arms, it responds to conditions under
which icing may occur. The special
characteristic of this system is that it
assesses such conditions more accurately
and offers a greater m.a rgin of safety
when air and road temperatures are dif-
ferent, as they often are at dawn or early
evening: 0
50 ELECTRONIC EXPERIM!ONTER'S HANDBOOK
IMPROVES
. MORSE CODE READABILITY
~ ' ' ~

BY LOU DEZETIEL

F OR learning or brushing up on
Morse Code skills, it's hard to beat
listening to and trying to "read" CW
transmissions right off the air. Even
though high transmission speeds and,
sometimes, sloppy keying may make
these signals frustrating for beginners,
machine-perfect code at calibrated
speeds is sent by W 1A W, home station
of the American Radio Relay League.
The schedule of transmissio11s is givefl in R4
the table; all you need to listen in is a 22K
R6
general-coverage receiver with a bfo-- 22K
RS
providing that it is selective enough. 22K
If your receiver is not selective L-----------------._----~~MN--+9V

enough, the Code Filter described in this Fig. 1. Circuit for the Code Filter consists of cascaded
article should help. It is meant to be con- pair of active stages formed by op amps IC 1 anq IC2.
nected between a receiver's audio output
and a user's headphones (or audio am- PARTS LIST
plifier) to sharpen the apparent selectiv-
ity and eliminate the interference that C 1-0.005J.LF capacitor R3;R7 - 2.2-MI1 resistor (must be closely
would otherwise make CW hard to read. C2,C3,C4,C5-0.001 J.LF capacitor (C3 matched)
The design is active, with a bandpass and C5 must be closely matched) Misc.-8-pin IC socket (2, optional), spst
centered on 600 Hz and narrow enough C6-5J.LF, 2!:\-V electrolytic switch (optional), battery holqer and
to greatly reduce the effect of interfer- IC1,1C2-741 op amp connector, suitable connector for audio
ence at neighboring frequencies. The R1 ,R5-500-k\1,1i4'W resistor jack, small enclosure, mounting hard-
R2,R4,R6,R8-22-kl1, 114-W resistor ware, etc.
center frequency of 600 Hz was chosen
to provide a pleasant, nonfatiguing tone
for the user.
600 Hz and is 100 Hz wide at the stage should be closely matched to keep
Circuit Operation. The circuit, - 6-dB points. the two filters at the same peak frequen-
shown in Fig. 1 consists of a cascaded The frequency-determining compo- cy and bandpass. Components not af-
pair of active stages formed by op amps nents are R,2, R3, C2, and C3 connected fecting frequency may have 20% to!~
ICI and IC2. With the component val- to ICI, and R6, R7, C4 and C5 with erance in their values.
ues shown, the bandpass peaks at about IC2. Corresponding components of each Because of its high input impedance,

-+9V
-C3- - C5-

C2
I
I
-R3-- --R7--
I
G
C6

Rl
I
I
R2
-R5-

I
R6
-C4-

-R4-
EJ I
RS
I
I-OUTPUT
__J_
I
Cl
I IJ -GND

I -INPUT

Fig. 2 . Component placement guide for the Code Filter is shown at left,
and actu<~l-size pc board foil pattern is at right.
1983 EDITION 51
active filter-----~ .uTruth Analyzer... (Continued from page 3B J
the filter will not appreciably load any
circuit to which it is connected. The au-
dio output can feed loads as low as 300
ohms without degrading the filter per-
formance. (Most hi-fi phones have lower
impedances and will not work.)

Con$tructlon. Although a pc board is


not a necessity, an actual-size foil pat-
tern !l,nd component installation is
shown in Fig. 2. If desired, the circuit
can be created using Wire-Wrap or any
other assembly technique.
Since the circuit requires only 1.2 rnA
when operating, a conventional 9-volt
battery will have a reasonably long life.
If the receiver being used for code recep-
tior. has a power supply between 5 and
30 volts, this voltage can be used to pow~
er the filter. Keep in mind, that if more
than 20 volts or so is used, the ratingof
C6 will have to be increased accord-
ingly. Maximum supply voltage for the
=CATHODE
op amps is 30 V. An optional power
switch may be used to remove the volt-
age from the filter when not in use.
The filter can be mounted within the
receiver case or in a small outboard en-
closure. Audio input can be taken from
the earphone jack, if provided with the
receiver, from the Ioadspeaker connec-
tions, or from a low-level audio circuit.

W1AWCOQE
PRACTICE SESSIONS
EST PST
Speeds: 5, 1112, 10, 13, and 15 wpm
N!on. 9 a.m., 7 p.m. 6 a.m .. 4 p.m.
Tues. 4 p.m., 10 p.m 1 p.m .. 7 p.m.
Wee!. 9 a.m., 7 p .m. 6 a.m., 4 p.m.
Thur. 4 p.m . 10 p.m. 1 p.m., 7 p.m.
Fri. 9 a.m., 7 p .m. 6 a.rri., 4 p.m.
Sat. 4 p.m., 10 p.m. 1 p.m., 7 p.m.
Sun. 4 p.m. 10 p .m. 1 p.m., 7 p.m.

Speeds: 10. 13. 15, 20, 25, ~. and 35


wpm
Mon: 4 p.m.: 10 p.m. 1 p.m., 7 p .m.
Fig. 6. Actual-size foil pattern and component placement
T.ues. 9 a .m .. 7 p.m. 6 a.m., 4 p.m.
guide for the voice analyzer. Be sure to observe polarities
Wed. 4 p.m .. 10 p.m. 1 p .m., 7 p.m. of electrolytic capacitors and diodes and orientation of !Cs.
Thur. 9 a.m., 7 p.m. 6 a.m .. 4 p.m.
Fri. 4 p .m. , 10 p.m. 1 p.ni .. 7 p.m. various advertising announcers' voices person over a short period of time.
Sat. 7 p .m. 4 p.m. were monitored, it was interesting to Psychologists at one U.S. university
Sun. 7 p.m. 4p.m.
note that the other LEOs had a tendency have stated that there is no conclusive
Frequencies: 1.835, 3.58, 7.08, 14.Q8,
21.08, 28.08, 50.08, 147.555 MHz. to flicker on, with the STRESS LED coming evidence that microtremors actually ex-
on quite often. The same was true when ist in tt)e vocal chords. One report, pre-
monitoring a number of phonecin radio pared by a psychologist on behalf of the
programs. Finally, a number of situations U.S. ArmY's Land Warfare Laboratory at
Use. With the filter connected to the were rim:~ed, using various people as Aberdeen Proving Ground, con~!~ded
receiv~r audio, and a suitable amplifier test subjects, all instructed to lie in that results obtained with voice stress
or headphones connected to the filter answer to certain questions. The results devices are "no better than chance."
output, tune in the desired CW trans- were inconclusive. The results might Moreover, American Civil Liberties Union
mission, and note the very sharp "peak"
have been pointedly different if the sub- suits have been presented alleqing such
that occurs with filter use. It becomes
very easy to "fine tune" the receiver, or jects being monitored were not aware devices constitute invasion of privacy.
its bfo, to produce a clean CW signal at that vocal stress tests were being con- Wheth.er or ~ot voice st\e~s analyzers
the filter output. A dramatic falloff of ducted. Too, it should pe kept in mind do what 1s cla1med of them~s a debata-
interfering signals indicates that the fil- that voice characteristics differ among ble point. However, they ar~ interesting
ter is working properly. 0 different people and even with the same devices with which to experi\ent. 0

52 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S/~ANDBOOK
DISCOVER THE MAGAZINE
. . THAT HELPED LAUNCH .. .
THE MICROCOMPUTER INDUSTRY
Incredible as it may seem, Popular Elec- Coot~ &.Electronics The first low-cost voice synthesizer. The
tronics helped launch the microcomputer . ilrmedg 1\lpular Elec:IJoo!c8 ' first low-cost logic analyzer. The first 1802-
industry Back in 1975, we published plans An EPROM ProgrOIJI~~ for Small Computers based microcomputer (ELF) . The first
for building the first powerful microcom- Scope SWitch Pr<Mdes Muiii-ChannelllOCe$. low-cost function generator. The first gas-
puter based on the 8080 cpu. These plans laser communicator (awarded a place in
generated incredible excitement-and the Smithsonian Institution) . The first low-
started the world thinking about personal cost color graphics computer module. An
computing. interface to transfer narrow line listings
Since then, we've added more coverage from your TRS-80 Pocket Compute r to
of personal computing. Today, so much of either a printer or CRT screen ....
the magazine is devoted to microcom- As you can see, our construction proj-
puters that we've changed our name to ... ects, while not necessarily complex
(thanks to multifunction IC chips), will
Computers & Electronics keep you at the forefront of technological
Corpputers & Electronics continues the development-at remarkably low cost. And
Popular Electronics tradition of helping in the future, we'll be bringing you con-
our readers experience the advances of struction projects to help you make your
the future-today. We do it with clearly microcomputer more useful-whether it 's
written, in-depth articles explaining each an enhancement , an application, or a
innovation ... plans for building useful, merging of technology with external con-
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newest technology ... reviews of the latest equipment.
mass-produced equipment. Whether it's Get the leader in the field-
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WQrld-famous test reports I I
In every issue of Computers & Electronics II Mr/ Mrs/Ms
(please print full name)
II
you'll find our. famous in-depth test reports.
We take a new product , test it and analyze 1 Address pt. _ _ _ I
the results. Rece ntly we've tested the Radio
Shack TRS-80 Model III, the IBM Personal II City tate ip II
Computer, and the Sinclair ZX-81. Micro-
I
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_j
BY WALTER GONTOWSKI, JR.

I NTRUSION alarm systems are in-


creasingly popular today owing to the
growing incidence of crime. A new secu-
rity system based on an IC motion
detect'or developed by the Sprague
Electric Company doesn't have the limi-
tations of other types while sharing
some of their advantages. Called the
Optical Detector Modular alarm system
(Opdec), the system presented here
may be likened to a many-eyed optical
device that detects movements through
light changes, but is much lower in cost
than an ultrasonic-type alarm and is
resistant to false alarms.
Other characteristics of the Opdec
include modular construction , provisions
for timed exit and entry, and input termi-

IVIany-Eyed Modular System nals for optional closed-loop wiring that


can yie ld added protection . Finally,
Opdec can also function as a fire /
smoke detector at the same time that it
Low-Cost IC is on the lookout for intruders.

The Motion Sensor. The heart of the


Opdec system is Sprague's ULN-2232A
Responds to Light Changes Integrated Optical Motion Detector. Un-

ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


THE ILLUSTRATED
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iELECTRICITY &
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HOW TO \~ .,. ~..., .
DESIGN, BUILD &
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A!Jl~II.~.ED WORKING
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7 very good reasons to try I~-------------------~


(f~\ ElECTR[]~~LS B[][]K LllJE) I
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-------------------
? +Vee r-1~c;I r-1~;I
+Vee?

I I I I
~
I

- ...
I
...&...
I
I
I
I
I
I

~-+I
I
I
ALARM
LOW-LEVEL I
GROUND I
GENERATPR
I

---1

HIGH -LEVEL
GROUND

I I
....L. ....L.
~C3
C2 """"
I I Fig. 1. Block diagram of the Sprague ULN-2232A Integrated
...a... ...&... Optical Motion Detector reveals chip's internal structure.
fn\ QTRIGGER (.;\ QSONALERT OR
+VREG -~~~------------------~~~~~~I~NP~UT--------.---~----------.-----~~~~ILE~D~~DR~I~V~ER~--------~~-----------
R25 R26
4 . 3K 4.3K

Rl4 Rl7
68K 51K

Qll R23
RIG 5.1 K
470fi


0~18 EXIT DELAY PERIMETER MONITO R LATCH

___ f Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the Opdec system's supervisory Signal


PERIMETER Processor module has maJor f unctional stages labelled. Points des-
LOOP WIRING

like a conventional optoelectronic alarm room or moves around in it, the amount tier, a threshold detector and an alarm
s ensor (usually a CdS photocell) that of light reflected to the sensor IC will generator. Sensor operation is as follows.
triggers the alarm when the path vary. The sensor has been designed to The photOdiode generates a small
between a light source and the sensor is respond to this change in light level. eleCtric current when it is irradiated by
interrupted, this novel IC senses the A block diagram of the ULN-2232A IC light energy. This photocurrent is pro-
presence of an intruder by detecting sensor is shown in Fig. 1. The chip con- cessed into a voltage by logarithmic
changes in the amount of ambient light tains, among other things, a photodiode, converter A 1. Taking the log of the cur-
reaching it As the intruder enters the a logarithmic converter, a voltage ampli- rent allows sensor operation over a

58 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


Cl-10,000-~tF, 25-volt electrolytic otherwise specified. SI-Dpst switch
CI7,C20,C21-IOOO-~tF, 6-volt electro- Rl-100 ohms, 2 watts, 10% tolerance Tl - 24-volt, 2-ampere center-tapped
lytic R 13- 43 ohms, 4 watts, I 0% tolerance transformer (Stancor P-8662 or simi-
C18-0.47-~tF;6-volt tantalum R14- 68,000 ohms lar)
C 19-3.3-~tF, 6-volt tantalum Rl5,R16- 470 ohms Misc. -Mallory SC-628 Sonalert or
C22-2.2-~tF, 6-volt tantalum R 14- 51,000 ohms LED, 8-ohm dynamic speaker (if Siren
C24--0 . 047-~tF, disc ceramic R 18-270 ohms Driver module is omitted), printed cir-
DI,D2-3-ampere, 100-PIV rectifier R19-75 ohms cuit board, standoff insulators, snap-on
D8 through D14--IN4001 rectifier R20,R2l- 6200 ohms heat sinks for Q/ a nd Q26 (Wakefield
015- 4.7-volt, !-watt zener diode R22,R28,R33,R35- 10,000 ohms 291.80ABC2 or similar), silicone thermal
(IN3825 or equivalent) R23,R24,R27 ,R32,R41 ~51 00 ohms compound, suitable enclosure measur-
Fl - V2-ampere fast-blow fuse R25,R26-4300 ohms ing approximately I 0" X 5" X 3 1/.i " or
JC3- ULN-22,32A Sprague Integrated R<\19- 6800 ohms 25.4 em X 12.7 em X 8.3 em (Bud
Motion Detector R30- 560,000 ohms RCIIIOO or similar), barrier block ter-
Q l,Q26- 2N4921 npn silicon transistor R31 - 62,000 ohms minal strip, hookup wire, solder, ha rd-
(or equivalent) R34-11 0,000 ohms ware, etc.
Q8,QIO through Q23- Sprague RT108 R36'"7""""33 ,000 ohms NOTE-The Sprague ULN-2232A integrat-
npn silicon transistor (or equivalent) R37- 82,000 ohms ed Optical Motion Detector can be pur-
Q9,Q24,Q25- Sprague RT106 pnp sili- R38- 3600 ohms chased for $3. 71 (plus postage and han-
con transistor (or equivalent) R39----43 ohms dling) from Poly Paks, P.O. Box 942, So.
The following are 5%-tolerance, %-watt R40- 1300 ohms Lynnfield, MA 0194a Specify part No.
carbon-composition resistors, unless K5870.

(";\OTRIGGER
\!J I OUTPUT

R30 R31
56 0K 62K

ENTRANCE
DELAY

R35
IOK

R33
IOK

+
C22
2.2

AUTO RESET
iynated by circled letters correspond to those in the system wir-
ing guide (Fig. 12) to simplif y interconnection of Opdec modules.

ALARM
GENERATOR
range of several decades of light inten- which in turn drives A3. Capacitors C 1,
sity while restricting signal dynamic C2, and C3 act together to favor low-
range to a convenient level. Changes in frequency voltage changes such as ~.1~
the amount of light irradiating the photo- those resulting from sensed motion and .____.W~-<vw-----.~
diode result in a varying current and to discriminate against relatively high-
thence a varying logarithmic voltage at frequency input signals such as those by
the output of A 1. Capacitor C1 couples 120-Hz fluorescent lamp flicker.
voltage changes to voltage amplifier A2 The logarithmic conversion charac-

1983 EDITION 59
r------------------------------------1 cially constructed detector module
\ r--T-:V;..;+_ _~ (more on this later) should be mounted in
I Dl
I I
I
a window and aimed at the sky. When a
I V+ lightning flash occurs, this detector will

t:J: I Tl
Rl
lOOn
2W
.._.,.;IS;.;;E.;.;.NS;;.;E;.._~
momentarily disarm the system and then
automatically rearm it. This module
CD should not be mounted in such a way
I
I
,........,--- that any swaying trees, moving cars, or
I
+
I
similar objects are in its field of view.
I If you would like to incorporate the
I I
I 1GND additional protection of a closed-loop
I
I ~------~--_.------------~~--. system, magnetic reed door switches
I
I I (normally closed) and metallic foil tape
L-------------------------------- - -------~ for glass can be connected to the signal
processor. These items can be pur-
Fig. 3. This power supply can satisfy current demand of a complete chased at most electronics stores and
Opdec system. Most of it fits on the Signal Processor's pc board. are simple to install. The switches and
tape are all wired in series and connect-
teristic of A 1 and the gains of A2 and A3 C20 is charging, the pulses appearing at ed to point J and ground (point E). If any
are chosen so that the threshold detec- the collector of 09 are shunted to of the protected doors are opened or a
tor is triggered when the change in light ground by 010. When the voltage foiled window is broken, the closed-loop
level exceeds 5% during a relatively across C20 increases to approximately circuit is opened. This cuts off 012,
short period of time (about one second). 2. 1 volts, 08 conducts and cuts off 0 10. which in turn allows the latch to be set
When the threshold detector is trig- The Opdec system is now armed . by means of R21, 011, and 012. After
gered, a pulse is routed to pin 11 of the If light-level changes such as those the 30-second entry delay interval, the
IC and to a four-bit counter that is part of caused by motion are detected, pulses alarm is activated.
the chip's timing and alarm-generating are sent to 09, which sets latch An additional feature of the Opdec
circuit. An on-chip transistor is capable 015016. The latch cuts off 021 enabl- Signal Processor module is either a
of driving a small loudspeaker, but it is ing C 17 to charge through R34. During visual or audible indication if any of the
not used in the Opdec system . Rather, the interval that C 17 is charging (ap- doors or windows are inadvertently left
the pulse appearing at pin 11 of the IC proximately 30 seconds), the alarm is open upon exiting. If, for example, a
sensor is applied to the Signal Proces- not activated . This delay gives the occu- window were left open, 012 would be
sor, the central, supervisory module of pant time to enter the house and disarm cut off and 013 and 014 would conduct.
the Opdec system. the system. When the voltage across Either a Mallory Sonalert or a light emit-
C 17 equals approximately 1.3 volts, ting diode can be employed to indicate
The Signal Processor is shown sche- 022, 023, and 024 conduct and that the Opdec system has been
matically in Fig . 2. Among other things, it actuate the alarm generator comprising ordered to arm itself. The indicator can
detects trigger signals from any of sev- IC3 and drivers 025 and 026. The be connected to the collectors of 0 13
eral motion sensors, decides if the sen- sound produced by /C3 is similar to the and 014 (point P). If you decide to use a
sor has in fact detected the movement "yelping" sound made by police sirens. LED, make sure you insert a 560-ohm
of an intruder (rather than being trig- Once the alarm generator has been resistor between the cathode of the LED
gered by lightning, a car passing in the activated, it will continue to oscillate for and the collectors of the transistors
night, or some similar phenomenon), 10 minutes. After that time, it turns off (point P). Once the system has been
generates exit and entry delays, auto- and the Opdec system automatically armed, the warning circuit is disabled by_
matically resets the system a few min- rearms itself. This feature is included in 011, which begins to conduct and cuts
utes after it has sounded the alarm, and case the alarm is triggered while the off 013 when C20 has charged suffi-
provides optional closed-loop perimeter occupants are away for an extended ciently.
protection. Also included in the signal period and no one is able to turn off the
processor module is a power supply for alarm. This 10-minute reset function is The Siren Driver. There are several
the complete system. This supply is generated in the following manner. When different means of signalling that the
shown schematically in Fig. 3. 024 begins to conduct, it provides base Signal Processor has been triggered. In
When the system is armed, S 1 is drive for 020. This transistor cuts off the author's installation, the collector of
opened . This allows C20 to charge 019, which allows C21 to charge 026 (point I) was connected to an exist-
through R14. In the meantime, 08 is cut through R30. It takes this capacitor ing intercom system and to two exterior
off and allows 010 to conduct. Transis- approximately 10 minutes to charge up paging horns. In addition, a 12-volt, bat-
tor 010 ensures that the latch consist- to a voltage which causes 018 and 017 tery-operated electronic siren was incor-
ing of 015, 016 and their associated to conduct. When 0 17 turns on, it resets porated as a back-up alarm in case
resistors is reset. While C20 is charging the latch, which turns off the alarm. there was a power failure, or the power
(approximately one minute), the occu- Opdec is again armed and awaits any lines were cut. An 8-ohm horn speaker
pant can move about the premises free- further trigger signals. can be connected to the collector of
ly and leave through a protected exit Special precautions must be taken to 026. The resulting loud alarm sound
without setting off the alarm. Trigger prevent Opdec from generating false should be sufficient to scare away any
pulses from the motion detectors he alarms due to lightning, passing cars intruder.
passes cause 09 to conduct, but while with glowing headlights, etc. One spe- The electronic siren driver is shown

60 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


Fig. 4. Etching and drilling
guide for motion and light -
ning sensor pc boards
(shown above.)
Fig. 6. Etching and drilling guide for the Siren Driver module's
printed circuit board is shown above. Artwork for this and
the other two pc boards on this page appears full-size.
Fig. 5. Etching and drilling
guide for Signal Processor
module pc board
(shown below).

signal processor
board

1983 EDITION 61
schematically in Fig. 7. Signals ap- Finally, if because of some emergency
pearing at the collector of 026 are cou- you want to instantly activate the siren,
pled to 05 by meao3 of 06 and RB. close the "Optional, PANIC switch, as-
Capacitor C23 filters the pulses pro- suming that it has been installed.
C2,C5,C6- 47-J.Lf, 6-volt electrolytic
duced by 026. Transistor 05 provides C3- 0.22-J.Lf, 6-volt tantalum
base current for 06 which in turn sup- Smoke and Fire Detection. Although C4-0.01-J.Lf, 50-volt disc ceramic
plies base current to siren driver 07. the motion detector will detect smoke ICI-ULN-2232A Sprague Integrated
If the line-derived positive supply volt- and fire (because both cause changes Motion Detector
Misc.- Printed circuit board, standoff in-
age V + is lost because of a power-line in ambient light), it is advisable to install
sulators, suitable enclosure measuring
failure or intentional disabling by the one or more commerCially available,
approllimately 2%" X 21/s'' X I s" or 7
intruder, the system will be powered self-contained smoke detectors be- em X 5.4 em X 4.1 em (Bud CU-
automatically by a 12-volt lantern bat- cause the Opdec system has to be 21 00-A or similar), barrier block termi-
tery. In the event that the intruder armed if it is to detect smoke and fire. nal strip, hookup wire, solder, hard-
Thus, the occupants of the premises will ware, etc.
locates the Signal Processor module
and cuts all the wires leading to it, 03 be protected while they are there even
will sense a loss of voltage and activate though Opdec will not ordinarily be
the siren driver by means of R5 and 05. armed.

C7,CI0- 47-Mf, 6-volt electrolytic


C8--0.22-J.Lf, 6-volt tantalum
C9,Cll - 4.7-J.Lf, 6-volt tantalum
IC2- ULN -2232A Sprague Integrated
Motion Detector
C23- l -J.Lf, 25-volt electrolytic R4--200,000 ohms Misc.- Printed circuit board, standoff in-
D3- 3-ampere, 100-PlV rectifier R6,R7- 75,000 ohms sulators, suita ble enclosure measuring
D4 through D7- IN4001 rectifier R8,RI0- 51,000 ohms approllimately 2%" X 21/s'' X I 8' ' or 7
Q 2,Q 3,Q6- Sprague RT 108 npn silicon R ll_c:_30,000 ohms em X 5.4 em X 4.1 em (Bud C U-
transistor or equivalent R12- 470 ohms 2100-A or similar), barrier block termi-
Q4,Q5- Sprague RTI06 pnp silicon tran- R42-360 ohms nal strip, hookup wire, solder, hard-
sistor or equivalent Misc. -Siren (Vellon 160, Radio Shack ware, etc.
Q7- Sprague RTI14 npn silicon transis- 27 5-488 or equivalent), printed circuit
tor or equivalent board, standoff insulators, snap-on heat
The following are 5%-tolerance, '1-watt, sink for Q7 (Wakefield 296040AB' or
carbon-composition resistors. similar) , silicone thermal compound,
R2-IO,OOO ohms suitable enclosure, 12-volt battery, bar-
R3,R 5,R9- 20,000 ohms rier block terminal strip, etc.

t.\ r--------------------------
\:.1I .
- ---------------- -- ---,I
.V BATTERY
I
I
I
I
I
I Fig. 7. Schematic
I diag-ram of
I
I Siren Driver
I module appears
I
HEAT I at left.
DETECTOR I
I
I
I
I

cv :
~~------------------------------~~+-------------------------------_J
:
SIREN

---+:----------------------e-,--------.......J
SPEAK~~ 0 l
PANI C SWITCH

DRIVER
lo;.
"'11\11
j 1
1

0 L ------- - ----------- - ---------------------------- - - - - ~


ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK
62
A

HEAT PANIC
DETECTOR SW ITCH

Fig. 10. Shown above is the component placement guide for


Opdec system 's Siren Driver module printed circuit board.

Fig. 8. Component placement guides for


motion (A) and lightning sensor modules
(B) appear above left. Also see Fig. 11.

Fig. 9. Component placement guide for the Signal Pro-


-cessor pc board, which includes power supply, is below.

TO
' SEC
Tl

1983 EDITION
63
A B Fig. 11. Wiring diagrams for
motion sensor (at far left) and
special lightning sensor (left).

housed in a suitable enclosure. The


NC lightning and motion detectors should be
mounted in an enclosure measuring
NC l:CI
approximately 2314" X 21's" X 15!s"
(?em X 5.4cm X 4.1cm) . Each printed
circuit is mounted using 1'4" (6.4-mm)
ca spacers . A S11e" (8-mm) hole should be
47pF
drilled in the front of each sensor enclo-
sure directly in line with the center of the
ULN-2232A integrated circuit to allow
light to reach the IC.
The circuits and circuit boards of the
Because most smoke detectors do the assembly of the Motion Detector, motion and lightning sensors are identi-
not detect fire, it is also wise to install Signal Processor, and Siren Driver mod- cal except for part number designations
heat detectors (available at most elec- ules . Full-size etching and drilling guides and component (capacitor) values.
trical supply houses) in areas where for printed-circuit boards for these mod- These are given in both the component
instant flare-ups could occur (i.e. fur- ules are shown in Figs. 4, 5, and 6. The placement guides of Fig . 8 and the wir-
nace rooms, areas where paint and thin- corresponding component placement ing diagrams of Fig. 11 .
ner are stored , etc.). These detectors, guides appear in Figs. 8, 9, and 10. Note A master wiring diagram for the
which behave like normally open that there are two component placement Opdec system appears in Fig . 12. Inter-
switches, can be wired in parallel to guides in Fig . 8. The first (Fig . SA) is the connecting the modules will be greatly
point C of the Siren Driver module and guide for the standard motion sensor, simplified if barrier block terminal strips
ground. Whenever a heat detector and the second (Fig . 8B) is for the light- are installed on the module enclosures
attains a certain temperature, it behaves ning sensor that momentarily disarms and connected to the appropriate circuit
like a closed switch . It will then cut off the system and prevents false alarms. board foil pads . The strips should be
02, which enables the siren driver via Mount all resistors first , then the letter-coded to agree with the scheme
R3 and 04. The Opdec system need not semiconductors. The capacitors should used in Fig. 12 and the component-
be armed for this to occur. be mounted last. Take care to apply the placement guides, and the wires used to
minimum amounts of heat and solder interconnect modules should be color-
Construction. Printed circuit construc- consistent with the formation of good coded. Because the cost of the ULN-
tion techniques are recommended for solder joints. Each module should be 2322A IC sensor is comparable to that

Continued from page 96

Fig. 12. Master wiring guidefor complete Opdec


system with optional closed loop and hea t detector.
64 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK
ADDA
''KEY-DOWN"
AUDIBLE SIGNAL
TO YOUR
COMPUTER
KEYBOARD
BY ROY AUER, Jr.

T HE action of some modern comput-


er keyboards is extremely "light."
lisecond pulse upon the receipt of a
"keystrobe" pulse from the keyboard.
quires for triggering. In that case, pins 8
and 9 of ICI C should be connected to
As a result, even an attentive user may Such a pulse is generated every time a the keyboard's keystrobe pulse line and
press a key but not cause generation of key contact is actuated and the corre- pin 10 of ICJC to pin 6 of IC2. Pins 1
the desired character. Presented here is sponding character is generated. Dura- and 2 of ICJ A should be connected to
a simple circuit that produces a brief tion of the monostable multivibrator's either + V or ground and pin 4 of ICJ B
audible tone every time a key contact is output pulse, which appears at pin 5, is should be left unconnected.
actuated and a character is generated. It determined by the values of RI and CJ . If the keyboard generates a negative
gives the user audible reassurance that When pin 5 switches from ground po- keystrobe pulse, no inversion is neces-
the selected key has been properly tential to + V, the astable multivibrator sary. In this case, however, ICI A and
pressed, and thus improves his efficien- begins to oscillate and produces an au- ICJ B should be used as a noninverting
cy. The circuit can be assembled on a dio-frequency pulse train at pin 9. The buffer between the keystrobe pulse line
compact circuit board and tucked into a frequency of the pulse train is deter- and the trigger input of the monostable
small, free space inside the keyboard en- mined by the values of R3, R4, and C4, multivibrator. Pins 1 and 2 of ICI A
closure. Its modest power requirement and the duty cycle by the relative values should be connected to the keystrobe
can be easily satisfied by ~he host key- of R3 and R4. For the values specified, pulse line, pin 4 of ICJ B to pin 6 of IC2,
board's power supply. the frequency of the pulse train is about pins 8 and 9 of JCJ C to either + V or
1 kHz with 67% duty cycle. ground, and pin 10 of ICIC should be
About the Circuit. The tone genera- Note that three CMOS NOR gates left unconnected.
tor is shown schematically in the Figure. are employed in the circuit. Actually, Three possible output configurations
It employs the two timer circuits con- either ICJ A and ICJ B or ICI C will be are shown in the Figure. At the top is a
tained in the readily available NE556 used . If the keyboard with which the cir- high-impedance crystal transducer. This
dual timer chip . One section is used as a cuit will be used generates a positive transducer (TRJ) can be driven directly
monostable multivibrator, the other as keystrobe pulse, ICI C must be em- by the circuit and can be either a con-
an astable multivibrator. ployed to invert it into the negative pulse ventional crystal earphone or one of the
The monostable generates a 100-mil- that the monostable multivibrator re- recently developed piezoelectric "wafer"
1983 EDITION 65
audlble~gnaf ________________________________________________
+V

R2

Schematic diagram of the


4.7K
~TRI
' gated tone generator.
Three possible output
I
configurations are at right. R1
100K

:-nTI~SPKR
C1
1pF

R3
TO PIN 9
1N914 p \__TJ
4.7K

~
I
UI NEGATIVE
PULSE INPUT
5
KEYSTROBE~ -
/

6 R4
I 4.7K

_f1_ POSITIVEKEYSTROBE~~
PULSE INPUT
9

C2, C3,C4 O.lpF


IC1 =CD4001
IC3=LM3B6
+5V,;;+ v,;;+12V

PARTS LIST
C 1- 1~J.F , 25-volt electrolytic The following, unless otherwise specified, SPKR*-80 dynamic speaker
C2, C3, C4-0.1~J.F disc ceramic capaci are 1/4-watt, 10% tolerance fixed carbon- T1*-10k0 to a-n audio transformer
tor "'"'JC composition resistors. TR 1*-High-impedance crystal transducer
C5-2501J.F, 25-volt electrolytic R1-100k0 Misc.-Printed circuit or perforated board,
01*-1N914 signal diode R2, R3, R4-4.7 kO IC sockets or Molex Soldercons, suit
IC1-C04001 quad NOR gate R5-1Q-k0 logarithmic-taper trimmer po- able power source and enclosure, hook
IC2-NE556 dual timer tentiometer up wire, solder, hardware, etc.
IC3*-LM386 audio amplifier S 1-Spst switch *-Optional; see text.

transducers. If an earphone with a between pins 1 and 8 of IC3. The IC can with the formation of good solder joints.
screw-in earplug is employed, best re- be powered from the same source as the The project can be connected to the key-
sults will be obtained with the earplug rest of the circuit because its current board by suitable lengths of insulated,
removed. The author reports that a suit- demand is modest. stranded hookup wire. If space permits,
able crystal earphone can generate Toggle switch SJ controls the action the project can be mounted inside the
sound levels audible at distances of up to of the monostable timer section of IC2. keyboard enclosure. Alternatively, it
ten feet. When the switch is open, the positive can be installed in a small enclosure of
The middle alternative is to have the supply voltage is applied to the monosta- its own.
circuit drive a low-impedance dynamic ble multivibrator's RESET input (pin 4) .
loudspeaker. Here, a small audio output This allows the timer to function nor- In Conclusion. Auditory confirma-
transformer (Tl) couples the output of mally. However, when the switch is tion of a proper key-contact actuation
the astable multivibrator to the speaker. closed, the monostable's RESET input is can speed and simplify the use of an
Diode Dl protects the astable multivi- grounded and that timer's output (pin 5) ASCII or similar keyboard. The circuit
brator's output transistor from inductive is frozen at ground potential. When this that has been presented here will pro-
spikes that can appear across the trans- happens, the astable multivibrator is vide ' such confirmation and make the
former primary. disabled and no tone can be produced. time spent at a keyboard more produc-
The output configuration appearing Therefore, if the user does not want a tive and enjoyable. If desired, the values
at the lower right can provide a consid- tone to be generated each time a key of the resistors and capacitors associated
erable sound pressure level. The output contact is actuated, SJ should be closed. with the two timer sections of IC2 can
signal at pin 9 of IC2 is applied to poten- be changed to suit the taste of an indi-
tiometer R5, which functions as a level Construction. Because the project is vidual user. Increasing the time constant
control. Audio amplifier chip IC3 boosts relatively simple, it can be assembled on of Rl CJ will result in a longer "beep."
the signal present at its noninverting in- a small perforated or printed-circuit Decreasing it will shorten the time that
put and drives a low-impedance dy- board. The use of IC sockets or Molex the astable multivibrator oscillates. The
namic loudspeaker via coupling capaci- Soldercons is recommended. Be sure to frequency and duty cy<;:le of the audio
tor C5. As shown, IC3 has a voltage gain observe the polarities of power supply output can be modified by appropriate
of 20. This is adequate for most applica- leads, semiconductors, and electrolytic changes in the values of R3, R4, and C4.
tions but can be increased to 200 by con- capacitors. Employ the m1mmum Consult a 556 data sheet for the appro-
necting a 10-J.LF electrolytic capacitor amount of heat and solder consistent priate design equations. 0
66 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK
BY AL SYDNOR B ECAUSE OF their simplicity and low
cost, electromagnetic relays are
wic::Jely used in control applications. Un-
fortunately, some experimenters and
How to use solid-state designers do not fully understand how to
interface relays with electronic circuitry.
circuits to obtain predictable As a result, their circuits frequently
operate erratically, and outright failure
performance from of either the relay or the components
electromechanical relays associated with it is far more common
than necessary. Moreover, many possi-
ble functions that relays can perform
with appropriate drive circuitry are often
overlooked. A knowledgeable approach,
such as that presented here, should

tt.n 's
enable one to use relays with confi-
dence and wi.t hout hesitation.

r\wnenter What is a Relay. An electromagnetic

~~pe . de.
relay, regardless of details of construc-
tion, is basically a mechanical switch

liiiia .. GU\ operated by electric power. Its contacts


are coupled to an armature of magnetic
material held in proximity to a coil. When

to current passes through the coil, the


resulting magnetic field attracts the
armature toward the coil to close or

se\aY open one or more sets of contacts.


When the current stops, the magnetic
attraction ceases, and a spring returns

contro\ the contacts to their former positions.


Available in both ac and de versions,
relays have rated coil energ1zmg po-
tentials usually ranging from 1 to 250
volts with 6-, 12-, 24-, 48-, 117-, and
240-volt designs the most common.
There are also relays that operate at
energizing potentials as low as 25
millivolts for special applications. You
should keep the voltages within 20%
of ratings. Too much voltage may burn
out the coil; too little may cause erratic
operation. Operating power ranges from
a few milliwatts to about 20 watts, which
should be borne in mind when you are
designing the drive circuits. Operating
current can be determined by measuring
or looking up coil resistance.
Looked at from the point of view of
the drive circuit, a relay has the follow-
ing parameters:
Operating voltage (current). The val-
ue that closes the contacts reliably.
Pull-in voltage (current). The value
that just barely closes (opens) the
contacts.

1983 EDITION 67
Drop-out voltage (current). The value verse-voltage rating must exceed the sources you can use a transistor am-
that barely lets the contacts open power-supply voltage, and its current plifier such as that shown in Fig. 2A.
(close). rating must be at least 25 times the load When S 1 is set to OFF (ground), no base
The limits on current or voltage the operating current. A varistor, or voltage- current is supplied, the transistor is cut
relay can switch are also important. dependent resistor, can be substituted off, and the relay is deenergized. Setting
Contacts are commonly rated either for the diode. Its resistance should be S 1 to its ON position sends the transistor
according to current capacity or by a more than 10 times the de resistance of into saturation and energizes the relay.
maximum number of volt-amperes (VA), the coil at 20 C. More sensitivity can be had simply by
the product of current and voltage. If a Sometimes, when a relay coil ap- adding amplifier stages, as shown in Fig.
relay that must handle heavy current pears to have shorted for no reason, an 28. If no input is applied to 01, it is cut
cannot be driven from a low-power inductive spike that exceeds its insula- off and 02 is saturated energizing the
circuit, it can, in turn , be driven by a relay tion ratings may be at fault. A diode can relay. Application of bias to 01 sa-
the circuit can handle. be used as in Fig. 18 to protect a relay turates it, and 0 2 c uts off, deenergizing
coil if a longer release time can pe the relay.
Contact Protection. When a switch in tolerated. An improvement over this Another two-stage transistor relay
series with an inductive circuit (such as method is to use a transistor circuit as in driv.er is shown in Fig. 2C. In this case,
a relay coil) is opened, the magnetic Fig . 1C. When the switch in Fig. 1C is the circuit is noninverting and is con-
field in the coil collapses and a voltage closed, the capacitor discharges. Open- trolled by a photocell. The photocell
proportional to the rate of change of ing the switch causes the capacitor to controls 0 1, whic h in turn controls 02,
current is generated. Thi s high voltage keep the transistor conducting until the whose collector current energizes the
across the switch contacts can eventu- capacitor has charged up through the relay. The potentiometer permits adjust-
ally cause damage or failure. base-emitter junction and resistor ment of threshold voltage for the partic-
Semiconductors can be used to sup- enough to cut off the transistor. This is ular photocell being used and prevents
press these voltage transients, as in Fig. equivalent to opening the switch slowly leakage current from operating the relay
1A, where a diode is connected across to lengthen the decay rate of the current under high-temperature conditions.
the load as shown. When a positive and keep the induc ed v?ltage smaller. A single-power-supply, three-stage
spike appears across the switch con- driving amplifier is shown in Fig. 20 .
t act s, the diode clamps it to the positive Linear-Amplifier Driver. To drive Once again , illuminating the photocell
power-supply voltage. The diode's re- high-current relays from low-current energizes the relay, with the potentio-

DIODE

c D
+ 1.5V
l!'itJ. L Switching-
ta-ansient su:p:pressioo; c
diode across inductive
lood.(4) or relay coil (B);
transistor circuit across Fig. 2. Linear amplifiers as relay drivers: (A) single-stage; {B) two-stage
switch contacts (C). inverting (C two-stage noninverting; (D) three-stage noninverting.
68 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK
meter permitting adjustment of the re- Jordan bistable multivibrator. This is a without a heat sink. If 03 is to be
lay's operating threshold. In the off conventional design except for C 1 and operated at high ambient temperatures,
state, all transistors are cut off and R 1, which are used to ensure that 0 1 however, it should be mounted on a 2"
current consumption is negligible, which will be driven into saturation and 02 will (50.8-mm) square sheet of No. 16
makes this circuit suitable for operation be cut off when power is first turned on aluminum.
from a battery. to prevent the relay from energizing on A regenerative relay driver that uses
power-up. an SCR is shown in Fig. 30. Initially, S 1
Regenerative-Amplifier Driver. The A positive signal on the RESET line to and S2 are both open and no trigger
relay drivers discussed above have a the base of 02 activates the relay voltage is applied to the gate of the
serious disadvantage in that a border- solidly, while a positive signal on the SET SCR, which remains cut ofL Closing S 1
line threshold input can cause the relay line to the base of 01 deactivates the applies a positive voltage to the SCR's
to alternate rapidly between on and off, relay just as solidly. gate. triggering the SCR and energizing
producing " chatter." Also, the energiz- When using high-power relays, it is the relay.
ing threshold can vary with temperature. usually necessary to add a buffer stage Opening S 1 does not turn off the SCR.
A regenerative amplifier can be used to between the relay and regenerative It does, however, allow the voltage
keep the relay energized or deenergized circuit. A typical arrangement is illus- across capacitor C 1 to approach that of
with no in-between state. trated in Fig. 3C. Here. Schmitt trigger the supply. Then, closing S2 applies a
A Schmitt trigger with a relay coil as 0 1I 02 is coupled to 03 via 12-volt negative pulse to the anode of the SCR
the load is shown in Fig. 3A. As long as zener diode 0 1. When a negative control to stop conduction. An alternative to
the input ievel is less than 6 volts, 0 1 is signal of sufficient amplitude is applied using S2 to turn off the SCR is to
cut off, 02 is saturated, and the relay is to the input of this circuit. 01 conducts connect a transistor from the anode to
energized. When the input exceeds 6 and 02 cuts off. Current through the 02 the cathode. as shown by the phan-
volts, 0 1 rapidly saturates and cuts off collector load resistor and 0 1 to the tom ed circuit in Fig . 30 . When the
02 to positively deenergize the relay. base of 03 causes it to conduct and transistor turns on. it diverts currer:t from
The potentiometer permits precise set- energize the relay. the SCR. As soon as the SCR's current
ting of the operating threshold . Because 03's bottom potential at 1.5 falls below its holding value, the devica
Another regenerative-amplifier circuit amperes is less than 0.5 volt and this turns off. The relay coil is deenergized
is shown in Fig. 38 . Here, the relay's coil transistor's rated free-air dissipation is when the voltage to the base of the
is the load for one side of an Eccles- less than 1 watt, 03 can be operated transistor is removed .

l1oK
'-----4~i-- -3V
A B

1. 2K

22 K 47Jt

c D

vee amplifiers: (A) siv,gle-stage Schmitt"t'l'igger; .(B) siv,gle~


L-.J:tif1J~~1If/;_Ql..Q];~~~1uh!~~
~ ---------....t
2il':t~lk;..tre.~lau Qol'tli (Dl lQ,tcbting}SGB@!!trql!.:...
69
1983 EDITION
Time~Delay Circuits. Semiconductors shunt thermistor can be used, as il- Closing S 1 allows C 1 to be charged up
are commonly used to provide time- lustrated in Fig. 48. Again, the thermis- via R 1 until the voltage on the gate of Q 1
delay periods for operating electromag- tor's cold resistance should be 3 to 5 rises above firing potential. At this time,
netic relays. An example of this is the times the relay's de coil resistance. Q 1 becomes a low resistance and
delayed application of supply voltage to Another circuit that gives slow turn-on applies a firing pulse to the gate of the
the power stages in a hi-li amplifier to and fast turn-off relay operation is shown SCR, which energizes the relay.
prevent the power-on transient from in Fig. 4C. When S 1 is closed, the base When S 1 is opened, supply voltage is
being heard in and possibly damaging of the transistor is grounded and Q 1 is removed, the SCR stops conducting,
the speaker systems. One simple way to cut off, resulting in a deenergized relay. and the relay deenergizes. This circuit
delay energizing a relay is to place a Opening S 1 allows C 1 to be charged at has been used to provide a 40-second
thermistor in series with the coil, as a rate determined by the C 1 (R 1 + R2) ( 1 second) delay over a - 25 o to
shown in Fig. 4A. When the switch is time constant until the base potential of + 75 C temperature range.
closed, current flowing through the ther- Q 1 is sufficient to turn on the transistor
mistor causes it to heat up, resulting in a and energize the relay. Closing S 1 Differential Drivers. Many of the re-
decrease in resistance from its normally causes C 1 to discharge rapidly and cut lay-driver circuits shown above are lim-
high cold resistance. As resistance off Q 1 practically at once. ited by the fact that control-signal op-
drops. more current flows until the A rearrangement of the Fig. 4C cir- eration is uncertain and may have con-
current through the relay coil is sufficient cuit, shown in Fig. 40, gives a fast siderable backlash. (The relay may not
for energization. A series potentiometer turn-on and slow turn-off action. With the deenergize until the voltage across its
can be used to permit adjustment of switch closed, the capacitor discharges coil is well below the energizing po-
delay time. and base current through the resistors tential.) One way to obtain close differ-
At room temperature, the thermistor from the supply line sends the transistor ential operation with the deenergizing
should have a resistance three to five into saturation and rapidly energizes the and energizing voltages roughly equal is
times that of the relay's de coil. For relay. Reopening S 1 allows the capaci- to use a Schmitt-trigger circuit With a
example. a thermistor with a cold re- tor to continue to supply base current small hysteresis (backlash) , such as
sistance of about 400 ohms that drops until it is charged up enough to cut off shown in Figs. 3A and 3C. Simply
to 25 ohms at 400 mA can be used with the transistor. The result is a slow replace the common-emitter resistor of
a conventiona l 12-volt, 80-mA relay. turn-off for the relay. the Schmitt trigger with a zener diode
The circuit in Fig. 4A is for slow Many variations of the above circuits whose voltage rating is the same as the
energization and fast deenergization. are possible, such as the very slow potential required at the emitters to
For applications where fast turn-on and turn-on circuit shown in Fig. 4E. With S 1 energize the relay.
a slightly delayed turn-off are required, a open, all capacitors are discharged. As the input to the close-differential

l
I
A B
-+
Sl -+ IOV

Sl

c D

Fig. 4. Relay time-delay circuits.- (A) thermistor-controlled slow-on/fast-off,-


(B) thermistor fast-on/slow-off; (C) tran$istor-controlled slow-on/fast-off;
{D) transistor fast-on/sfow-off, (E) unijunc~ion transistor circuit with very slow on.
70
circuit shown in Fig. 5A is increased in causes the relay to energize. When V 1N C 1. When S 1 is closed, the positive
the negative direction, no base current is less than 11 volts, the relay is voltage across C 1 is applied to the gate,
flows through Q 1 until V1N exceeds the deenergized, while it energizes with causing the SCR to conduct and remain
10-volt breakdown potential of the zener positive action when V 1N exceeds 12 on as long as S 1 is closed. Opening S 1
diode plus the base-emitter forward volts. By cascading a second FET after causes the SCR to cut off when the ac
voltage drop required for Q 1 to conduct the first, it is possible to reduce the cycle passes through zero, causing the
(about 0.3 to 0.5 volt). When V1N reaches difference between energizing and relay to be deenergized.
about 11 volts , Q 1 saturates and collec- deenergizing potentials to 0. 1 volt.
tor current energizes the relay. Op Amp Relay Drivers. Contingent on
The silicon diode across the base- AC Drive Circuits. Any de relay can be the type and level of the input signal,
emitter junction of Q 1 prevents it from adapted to work from an ac source by relay amplifiers can be built up with op
being overqriven. With up to 0.6 volt on combining it with rectifiers. In Fig. 6A, D 1 amps wh_ose extremely high (open-loop)
the transistor's base, the diode does not permits only positive current to pass gain is sufficient to allow operation with
conquct. Beyond this point, it conducts through the relay and should have a minute input levels. The op anip also
and shunts excess current away from current-cCJ.rrying capacity several times allows for differential operation where an
the transistor's base . Because of the the operating current of the re!ay: input signal can be compared with a
sharp breakdown characteristics of the Clamping diode 02 is optional and is known reference so that the relay pulls
zener diode, drop-out signal potential of used for surge suppression. It not only in (or drops out) only when the desired
this circuit is within a few hundred protects the relay contacts, but pre- voltage differential exists.
millivolts of relay energizing voltage. vents high reverse voltage on D 1. In addition, the op amp, with its very
Use of a p-channel MOSFET with a Another diode arrangement is shown high gain, Cqn be used with reactive
threshold potential of about 5 volts to in Fig. 68. Here, four diodes are used in feedback to form filters that produce
yield close differential relay operation is a full-wave bridge circuit . Note that the relay operation only at certain input
shown in Fig. 58. When V1N is greater bridge circuit inherently provides protec- frequencies (assuming an ac input). A
than 6 volts, the zener diode conducts tion from inductive spikes. phase-locked-loop (PLL) using a 567 for
through R 1, but as long as the input is The circuit in Fig. 6C allows a trl]e ac instance, can also be a frequency-
less than 11 volts, the drop acmss R1 is relay to be operated electronically sensitive driver for a relay amplifier.
less than 5 volts and Q 1 is off. through an SCR . When S 1 is open, the Since many -op amps do not have
As' long as Q 1 is cut off, 02 is also cut SCR has no potential applied to its gate sufficient output current to drive a relay
off and the relay is deenergized. When and does not conduct. Meanwhile, cur- directly, a transistor power stage will
the input exceeds 11 volts, Q 1 conducts rent irom T1 is rectified by 01 and often be required between the op amp
and current through R2 to Q2's base generates a de voltage that is stored in and the relay. <>

-12V

I~
01

~
..J;.."
AC

VtN(-)
>10-5V

AC
VOLTAGE

Fig. 5. Driver circuits with close '


dijferentialgperatiqh,;
(A) single-stag@ transistor with ;:.-ner; Fig. 6. Ac drive circuits: (4) single diode;
{B) tw<{"stage FET and. bipolar tr;ansistor. (B) diflde bridge; (C) thyristor.
WAH-WAH
'
FooT I
PEDAL
, ,

Liven up your music


with this easily operated
low-cost add-on circuit
BY FRED PUCCETTI

"WAH-WAH" is one of several comprising operational amplifiers IC1 A, output jack J2 are at a suitable level.
. interesting effects used by IC1 B, IC1 C, and their associated pas- That sets this project apart from older,
electric guitarists to "spice up" the sive components. The center frequency discrete Wah- Wah designs that did not
sounds generated by their instruments. of this filter can be varied by means of compensate for any insertion loss intro-
This effect, named in imitation of its potentiometer R7. duced by the bandpass filter. An addi-
sound, is commonly employed by syn- When this potentiometer is adjusted tional benefit provided by IC1 C is buf-
thesists and electric pianists as well. It is for minimum resistance, the center fre- fering, which prevents the load from in-
achieved by sweeping the center fre- quency of the filter is approximately teracting with the filter and affecting its
quency of a bandpass filter while the 2500 Hz. When the potentiometer's ef- frequency response.
output of the instrument is fed through fective resistance is increased to its max- The remaining op amp, /C1 D, is not
it. Typically, the filter is controlled by imum value of 500,000 ohms, the filter's used. In accord with good design prac-
means of a foot pedal. center frequency decreases to approxi- tice, its inputs are grounded. Power for
Presented here is a Wah- Wah pedal mately 1050 Hz. These filter responses the circuit is provided by a bipolar sup-
designed with the performing artist in are shown in Fig. 2, a photo of the CRT ply consisting of two 9-volt batteries in
mind . It employs a high-performance traces generated by a spectrum analyz- series. Diodes D1 and D2 protect against
quad operational amplifier and a bat- er. T he analyzer was driven by a signal the inadvertent application of reverse
tery power source, making it well-suited generator with the project inserted in se- supply voltages. Tantalum capacitors
to stage or studio work. Parts count is ries between the generator and the ana- C3 and C4 function as power-suppiy by-
low, so the Wah-Wah Pedal is easy to lyzer, and the project's frequency-con- passing components. Note that there is
build . A kit including a rugged foot- trol potentiometer (R7) was alternately no separate power switch. This is be-
pedal mechanism is available for $55 . set to provide for minimum and maxi- cause the switching contacts of JJ B
mum resistance. (part of input jack J 1) a utomatically
About the Circuit. The Wah-Wah pe- The upper and lower limits of the connect the battery supply to the rest of
dal is shown schematically in Fig. I. Sig- range over which the active bandpass the project whenever the instrument
nals from the instrument being played filter's center frequency can be swept patch cord is inserted into J 1. The only
are presented to input jack J 1 A , one are determined by the stages comprising switch in the project isS 1, a heavy-duty,
portion of a three-conductor, double IC1 A and IC1 B and their associated push-on/ push-off switch activated by
closed-circuit, I/4-inch (6.3-mm) phone passive components. Inverting amplifier the foot-pedal mechanism. It either by-
j ack. The input signals drive a second- IC1 C provides a slight amount of volt- passes signals around the Wah- Wah cir-
order, two-pole active bandpass filter age gain so that signals appearing; at cuit or inserts it into the signal path.

J2

JIAI ~N:t
INPUT_
B

:9 _
15K
Rl
r-~~M-~o~u~:.~=~~

Fig. 1. The Wah-Wah Pedal circuit


is a second-order, two-pole active
bandpass filter that provides
the desired effect. The filter
can be bypassed by means of S 1.
Parts List appears on next page.

72 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


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~ci::_
1983 EDITION 73
wah-wah pedal

Construction. The Wah-Wah circuit venient package. You can either con-
is simple, so either printed-circuit or struct an enclosure and foot-pedal
point-to-point wiring techniques can be mechanism from scratch or use a com-
employed to reproduce it. The full-size mercial product that has been specially
etching and drilling guide for a suitable designed for musical applications. The
printed-circuit board appears in Fig. 3 author recommends the DeArmond
together with the corresponding full size Model 1600 foot-pedal assembly, which
component placement guide. contains a 500,000~ohm potentiometer
Use of a socket or Molex Soldercons and a worm-gear mechanism to drive
with ICI will simplify replacement of the potentiometer. This is the foot pedal
that component should it later become that he used in the construction of his
defective. Be sure to observe polarities prototype.
and pin basing when mounting the IC, Figure 4 is a bottom view of the proto-
diodes, and tantalum capacitors on the type with its bottom cover removed to
circuit board. Employ the minimum show the worm-gear drive, the potenti-
Fig. 2. [3andpass filter's frequency amount of heat and solder consistent ometer, circuit board artd other compo-
response when the foot pedal is with the formati-o n of good connections. nents mounted in the foot-pedal enclo-
full:t up (left) and down (right). When all components have been sure. A hole has been drilled along the
mounted on the boa rd, examine your long axis of the enclosure near the top
work for solder bridges, cold solder below the pedal to accommodate bypass
PARTS LIST joints, etc. switch S I. This heavy-duty, push-on/
B 1, 82-9-volt transistor battery A number of components (Bl , 82, Jl, push-off switch required a large mount-
C 1-0.0033-f.LF, 5% -tolerance polystyrene J2, R7 and S I) are not mounted on the ing hole. Extreme care was taken when
C2-0.01f.LF, 5%-tolerance polystyrene
circuit board. Rather, they are secured drilling this hole so tha~ the rubber-
C3,C4-2.2f.LF, 16-volt tantalum
D1,D2-1N4001
to the enclosure associated with the foot- topped metal pedal plate was not dam-
IC 1- !LA4136C quad oper ational amplifier pedal mechanism that drives. potentio- aged by the drill bit. Figure 5 is a side
or equivalent meter R7. This makes for a compact, con- view showing how S I was mounted so
J 1-Three-conductor, double closedcir
cuit 114-inch (6.3-mm) phone jack (Radio
Shack No. 274277 or equivalent)
J2-Monaural, open-circuit 114-inch (6.3
mm) phone jack
The following ar"e 114-watt, 5%-tolerance,
fixed carbon-composition resistors, un-
less specified otherwise.
R1 - 15,000 ohms
R2,R4~ 24,000 ohms
R3,R5-51,000 ohms
R6-10,000 ohms
R7 -500,000-ohm, linear-taper potentiom
eter (see text and note below)
RS - 56,000 ohms (see text)
S 1- Spdt, heavy-duty, push-on I push-off
switch (Aicoswitch MPG-1060 or equiv.)
Misc. -Foot-pedal potentiometer drive
mechanism and enclosure (DeArmond
Model 1600 or equivalent), printedcir
cuit or perforated board, IC socket or
Molex Soldercons (if desired), battery
holder, battery clips, hookup wire, sol
der, hardware, etc.

NOTE-The following is available f rom


PAIA Electronics, Inc., Box 14359, Oklaho-
ma City, OK 73114: DeArmond Model1600
foot pedal No. 1230PED (includes 500,000-
ohm potentiom eter R7) for $39. 95 plus
$3.00 postage and handling (U.S.); etched
and drilled printed-circuit board No.
1230PCB for $9.95 postpaid (U.S.). Oklaho-
m a residents, add sales tax.

Fig. 3. Full-size etching and drilling guide (above)


with c orresponding parts placement guide below.

74 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


that it could be actuated by a full retaining screws of the worm-gear as- then hear the output of the guitar modi-
depression of the foot pedal. sembly. The photograph also shows how fied by the " wah-wah" sound.
The DeArmond Model 1600 foot pe- the circuit board, switch, jacks, bat- Back the pedal off to its fully up posi-
dal includes two monaural, open-circuit teries, and potentiometer are intercon- tion by pressing down with your heel
phone jacks. Its output jack (labelled nected using battery clips and hookup and strike a chord. Bass notes should
AMPLI FI E R) can be used as J2, but the wire. A close inspection of the photo predominate over treble notes in the out-
input jack (INSTR U MENT) should be re- reveals the installation of a fixed resistor put of the amplifier. Next, move the pe-
moved and replaced with a three-con- (R8) across the 500,000-ohm potenti- dal to its (almost) fully down position by
ductor, double closed-circuit 1/4-inch ometer. It is placed in parallel with po- applying pressure with your toes. Do not
( 6.3-mm) phone jack. This jack will fit tentiometer R7 to reduce .the maximum press the pedal with so much force that
in the space formerly occupied by the effective resistance of the potentiometer, S 1 latches into its O U T position . Then
monaural, open-circuit input jack and which is built into the DeArmond Model strike the same chord that was struck
will function as J 1. 1600 foot pedal, to 50,000 ohms. If a previously and monitor the ouput of the
To mount the circuit board in the home-brew or some other foot pedal is amplifier. You should hear a predomi-
foot-pedal enclosure, a hole must be used, R8 can be omitted and a 50,000- nance of treble notes over bass notes. If
drilled in each of the mounting studs on ohm linear-taper potentiometer installed the opposite response is heard, potenti-
the underside of the enclosure. Drill as R7. Note that the center lug (the wip- ometer R 7 has been reverse-wired and
these holes 3/J 6" ( 4.8 mm) deep, taking er) of the potentiometer and the lug fur- the leads running to it from the circuit
care not to penetrate all the way through thest away from the input and output board should be transposed.
the enclosure. If a tap-set drill is avail- jacks should be connected together. You can combine the Wah-Wah pe-
able, it can be used to ta p out the holes dal with other signal processors, such as
to the appropriate tap size. In the proto- Checkout and Use. Install fresh 9- a fuzz-box, sustain, a nd a Hanger, to
type, I 0-32 tap-set holes were drilled volt transistor batteries in the holder create your own specia l sounds. E xperi-
and tapped to accommodate the screws and attach the battery clips to them. ment with each of the signal processors
that were used to hold the printed-cir- Then plug one end of a patch cord into you have to determine how much of any
cuit board in place. Spacers were in- the output jack of an electric guitar or one effect should be added to the sound
serted between the circuit board and the similar signal source and the other end of your instrument at any given time.
mounting studs to ensure that there is into jack J 1. U se a second patch cord to Keep in mind that too much of any
sufficient clearance for the boa rd. If a route signals from output jack J 2 to the sound effect ca n disturb your audience
tap-set drill is not available, holes should input jack of an instrument amplifier. and that too little of it can bore them.
be drilled 3/J6" (4.8 mm) deep using a Strike a note or chord and listen to the The best bet is to a pply judicious
No. 35 drill, and the board secured to output of the amplifier while you pump amounts of the sound effects available to
the mounting studs using 6-32 self-tap- the foot pedal up and down. If you hear you in a sequence dictated by your inter-
ping screws and circuit board standoffs. no variation in timbre, depress the foot pretation of the music you are going to
Figure 4 shows how the battery hold- pedal fully until you hear the click of S 1. play. This will not only entertain your
er that retains the two 9-volt batteries is Then repeat the process by striking a audience, but also leave in their minds
mounted in the foot-pedal enclosure. It note or chord and rapidly pumping the the impression that you a re truly a crea-
is secured in place using one of the two foot pedal up and down. You should tive musician. 0

Fig. 4. Bottom view of prototype shows how the pc board


and other components fit inside the foot-pedal enclosure.

Fig. 5 . View of pedal showing how switch S 1 was mounted.

1983 EDITION 75
I F dogs and other small animals wreak
havoc with your ftowerbeds, or small
that of the capacitor-discharge ignition
systems used in many vehicles.
"varmints" strew the contents of your The 117-volt ac developed across I: I
trash cans over the area, this project is isolation transformer T I is half-wave
for you . rectified by D3 and charges C6 via the
The Varmint Zapper described here primary of TV ftyback transformer T2.
uses a single strand of bare wire to The primary should be electrically sepa-
create an "electric" fence. This wire is rated from the high-voltage secondary .
fed with a sequence of digitally pro- When electronic switch SCRJ, con-
grammed high-voltage pulses to create a nected across the C6- T2 network, is on,
penetrating but harmless electrical it forms a short circuit across the net-
shock to anything making contact with work . Then C6 rapidly discharges
the bare wire. You can also attach the through the transformer primary . The
wire to your garbage can (insulated sudden ~ hange in current flow produces
from ground) or any other metallic en- a high voltage at the secondary of T2. In
closure that you want to protect. a typical installation, about 15 or 16 kV
will be developed. It is this voltage that
Circuit Operation. The operation of is applied between the bare wire fence
the circuit, shown in Fig. I, is similar to and ground.
by Fritz Mueller

Delivers a penetrating yet


harmless electric shock
to intruding animals

Digitally
Programmed
Varmint
Zapper
The C6- T2 network forms a resonant The clock pulses to be counted by JCJ so tha t four of its stages provide positive-
circuit. When it bursts into oscillation, are developed from the half-wave rectif- going pulses through diodes D6 through
the first half cycle of reverse voltage ied line voltage from D2. Noise is re- D9 a nd R5 to turn QI on and off during
back biases the SCR, thus opening the duced by filter R3 and C3 before the the negative half cycles. This results in a
electronic switch . The positive-going pulses are applied to the IC . ra pid sequence of four SCR turn-on
transient is bypassed via D4. Capacitor The SCR is triggered into conduction pulses foll owed by a 1.5-second space .
C5, damped by the low value of R9 , by the positive-going pulses generated The sequence is then repeated.
attenuates any r-f transients generated across R8 each time unijunction transis- Each individua l shock exceeds about
by the sudden turn-off of D4. Neon tor Q2 fires. This occurs when C4, 50 rnA for a very short time, and cur-
lamp NEJ glows to indicate the pres- charged toward the I 0-volt line via R6, rents of such intensity produce effects
ence of the high de voltage across the reaches the UJT trigger level. When QJ, best described a s "bite" or "sting."
C6-T2 network. Resistor RIO provides connected across C4, conducts, the trig- Wh at renders the shock harmless with-
current limiting for N E 1. ger pulses are inhibited. Transistor QJ is out losing effectiveness is timing . Small ,
The I 0-volt de required by binary kept in conduction during each positive nervous animals will be insta ntly swayed
counter JCJ is developed by dropping re- half of the supply by bias across R4. by the first shock . The 2-second pro-
sistor Rl, rectifier Dl, and filter capaci- During the negative half cycles, QJ is gram is aimed to impress larger, more
tor Cl. It is maintained at 10 volts by not biased by R4 . Binary counter JCJ is stubborn creatures . After the first four
zener diode D5. Further filtering is add- continuously counting line pulses ap- shocks, the varmint has time to move
ed by R2 and C2. plied to pin I . Its outputs are connected away from the unpleasant sensation .

1983 EDITION 77
varrnintzapper _________________________________________________________

03
R4
lOOK

R5
lOOK

Fig. 1. Digital pulses from ICt cause SCRt to discharge C6 through primary
of T2 to produce high voltage. Circled letters and symbol refer to foil pattern.

PART$ LIST
01-100-)LF, 10.voltelectrotYtic IC 1-4024 CMOS binarY counter RS-150-ohl'n, 1!4-watt resistor
02._ 114F, 10-vott tantalum NE 1-Neon lamp assembly R9-48-ohfu, 1/4-watt resistor
C3-50pF disc 01-~eneral-purpose npn silicon transis R 10-68,000-ohm, 1/4-watt resistor
C4-0.0414F disc tor S1-Spst switch
05-0.03-# disc 02-AnyUJT SCR1-200PIV, 1ampere SCR
C&-1.J.F, 200-\IOit paper R 1-10;000-ohm, J!e-waij.resistor T1-t17:117-volt isolation transformer
01,D2,03,04-200-volt PfV reeilfiet R2-10.000.ohm, if4-watt r~istor T2-TV flyback transformer (see text)
(1111400 1 or limilal') oA3,9<4.R5,R6-100,000ohm, "watt re- Misc.-Suitable+. enclosure, high-voltage
05-1 o-w zener Sistor feedthrough, press-on type, bare wire for
06,07,08,[)8- tN91.4 R7 -1~ohm, 1/4Wa\t resisttlr fence, insulators, mounting hardware.

former and the associated off-board


components .
Power switch Sl and the neon lamp
Fig. 2. Actual-size foil pattern assembly can be mounted on the front
for the printed-circuit board is side, while the high-voltage lead from
shown below. Component
T2 is coupled to a high-voltage feed-
installation diagram at !tift
through located on the top of the enclo-
sure . Place a " HIGH VOLTAGE"
warning at the feed through.

Use. The fence can be formed from a


length of bare wire (# 17 galvanized steel
is recommended) strung between insula-
tors. Plastic rods, or small plastic or
glass bottles affixed to wood stakes, can
be used as a substitute. Make sure that
no part of the bare wire "fence" touches,
or comes close to, the actual ground .
To use the fence, connect the bottom
end of the T2 secondary to a good earth
ground, then connect the fence to the
high-voltage feedthrough. When the
Construction. The circuit can be as- the high-voltage winding, one end of power is turned on, the neon lamp
sembled on a small pc board using the which is the CRT anode connecter. should glow indicating the presence of
foil pattern shown in Fig. 2. It can also The use of a very high-voltage flyback the operating de voltage across the C6-
be Wire-Wrapped using conventional transformer is not recommended . Cor- T2 network . If the fence is contacted,
techniques. Note that C5, C6, R9, RiO, ona discharge and possible flashover at the neon lamp will blink on and off with
the neon lamp, and both transformers the fence insulators may make the sys- each pulse .
are not mounted on the board. tem inoperative after a short while. The electrified fence can be installed
The output transformer, T2, can be However, you can try using an automo- so as to surround the area you want kept
salvaged from a discarded small-screen tive ignition coil. free from marauding animals, or, you
TV receiver. You must be able to locate Select an enclosure capable of holding can connect it directly to an insulated
the two primary leads (between 2 and 8 the small pc board, the selected flyback garbage can or other metallic container
ohms de resistance), and both sides of transformer, the line isolation trans- or enclosure. 0
78 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK
BY SAMI A. SHAKIR

This simple, useful circuit


employs ''current mirrors''
instead of conventional op amps

M ORE and more digital tech-


niques are finding applications
er supply from which each amplifier
sinks a constant current independent of
(ground) state to the positiVe supply
voltage. The resulting positive pulse re-
in formerly exclusive domains of analog the supply voltage. sets both integrator /C/ B and counter
electronics-tests and measurements, Stage /CJ A generates a train of IC2, causing the output lines of the
communications, and the recording and pulses whose duration is determined by counter and the output of the integrator
reproduction of speech and music, to the values of R5 and CJ . The frequency (that is, the staircase wav~form) to go to
name a few. One necessary stage in any of the pulse train can be varied by ground potential. The process begins all
digital system that processes informa- adjusting potentiometer Rl. Pulses gen- over again as new pulses are generated
tion originating in analog form is the erated by /CJ A are applied to the nonin- by /CJ A and applied to the integrator
analog-to-digital or A/D converter. In verting input of ICI B . This Norton and counter.
this article, we will present a low-cost CDA is employed as an integrator which In operation, the amplitude of the
A/D converter that you can build using generates a staircase waveform. The staircase waveform is continuously com-
readily available parts. The circuit can staircase increases in amplitude as pared to the analog input signal. If the
be used to experiment with the conver- pulses are received from ICI A . It is ap- input is a constant de level, the staircase
sion of voltages, currents, and trans- plied to the inverting input of compara- increases to a certain amplitude during
duced physical quantities from analog tor/C/C. each cycle until integrator /CJ B is reset
into d igital form. The analog input signal is applied to by /C/ D . Similarly, IC2 will count up to
the noninverting input of this compara- a certain binary number and then be
About the Circuit. The A/D con- tor. As long as the staircase amplitude is reset. If the input waveform changes
verter circuit, as shown in the schematic, less than that of the input signal, the with time, the amplitude attained by the
employs a 12-bit CMOS counter and an output of comparator ICJ C remains at staircase and the magnitude of the bina-
LM3900 quad operational amplifier. + V, the positive supply voltage. The ry count generated by IC2 just before
Each of the op amps in an LM3900 IC staircase continues to increase in ampli- the reset pulse is applied will vary. Ac-
employs the concept of a "current mir- tude until it just exceeds the input sig- cordingly, the larger the input signal,
ror" to amplify differential signals. nal's amplitude, at which point the dif- the greater the amplitude of the stair-
They are known as Norton current-dif- ferential input current at /CJ C becomes case and the count at the output lines of
ferencing amplifiers (CDAs) and are negative. This causes the output of the IC2 at the instant before the reset pulse
shown schematically as containing cur- comparator to go to ground potential, causes the outputs of ICJ B and IC2 to
rent sources to distinguish them from and the resulting negative transition is go to ground. The smaller the input sig-
conventional operational amplifiers. capacitively coupled to the inverting in- nal, the lower the amplitude of the stair-
Among the advantages of Norton CD As put of comparator /CJ D . case and count of IC2 at the instant
are circuit simplicity, low cost, and the The negative pulse momentarily tog- before the reset command takes effect.
requirement of only a single-ended pow- gles the output of ICI D from its normal The highest count attained by IC2 be-

1983 EDITION 79
A/D converter_______________
Sound Effectsrcontinuedtrompage42)
fore the output lines are reset to zero project. Also, use the minimum amount
describes the amplitude of the analogin- of heat and solder consistent with the Since the circuit can generate a very
put signal at the instant that comparator formation of good connections. Before wide variety of sounds, let us give an
ICJ C changes states. applying any supply voltages, double example of how you might go about "tai-
Because Norton CDAs are employed, check your wiring for errors that might loring" a specific sound with the bread-
only a single-ended power supply is cause damage to the ICs.
needed. National Semiconductor, the To calibrate the circuit, connect its
manufacturer of the LM3900, states in input to the positive supply voltage. TABLE II-SWITCH
its data sheet that a supply delivering Then monitor the output lines of IC2 IDENTIFICATION
from + 4 to + 36 volts can be used to and adjust Rl for the desired weighting S1 Power switch for 7 .5-to-9-volt de sup-
power the chip. The power supply rating factor . This factor n will equal Nc di- ply
52 Power switch for 5-volt de supply
53 Output
+V 54 Feedback
55 Amplitude resistance selector
56 Attack resistance
57 One-shot, constant when closed
58 One-shot momentary
59 Attack-decay timing capacitor selec-

I,,
10
tor
S 10 Decay resistance
S 11 Noise filter capacitor selector
470K
OU T PUT 512 Noise filter resistance
LINES
02 513 Noise oscillator resistor
IN914 514 Envelope select 1: logic 0, logic 1
II 515 Envelope select 2: logic 0, logic 1
516 Mixer C: logic 0, logic 1
+V 517 Mixer A: logic 0, logic 1
518 Mixer B: logic 0, logic 1
Rll 519 One-shot resistance
I. 2M
520 One-shot capacitor selector
INPUT 521 Voltage-controlled oscillator (vco):
logic 0, logic 1
ICI=LM3900
+4V 'S +V ~ +ISV
_L 522 SLF oscillator control capacitor se-
lector
523 SLF oscillator control resistance
Schematic of the converter. The Norton CDAs are shown as
524 Pitch control resistance
containing current sources to distinguish them from standard op amps.
525 Vco control resistance
526 Vco control resistance selector
PARTS LIST 527 Vco control capacitor selector
C1,C2-0.01-!tF disc ceramic, silver mica R3-3.3 megohms 528 Internal/external vco selector
or polystyrene capacitor R5-3300 ohms
C3-0.1-,.tF disc ceramic, silver mica or R6-15 megohms
polystyrene capacitor R7-1 megohm
D1 ,D2-1N914 diode RS-5100 ohms
IC 1-LM3900 quad Norton CDA R9-1200 ohms TABLE Ill-CONTROL
IC2-CD4040 counter R10- 510,000 ohms IDENTIFICATION
R1 - 250,000ohm, linear-taper trimmer R11 - 1.2 megohms R4 Noise filter control
potentiometer R12- 470,000 ohms R6 Decay control
The following are 1!4-watt, 5% tolerance, Misc.-Printed circuit or perforated board, R8 Attack control
carbon-composition resistors. IC sockets, suitable power supply and R15 Vco control
R2,R4-1.5 megohms enclosure, hookup wire, hardware, etc. R18 Vco control
R23 Pitch control
R25 SLF control
of the CD4040 CMOS counter is + 1 to vided by + V where + V is the positive R27 One-shot multivibrator control
+ 15 volts. Accordingly, a supply fur- supply voltage, N c is the highest count
nishing a voltage greater than or equal attained by IC2 before it is reset, and n
to + 4 volts and less than or equal to + 15 is the number of counts per volt.
volts can be used to power the entire cir- This low-cost A/D converter can be TABLE IV-CONTROL GROUPING
cuit. Current demand is modest, so eith- used to gain hands-on experience with One-Shot J11,R27,S7,S8,S19,S20
er a battery or small, well-filtered, line- one type of A/D conversion. It can also Noise Filter J3,R4,S11,S12
powered supply is suitable. form the nucleus of some useful proj- VCO Control J7,J8,J9,R15.R18,R23,S21,
ects. For instance, a latch, decoder, driv- S24,S25,S26,S27 ,S28
Construction. Printed-circuit, point- er and display network can be added to SLF Control J10,R25,S22,S23
to-point wiring, or wrapped-wire assem- provide a seven-segment readout of the Noise Clock S13
bly techniques can be used to reproduce digital numbers genera ted by IC2. One Mixer Select S16,S17,S18
interesting application would be a digi- Envelope J4,J5,R6,R8,S6,S9,S 10,
the a na log-to-digita l converter circuit.
S14,S15
The use of IC sockets is recommended, tal current meter that can be made by Amplitude S5
and the standard precautions for the adding such a display network and by Audio Output J6,S3,S4
handling of CMOS devices should be eliminating Rll. This can then in turn Power On / Off S 1
employed with respect to /C2. Be sure to be converted into a high-impedance + 5 volts S2
observe the polarities and pin basings of (as much as 10 megohms) digital volt- Ground J12
the semiconductors employed in this meter. 0

80 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


board . In this example, we will use the in-circuit resistances ... (continued from page 46)
sound of a gunshot.
R1
First, close FEEDBACK switch S3 and commonly employed in preciSIOn, com-
ouTPUT switch S4 to place the audio puterized procedures that are used to
HIGH
R3 measure resistance.
amplifier in the circuit. Then close + 5V TERMINAL R2
If the measured resistance is of low
switch S2 to activate the +5-volt line. 0
value, test-lead resistance can be a
Main POWER switch S 1 can now be 0
"'"'.../ source of significant error. The siandard
closed when you are ready to experi- "'"'.../
1-
remedy for this is to use separate cur-
ment with the controls. z rent-carrying and voltage-measuring
Since a gunshot has fast attack and
"'a:a:
::>
leads. This avoids measurement 'o f the
u IR drop in each current-carrying lead
relatively brief decay times, close ATIACK
and DECAY switches S6 and S10, respec- R FEEDBACK and is known as the Kelvin technique.
tively, to permit you to adjust attack and The in-circuit measurement tech-
decay times via ATIACK and DECAY pots niques that have been presented can also
RB and R6. As you experiment with vari- !
Eo; RFEEOBACK 1
eliminate the effects of semiconductors
upon the resistance reading. However,
ous settings of these controls, close Fig. 5. Another inverting op-amp any semiconductor present in the circuit
main POWER switch S 1 and press and circuit where unknown resistance might be called upon to dissipate power
release ONE SHOT switch SB to hear the forms amplifier's input resistor.
if it is part of the driven shunt path. Two
gunshot sound for each combination of practices are advised if this is the case.
settings. Adjust R6 and RB and press In this latter configuration, a voltage In a constant-voltage circuit, employ a
and release SB until the sound obtained drop will appear across each shunt resis- measuring voltage that is less than the
is "just right." (Calibrated index scales tor when the bridge is balanced. conduction threshold of the pn junction.
behind each potentiometer control knob In a constant-current circuit, reverse the
will simplify recording of settings.) Practical Tips. A number of in-cir- polarity of the meter probes. These steps
cuit :neasurement techniques have been will effectively turn the semiconductor
If desired, required values of attack
presented in this article. However, there junction into an open circuit for the pur-
and decay time resistances can be
are several practical effects that should poses of the resistance measurement and
measured and recorded by opening the be 'considered before these techniques eliminate a source of potential error.
ATIACK and DECAY switches and measur-
ing with an ohmmeter between DECAY R1
jack J4 and ground and between ATIACK
jack J5 and ground . ENVELOPE SELECT 1
R2 R3
and 2 switches S 14 and S 15 can also
be preset for the required envelope. R5 R7
To produce an explosion instead of a Fig. 6. A Wagner bridge WAGNER
gunshot sound, close NOISE FILTER switch circuit such as that ADJUST R4 +
+ NULL
S 12 and adjust NOISE FILTEA control R4 for shown here can be used 81
METER
R6
to measure resistance
the desired effect. WHEATSTONE
of an in-circuit component. ADJUST
a:
In Conclusion. The sound-effects gen- "'z
<!>

erator breadboard presented here can "'3:


51
be used in either or both of two ways.
For the designer, it is a "tool" that sim-
plifies designing a circuit from scratch.
One can "design" a circuit with the
breadboard, measure resistances of the
are implemented . These will now be In measuring circuits contammg an
controls and read off capacitor and
summarized. operational amplifier, certain precau-
logic-state ( + 5V or 0) settings from the
Thermoelectric voltages can be set up tions should be observed . It is wise to
panel, and assemble the circuit around a at the junctions of dissimilar conductors, install 0.0 1-~F disc ceramic bypass ca-
separate 76477 generator chip. The as well as between points on the same pacitors close to the IC package from
other way to use the breadboard is to conductor across which a thermal gra- the positive and negative power-supply
simply experiment with control and dient exists. Although they are very leads to ground. This will enhance cir-
switch setting combinations until you small for ordinary working tempera~ cuit stability. Input overvoltage and out-
hear a sound you like. Used in this man- tures and materials commonly fabri- put short-circuit protection must also be
ner, you can record a whole series of cated into probes and leads, these volt- considered. Many contemporary op
sound effects that can be used with ages can cause significant error if they amps, such as the Motorola MC1456,
are amplified as part of the measuring provide such protection internally. In
home movies and slide shows, for thea-
process. They can also be troublesome if those measurement situations which call
trical events, etc.
the test potential of the ohmmeter is upon the op amp to source more current
Whichever way you use the bread-
kept low to prevent semiconductor junc- into the driven shunt resistance than is
board, it is a good idea to log parameter tions from becoming forward-biased and available from the op amp, a current
values for given sounds for future refer- influencing the reading. This type of er- booster such as the Motorola MC1438R
ence. Then, any time you want to repro- ror can be reduced by certain design can be employed. Details on the use of
duce a sound arrived at experimentally, techniques or by determining its magni- the latter chip can be found in the man-
you can, simply by setting the controls tude and then subtracting it from the ufacturer's Applications Handbook and
and switches as detailed in your log. 0 overall reading . The latter technique is its Linear Circuits Manual. 0

1983 EDITION 81
BY ROBERT KRIEGER
BUILD A
W
etal
HETHER it is put to work in
searching for buried treasure, lo-
cating sunken pipes. or combing the
Australian outback for fragments of a
fallen space station, a metal locator can

Loator~
be a useful instrument The locator de-
scribed here uses a highly sensitive su-
perheterodyne circuit It is a true "from-
scratch" project in which you even fabri-

. ' \
cate the search-head pickup-coil as-
sembly. Assuming all parts and materi-
als are bought new for this project, total
cost should run about $20.

Circuit Operation. The metal loca-


tor, . shown in block-diagram form in
Fig. 1, functions on the beat-frequency
(heterodyning) principle. Here, two
high-frequency r-f signals are combined,
or " beat" together, in the FET mixer to
ii produce a difference frequency. (Actual-
t..j' ly, the mixer output contains the original
i! v . frequencies along with their sum and dif-
} . terence. but it is the difference frequen-
cy that interests us because it is the only
one that lies in the audio range.)
The original signals are produced by a
pair of FET oscillators operating at 650
kHz. The frequency was chosen on the
basis of tests showing that, up .to 350
: kHz, sensitivity .and depth< of penetration
are fairly lowand constant for moderate-
I)( small objects. At .400 kHz, there is a
sharp increase in performaflce. that per-
. sis(s io
up 1.3
.
MHi,
.
.Where
.
the copper-
... ~ . . . . .

82 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


Fig. 1. Block diag'Yam shows how the Locator the variation in L 1 causes a frequency
osc .fu'Ylctio'Yls on the heterodyning p'Y"inciple. shift, say, to 650.440 kHz. Now, the dif-
A
(SEARCH) ference between 650.440 kHz and the
650.400-kHz frequency of fixed oscilla-
tor 8 is 40Hz. This -means that the audi-
ble tone has shifted from 54 to 40 Hz to
indicate the proximity to L 1 of a metallic
object.
osc The metal locator contains two stable
e Colpitts oscillators (01 and 02 circuits in
(LOCAL)
Fig. 2) thp.t a,re both tuned to operate in
the 650-kHz range. The oscillators are
essentially identical, except that one
braid Faraday shield (more about .the kHz and 54 Hz in the output. Since all employs search-head coil L 1 as the in-
shield later) loses its effectiveness. A we wish to pass on to the amplifier is the ductive element and the other has small
frequency of 650 kHz gives excellent audible 54-Hz signal, the low-pass filter tunable inductor L2.
sensitivity and offers convenience in fi- removes all higher frequencies. After For operation , C1 is set at its midpoint
nal adjustment. As designed, the metal amplification , the 54-Hz signal is heard and then L2 is adjusted so that both os-
locator can detect a nickel in free air at a from the loudspeaker. cillators are at zerobeat (same frequen-
distance of 6" . (152 mm) or buried at a When L 1, the inductor that forms the cy). Varying C1 will then tune oscillator
depth of 3" (76 mm) or more. search head, is brought near a metallic 01 out of zerobeat and cause C)n audio
Assume that oscillators A and 8 in object (on the surface or buried), its in- tone to be heard. Note thp.t source resis-
Fig. 1 are set to 650.454 and 650.400 ductance changes slightly. The deeper tor R4 in the 02 circuit is greater in value
kHz, respectively. Combining these in the object is buried, the less the chqnge. than R3 in the 01 circuit. Since the 01
the FET mixer , we obtain signals at With L 1 acting as one of the frequency- circuit produces a low level of oscillation,
650.454 kHz, 650.400 kHz, 1300.854 determining components of oscillator A, it is necessary to damp the 02 oscillator

G
R6
7.5K 1fJ5
_[pF
l
9V--
_I.

Cll
.02pF

RB
4.7K

CIO
3pF R5 R7
IM 56011

tI
I R3- :l300 ohms
R4.R6- 7500 ohms
PARTS LIST R5- l megohm
B 1- 9-volt hallery (see text) R7- 560 ohms
C 1- 3- to-50-pF variab le cqpac itor (see text) RR-4700 ohms
C2.C6- 220-pF mica or polystyrene capac itor R9- 5000-ohm potentiometer
C3.C7-470-pF mica or p<ilystyrene capacitor SPKR- 1!h" loud speaker
C4.CR- O.<Xll-j..LF mica or polystyrene capa- S 1- Spst toggle switch
cit or 1- 1R" X 6" piece of \4" plywood for search-
C5.C II .C 13---0.02-j..LF capacitor head coil form
C9- JOO-pF mica or polystyrene capacitor 1- 36" length of Y." diameter alum inum tub-
C I 0- :l-pF capacitor . ing
C 12- (Ul5-I-LF capacitor 1- 5' length of RG-58U coaxial cable
Fig. 2. Two stable Colpitts
C 14- 100-1-LF. 16-vol t electrolytic 1- 2' length of RG-8U coaxial cable
oscillators (Ql and Q2) are C15 - IO-j..LF. 16-voil e lectro lytic Misc. - Perforated board (or printed -circuit
tuned to opeTate in the ICI - LM3R6 !h-wall audio amplifier IC hoard- see text): socket for IC I: 9- volt bat -
650-kHz Tange. They aTe J ! - Miniature trans fer-type phone jack tery cl ip: Bud No. CU234 or similar a lumi -
essentially identical except L !- Search coil (see text) num case: 40 ' No. 2R ename l- or Myla[-
.fo'Y" the two inductors. L2- AM loopstick antenna with tu'nahlc slug coated magnet wire: control knobs (2):
Q I.Q2.Q:l- 2N5951 n-channe l FtT white glue: epoxy cement: plastic tape: Y:z"
The following arc 14-watt. IOo/o tol erance re- foam insu lation tape; plast ic cement: two
sis tors unless otherwise noted: sma ll brass screws; machine hardware :
R I.R2-470.000 ohms spacers: hookup wire: solder; etc.

1983 EDITION 83
to match the 01 oscillator. This is the
reason for the greater value for R4 .
The key to operation of a Colpitts os-
cillator is the pair of capacitors that form
a voltage divider across the inductor (C2
and C3 for 01 and C6 and C7 for 02).
The capacitors and inductor in each cir-
cuit determine the frequency of opera-
tion for that circuit. In the 01 and 02cir-
cuits, the FET's source is at signal
ground. Therefore, because of the split
capacitor action, the signal at the bottom
of the inductor is 180 out-of-phase with
that at the drain. Since the transistor in-
verts the signal by 180 and the split
tank circuit inverts another 180, an in-
phase signal is fed back to the gate and
sustains oscillations.
Increasing the value of C3 or C7 de-
creases the amount of feedback to the
gate. If the value of this capacitor is
made too large, there will not be enough
feedback to sustain oscillation. Lowering
its value to , say, 300 pF increases feed-
back and virtually guarantees oscilla- Fig . 3. Glue thr-ee plywood di sc s tog ether- with th-e smaller-
one i n th e middle. U se damp s or- weights to en su1e pr-ope1 bonclinr~ .
tion , but the sine wave will not be as
" clean " as it would be with a 560-pF ca-
pacitor value. The ratio of C2 to C3 or
C6 to C7 should be about 1 :3 for best
overall operation. Although 01 and 02
appear to be arranged in a unity-gain F i g. 4. Wh en glue ha s had
source-follower configuration, R3 and time to set thor-o u ghly,
R4 are actually working off the drains, dr-aw aD- s haped for-m on
since the sources are at feedback th e a ss embly as s how n.
ground.
Mixer 03 heterodynes the r-f signals
and provides some degree of preamplifi-
cation for amplifier /C 1. Resi?tor RB and
capacitor C12 make up the low-pass fil~
ter that prevents r-f from entering /C 1. Fig. 5. U se a coping
or- sab1e s aw to cut
out the .for-m d r-awn
Construction. There is nothing partic-
on di sc in Fin. 4.
ularly difficult in assembling the metal
detector. The only conceivable problem
area might be in fabricating the search-
head assembly , which requires relative-
ly simple woodworking. Several hours
are required for allowing the glue to set
in the search-head assembly. There-
fore , it is best to start construction by
fabricating this assembly and, while the
glue is setting , assemble the electronics
package. '
Cut two 5YI" (146-mm) and one 5"
(127-mm) disks from a sheet of W' (6.4-
mm) thick plywood. Lightly sand the cut
edges to remove all splinters. Locate
and mark the center of each disk and
drill a 1 /16" (1.6-mm) hole through each.
Liberally coat both sides of the smaller
disk with white glue and temporarily as-
semble the three d isks with the smaller
in the middle, using a nai l to. align the
holes. Press lightly and then disassem-

84 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


ble. Allow the glue to air dry until the sur-
faces are just tacky. Then reassemble
with the nail to assure proper alignment
and clamp or weight the "sandwich" un-
til the glue sets (Fig.3). Alternatively , you
can use epoxy cement as the binder, Photo of the com pleted
aligning the disks with the nail and m .etaltocator with
clamping or weighting immediately upon handle on front,
application. Set the assembly aside for cont1ol.; on top,
at least 6 hours to allow the glue or ce- bottom and sideR .
ment to set solidly.
Speaker
iR just under
Meanwhile, referring back to Fig. 2,

f
the hnndte.
assemble the electronics package on a
piece of perforated board, using either
point-to-point or Wire Wrap techniques.
If you are particularly ambitious, you can
design and fabricate your own printed
Fig. 6. Drill shaft hole with circuit board for the project. In any
wood hit, tilting it away .from event, use a socket for /C1 and, if possi-
D c11 tout by about 18 degrees. ble , sockets for 01 and 02.
Do not wire L 1 or C2 into the circuit
just yet or mount the circuit board as-
sembly into the case until directed to do
so. Note that C1 specified in the Parts
List is a standard 365-pF capacitor. To
reduce it to 50 pF , carefully remove all
but one of its rotor plates, taking care to
avoid bending the remaining plate.
Once the glue or cement has thor-
oughly set in the search-head assembly,
remove the clamps or weights. Pry out
and discard the nail. Then, referring to
Fig . 4, draw a D-shape_ d form on the as-
sembly as shown. Use a sabre or coping
saw to cut out this form (Fig. 5). Lightly
sand the cut edges to remove all splin-
ters and rough spots. Referring back to
Fig. 4, locate the centers of the shaft and
wire-exit holes. Drill the latter with a free end up through one of the 1 /16"
Fig. 7. The 20-tu-rn coit i:-; 1 /16" bit. Use a W' (19.1-mm) wood bit holes , and solder to the head of the ad-
.;hieldedwith the braid.from to drill the shaft hole , tilting it away fro'Tl jacent screw. (Fig. 8). Cover the braid
RG-8U coax ial cable. the D cutout by about 18 (Fig. 6). The with a single layer of plastic tape , as
angle is not critical , but it should be be- shown in Fig. 9.
tween 15 and 20 from perpendicular to Use No. 28 enamel- or Mylar-coated
permit convenient handling of the metal magnet wire to wind the search coil.
detector. Scrape away about W' (12.7 mm) of the
The 20-turn coil to be wound in the insulation and pass the wire up through
groove formed in the search-head sand- the same hole as the wire to the shield is
wich must be shielded to reduce ground routed to the . brass screw. Solder to the
capacitance effects . The shield is a same screw. Then wind 20 turns of the
length of copper braid removed from magnet wire into the groove. Pass the
RG-8U coaxial cable. Carefully slit the free end up through the other 1 /16" hole
outer plastic jacket from about a 24". (61- and solder to the screw adjacent to the
cm) length of coax. Then slide the inner hole. Coat the windings completely with
conductor out of the braid . With your fin- plastic cement to prevent them from
gers, flatten the braid and press one turn shifting and affecting frequency stability.
into the groove. Use a Phillips screw- When the cement sets , cover the
driver to force the braid in place as winding yvith a single layer of plastic
shown in Fig. 7. Be sure to leave a gap tape. Lay in another turn of the wire
of 8" (9.5 mm) between the braid ends. braid , again leaving a Ys" gap between
Drive two small brass screws into the the ends and connecting one end, viC! a
Fig. 8. Bring .free end of braid top of the plywood sandwich near the length of rookup wire , to the screw to
up through plywood sandwich and shaft hole . Solder a length of hook-up which the inner braid and one end of the
solder to an adjacent screw. wire to one end of the braid. Pass the search coil is connected. Note , when

1983 EDITION 85
you are finished with this part of con- x 1 \4" machine screws. nuts, and lock-
struction there should be three wires sol- washers through one wall of the box.)
dered to one screw and only one to the Next, mount the speaker, C1 , J1, 51,
other. For thermal protection. cover the R9, and L 1 in their respective locations.
outer braid with a single layer of 1/-i" wide Mount these components in !he order
polyfoam weather stripping. given and connect and solder lengths of
Several inches up on the aluminum hookup wires to their lugs. Referring
shaft, drill a W' hole through which to back to Fig. 2. connect and solder the
pass the coaxial cable that intercon- free ends of the wires to the appropriate
nects electronics package with search points in the circuit. Then mount the cir-
coil. On the other end of the shaft, mea- cuit board assembly inside the box. us-
sure down Y2" and 1 W' and drill Vs" holes ing spacers and 6-32 hardware. Snap
directly in line with the W' hole. Place the connector onto the battery terminals
the search-head assembly on a flat, lev- and slip the battery into its bracket.
el surface, top side up. Run a liberal
bead of epoxy cement inside the shaft Operation and Use. The critical fac-
hole and around the head end of the tor in a metal detector is in the adjust-
Fig. 9. Cover the coax shie Ld
shaft. Slide the shaft into the hole, ori- ment of both its oscillators to function on
braid with a single layer of
enting it so that the 1/.4" hole faces toward plas tic e le ctrical tape. the same frequency. If possibl~. each
the screws in the search-head assem- oscillator should be tested separately
bly. Prop the assembly up and let stand with a frequency counter. If a counter is
undisturbed until the epoxy cement sets. not available, use a standard AM broad-
When the cement sets, pass a 36" cast-band radio tuned near the low end
(914-mm) length of RG-58U coax of the band (about 650 on the dial) and
throu9h the \4" hole and route through defeat first one and then the other oscil-
the shaft. Prepare the end of the coax lator by temporarily opening the source
and connect and solder it to the heads of circuit while tuning. Tune the search
the screw~ to which the search coil and (01) oscillator first and then the local
shield are connected. The shield goes to (02) oscillator to the same frequency,
the screw head to which the coil's two adjusting L2 to bring the latter to the
shield and one coil wires are connected, same frequency. When the oscillator
while the inner conductor goes to the and the radio are tuned to the same fre-
other screw, as shown in Fig. 10. quency, you will hear a " dead-air
Now. referring to Fig. 11, machine the space," a band of silence resulting from
cabinet for mounting L2, 5PKR, 51 , J1, the prese.n ce of an unmodulated carrier.
C1 , R9, 81's bracket, the handle and To u se the metal detector, give it a
shaft, and the circuit-board assembly. couple of minutes to stabilize after first
Carefully deburr all holes. Then mount applying power. Adjust C1 for zerobeat
the handle, shaft, and battery bracket, in and then back off so that you hear a
that order, with appropriate machine low-frequency tone from the speaker or
hardware . (Note that the shaft fits Fig. 10. Coax i s routed to se arch earphone. Pass the search head over a
through a %'' hole at one end of the box coil thr ough the s haf t w i th ends m eta l object. and the tone should shift
and is held in place with two sets of 6-32 soldered to the proper screw ~. upward or downward in frequency, de-
pending on the side to which you tuned
off zerobeat.
One final note: Maintain a low volume
level from the speaker to prolong battery
life. You can use an 8.4-volt mercury
battery for 81 to provide superior ser-
vice . since this type of battery maintains
a re latively constant voltage ove r a long-
er period than can ordinary carbon-zinc
batteries.

In Conclusion. As you use the metal

I detector described here, you will soon


come to realize how w ell it works for lo-
CC!ting buri ed m etallic obj ects . Always
bear in mind , however, that the smaller
the object or the deeper it is buried, the
more difficult it will be to locate. When
Fig. 11 . Photo s howing inside of author ;s prototy pe. working in noisy environments, such as
The s haft fit s through h o le at lef t. Handl e and a t a beach with a pounding surf, use an
sp eaker are s hown on the bac k of enclosure h ere. earphone for b est results . <>
86 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK
T HOUGH its function as a personal
, warning monitor is not, as important
as that of a fire alarm or a gas detector,
fl radiation monitor can give peace of
mind to people who are apprehensive
about the hazards of possible radiation
leakage and radioactive devices, This
concern is obviously heighteneq when-
BUILD A
ever the, news media report a n\Jclear
incident of one kind or another,
The RED,ONE battery-powered radia-
tion monitor project described here de-
tects local radiation levels from man-
made and natural sources, It indicates
Personal
Radiation
relative radiation, which is perfectly
satisfactory for alerting one to excess
radiation levels ,
Two versions of the monitor are de-
scribed , The simpler one produces an
audible "chirp" for each detected gam-
ma ray, The other teams up a three-
decade counter with the basic circuit to
co.unt and display gamma-ray events
over a controlled period of time, sound-
ing a chirp for each event
The RED,ONE is a sophisticated unit
that offers many advantages over ear-
Monitor
lier radiation detectors , Replacing fra- Uses latest cadmium-telluride
gile, cumbersome, and less ~ sensitive
Geiger-Muller tubes, this monitor is built detector to provide
around a solid-state cadmium-telluride
(CdTe) detector. About the size of a
audible or visual indication
transistor, the device offers high sensi- of radiation level
tivity, low bias-voltage requirements,
extremely low power consumption, and
solid-state reliability. Moreover, cost is
competitive with tube-detector types .
BY JOHN STEIDLEY
MARTIN NAKASHIAN and
Radiation al'!d Its Detection. Gamma GERALD ENTINE
rays can occur naturally (from sub-
stances such as uranium) or can be
man-made (as in a nuclear power plant),
Radioactive gases, such as those re-
leased during the Three Mile Island nu-
clear power plant incident, and medical
diagnostic and therapeutic isotopes are
typical man-made gamma-ray sources.
Each radioisotope produces gamma
rays of specific energies which are
measured in electron volts (eV), the en-
ergy acquired by an electron ac;celerat-
ed by a potential. difference of one volt.
Gamma rays have high energies mea-

1983 EDITION 87
R8
IOO!l

Rll Rl2
470K IK

Cl +
IOpF


OFF

Fig. 1. The siynalfrom the detector is amplified, compared


TO
COUNTER
(OPTIONAL)
1 to a reference to eliminate low-level noise, and used to
drive a piezoelectric sound element through a 2-kHz oscillator.

IC2-CA~ 140E op amp (RCA) R ll,R 14,RI5- 470,000 ohms


PARTS LIST-FIG. 1 IC3-LM311 N comparator (National) R 12-1 000 ohms
CI. C3, C 17- 10- fl. f. 16-V tantalum IC4- 4011 quad NAtJD 'gate R 13- 2.2 megohms
C2 - 0.47-'fl.f, 35-V tantalum The following are '4-watt, IO%resistors un- SPKR~ Piezoelectric sound element (Kyo-
C4,C6,C 14-0.01- fl.f disc ceramic less otherwise ~pecified: cera KBS 27DB-3A or similar)
C5,C7 ,CS- 100-pf disc ceramic R I ~220,000 ohms S2-Spst switch
CI0- 0.022-fl-F disc ceramic R2- 10,000-ohrn pc potentiometer Misc.- Suitable enclosure, 9-volt battery in-
Cll - 470-pf disc ceramic R3,R7,R 10--+100,000 ohms cluding holder and power on/ off switch,
D l- 1N914 diode R4- l megohm 0.005" brass foi l for shield, machine hard
DET- CdTe radiation detector (see text RS-10 megohms ware, etc.
and Note below) R6,R9-l 0,000 ohms Note-For availability pj kit and parts, see
!CI - - CA3240E dual FET op amp (RCA) R8-100ohms Parts List for Fig. 2.

sured in thousands of electron volts About the Circuit. The basic detec- the noise cause the comparator's out-
(keV), the typical range being from 100 tor I beeper circuit is shown in Fig. 1. put and, hence, NAND gate IC4A's input
to 1000 keV . Lower-energy rays are ab- The output of radiation detector OET to go low. Resistor R 13 keeps pin 5 of
sorbed by even a fraction of an inch of goes to the input of the FET operational JC48 low to turn off the 2000-Hz
lead, while high-energy rays can pass amplifier, which provides impedance (approx imately) oscillator made up of
through many inches of lead . matching and initial amplification. Addi- IC48, /C4C, /C40, R14, R15, and Ctt.
When gamma rays are absorbed by a tional amplification is provided by /C 18 When a detected event causes JC4A
CdTe detector such as that used in RED and /C2. Feedbac k capacitors C5 and to go low, IC4A' s output goes high . This
ONE, an electrical-charge burst is pro- C7 shape the pulse and improve S I N. high signal is passed through now for-
duced and amplified to detect the The output from /C2 at pin 6 is about ward-biased diode 01 to raise the pin-5
event. Higher-energy rays produce 40 fl.S wide and has a height that is pro- output of IC48, which causes the oscil -
greater charge bursts . portional to the amount of charge de- lator to sound via the piezoelectric
The gamma-ray sensor in REDONE is posited on the detector. Signal level transducer, SPKR. The approximately
d esigned to allow detection of reason - here is about 1 mV I k eV of collected 20 ~ ms C tOR 13 time constant maintains
able gamma -ray leve ls and to permit c harge. Unfortunately, thermally gener- the high state of pin 5 of JC4B. Wh en
many interesting experiments to be at ed c harge carri e rs and leakage c ur- /C4A reverts to low, 01 prevents rapid
made. For example, bricks in many New rent in the detector also produce about discharge of C 10 and maintains the
England firepla ces have detectable 30 mV of noise impulses. Adjustment of time constant. The oscillator thus gen-
(though ve ry-low-level) amounts of R2, however, ensures that compa.rator erates a 20-ms chirp for each detected
radioactivity. By observing indications /C3 discriminates against iind prevents gamma-ray event.
with either ve rsi on of th e monitor, an es- this low-level noise from triggering the If you wish to c ount and display the
timate of activity leve l can be made. comparator. Signal pulse s that override number of events as they are generated

!18 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


>
0>0
+ ~~N>
+ 1::
I
CDO>

z
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PARTS LIST-FIG. 2
.
B l ' 4 AA cells (not in kit) 8"'z w <D<e

82.,_...,.9-volt battery (not in kit)


<..!
"'"' ~z ~ in~

'ti"1i ...=r21.J.,i
Q.

Cl2- 0.001- J.LF disc ceramic


.
'jOllio..i
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Cl3- 0.I- f!.-F disc ceramic
Cl5- 0.0l-f.LF disc ceramic
Cl6- IO- f!.-F, 35-V tantalum IT'tlo~~~:~: [5~
~ ....i
~~

n
lh"O
DISP I ,D1SP2,DISP3- 7-segment, com- ~,.. <eC:
mon-anode LED NO
a:r-
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0 ...I
0 ~
IC6= 55'5 timer z

i 1I
IC7,IC8-4518 dual BCD counter
IC9-4013 duai-D flip-flop
ICI0- 14553 3-decadecounter
ICII - 14543 7-segment decoder /driver
LE'o I ,LED2- Red light-emitting diode ~-
,..._ ~
"' "'zr
I:"'
~ I.: ch
~__::
QI.Q2,Q3~2N4402 transistqrs
Q.

"'0 ::> + .,
The following are 114-watt, 1O%resistors un- r- CD
"'Hu
less otherwise specified:
Rl6, R17, R18, R30, R32, R33- 10,000ohms
r-- II = ~
R19through R27- 470 ohms
R28- IOO o)lms ~- e N H- .:!:1

~~
R29- l 00,000-ohm pc potentiometer
Q.
"'
-2
R31 -47,000 ohms
N
0
...... "'0 1-
"'
S l .,.......Dpdt switch
83- Spst switch
84-Normally open pushbutton switch
z
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,....
' IIi "'"
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I
f-1-l~ "' "'"'u !:?
SS-2-pole, 6-position rotary switch
~-- -Q. a
Ul

t"'
0

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Misc.-Suitable enclosure (LMB453 or 2
~

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similar); battery holders; control knob; - <to
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-- ~0
(I)
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machine hardware; red filter; etc. 2

- 7
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Note-The following are available for non-
commercial use from Radiation Monitor- 1 I >
"'
"' ..
' I'
' ... I
"'+
(;)~
... u
ing Devices, Inc., 44 Hunt St. Watertown, 0 I

"',
"'I
MA 02172: complete kit ofparts for Fig. 1
for$85; complete kitofpartsfor Figs. 1 and
4, including case but not baueries,for $125. _\
"'~~
., ... l
I
nv
-
ii:~
I
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Also available separately: CdTe radiation
detector for $90. Add $5 for shipping and 2= -~
"' !!
handling. Massachusetts residents, J?lease "'C;;
!:
~ > rl
"'
add 5% tax. Allow 6 weeks for delivery.
Available in U. S.A. only.
7
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Fig. 2. The conventional 3-digit counter/display can be ...:. u

enabled either manually or from a selection of timing


:IE H
~.,~.
.......~ . 'f
~ u I
I
signals. A blinking overrange indicator is also provided. "' " I
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at the output of IC4A, you c a n add the 0153 a nd digit drivers 01, 0 2, and 03 Operation of IC 10 is controlled by the
circuit shown in Fig . 2 to that in Fig . 1. make up a conventional three-digit signal at its pin-11 input . This signal can
The combination of IC 10, IC 11, and sev- counter I display system. The output of be either manually applied or automati-
en -segment displays DIS 1, D/52, and IC4A drives counter /C 10. cally generated by an internal timer.

1983 EDITION
89
When 55 is set to MANUAL, the pin-1 out- This flashing continues until START 1-, 10-, 40-, and 100-second timing peri-
put from /C9A continuously increments switch 54 is pressed to reset IC98. ods . START switch 54 initiates timing by
the counter I disp-lay for each incoming Internal timing is based on 100-Hz resetting the two counters and flip-flop.
count from /C4A. When 999 counts are 555 timer oscillator /C6. Frequency is Power for the Fig . 1 circuit can be a
exceeded, pin 14 of /C 10 goes low and, determined by C13, R13, R30, and ad- conventional 9-volt battery or de power
via NAND gate ICSB, clocks flip-flop justable R29. The oscillator drives di- supply . When the Fig . 2 circuit is added,
/C98. The output of /C98 at pin 13 is vide~by-1 00 IC7, whose output at pin 14 four AA cells in series can be used to
NANDed with a 2-Hz signal from /C7 to is 1 Hz. Counter ICB, switch 55, NAND power the LED display. POWER switch 51
flash OVER (LED 1) two times a second . gate /GSA, and flip-flop IC9A generate controls both power sources.

Fig. 3. Actual-size etching


and drilling guides for tlu;
'two-sided pc board are
shown below. Component
mounting on the top is at
left. Note that the upper
TOSI portion of the board
----~POWER 11 (containing the audible
circuit shown in Fig. 1)
can be detached if only
that circuit is to be used.

90
Q)

_....,........ :~}
"'!,R 2~ 2 ~:L!'!:::!"Ii""'' ::
TO ICII
PINS 9-15

15

F;ig. 4. Actual-size etching and drilling guide and componenllayoutfor the display board.

Construction. Since there are relative- critical test points and where interboard thick brass to fabricate an electrical in-
ly high-impedance, low-level analog sig- connections occur are indicated in the terference shield to prevent external in-
nals present in the /C 1 and IC2 stages Fig . 3 component-placement diagram. fluence on the low-level analog signals
of RED-ONE, good circuit-board construc- Tape a Ya" (3 .2-mm) thick piece of generated in the detector. Shape it as
tion techniques must be exercised. The foam rubber around the detector to an open-faced box measuring 2 W' X 1"
use of a printed circuit board and Molex cushion it from mechanical shock. (Be- X Y2" (63.5 X 24 .5 X 12.7 mm). Then
Soldercons is strongly recommended. cause of its piezoelectric design, any solder the box to four miniature clips
Actual-size etching and drilling guides mechanical shock to it will cause the spaced on the board as indicated in
for the double-sided board and its com- detector to generate a false output.) Fig . 3. (This box also holds the foam-
ponent-placement diagram are shown in Use copper foil or 0 .005" (0. 13-mm) rubber-wrapped detector gently against
Fig . 3. At some component locations, (Continued on page 97)
pads appear only on the bottom side of
the board. At these points, holes should
be drilled from the bottom and compo-
nents mounted from the top. If you elect
to build only the beeper version of the
Red One, you can separate and disre-
gard the upper half of the guide. The
only interconnecting trace between the
two guide sections is from IC4 to IC 10.
The etching-and-drilling guide and
component-placement diagram for the
optional display board are shown in Fig.
4. This is a single-sided board .
In addition to normal precautions
used when soldering solid-state de-
vices, special care must be taken with
the detector. Use a low-wattage, fine-
tipped soldering pencil and fine solder
and provide a heat sink for the leads
with longnose pliers . Use only enough
heat and solder to give reliable, solid
connections.
Begin assembly by installing and sol-
dering into place the resistors, capaci-
tors, and Soldercons (if used) on the
main pc board. Some points that require
soldering on both sides of the board are
indicated by short tabs on the pc pads.
In addition, any pad on the component
side of the board from which a foil runs
requires soldering to the component
lead. This suggests the use of Molex
Soldercons as opposed to IC sockets. Photo of the author's prototype shows the main pc board mounted on
Provisions for using miniature clips at chassis bottom with sound element on back and display on front.
1983 EDITION 91
T HERE are many reliable timers,
thermometers, and quality-control
of the Sink Sentinel is shown in Fig. 1. It
is based on a conventional 555 timing
devices to aid the photographer. Unfor- circuit (/C1) . TIME SET potentiometer R2
tunately, most of these commercial de- and RANGE switch S3, the latter select-
vices are expensive. You can, however, ing the appropriate range capacitor (C1
build the "Sink Sentinel," which serves and C2 shown , but more capacitors can
as a photo-lab timer, thermometer, and be added, as desired), determine the
conductivity tester, at a fraction of the timing range.
cost you would expect to pay for a simi- Timing is initiated by pressing START
lar commercial device. The Sink Senti- switch S4 , which places pin 2 of IC1 at
nel accurately monitors the temperature ground potential. Pin 2 is normally held
of film-processing chemicals, times film high by R3. The timing interval in sec-
processing, and tells you when your film onds is approximately equal to 1 .5 times
or paper can come out of the hypo. the value of R2 in megohms times the
value of the capacitor (selected by S3) in
About the Circuit. The timer portion microfarads. The timing values for the R

BUILD A
PHIII

92 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


and C values shown in Fig. 1 were set in If at any time you wish to terminate the
three ranges . The first and most com- timing cycle, you simply press RESET
monly used for photographic printing switch S2.
and enlarging is from about 3 to 23 sec- An optional enlarger/safelight power-
onds; the second from 20 seconds to ing arrangement is provided by sockets
nearly 3 minutes; and the last from 3 to S01 and S02 and relay K1, as shown in
almost 30 minutes. If desired, the Rand Fig. 1. If you prefer not to have this op-
C values can be changed to produce tion , you can eliminate K1 and S01 and
any desired timing intervaL S02. Assuming you decide to keep this
During the timing interval, the output option, when K1 is not energized at the
of IC1 at pin 3 is high and lamp 11 and end of a timing cycle, S02 is powered
alarm A 1 (if the latter is switched in via and can be used to power your safelight.
SS) will not operate, but LED1 will be on. During the timing cycle, K1 is energized ,
At the end of the timing cycle, the output connecting S01 to the power line for
of IC1 goes low to allow A 1 and 11 to op- powering an enlarger.
erate. At this point, LED1 extinguishes. The temperature/conductivity section

SEIIIIEL
Moderately priced system monitors
temperatures and film process time of
photographic chemicals, and alerts
user when fi Im or
paper processing is completed

BY FRANK I. GILPIN
PARTS LIST

A 1---<i-volt de alarm or buzzer (Mallory Son-


alert No. SC628, Radio Shack No.
273-049 , or similar)
B 1-9-volt battery
C 1-20-fl.F, 20-volt electrolytic
C2-200-fl.F, 20-volt electrolytic
C3-2.2-fl.F, ::?0-volt electrolytic
C4-{).0l-fl.F disc
C5-500-fl.F, 20-volt electrolytic
11-6-volt lamp (No. 47 or similar)
J !-Subminiature phone jack
K 1-6-volt, low-current relay (Radio Shack
No. 275-004 or similar)
LED I-Red discrete light-emitting diode
M 1--D-to-50-fl.A de meter movement (Radio
Shack No. 22-051 or similar)
PI, P2-Subminiature phone plug
Q 1-Pnp germanium transistor in TO I or T04
metal case (see text)
The following resistors are liz - watt, I 0%:
Rl-IOOohms
R3--470,000 ohms
R4-150ohms
R5,R6-3000 ohms
R8-3600 ohms
R2-5-megohm linear-taper potentiometer
R7-IOO,OOO-ohm miniature potentiometer
RECTI-Rectifier (Radio Shack No. 276-
6.3V
1626)
SI-Spst switch
S2,S4-Normally open spst pushbutton switch
S3-Single-pole, three-position nonshorting
rotary switch
S5,S6-Spdt switch
Fig. 1. Basic 555 timer can be adjusted for SO I ,S02--Chassis-mounting ac receptacle
almost any desired timing ranges. The relay circuit TI-6.3-volt ; 300-mA transformer
allows timing an enlarger then turning on safelight. Misc-9" X 6" X 3llz" (22.9 X 15.2 X 8.9
em) aluminum cabinet; holder for B I ; ac
line cord with plug; pointer knob; plain
pressfit control knob; 2" X 2" (I 0. 8 X 10.8
em) perforated board; 36" (about I m)
stranded two-conductor speaker cable ;
of the Sink Sentinel is shown in Fig. 2. It el. Then, before connecting and solder- 1/16" clear plastic sheet; quick-set epoxy;
is based on the Wheatstone bridge prin- ing the line cord to the appropriate plastic cement; silicone-rubber cement; 4"
(21 .6 em) chrome or stainless-steel wire
ciple. The circuit measures the relative points in the circuit, tie a knot about 4"
(see text) ; dry-transfer lettering kit; rubber
resistance of either a plug-in tempera- (10 .2 em) from the prepared end on the grommets (2) ; hookup wire; machine hard-
ture or conductivity probe. inside of the box to prevent the cord ware; etc .
The temperature probe is made up of from being torn loose.
an ordinary pnp germanium transistor Light-emitting diode LED_1 mounts on
with a metal T01 or T04 case. Sensing the front panel via a rubber-grommet-
is performed in the emitter-collector lined hole . Note that a separate lamp Next, cut a 3" disc from 1 I 16" ( 1.6-
junctions. Although such a temperature and switch can be used for 11 and S 1, or mm) thick sheet of clear plastic. Using a
probe is limited in range, it will suffice for you can use a switch with built-in lamp. metal straightedge and a sharp needle,
the 60 to gooF (15.6 to 20 C) range re- Use a dry-transfer lettering kit to label firmly scribe a line from the center to the
quired in most photographic developing the front panel with the appropriate le- edge of the disc. Fill the scribed line with
situations. gends. With an ink compass. draw four india ink and wipe off the excess, leav-
concentric circles on medium-weight ing behind a fine scribed cursor. Drill a
Construction. The timer circuit can white cardboard. Make the circles 5/s ", 3/fl" (9.5-mm) hole through the center of
be assembled on a small perforated 2", 2~". and 3" (15.9, 51, 63.5, and 76.2 the plastic disc.
board, or you can use a printed-circuit mm) in diameter. Cut a disc from the Temporarily place a knob with a point-
board of your own design. A socket is cardboard, using the 3" circle as a guide. er on the shaft of R2 and rotate it to lo-
recommended for IC1 in either case. Next, cut a hole in the center of the disc, cate the two stops on the pot. Locate
Mount the various switches, control, using the %" circle as a guide. Rubber this angular gap at the top of the card-
indicators, and meter on the front panel cement the disc to the front panel, with board disc (lightly pencil marking the two
of the enclosure in which the system is the shaft of R2 centered in the hole. points on the cardboard disc) equidis-
to be housed. This done, secure the (This "dial plate" will be inscribed later tant to both sides of an invisible vertical
power supply in place on the bottom of during the timer calibration procedure .) axis with the pot's shaft. Remove the
the enclosure. Pass the prepared end of Slip a pointer knob onto the shaft of pointer knob.
the line cord into the box through a rub- S3. Properly index the pointer and tight- Now place the plastic disc over the
ber-grommet-lined hole in the rear pan- en the setscrew. pot's shaft, scribed cursor line toward

94 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


SINK SENTINEL chanically secure mount for the conduc- clockwise). Carefully mark with an awl or
(Continued from page 52) tivity probe's elements and a seal the point of a pin, on the plastic disc over
against the caustic solutions into which it the potentiometer dial, the points where
the cardboard disc. Center the plastic will b.e immersed. Allow the cement to the cursor line crosses the circles on the
disc over the cardboard disc and line up set for at least 24 hours. cardboard disc. Remove the cursor
the cursor line with the right pencilled . To one end of a 36" length of speaker knob and drill a 1/16" hole at the two
stop mark on the cardboard disc. Tem- twin-lead cord, connect and solder a points marked. Then slip the knob back
porarily tape the plastic disc in place. subminiature phone plug. Separate the on the pot's shaft.
Rotate the pot's shaft fully counterclock- cord at the other end for a distance of With the knob fully counterclockwise,
wise. Apply a thin bead of plastic cement about 4" (1 0".2 em). Strip away about Ys" push the point of a pin through both
to the back of a plain plastic friction-fit of insulation, twist together the wires, holes in the cursor disc to lightly detent
control knob. Slide the knob onto R2's and lightly tin the conductors with solder. the cardboard disc. Turn the knob fully
shaft and gently press it against the Plug in and turn on the Sink Sentinel. clockwise and repeat the procedure. Re-
plastic disc. Allow the cement to set for Then, making sure to prevent the tinned turn the pot fully counterclockwise.
at least 8 hours before removing tape. conductors from contacting each other, Now calibrate the minutes range on
Meanwhile, fabricate the conductivity insert the phone plug into J1. the inner circle of the dial plate as fol-
probe as follows. The probe itself (see Temporarily connect the collector and lows. Simultaneously start your stop-
Fig. 2) consists of a pair of closely- emitter leads of a pnp germanium tran- watch (or wait for your watch to reach
spaced conductors, with a limiting resis- sistor to the tinned conductors. Make the zero seconds mark) and press
tor, that can be plugged into J1. The sure that the emitter connects to the RS
probe elements can be made from two junction and the collector connects to
2" (5.1-cm) lengths of chrome or stain- the R7/ M1 junction. Note that the me-
less-steel 12-gauge rod. A bicycle spoke ter's pointer swings upscale. In a typical
or a length of stainless-steel antenna 68 F (20 C) ambient room, adjust R7
rod will do. for about a one-quarter-scale pointer
Solder RB to one end of one of the swing.
rods. Then trim away 1" (25.4 mm) of Bring the transistor close to a turned-
one of the conductors at one end of a on light bulb; the meter's pointer should
36" (about 1-meter) length of speaker swing to full-scale. If this does not occur,
cable. Strip away the insulation from repeat the procedure with a different
both conductors of this end of the cable, germanium transistor until you locate
twist together the wires and tin them one that is relatively heat sensitive. Put
lightly with solder. Connect and solder a kink or other identifying mark on the
the shorter conductor to the free end of transistor lead connected to the speaker
RB and the other conductor to one end cable conductor with ribbed insulation.
of the remaining rod. Then disconnect the cable from the cir-
Now, cut two 1" x Ys" (25.4 x 9.5 mm) cuit and turn off the power.
strips from a sheet of 1I 16" thick sheet Once you have your heat sensitive
of plastic. Drill two Ys" (3.2-mm) holes Vs" transistor, clip away its base lead close
apart in the center of both strips of plas- to the metal case that houses it. Con-
tic. Slip the free ends of the rods through nect and solder the emitter and collector
one hole in each strip of plastic and ap- leads of the transistor to the cable's con-
ply a drop of fast-setting epoxy cement ductors, making sure that the identified
at each hole to secure the strips to the transistor lead goes to the cable conduc-
rods. tor with ribbed insulation. This done,
While the cement is setting, drill a Y:z" pack silicone rubber cement over the ex-
hole through the center of the bottom of posed metal connections and down to
a plastic film or pill container. Drill eight the case of the transistor. Do NOT coat
or more Ys'' holes around this hole and the sides or top of the transistor's case
25 or more \4'' holes through the body of with the cement. Put this cable assem- START switch S4. The LED should come
the container. Assuming the epoxy ce- bly aside to allow the cement to set for at on, 11 should extinguish, and the alarm
ment has set, slightly bend the tops of least 24 hours. should cease to sound (assuming it is
the rods apart to obviate any possibility switched in). When the countdown is
of the two touching each other. Calibration. The timer section can be completed by the timer, 11 will come on,
Pass the free end of the speaker cord calibrated with the aid of a stopwatch, di- the LED will extinguish, and the alarm
through the Y:z" hole from the inside of gital watch with seconds display, or an will sound. Note how long this took on a
the container and pull it through until the ordinary analog watch with a sweep sec- sheet of paper under the heading " MIN."
tips of the rods are just slightly recessed ond hand. Plug the Sink Sentinel into the Adjust R2's cursor slightly clockwise and
from the open end of the container. power line and turn on the power. Lamp repeat this procedure. At the end of the
Then liberally apply silicone-rubber ce- 11 should come on and the alarm will countdown, note the time elapsed and
ment over the resistor and the three sol- sound if ALARM switch SS is on. slightly detent the inner circle on the
dered connections. Just fill the space Set the RANGE switch to the maximum cardboard with a pin. Repeat this proce-
around and between the tops of the rods time (C2 in Fig . 1) and the pointer knob dure until the pot is at its fully clockwise
to fill the Y:z" hole. This will provide a me- for minimum resistance (fully counter- stop. Then repeat this procedure for the

1983 EDITION 95
other two positions of the RANGE switch wait a few seconds; the meter's pointer Alarm (Continued from page 64)
and the two SEC circles on the cardboard should swing upscale, the amount of de-
disc. (If you prefer, you can adjust the flection determined by the concentration of a quality magnetic reed switch, it can
pot's setting to coincide with exact sec- of the hypo in the water. No further be used liberally throughout the prem-
onds and minutes to obtain a neater dial marks need be made on the meter's ises to be protected. Each sensor mod-
plate. This is time-consuming but well scale. Run cold water in the container ule should be connected to the Signal
worth the effort.) while observing the pointer deflection. Processor module using three lengths of
When you have completed calibra- As the concentration of hypo diminishes flexible, stranded hookup wire (No. 22 or
tion, turn off the Sink Sentinel and re- and finally is all gone, the meter's point- larger). Heavier gauge hookup wire (No.
move the cursor knob from the shaft of er will swing down-scale and ultimately 18 or larger) should be used for the rest
the pot. Mark three or four points on the come to rest at the mark you made on of the connections.
perimeter of the cardboard disc and on the scale.
the front panel exactly in line with them. Turn off the power and, using a black Installation and Use. The siren and
Then lift off the cardboard disc. Using a felt marker, place an easjly legible dot at the Siren Driver module should be
dry-transfer lettering kit (or working with the point pencilled in just below the arc installed in the attic or some other area
a pen), place tick marks at each detent- of the scale. Then replace the protective where the intruder will not be able to
ed point on the circles on the disc and la- cover on the meter and assemble the locate it readily. The Signal Processor
bel each with the appropriate time in project's case. module can be mounted in any conven-
your calibration listing. Then rubber ce-
ment the disc back in place, using the Use. When you start your film-washing DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
marks on it and the front panel as a cycle, set the timer for a period of slightly ULN2232A
guide. Slip back onto the shaft of the pot less than the time recommended by the SPRAGUE INTEGRATED
the cursor knob. (A typical finished dial chemical manufacturer. Insert the con- MOTION DETECTOR
is shown in the lead photo.) ductivity probe into the wash water.
The temperature probe can be cali- Then when the timer's alarm sounds (or Suppl.y voltage: + 3 .0 to + 4 .5 volts
11 lights), note the position of the meter's de
brated with the aid of an accurate mer-
Ambient temperature: + 10C to
cury-column thermometer. Since the pointer with respect to the mark made + 40 C
most used range will be between 60 below the scale arc. If it is at the mark, it Current demand: 20 rnA maximum when
and goo F, leave the probe in ambient is safe to stop the wash cycle. However, V cc equals + 4 .5 volts
room air (about 68 F) until the meter's if the pointer is above the mark, continue Minimum sensing range: 8' (2.4 m)
Sensitivity: L>L= 5 % at 1 Hz
pointer deflection stabilizes. Then adjust to wash until it gets there.
Ambient light: 0. 1 fc to 100 fc ( 1.08 lux
R7 for a pointer deflection of about one- To operate the complete system, turn to 1076.4 lux or 1.08 lumens / m 2 to
quarter scale. Carefully place a pencil on the METER switch (S6), plug in the 1076.4 lumens / m 2 )
mark on the scale at this point. Place temperature probe, and place the probe Alarm sweep: 200 to 1000 Hz
in the chemical bath. When the proper Alarm sweep rate: 5 Hz
both the mercury thermometer and tem-
Audio output: 100 mW continuous
perature probe in water and adjust the temperature is reached, set RANGE Device fabrication: Monolithic IC con-
temperature for an indicated reading of switch S3 to the appropriate range and taining linear amplifiers employing pnp
95 F on the mercury thermometer. TIME SET control R2 to the desired inter- and npn bipolar junction transistors;
Again, place a pencil mark on the me- val. Start the developing cycle and press 12 L gates, counters, and D I A convert-
er; low-leakage photodiode; and bipo-
ter's scale at this point. Reduce the tem- START switch S4. (If you desire visual
lar jun c tion power tra nsist o rs .
perature of the bath by 2S F and again signals only, switch off the alarm with
make a pencil mark on the scale. Re- SS.)
peat reducing the bath's temperature by When the programmed-in developing ient area such as an entrance closet. As
2S F and indicating each point on the time is completed, the timer will signal was mentioned earlier, any attempt to
scale until you reach 60 F. Turn off the with both 11 and the alarm (if the latter is tamper with the Signal Processor mod-
power and remove the line cord from the switched in). Set the time for the correct ule will set off the siren. The ARM I DISARM
ac power line. fixing period and press START switch S6 switch, S 1, should be located in a con-
Carefully remove the dial-scale card to start the timing cycle. venient spot but not easily detectable by
from the meter and relabel it with a dry- During the fixing cycle, you replace an intruder.
transfer lettering kit for each of the pencil the temperature probe with the conduc- The ideal number and location of
marks. Start with 60 F and label only in tivity probe. When the timer's alarm Motion Sensor modules in your Opdec
5 F increments, placing a small but eas- sounds, end the fixing and start the system depends on the size of your
ily legible tick at the 2S locations on the washing cycle. Set the timer just short of home or office and the number of areas
scale. Then replace the scale card . Plug the recommended period and, when the that need protection . Sensor modules
in and turn on the Sink Sentinel and re- timer signals again, immerse the con- can be placed on kitchen counters, on
place the temperature probe with the ductivity probe into the wash water. TV receivers, or even mounted within a
conductivity probe. Continue washing until the meter's suspended ceiling into which a ( 5t16"
Calibration of the meter scale for con- pointer drops to the mark on the scale. or 8-mm) hole has been drilled. In decid-
ductivity is simple. Allow a cold water tap You will find that, once you become ing where modules are to be placed,
to run for awhile . Then fill a clean con- familiar with its operation, the Sink Sen- keep in mind that they sense motion by
tainer with water. Place the conductivity tinel will take the guesswork out of your detecting changes in light level. There-
probe in the water and mark the meter photographic lab processing. It will in- fore, do not aim a Motion Sensor module
pointer's deflection on the scale with a sure accuracy and let you turn out more toward a window or any flashing lights.
pencil. Add some hypo to the water and professional negatives and prints. <> During the daytime, there should be suf-

96 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


ficient natural illumination to permit oper- Radiation Detector second. Gross adjustment can be made
ation of the sensors. At night, however, (Continued from page 91) in the 10- and fine adjustment in the
some source of artificial light will have to 100-second periods. Accuracy is deter-
be used. Readily available photoelectric the main pc board.) Rubber cement a 4" mined by the stability of IC6 and its as-
or electromechanically timed devices X 2%" X %" (102 X 63 X 9.5 mm) piece sociated resistors and capacitors.
can be employed to automatically turn of foam-rubber carpet pad to the bottom RED-ONE can be used to estimate ex-
on such lights at dusk. Make sure that of the main pc board. Assemble the dis- posure to radiation from natural and
the artificial light sources are simulta- play board, if used. man-made isotopes and to measure
neously activated and that one of them All components should be mounted in- changes in exposure. Units of radiation
is placed near the lightning detector. side a prepared metal case that meas- exposure include the roentgen, which is
This module will momentarily disarm the ures 5"W X 3%"0 X 2%"H (127 X 92.3 approximately equal to the absorption
system, thus preventing the Motion Sen- X 70 mm) if you build the counter I dis- of 0.01 joule of gamma radiation by 1 kg
sor modules from triggering the Signal play version of the project (smaller if of matter, and the rem (roentgen-
Processor when power is applied to the you elect to build only the beeper ver- equivalent-man), which measures the
lamps. sion). Install the 8PKR chirper on the equivalent biological damage to man by
outside surface of the box's rear wall, any form of radiation. Average radiation
Options. Depending on factors peculiar the battery holder on the inside surface. exposure in the U.S. is about 0.2 rem I yr
to each site at which an Opdec system Rubber cement the main pc board as- from natural sources. RED-ONE's sensitiv-
is to be installed, there are several sembly to the floor of the box, making ity is between 20 and 40 counts I min I
optional changes that can be made. For sure it will not interfere with the controls millirem I hr. Hence, natural background
example, if you think that lightning or or battery holder and does not contact radiation produces about 1 count I min .
some similar phenomenon is not a prob~ the case. (The foam rubber between Natural background radiation levels
lem in the area to be protected, simply main pc board assembly and case en- can vary by as much as a factor of two,
eliminate the lightning detector. Also, sures maximum mechanical protection depending on where you live, the mate-
you can mount a key-operated dpst and vibration insulation.) rials from which your house is built, and
switch outside the premises to be pro- Mount the display board with %" (9.5- your altitude above sea level (the last
tected for use as 81. If this is done, the mm) long spacers and machine hard- due to cosmic rays). In addition, varia-
exit and entry delays will no longer be ware, using a ground lug on one post. bles in detector construction and elec-
needed. Accordingly, the following Sig- Install the switches, LEOs, and connect- tronic components influence noise level
nal Processor components can be elimi- ing wires, referring back to Fig. 1 and and, therefore, overall detection sensi-
nated: transistors 08, 0 10, and 0 11; the component-placement guides. Don't tivity. Actual count-rate measurements
diodes DB, 09 and 010, resistors R14, forget the ground wire to the chassis are not as important as are changes in
R15, and R16; and capacitors C17 and (case), and use twisted-pair leads for count rate due to the presence of radio-
C20. If this is done, connect the position 82 and 8PKR. Label the front panel . active material or environment changes .
lug of both portions of the dpst switch to It is important to note that random
point E. Connect one switch pole to the Calibration and Use. Prior to applying emissions of radioactivity will cause the
base of 013 and the other pole to that power to the REDONE, recheck all wiring monitored rate to apparently change
of 015. and component orientations. Then turn from reading to reading. To estimate
If you prefer to have the alarm remain on the power and, with a voltmeter con- this statistical deviation, assume that
on indefinitely after the system has been nected from pin 3 of IC3 to ground, ad- any given count is accurate to within
triggered, eliminate the automatic time- just R2 for minimum voltage. This lowers plus and minus the square root of the
out feature. This is done by omitting the the noise threshold so that triggering number of counts. Therefore , a display
following Signal Processor components: will occur even on electrical noise. Out- of 100 should be interpreted as 100
transistors 0 17 through 020, diode put pin 7 of IC3 will now fire rapidly or 10 counts, a display of 120 counts as
014; resistors R28 through R31, and be continuously at ground potential. 120 11 , etc. This means that the
R33; and capacitors C21 and C22. This will cause a steady tone. numerical difference between any two
Finally, if a back-up battery power Usmg the voltmeter, or an oscillo- measurements is significant only if it is
source is not needed, the Siren Driver scope set to the de mode, slowly adjust greater than the sum of the two square
module, the siren, and the battery can R2 to raise the IC3 pin-3 reference volt- roots . For example, if your readings are
be eliminated. If this is done, the collec- age toward maximum. Chirp rate will 100 and 120, the numerical difference is
tor of 026 (point I) can be used to sink gradually decrease, eventually ceasing 20 and square-root sum is 21 (10 + 11);
current from the positive supply through altogether. Continue to adjust R2 only because 20 is less than 21, there is no
a dynamic loudspeaker to ground. slightly past this point. This eliminates reason for concern. However, if your fig-
false triggering on electrical noise. ures are 100 and 169, the difference is
In Conclusion. Opdec is an inexpen- Gamma rays that deposit less than the 69 and square-root sum is 23 (10 + 13),
sive but sophisticated alarm system that minimum energy required to overcome which gives you reason for concern be-
can enhance the security of business or this threshold will also be rejected. The cause 69 is much greater than 23.
residential premises. Its optical sensors equivalent energy of a typical low-level Once you have established a normal
can detect not only intruders but also gamma photon is 30 keV. background level for your REDONE, you
smoke of fire. The system is thoughtfully Calibrate the timing chain by adjust- can compare readings at various loca-
designed and is readily expanded to ing R29 and observing total ON time of tions and investigate possible radioac-
include heat detectors, closed-loop LED2 with 85 in one time position . With tive sources. So now you can satisfy
sense wiring, and a large number of a little patience, you can adjust R29 to your curiosity about radiation levels in
optical Motion Sensor modules. 0 obtain accuracy within a fraction of a your locale. 0
1983 EDITION 97
BY DAVID A. ISRAEL

Simple modification
circuit upgrades performance
of your general-purpose instrument

I F YOU ARE still struggling along with


an old, service-type recurrent-sweep
tion, it features free-run capability with
automatic triggering, and adjustable in-
the horizontal axis of the scope makes
the electronic beam move equal dis-
oscilloscope, your instrument is woefully put-stage gain and frequency response tances across the CRT screen in equal
inadequate for modern needs. However, for easy triggering on low-level and noisy time increments. The sweep rate is also
one can upgrade such a general-pur- signals. A LED tells you when a sweep is inversely proportional to the value of CT.
pose scope's performance at relatively being generated. Cost is about $35. Therefore, to obtain varying sweep rates,
little cost simply by adding the high- the charging current is kept constant,
performance triggered-sweep circuit de- About the Circuit. The heart of the while the value of CT is changed.
scribed here. In comparison with an ear- circuit, shown in Fig . 1, is field-effect The input of IC 1 is isolated from de by
lier triggered -sweep add-on (PoPULAR current regulator CRt . This device ad- C 1, while D 1 and D2 clamp excessive-
ELECTRONICS, May 1978), the new circuit justs its resistance to provide a constant amplitude signals. Resistors R4 and R5
is much faster and triggering sensitivity current vvith only slight regard (within .Provide biasing for /Ct so that the output
does not interact with output amplitude limits) to the voltage applied across it. can symmetrically vary within the supply
among other benefits. Since the rate of change in voltage range. Stage gain for /Ct is either X 10
This circuit can be added to most across timing capacitor CT is directly through R2 or X 1 through R3. When S2
scopes to produce calibrated triggered proportional to the current flow, keeping switches in C3, stage bandwidth is lim-
sweeps at speeds from 0 .5 s to 0.5 the charging current constant causes ited to allow reliable triggering on slow
JLSI dil(ision in the standard 1-2-5 format. the capacitor voltage to rise linearly. input signals on .which high-frequency
In addition to manual trigger-level selec- Applying this linear ramp waveform to noise is superimposed .
98 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK
Comparator IC2 determines the ac- applied to the input, IC2 automatically When not-Q goes low, Q goes high
tuar trigger point on the input waveform. synchronizes to tlie input signal. With 54 and TRIGGERED LED 1 comes on to signal
Two modes of operation are selectable set to NORM, S3 selects triggering on that triggering has occurred. The J and
via S4. In NORM, .the IC1 signal is com- either the positive or the negative slope K inputs of /C3 are now both low, and the
a
pared with de VOltage Set by TRIG LEVEL of the input waveform. When S4 is set to flip-flop is immune to any trigger pulses
control Rl. When the voltage at the + AUTO, S3 has no eff~ct. that might occur in the sweep.
input of IC2 ~xceeds that at its - input, The remainder of the circuit controls The selected C1 capacitor charges
/C2's output swings positive, and vice the charging and discharging of C1 to until the voltage across it just exceeds
versa. Resistor R 10 adds positive feed- produce the sweep waveform. When the the voltage at the R151R16 junction.
back to the circuit, and . the approxi- circuit is quiescent (not triggered), the When this occurs, comparator /C4,
mately 0 .5-volt hy.s teresis prevents gen- not-Q output of /C3 is high and Q 1 con- whose output has been at near ground
eration of multiple outputs with noisy ducts to discharge C1 and prevent potential, generates a positive reset
input signals. recharging as long as nof-Q is high. pulse for /C3 .. This forces IC3 back into
In AUTO, Rl is switched out of the Note that not-Q also sets the J input of quiescence, turni"ng off LED 1 and turning
circuit ~nd is replaced by R 11 and C4. /C3 to high. Since the K input is tied to on Q 1 to rapidly discharge C1 . As CT
Now, IC2 operates as an astable multivi- ground, the flip-flop must change states rapidly discharges, the scope's electron
brator at approximately 50 Hz in the on the next clock input. beam rapidly retraces to the starting
absence of an input sig~al. This provides When the positive-going edge of the position on the left side of the scope
a constant scope trace bas'e line for trigger pulse is applied to the CK input of CRT screen.
operator convenience an'd allows de IC3, the flip-flop changes states. Now,
input levels to be measured. Q 1 cuts off and allows C1 to charge Construction. With the exception of S 1
When a greater than 50-Hz signal is through CR 1 to produce a linear sweep. thro~gh SS,
Rl, and LED1, which mount

14-22 VAC

BLANKING
OUT PUTS SWEEP
,..--A---. OUTPUT

r1 1
R17
tOK

Fig. 1. A line~r ramp is generated across the timing capacitor by the current regulator CRl.
PARTS LIST

C J- 0. 5-J.LF, 600-V LED I- Discrete LED R 7- 100,000-ohm li nea r-ta per potenti-
C2- 5-pF ceramic Q J- MPS3704 genera l-purpose npn ometer
C3- 1600-p F ceram ic sma ll-signa l tra nsistor (or similar) R S- 3900 ohms
C 4- 0.22-J.L F, 50-V m iniatun; monolithic R ECT J- 50-PIV, !-ampere modula r R9, R1 2,RJ 6,R J7- IO,OOO oh ms
CS- 20-J.LF, 35-V elect rolytic bridge rectifier Rll - 2.2 megohms
C6- 0. l -J.LF, 50-V m iniature monolithic T he following a re 1/4-watt, 5% fixed resis- R 13- 2200 ohms
C 1 - Timi ng capacitor (see text) tors unless otherwise noted: R 14- 3300 ohms
CR I- JN5285 field-effect current-regu- R 1- 100,000 ohms R 15- 5600 ohms
lating diode, 0.27 rnA (Motorola ) R 2,R l 0- 1 megohm S I ,52- M iniature spst switch
Dl,D2- I N9 14 R3- I IO,OOO ohms S3,S4- Miniature dpdt switch
JC J- C A3 140S MOS bipolar op amp R4- 240,000 ohms S5- 2-pole, 2-23 position rotary selector
JC2, IC4- LM3 1 I N comparator R S- 200,000 ohms switch (Centralab PA-4003 or similar)
IC3- MC 14027CP dual J - K fl ip-flop R6- 15,000 ohms Misc.- Pc board, mounting ha rdware,
IC5- 78Ll5A 15-V voltage regula tor knobs, LED panel-mou nt adapter.

1983 EDITION 99
of sync signal to the recurrent sweep.
Your scope may have a horizontal
mode selector that provides sync from
+ a~d - slopes of input signals, as well
as from the 60-Hz line and external
sources. This type of selector is an ideal
trigger pickoff point and provides
switch-selectable trigger signals. If such
a switch is present, S3 in the project is
redundant and can be eliminated. It is
very useful to have the capability to con-
nect the input of the trigger circuit direct-
ly to the external input jack because in
some cases the poor response of the
scope's vertical amplifier will severely
BLANKING
S3 S4 .LED I Q Q limit trigger generator performance at
high frequencies.
Connect the sweep output to the input
of . the scope-'s horizontal amplifier.
Direct coupling works best. With capac-
itive coupling, you will have to keep
recentering the trace as the average de
level of the sweep waveform varies with
changing proportions of sweep period
and repetition rate for different signals.
In some cases, the coupling capaCitor at
the input of the scope's horizontal ampli-
fier can be removed i f it is not blocking a
de bias level that will be fed into the
sweep circuit. The sweep output of the
trigger circuit' is designed to be connect-
ed to a typical horizontal amplifier that
Fig. 2. An actual-size etching and drilling guide has a 1-megohm or greater input imped-
f or a printed-circuit board is shown at top. ance. Lower impedances will shunt
Below it is guide for component placement.
charging current from CT and generate a
nonlinear sweep waveform.
on the scope's front panel, all compo- be necessary to drill additional holes to If "the circuit you are driving has less
nents mount on a small printed-circuit accommodate them. than 1-megohm input impedance, use a
board. An actual-size etching and drilling You may wish to use a rotary switch buffer amplifier between it and the trig-
guide for the board is shown in Fig. 2. on TRIGLEVEL control Rl for S4 instead of ger sweep. A CA3130 op amp connect-
During installation of the components on a miniature toggle switch. This will allow ed in a standard voltage-follower"config-
the board, be sure to observe the proper yqu to turn Rl to one end of its travel to uration, powered from the existing single
polarities and orientations of the diodes, switch the circuit to AUTO. Also, if you 15-yolt supply, will do.
CR 1, and ICs. Also, be sure to observe wish to avoid drilling holes in your The Q and not-Q outputs of /C3
the safe handling procedures for IC1 and scope, S 1 and S2 can be replaced by a should go to pads for connection to the
/C3, which are MOS devices. double-pole, four-position rotary switch. Z-axis- circuit of the scope to provide
The CT timing capacitors mount If your scope has a + 18- to + 30-volt retrace blanking. The not-Q output is at
directly on SWEEP SPEED switch 55. No power supply, you can omit RECT1 and 0 volt during the sweep and switches to
values are given for these capacitors in connect the de supply to the input of /C5. + 15 volts during retrace, while the Q
the Parts Ust since they are hand Alternatively, you can use a small fila- output is complementary to this. Choose
selected to minimize cost while provid- ment transformer rated at 14 to 22 volts the output that is correct for your scope.
ing the necessary accuracy. More about rms to supply power. The circuit draws Again, de coupling i;> preferred if avail-
this under Calibration. typically 20' to 25 rnA. able in your scope. Capacitive coupling
The circuit board is best mounted The pickoff point for the trigger signal will differentiate the blanking pulse.
inside the scope, although a separate depends on the scope being modified. While you may get satisfactory retrace
case can be used if desired. Inside the Ideally, it should be at a point in the blanking, the beam can . recover its
scope, try to locate the board as far as scope's vertical amplifier after the input brightness before beginning the next
possible from heat-producing compo- attenuator and any gain controls so that sweep, resulting in a vertical line at the
nents. Unless you wish to retain the the input voltage varies over a limited left side of the trace. Also, 'when swee.p
recurrent-sweep generatbr in the scope, range, in the region of 0.5 to 20 volts begins, the blanking signal switches
disable this circuit and remove .the peak-peak. (Refer to the schem~;~tic dia- state rapidly, causing the coupling ca-
associated controls from the front panel. gram of your scope.) In some cases, the pacitor to charge in the opposite direc-
When mounting the TRIG LEVEL control, scope manufacturer wili make this easy tion and resulting in undesirable intensi-
switc hes, and LED 1 on the panel, it may for you by using such a point as a source fication of the trace.
100 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK
signal generator and frequency counter.
INPUT : 60Hz . Before starting, wire the pc board ter-
minals to the rotor connections of SWEEP
SPEED selector S5, using a length of two-
IC1, PIN 6 (OUTPUT) conductor cable that will be appropriate
0
for the physical layout of your scope. It

~~in
is important that you do this before cali-
AMPLITUDE bration because the capacitance of the

---r-
0 n n IC2, PIN 7 (OUTPUT)
c;able will be in parallel with the selected
timing capacitors and at the highest

~~i_j ~:--~ sweep speeds will comprise a large pqr-

o~ I
tion of the timing capacitance.
IC3, PIN15 (Q) Begin calibration at the highest
sweep speed and work down. With the
I I
20~1 I
capacitance of the cable serving as the
10~ timing capacitor, feed a 1-MHz square

0
O
1
I 41 \<1
TIME - 5MS/OIV
I
IC4, PIN 2 (+) wave to the scope's inpllt. Adjust the
trigger and scope controls for a stable,
centered display. To obtain a stable dis-
play with low-bandwidth scopes, the
Fig. 3. Representative waveforms to be used in vertical amplifier may have to be
troubleshooting, with Sl on X l , S2 open, S3 on +, bypassed with the sweep c ircuit input
S4 on NORMAL, R7 three-quarters COW and the connected directly to the signal source.
timing capacitor selected for 1 msl div.
Experiment with several different capac-
itors connected to the switch until you
The last problem can be reduced by sine-wave signal to the scope's vertical find the value that produces a sweep
first passing the blanking signal through input. The sweep should automatically speed closest fO the desired 0 .5 ~s I
one coupling capacitor to differentiate it lock onto this signal and a steady dis- division but not slower than this. That is,
and then diad~ clipping the unwanted play of three to four cycles should be one cycle should occupy two divisions
half of the reslllting waveform and finally seen on-screen. Check for any obv!ous or sli~htly rnore. Unless you have a l~rge
connecting this signal to the Z-axis cou- nonlinearities. Rotate TRIG LEVEL control number of capacitors on hand, you will
pling c~pacitor. Rl; the trace shpuld disappear and find that the best way to obtain the
A word of caution : In many scopes, reappear and the tri~;~ger level should exact capacitance value needed will be
the coupling qapacitor is connected vary up and down one side of the sine to paralle.l one capacitor with a lower-
directly to the grid or cathode circuit of wave. Also note the change in the sensi- value capacitor .until you obtain the
the CRT, which may be operating Cit tivity Of Rl when ATIENUATOR S 1 is desired display. Do your measuring
1000 or ~ore volts. Do NOT attempt to switched from X 1 to X 10. between corresponding points in differ-
bypass this capacitor or St:lrlous dam- Center the scope trace and note its ent cycles of the waveform. Do not, for
age will result. A coupling capacitor can length. Before you can calibrate the example, measure between a rising and
be removed from the circuit only if it is sweep for a given time per unit length, a falling edge of one cycle or of conse-
not blocking a de bias voltage. overall length of the sweep must be set cutive cycles. By following this rllle, you
to a given repeatable value. (To ensure will avoid errors introduced by assym-
Test and Calibration. Temporarily that the sweep is not inadvertently metry fn the signal source and spl~ying
connect a 1-~F t antalum capacitor adjusted after calibration, the horizontal- or overshoot of the trace itself. For best
across the Cr terminals, observing po- gain control can be mounted inside the results, choose two points separated by
larity. Turn on the scope and adjust for a scope, or it can be replaced with a pair about six or eight divisions and equally
moderate-intensity dot in the middle of of fixed resistors.) spaced from the center line of the scope
the screen. Apply power to the sweep Adjust the length of the trace to fill the screen.
circuit. Set S4 t o AUTo; a horfzontal base- screen. In some cases, the frequen(;:y In the same manner, select the
line trace sho uld appear on the CRT and response of the scope's horizontal am- remaining timing capacitors, soldering
the TRIGGERED LED should come on. With plifier may roll off at a lower frequency them to the lugs of S5 as you proceed.
this value of capacitor, the trace and than those generated by this circuit at The next value should produce a 1 -~s l
LED indicator should flicker rapidly at the highest sweep speeds, resulting in a division sweep speed, then 2 ~s l divi
the same rate. shorter trace: You can compensate for sion, 5 ~s I division, etc., in the 1-2-5
If a trace does not appear, check the this by setting the horizontal gain so that format. For values larger than 0.5 ~F or
scope's BRIGHTNESS control and for + 15 the trace is longer than the width of the so, use high-quality tantalum capacitors
volts on the trigger-sweep bus. Repre- screen at slow speeds. This will not and take care fo observe polarity.
sentative waveforms tor trouble-shoot- affect acc uracy at any speed, since
ing are shown in Fig. 3. In this t est, S 1 is each range is individually calibrated. Operating Hints. The triggered-sweep
set t o X 1, S2 is open, S3 is at +, S4 is To calibrate the sweep, you ne.ed a c irc uit is very easy to use. For most
set to NORMAL, R l is three-quarters CCW, source of reasonable-accuracy ( 1% will applications, leave the input amplifier
and Cr is selected for 1 rns I divi~ion . do) square waves. A crystal-controlled selector set to X 10 and set the mode
Using this setup, apply a 1-volt, 60-Hz timebase is ide&l. You can also use a (continued on page 113)

1983 EDITION 101


A3-Way
Drive System
for Speakers
Active crossover divides
the audio spectrum
for indiv;dual drivers before
power amplification

BY J.F.P. MARCHAND

I N TRADITIONAL multiway loudspeaker systems, the


division of the driving signal into frequency ranges
several power amplifiers sharing the load, the
demands made on each of them are less stringent than
suitable for the several drivers is performed after pow- when a single unit must do the whole job. For example,
er amplification. The crossover or dividing network is since bass frequencies cannot intermodulate with tre-
composed of a set ~f passive components-inductors, ble frequencies in loud passages, a particulary audible
capacitors, and resistors-interposed between the form of distortion is minimized. Also, the bass power
power amplifier output terminals and the input terminals amp can have a relatively low slew rate and cause no
of the individual transducers. problems, as it will not see rapidly changing signals. A
From the point of view of economy, this approach is treble amp, on the other hand, can have a iow damping
advantageous, but it is not without difficulties. One is factor, with less feedback and fewer problems.
that the dividing network must handle appreciable pow-
er. This means that the passive componentl? (the The Filters. A schematic diagram of the active cross-
inductors are most problematic) must behave in a lin- over for one audio channel appears in Fig. 1. While
ear maimer at high current levels if distortion products other fypes of filters can give good results in this
are not to be generated. Optimal design often raises application, the 18-dB I octave aCtive Butterworth fil-
the cost of the passive components and causes some ters used here offer a desirable combination of steep
of the economic advantage to evaporate. slopes &nd good phase response. Rolling off the driv:
Another drawback of particular concern to the home ers rapidly helps to suppress any anomalous behavior
constructor is that a high-level network capable of they may exhibit as the extremes of their useful ranges
performing well with the drivers to which it is added can are approached. Using as sharp a network as this
be very difficult to design. The reason is that most between a power amplifier and the drivers is often
tables and formulas for the filter-section design are avoided because of expense. In a design of this type,
based on the assumption that the network will be however, the extra cost is minimal. .
termin&ted by a purely resistive load, while the driver Quad operational amplifiers /C 1 and /C2 are the
impedances usually contain significant, frequE1ncy- central elements of th!3 filters. Integrated circuits IC1A,
dependent reactive components. IC 1B, IC 1D, and their associated components and
Clearly, it would be advantageous to eliminate this IC 1C, IC2A, /C2B, and their associated components
problem. We can do this with no loss of performance comprise two active filters with ultimate slopes of 12
by multiamping the system and taking advantage of the dB I octave. The first filter separates the high frequen-
fact that the power amplifiers act as buffers between cies from the low and middle frequencies. The second
th e filters and the drivers. Another benefit is that, with (Continued on page 104)

102 ELECT~ONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


t+~~~~-------------~~-----,--~~~~~-+~. ~~
cr- u.-
G

PARTS LIST
C 1-13,000-llF, 50-volt electrolytic
C2,C IO,C 12*,CI5*,CI7*,CI8-l-llF,
50-volt radial-lead electrolytic
C3,C4,C9- I 000-pF, 5% polystyrene
C5,C6,C7,C8,CI6- IO,OOO-pF, 5% poly-
styrene
C I I ,C 14* ,C20* -47-~LF, 50-volt radial-
lead electrolytic
C 13* ,C 19,C21 *- 470-llF, 25-volt radial-
lead electrolytic
C22 through C28- 0.l-11F disc ceramic
D I ,02-6.8 -vol t, !-watt zener diode
FI - 1-ampere fast-blow fuse
ICI,IC2- LM324N, TL074CN, or simi-
lar quad operational amplifier
IC3*,IC4*- LM379S dual six-watt au-
dio amp lifier
J I-RCA phono jack
QI*,Q3*- TIP31 npn power transistor
Q2*,Q4* - TIP30 pnp power transistor
The following, unless otherwise specified,
are 1/.t-watt, 5%, carbon-film resistors.
RI,R32- IOOO ohms
R2,R3,R4,R6,R8,R I O,R 12,R 13,R24*,
R25*,R31* - IOO,OOO ohms
R5,R7,Rll,Rl4,Rl5,Rl6,Rl7-68,000
ohms
R9- 51 ,000 ohms
R 18,R23* ,R30* ,R33- l 0,000 ohms
R 19*,R22*,R28*,R29*-150,000 ohms
R20* ,R2 1*- 5.1 ohms, 1/2-watt, carbon-
composition
R26- 22,000 ohms
R27* - 4700 ohms
R34,R35- 10,000-ohm, pc-mount, lin-
ear-taper potentiometer
RECTl - 6-ampere, 100-PlV modular
bridge rectifier
S 1- Spst toggle switch
T 1--24-volt, 2-ampere transformer
(Sta~cor No. P-8617 or equivalent)
Misc~ Printed circuit l:>oard, heat sinks
(four Thermalloy No. 6070 or equiva-
lent, two Thermally No. 6072 or equiv-
alent), line cord and strain relief, fuse-
holder, circuit board standoffs, hard-
ware, hookup wire, shielded cable, etc.
Note- An etched and drilled glass-epoxy
printed circuit board is available for
$I 5.00 from Marchand Electronics,
Inc., 1334 Robin Hood Lane, Webster,
NY 14580. /Vew York residents, please
add 7% state sales tax.

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram


of the active crossover
for one audio channel.
Further power amplification
may be added if desired.

1983 EDITION 103


then divides the low and middle frequencies. The high, must have, start with the reasonably conservative
middle, and low frequencies, which appear at the out- assumption that music has equal power in each of the
puts of /C1B, /C2A, and IC2B, respectively, are fed to 10 audible octaves. With your chos~m crossover fre-
passive high-pass and low-pass filters C16, R26, and quencies in mind, determine how many octaves each
R35 and C7,. R 15 and to active band-pass filter CB, driver will handle. The number of octaves is given by
R16, C9, R17, and /C2D. the relation N = log 10 (f2 1f 1) I log 10 2, where f 1 and f 2
These last circ!Jits are first-order filters having ulti- are the lower and upper limits, respectively, of the
mate ;:;lopes of 6 dB I octave. Because the second- and passband allocated to a particular driver. (This is a
first-order filters are cascaded, the resulting ultimate formidable looking calculation, but it can be performed
slope is 18 'dB I octave. easily on most scientific calculators.) A driver handling
The values of capacitance and resistance which five octaves would get 50% of the system power; one
determine the low and high crossover frequencies handling three octaves would get 30%, etc.
have the following relationships: If an appropriate calculator is not available, draw a
Chigh =C3=C4 =C 161 10 chart, marking octave boundaries at 20, 40, 80, 160Hz
C 1aw=C5=C6=C7 etc., and note which bands contain your crossover
Rhigh=R5=R7= 10 (R26IIR35) frequencies. Then you can get an approximate idea of
Rlow=R11 =R14=R15 how many octaves are reproduced by each driver.
The values of Rhigh and R 10w in kilohms and of Chigh and Obviously, this method is not exact, but you are not
clow in picofarads are determined from the equations: likely to find power amplifiers in exactly the sizes you
R = 10916.28fC and C = 1Q916.28fR. Choose a conven- need anyway.
ient value of capacitance, say 100,000 pF for a low A constructor who can be satisfied with a modest
crossover, 10,000 pF for a high one. Then calculate amount of power at distortion levels that are adequate
the necessary resistor values. A negative value for R26 but not state-of-the-art can build the power amplifiers
means that R35 is too low to allow it and R26 in parallel included in Fig. 1. These are built around two National
to reach the desired resistance. Repeat the calculation LM379s, dual 6-watt integrated power amplifiers,
with a larger value for C. which require few additional components and have
The specified op amps are sufficiently fast to give built-in thermal protection. Integrated circuits /C3A and
good performance. However, anyone concerned about IC3B are the amplifiers for the high and middle frequen-
transient intermodulation (TIM) distortion may substi- cies. They are connected as standard noninverting
tute a pin-compatible IC, such as type TL07 4CN, which operational amplifiers and the outputs are capacitively
has a higher slew limit. coupled to the loudspeakers via C20 and C21.
To use the project with two-way systems, make thigh To satisfy the higher power requirement of the low-
and f 10 w equal. The bandbass output should be left frequency channel, /C4 is arranged as a balanced
floating as there is no midrange driver. amplifier with booster transistors 01, 02, 03 and 04.
The op amps are arranged as an inverting and a nonin-
Power Amplifiers. The choice of power amplifiers for verting amplifier, differentially driving the bass loud-
a triamped system depends on the efficiency and pow- speaker. This doubles the maximum voltage across
er-handling capabilities of the drivers, the crossover the loudspeaker, yielding four times the power. The
frequencies and how loud you want the music to be. booster transistors handle the doubled output current.
Generally, you will want to use the best quality ampli- All three amplifiers are designed for 8-ohm drivers.
fiers you can afford; but, as noted earlier, factors that
influence the high-frequency performance of the bass Power Supply. Power for the filters and power ampli-
amp are unimportant. Similarly, damping factor, de cou- fiers can be provided by the supply shown schemati-
pling, and other parameters or features that relate to cally in Fig. 2. A simple bridge rectifier and filter capac-
low-frequency performance are not critical in the treble itor provide 35 volts de at no load. As the LM 379 is
and midrange amps. relatively insensitive to power-supply ripple, no addi-
To decide how much power each of the amplifiers tional filtering is required.

F ig. 2. Schem atic diagram of a pow er supply for the filters and am plifiers.
Capacitors supply filtering and zener diodes regulation for various voltages.
104 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK
Supply voltages for /C 1 and /C2 are provided by the Construction. Th~ assembly of the project is relat ive-
6 .8-volt zener diodes, 0 1 and 02. Capacitors C22 ly straightforward. All parts except the 24-volt power
through C28 provide power-supply decoupling . Power transformer are mounted on a single 5112- X -6112-inch
amplifiers IC3 and /C4 require high-frequency power- printed circuit board . The full-size etching and drilling
supply decoupling to prevent ultrasonic oscillation. This guide for this board appears in Fig . 3. A complementa-
decoupling is provided by C22 through C25. These ry parts placement guide is reproduced in Fig . 4. When
disc ceramic capacitors are mounted in pairs close to inserting electrolytic capacitors, diodes, transistors
the LM379 integrated circuits. and integrated circuits, be sure to observe proper
Note that two distinct ground symbols are employed polarity.
in the two schematic diagrams. This is so because the Resistors R2 through R 17 and R26 and capacitors
power supply is single-ended . The "earth ground" sym- C3 through C9 and C 16 determine the crossover fre-
bol is employed as the input and output signal ground quencies. For best performance , these components
and the negative supply line for the ICs. The "chassis should have a tolerance of no more than 5%. Poly-
ground" symbol signifies an artificial ground for opera- styrene capacitors are specified but other low-loss
tional amplifiers /C 1 and IC2 that is at a de level equal precision types, can be substituted.
to one half the regulated supply voltage. It is derived by Transistors Q 1 through 04 are mounted on Thermal-
means of the voltage-dropping action of zener diodes loy No. 6070_or similar heatsinks with suitable mounting
01 and 02. hardware. Cooling for the LM379 ICs is accomplished
The gains of the low and high channels can be by mounting them directly on Thermalloy No. 6072 or
adjusted with potentiometers R34 and R35. With the similar heatsinks with two No. 4-40 machine screws.
wipers of these controls at the center of their travel, The holes in these heatsinks do not line up with the
the gains of all amplifiers are approximately 15. An threads in the ICs, so two holes spaced 1 inch (2 .54
input sine wave of 460 mV rms will then result in full em) apart must be drilled in the heatsinks . Pin 1 of the
power output. power ICs is marked with a small white dot on the

F ig. 3. A ctual-size etching and drilling guide for printed circuit board.
1983 EDITION 105
F ig. 4. Component la yout diagram for the printed circuit boa rd.
T ra nsistor:; Ql th rov.gh Q4 a re mounted on heat sinks.

underside of the package. The large filter capacitor, separate zener-diode regulator section should be used
C 1, is mounted on the board with standard hardware. for each channel. The loudspeaker system will have to
Should you decide to use other power amplifiers, be fitted with a separate set of connectors for each
/C3 and /C4, Q 1 through 04, and their associated driver. If desired, the drivers can be protected by
components (see parts list) can be omitted. Outputs for individual fuses of appropriate ratings.
the external amplifiers can be taken from the solder
pads intended to accommodate pins 6 and 9 of IC3 Setting it Up. Whic hever arrangement you use, pay
(high and mid frequencies) and pin 7 or 9 of /C4 (low careful attention t o the polarity of the drivers, some-
frequencies). Use shielded cable with phone jacks and times indicated with a red dot meaning "plus" ( + ).
the shield grounded only at the jacks. Keep cables Some authorities feel that, with 18-dB I octave cross-
short, adding 100-ohm buffer resistors if needed to overs, the best phase response near the crossover
prevent oscillation. frequencie s is achieved by c onnecting adjacent drivers
If you use the on-board power amps, it will be con- out of phase. You may want to experiment to see which
veflient to mount the entire project inside the loud- arrangement gives you the best results.
speaker enclosure. Potentiometers R34 and R35 can In some cases, c oupling the amplifier directly to a
b e mounted in place of the original crossover controls, woofer will inc rease damping to the point where a small
and the fuse holder, input connector, and on-off switch amount of bass response is lost. This can be cured by
can be installed on the rear of the enclosure. To allow connecting a small resistor, generally 1 ohm or less, in
adequate ventilation , mount the circuit board as low in series with the driver. To protect the speaker drivers
the box as possible, positioning it so that damping from transients, be sure that the power amps are
material does not intedere with air circulation. Leads to turned on after the crossover is powered and t urned off
the pots and speakers should be twisted together . before crossover power is removed .
To use the project with cxternal power amps, it wi!l Once you are certain that the project is operating
be nec essary to fabricate some form of enclosure. The correctly, make all necessary corrections and set the
c ontrols, input arid output connectors, fuse holder, and level c ontrols for flattest frequency response. The
on-off switch can be mounted on one of its panels. improvement in the sound of your speakers will not be
Power-supply components T1, B 1, C 1 are more than e arth-shaking but should be clearly audible. Many lis-
adequate for two stereo channels of filtration . Decou- teners who use tri-amping report c learer, tighter sound
pling capacitors C22 through C2 5 can be omitted, but a with reduced distortion. 0

106 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


Various combinations of
the basic J-K flip-flop circuits
provide many useful
BY PATRICK J. DELANEY digital counting schemes

W HEN the need for counting


events in an electronic system
outputs are identified by a succession of
alphabetic labels-A and not-A, B and
will be determined by the J, K, and
Clock inputs.
arises, the most common solution is to not-B, etc. The last of the four possible combina-
tions of these inputs is 0 for both Preset
B2 Bl
and Clear. This is contradictory in that
it attempts to force Q high and low
Fig. t. Basic simultaneously (an impossible condi-
three-stage tion) . The logic state of Q is thus inde-
synchronous terminate. The operation of the Preset
ripple counter. and Clear inputs is summarized by the
truth table shown in Fig . 2.
The J, K, and Clock inputs together
form the second means by which the
use an asynchronous digital ripple coun- outputs may be changed. When these in-
ter. This circuit, shown in Fig. 1, con- puts are to be used, the Preset and Clear
sists of a group of J-K flip-flops set to terminals are both tied high. When the J
toggle with each applied Clock pulse. INPUTS CLOCK and K inputs are supplied signals as
The flip-flops are connected in cascade shown in Fig. 3, each time the Clock
so that' each Clock input is driven by the input is forced to switch from a logic 1 to
Q output of the preceding stage. The cir- a logic 0 (a negative edge), outputs take
cuit provides a sequential binary-up on the appropriate values. It should be
count ranging from zero to one less than INPUTS OUTPUTS noted that the J and K inputs alone have
2N where N is the number of flip-flops in PRESET CLEAR a absolutely no effect on the flip-flop's
the circuit. While this arrangement 0 0 Indeterminate (never used) output state. These two levels are
0 1 1 (SET)
finds wide use, it is only one of many 1 0 0 (RESET) clocked into the flip-flop by a one-to-
1 1 Determined by J, K, and clock
useful digital counting schemes. zero transition at the Clock input. Fig-
Special counters make up a major ure 3 illustrates the effect of the four
class of flip-flop circuits. However, be- possible combinations of the J and K
Fig. 2. Details of the 7476 inputs on the Q output.
fore these advanced configurations can
flip-flop and its truth table.
be described in detail, a review of the J-
K flip-flop is in order. A 7476 will be
used as an example. INPUTS OUTPUT
As shown in Fig. 2, a J-K flip-flop Preset and Clear inputs take prece- CLOCK J K a
typically has five inputs and two out- dence over all other inputs and are ac- t 0 0 Previous value
t 0 1 0 (RESET)
puts. The five inputs are Preset, Clear, tive low . This means that logic zero ap- t 1 0 1 (SET)
t 1 1 TOGGLE
Clock, J and K, while the two outputs plied to the Preset input forces the Q
are variously referred to as Q and not-Q, output high (1) . Alternately, Q would be
or some other alphabetic labels indica- forced low (0) by applying a logic zero
tive of a variable and its complement. to the Clear input. If both the Preset and Fig. 3. Effect of the J-K inputs
When a chain of flip-flops is used, the Clear inputs are 1, the flip-flop's state on the Q output of the 7476.

1983 EDITION 107


II
D c B A resulting from the truth table in Fig. 5 is
I I I I easily obtained by simply turning the
L~ J
1 c J 1 B J 1 A J~ column on its side, and drawing a 5-volt
waveform for each I and a zero-volt
FFD FFC FFB FFA
CLKn CLKn CLK r- CLK f-- waveform for each 0. Note that the neg-
c 8 A ative-going edge of the Clock triggers
1.0 K I K 1 K
K1 each transition of the outputs.
I
(A) CLOCK Shift Counters. A small change in

(B):==== 0 0 0 1
the feedback from the last to the first
flip-flop of a basic ring counter produces
the shift counter shown in Fig. 6A . Un-
like the ring counter, the shift counter is
usually used as a synchronous event
(Cl counter rather than as a waveform gen-
0 0 1 0 Fig. 4. Each clock pulse
to a ring counter (A)
erator. Shift counters can easily produce
causes a logic 1 to "walk" any even modulus (number of states)
(D) 0 1 0 0 down the counter as count at extremely high rates of speed,
shown in (B), (C), (D), and (E). with illegal states and high power con-
sumption and component count being
(El 1 0 0 0 the only drawdacks. Another difference
(CLOCK INPUTS NOT SHOWN) between the ring counter and the shift
counter is that the latter does not have to
be Preset to a specific pattern or starting
state. The shift counter can naturally
If both J and K equal 0, and a nega- tern shifted through the group of flip- fall into the correct counting sequence.
tive-going Clock pulse occurs, the Q out- flops, or register as they are collectively A typical count sequence for a three-
put will remain unchanged. If J is equal called, is not limited to a single I, but bit shift counter is shown in Fig. 68 .
to 1 and K equals 0 during the Clock can be any one of many patterns. These Whenver a Clock pulse occurs, the feed-
edge, Q will become a logic 1 (set) . bit patterns can be forced into the regis- back connection between flip-flops C
When J equals 0 and K equals 1, a ter, before the application of Clock and A causes the inverse of the state of
Clock pulse will force Q to equal 0 (re- pulses, by the use of the Preset and flip-flop C to be loaded into flip-flop A .
set). Finally, if J and K equal 1, the This means that, when C = 0 before a
Clock will force Q to change its state or Clock pulse, A will become the opposite
toggle. That is to say: if Q had been 0, it CLOCK D C B A of C (I) after the pulse ends. Converse-
becomes 1 and if Q had been 1, it 1 0 0 0 1 ly, if Cis a I just before the Clock pulse,
2 0 0 1 0
becomes 0. 3 0 1 0 0 A will become a 0. This odd, but repeti-
Now that the operation of the J-K 4 1 0 0 0 tive count scheme will produce the deci-
5 0 0 0 1
flip-flop is firmly within grasp, let us 6 0 0 1 0 mal count 1,3,7,6,4,0, which is obtained
7 0 1 0 0
examine one of the special counters. 8 1 0 0 0 by converting each three-bit number in
9
10
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
Fig. 68 to its decimal equivalent.
Ring Counter. A simple synchronous 11 0 1 0 0 One question that often arises is:
12 1 0 0 0
ring counter is shown in Fig. 4A. Note "What will happen if the state 010 or
that the outputs of flip-flop D are fed 101 occurs?" Since neither of these two
back to the J and K inputs of flip-flop A, states is part of the normal counting
thus forming a "ring." The clock feeds Fig. 5. Ring counter truth table
sequence, their effects should be deter-
shows how a 1 moves through the
all four clock inputs simultaneously. mined . It has aready been established
counter with successive clock pulses.
This circuit differs from most other that the state of flip-flops A and 8 will
counters in that its entire operation de- Clear inputs. More complicated bit pat- ultimately be shifted to flip-flops 8 and
pends on the initial (power-up) states of terns can be generated by using more C respectively, and that the inverted
its flip-flops . If, for eAample, output A flip-flops . contents of C will be shifted into A after
equals 1 while outputs 8, C and D Ring counters are used primarily in each Clock pulse. It is clear, then, that
equal 0 as in Fig. 48, then the applica- the production of complex waveforms the state 010 (decimal 2) will force 8 to
tion of a single Clock pulse will set 8, that generate timing pulses for comput- become the former state of A, C to
but Reset A, C and D because the J and ers, music synthesizers and similar sys- become the former state of 8, and A to
K inputs of 8 were 1 and 0 (the condi- tems. The voltage-versus-time waveform become the inverse or opposite of C . It is
tion for Set) the instant before the Clock
pulse, but the J and K inputs of all of the
other flip-flops were 0 and I respective-
ly. The new condition is shown in Fig. CLOCK C B A DECIMAL
4C . The next Clock pulse will set C and 8 t 0 0 1 1
FFB t
reset A, 8 and D, as shown in Fig. 4D . CLK t
0 1 1
1 1 1
3
7
Figure 4E shows how a third Clock t 1 1 0 6
ii K A t 1 0 0 4
pulse will Set D and Reset A, 8 and C.
The final Clock pulse will cause A to set
once again, and the cycle will repeat.
~
t
,
0 0 0
o o 1
0
1 I
Sequence begins agai

Note that a lone I is shifted from right


(A) to left (D) and then back around
again. This changing pattern is responsi- Fig. 6. Note the feedback from the last flip-flop to the first
ble for the circuit's name. The 4-bit pat- in a shift counter (left) with the truth table shown at right.

108 ELECTRONIC EXPERIMENTER'S HANDBOOK


counter c i r c u i t s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Fig. 7. Illegal state
special counters is the upjdown counter.
detector works in conjunction
with the ring counter to In its simplest form, the up/down coun-
TO THE PRESET
INPUT OF
avoid possible oscillation ter is a variation of the basic ripple
FLIP FLOP A
between 010 (decimal2) counter. In rhis circuit, each clock pulse
and 101 (decimalS). causes a group of outputs to take on a
binary value one larger than that exist-
ing previously. The primary reason for
as if all of the bits have shifted left by Logic state 010 can be detected by the the ever-increasing count is the connec-
one position, while the most significant arrangement shown in Fig. 7 . The out- tion from the Q output of each flip-flop
bit became complemented and replaced put of the NAND gate will become zero to the clock input of the next flip-flop. If
bit A. Thus, illegal state 010 (decimal2) only when state 010 occurs at inputs A, the not-Q output of each flip-flop were
gives way to state 101 (decimal 5), while B and C. This low level will instantly used for this purpose, the count" would
state 101 (decimal 5) gives way to the Preset flip-flop A, thus causing the state decrease rather than increase. Occasion-
original state 010 (decimal 2) . This 011, or decimal"3 to be entered . From ally, of course, the count would reach
means that either state, once entered, this poin