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Education and Gender Equality Series

6. Developing
Capacity to
Achieve Gender
Equality in

Teaching in a Dalit school in Uttar Pradesh, India

Failure to achieve gender equality in education is often blamed on

weak capacity. This paper illustrates the ways in which individual,
organisational, and institutional capacity all play important roles in
producing positive results for girls and boys. It is essential to
recognise that these different forms of capacity are related, in order
to prevent the disappearance of policies and strategies produced
with the aim of achieving gender equality in education.
Defining capacity
The capacity of a country to deliver on commitments to gender parity
and equality in education is determined by individuals and the
organisations in which they work, and also the bureaucratic systems
in which they operate. Improving the capacity to deliver on gender
equality in education targets often entails capacity development at all
these levels.1 This paper focuses on transforming institutions and
developing capacity of those working with education institutions, but
it recognises that long term capacity building for civil society,
communities and parents is also essential for taking forward gender

Individual capacity
Individual capacity comprises the quality, skills, and commitment of
each policy maker, administrator and teacher. Teachers must be able
to teach both girls and boys effectively to ensure that gender
inequalities are not strengthened in the classroom.
Senior administrators should be able to carry out gender analysis, to
identify approaches as a result of this analysis, to help put these
approaches into practice, and to monitor progress.
Gender training can play a significant role in building the capacity of
administrators and teachers. Effective training needs both to raise
awareness of gender issues and also to build the ability to carry out
gender analysis over a sustained period as a normal practice.
Training should ensure that all staff have an understanding of the
importance of gender issues, in relation to their work. However,
effective gender-training programmes also need to create specialists
in gender issues, who possess the necessary skills for gender analysis,
implementation, and monitoring.
Teachers can contribute to the achievement of the third Millennium
Development Goal (MDG) (promote gender equality and empower
women) by developing new skills and capacities. Through their
direct actions they can challenge received ideas of how girl and boy
pupils behave, raise awareness of gender issues, and protect children
against abuse that is a result of their sex. They can also encourage
girls to take subjects traditionally considered appropriate only for
boys, such as mathematics. Teachers, however, often lack the training
to campaign for gender equity in schools.
There is no template for effective gender training. However, its
impact is likely to be greater when it is prioritised, and endorsed by
senior-level administrators and politicians. It is also likely to be more
effective when it is not treated as a one-off event, and is instead
integrated into broader training and changes to the institutions

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Education and Gender Equality series, Progamme Insights, Oxfam GB.
December 2005
Some resources for gender training and analysis in education
These are some of the increasing number of good materials that are easily
available for practitioners; they can be easily adapted by trainers to suit the
local context and the learners:
Practising Gender Analysis in Education, Oxfam Skills and Practice Series,
author Fiona Leach. This book draws on a number of well-known analytical
frameworks from the gender and development literature and suggests
modifications to suit educational settings, with case studies and examples.
These frameworks can be used for analysing capacity constraints within
the education sector.
A Toolkit for Promoting Gender Equality in Education, by the Gender in
Education Network in Asia (GENIA). The toolkit provides a range of
resources developed by the UNESCO Network for practitioners (especially
gender focal points) to provide awareness of planning and strategy behind
the development of a participatory gender workshop. It includes guidance
and tools to create gender-responsive Education for All plans.
Resource Pack: Pedagogical Strategies for Gender Equality in Basic
Education. Developed for a teachers workshop in Kenya, it provides a brief
and accessible introduction to gender approaches and skills to enhance
gender-sensitive ways of working for teachers with practical activities and

Organisational capacity
In order to enable teachers and educational administrators to work
effectively, the organisations in which they work (for example,
schools and ministries of education) must have the capacity to fulfil
their mandates. They may be constrained by insufficient numbers of
personnel and inadequate financial systems, poor management,
ineffective systems and processes for decision making, and
inadequate information gathering and analytical capacity.

Institutional transformation
The way in which an institution is organised to take into account the
different needs of women and men is often an obstacle to
implementing reforms aimed at achieving gender equality in
education. This may manifest itself in both practical and physical
arrangements. For example, work arrangements often do not take
account of domestic roles, such as childcare, which are often the
responsibility of women. They may also reflect female or male
characteristics in terms of management styles, organisational
principles, and the delegation of authority.
Creating the ability to achieve the gender MDG therefore often
requires the transformation of deep-seated relations between women
and men, and their practices within organisations. Without such
changes, there is a danger that reforms aimed at achieving gender
equality in education will become insignificant.

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Transforming gender relations within an NGO: experience of BRAC
BRAC (Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) is heralded as an
NGO committed to achieving goals of gender equality through its education
programmes and other initiatives. Changes within the organisation that
take into account the different needs of women and men have also
received attention, especially efforts to recruit, retain, and improve the
effectiveness of female development workers. This has been done through
adapting the organisational culture to better enable the participation of
women (for example through introducing flexibility into the working day, and
providing support for child care), increasing the participation of women in
decision making through recruitment and promotion policies, including
special management-skills training, and supporting womens physical
needs, for example by providing appropriate accommodation, transport,
health care, and maternity leave.
These policies allow views of mens and womens roles in both private and
public spheres to be questioned. The recognition of the need to challenge
conventional male work patterns within a dominant organisational culture,
and the need to be open to change, has helped to improve the participation
of women in BRAC. Transformations of this kind can take time and
sustained effort and need to be well resourced.3

Quotas for women

Quotas, if implemented with appropriate support as part of a wider
process for promoting and sustaining gender equality, can increase
womens visibility and challenge male dominance within
organisations. A successful quota programme includes measures to
develop the womens capacity so that their presence translates into
influence.4 Without this dimension, quotas are only symbolic, with
women continuing to play a relatively minor role, either because of
the types of responsibility they are given, or because of their own lack
of confidence, or because of other commitments which prevent them
from carrying out their work effectively.
In local-government structures in India and Pakistan, one third of
seats are reserved for women. In village education committees in
some states in India, the chair or vice chair of the committee is
required to be a woman. While some have criticised these measures
because, for example, they can result in female relatives of powerful
men taking these positions, others have pointed to the ways in which
women in local government have successfully raised local issues
concerning land, water, health, and education and have spoken their
own minds, independently of the political affiliations of male
In Ethiopia, quotas for ensuring that one third of the intake into
teacher-training institutes are female, has helped to ensure an
increase in the availability of female teachers, who can be an
important influence on the education of girls. However, since women
are accepted with lower qualification levels than men, their
performance tends to continue to lag behind, which may badly affect

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their self-esteem. To address this, the Womens Affairs Office in the
Ministry of Education has designed training programmes to give
additional support to women in these colleges, at the same time as
providing them with assertiveness training.5

Gender mainstreaming within organisations

Gender mainstreaming is a strategy to promote gender equality
within an organisation.6 Mainstreaming has received particular
attention since the 1995 Beijing World Conference on Women.
Mainstreaming is about extending concern for gender equality and
education from a few vocal people, often on the periphery of
organisations, to the centre of the development agenda. This requires
rethinking of institutional rules, priorities, and goals, and substantial
redistribution of resources.7
Within education, gender mainstreaming is often associated with
sector-wide approaches (SWAPs) and Poverty Reduction Strategy
Papers (PRSPs). Many countries SWAPs and PRSPs contain broad
commitments and specific strategies to achieving gender equality.
These commitments, however, are often made without considering
whether there is capacity to implement them.
Gender-mainstreaming strategies may be either diffuse or specific.
On the one hand, gender equality can be made the responsibility of
everyone in the organisation, with related concerns incorporated into
all organisational structures and activities. There is, however, a
danger that this diffuse approach will sideline gender issues, as other
concerns are given higher priority. It can also reduce gender analysis
to an insignificant function. On the other hand, specialist units may
be set up within ministries of education to ensure that gender issues
are visible and endorsed by all levels of the organisation.
In countries in both South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, support for
girls education has often been the responsibility of separate gender
focal points, either within the Ministry of Education or as a separate
ministry or unit. Ideally, focal points act as catalysts of change, by
working with individuals, departments, and ministries to raise
gender awareness and ensure that gender parity and equality is
incorporated into major policies, programmes, and procedures.
In practice, however, focal points have often been separated from
usual planning activities within ministries of education, and they lack
the resources and status to influence policy and programme
priorities. In many cases, the roles and responsibilities of gender
focal points are inadequately defined and insufficiently resourced.
The offices often rely on external funding, because resources are not
available internally to support them. In addition, appointments to
posts within these offices are often made at a low level, with limited
opportunity for transfer or promotion.

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Education and Gender Equality Series, Programme Insights, Oxfam GB.
December 2005
Gender initiatives in practice in Ethiopia and Guinea
Although Ethiopia is currently lagging behind in achieving universal primary
education and gender equality, it has made considerable progress over the
past decade as a result of a high-level commitment to establish Womens
Affairs Officers at national, regional, and district levels. Through a
nationally driven strategy of ensuring that gender is integrated into
education planning, there is optimism that gender equality will be achieved.
While this approach requires longer-term commitment, it should ensure
greater sustainability than more gradual approaches to gender reforms.8
By comparison, in Guinea an Equity Committee was established in 1992,
with the support of the then Minister of Education. This was successful in
gaining the support of traditional and religious leaders and other public
figures for the governments policy of encouraging girls education.
However, subsequently the committee has had no operating budget or
strategic plan, as well as few personnel (most of the members work only
part-time). As a result it has only been able to focus on random, short-term
projects, with financing from NGOs and donor agencies.9

Whether one uses a targeted approach through gender focal units,

or relies on merging responsibility for gender issues across
organisations, one needs to consider the background and the timing.
A more targeted approach is likely to be more effective in cases
where organisational capacity is weak, and there is no evidence of a
sustained political commitment to gender equality. If it is handled
appropriately, and all stakeholders in the design and implementation
process are involved, this strategy could support political
commitment to a more coherent approach in the longer term. In
practice, across ministries of education in developing countries, there
is little evidence of successful integrated approaches to gender

Developing capacity for gender equality involves implementing a
range of strategies, comprising not only gender training of both male
and female administrators and teachers to raise awareness and to
provide necessary skills for gender analysis, but also initiatives to
increase womens visibility within organisations, for example
through using quotas. Developing capacity means focusing on
gender concerns within organisations, and making gender issues an
integral part of educational planning processes. The appropriate
allocation of financial resources must be built in to these processes for
them to succeed.
In many countries, governments are under pressure to implement a
proliferation of policies while suffering severe financial constraints.
Officials are often required to perform new roles, while carrying out
existing ones more effectively. A priority for donors, therefore,
should be to finance and strengthen individual and organisational

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development and capacity to achieve gender equality at the national
SWAPs and PRSPs provide a potentially valuable tool for capacity
building. Evidence from the first phase of SWAPs in education in
countries such as Uganda and Bangladesh indicates that although
gender targets and strategies are included in these documents,
budgets are not large enough to support them. The second phase of
plans in these countries allocates more resources to capacity building
and gender programming. The growing trend towards the
preparation of budgets that take into account gender issues can also
help to ensure that sufficient resources are committed and used to
support gender equality in education.10
International agencies also need capacity for high-quality gender
analysis, programming, and advocacy. Most agencies are making
progress on developing the capacities of important individuals, but
increasing organisational capacity and improving institutional
incentives require more sustained effort.

Address the need to build capacity at individual, institutional,
and organisational levels.
Ensure that all staff have an understanding of the importance of
gender issues in relation to their work, and that gender specialists
possess the necessary skills.
Integrate gender training and analysis through all programmes of
teacher education, to help teachers to be effective change agents.
Develop gender-sensitive budgets to ensure that adequate
resources are committed to achieve the MDGs, and to monitor
their use.

Finance individual and organisational development for gender
equality at the national level.
Ensure SWAPs and PRSPs include realistic budgets to implement
gender equality strategies.
Ensure that donors themselves are improving their capacity to
support high-quality gender analysis, programming and

Ensure that NGOs themselves are improving their capacity to
transform gender relations in their own work, and in the way
they work with others.

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Support governments to build capacity for gender equality
through working with planners in ministries of education.
Monitor progress on capacity building for gender equality at the
local level, and use this to influence government and donor policy
at the national level.
Support local organisations, schools, and communities to
participate in gender-sensitive monitoring of education.

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Capacity is intimately related to political will. The role of political will is
discussed in Paper 5 in this series: Making it Happen, Political Will for
Gender Equality in Education, Education and Gender Equality Series,
Programme Insights, (Oxfam GB, 2005).
UNESCO (2004) A Toolkit for Promoting Gender Equality in Education,
Gender in Education Network in Asia, UNESCO, Bangkok; F. Leach (2003)
Practising Gender Analysis in Education, Oxfam Skills and Practice series,
Oxford: Oxfam GB; Beyond Access (2004) Resource Pack: Pedagogic
Strategies for Gender Equality in Basic Education Beyond Access
Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya,
A. Goetz, Getting institutions right for women, Gender and Development
Vol. 5 No 1, 1997.
A-M. Goetz (2003) No Shortcuts to Power: African Women in Politics ad
Policymaking. London: Zed Press.
P. Rose (2003) Out-of-School Children in Ethiopia, Report for DFID-
For a definition of gender mainstreamining see Paper 1 in this series:
Beyond Access for Girls and Boys: How to Achieve Good-Quality, Gender-
equitable Education, Education and Gender Equality Series, Programme
Insights, (Oxfam GB, 2005).
N. Kabeer and R, Subrahmanian (1996) Institutions, Relations and
Outcomes: Framework and Tools for Gender-Aware Planning. IDS
Discussion Paper 357, Brighton: IDS.
P. Rose (2003) Out-of-School Chidren in Ethiopia Report for DFID,
. A. Marphathia (2000) USAID/WIDTECH Technical Assistance and
Training Plan to the Ministry of Pre-University and Civic Educations Equity
Committee, Washington: WIDTECH.
For a discussion of gender budgeting, see Paper 7 in this series: Gender
Responsive Budgeting in Education, Education and Gender Equality Series,
Programme Insights, (Oxfam GB, 2005).

Cover photograph: Sheila Aikman, Oxfam GB

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Education and Gender Equality Series, Programme Insights, Oxfam GB.
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Oxfam GB, December 2005
This paper was developed for the Beyond Access Project and was adapted by
Pauline Rose and Taylor Brown from The Role of Capacity and Political Will in
Achieving the Gender MDG, a background paper for Girls Education: Towards a
Better Future for All, DFID 2005. It is part of a series of papers written to inform
public debate on development and humanitarian-policy issues. The text may be
used free of charge for the purposes of advocacy, campaigning, education, and
research, provided that the source is acknowledged in full. The copyright holder
requests that all such use be registered with them for impact assessment
purposes. For copying in any other circumstances, or for re-use in other
publications, or for translation or adaptation, permission must be secured and a fee
may be charged. E-mail
For further information about the Beyond Access Project, see:
For comments on issues raised in this paper, please e-mail:
Other papers in this series can be found at:

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