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# ELECTRONICS

## PRACTICAL USE OF SIMULATOR WORK: ELECTRONIC WORKBENCH Teacher: Jorge Petrosino /

Alejandro Rodriguez
When you run the program (wewb.exe) The following window should appear.
In the top row (below the main menu) is a series of laboratory instrumentation m
ail:
Double-click on any of these instruments can be seen in more detail. Use at this
stage, the first four, which are those associated with analog systems. For its
part, also use the elements you see in the side window (a multi-point connection
s, mass, stack, alternate sources, resistors, capacitors, transformers and other
s). Correspond to the menu passive (Passive).
Example 1. Use the multimeter Take a source of alternating with the mouse and dr
ag it to the main window (while selected will have a different color). Take a re
sistance and bring it to the main window. While selected (color) tectlas press t
he key combination [Ctrl] + R. This will cause the rotating resistance (placing
vertically). Each time we apply this combination of keys, the selected item will
rotate 90 degrees. If we pass the end of the mouse cursor at the top of the sou
rce will see a black dot. Holding down the mouse you will see a conductor (cable
) that can lead to the upper end of the resistance. We get the following situati
on:
If we repeat the operation to achieve lower ends to close the circuit. We can th
en drag the meter (taking it with the mouse and dropping it into the central win
dow). Then connect the negative end to the lowest point of resistance (carrying
a connector cable to any point between the negative of the battery and the resis
tance). Then connect the positive end of the instrument at the other end of the
resistance.
Double clicking on the instrument, should be enlarged (as shown in the diagram).
For the measurement (in this case, 12 V) must push the button located on the to
p of the screen.
Simulation Exercises - Electronics - Petrosino -
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Example 2. Calculate the voltage resistive divider should be obtained from the R
indicated in the chart. Measure the tension in the simulator to compare values.
Example 3. Calculate the voltage resistive divider should be obtained from the R
2 = 1KΩ indicated in the figure, R1 = 2KΩ SI. Measure the tension in the simulat
or to compare values.
To change the value in the R of the simulator, you have to double click on it an
d a window will allow you to change the value.
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Example 4. Calculate the current measuring current in a circuit with a 12 V batt
ery and two resistors in series of 1 K and 2 K. Measure the value in the simulat
or and compare. The current measurement is performed by placing the meter in ser
ies (forcing the current to pass through the instrument.) If we place the instru
ment as shown in Figure obtain - 4 mA. The negative value indicates that the cur
rent entering the negative terminal of the instrument.
Changing the connection of the + and - you get a positive value. NOTE: If you pl
ace the meter as shown will give a measurement of -12 V. The error is not select
ed the A, to measure ampere. A) Explain what is obtained in this case a value of
12V. "The circuit is open or closed?
Example 5. AC resistive divider Measure and calculate the voltage value at R2. T
his must indicate on the instrument to measure AC (by pressing the button with a
sine wave). Otherwise give a zero value.
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Example 6. Using the oscilloscope can add an oscilloscope to the circuit before.
The drag and connect the points shown in the diagram. Doing so may see a sign l
ike the following. Indicates that in order to simulate the behavior need any of
the points of the circuit is connected to ground (to assign 0 volts).
Once connected, we would have mass following, if we modify the values of the win
dow until TIME BASE to 0.01 seconds per division, and CHANNEL A to obtain values
of 20 V per division (otherwise it will be a black stain on scale Improper draw
ing).
Pay attention to the added element (symbol grounding).
Simulation Exercises - Electronics - Petrosino 5
Another element to consider is the zoom (expanded scope button). If you pressed
one will see the following:
To understand a little what the value of time base (TIME BASE) and the vertical
scale of channel A.We propose to modify slightly and observe the changes in the
graph. Using the scales indicated the value that is obtained by measuring the s
cope is larger than that obtained with the voltmeter. B) Explain the cause of th
e difference. C) Calculate how much should be the maximum of the sine and compar
e with reading the graph can be done.
20 V / div
0.01 sec / div
D) Calculate the period of the signal according to information from the source p
lace and compare with measurement made on the basis of the scale.
1
NOTE: Pressing the REDUCE, we return to the previous situation. Simulation Exerc
ises - Electronics - Petrosino -
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E) What should be the voltage and frequency AC source so that the graph is obtai
ned as follows. NOTE: Pay attention to the new scales indicated on the oscillosc
ope.
censored
censored
It is known that the maximum value measured with the oscilloscope is 4.71 V. Not
e that the marks on the screen marked with two lines that start with the triangl
es 1 and 2 can move with the mouse. The readings shown in the tables below indic
ate the voltage and time on those brands.
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Example 7. Measurement of resistance Placing the meter in Ω, we can measure resi
stance.
This will allow us to test in the simulator calculations of equivalent strength.
By posting, for example, these two resistors in parallel will get a reading of
667 Ω.
NOTE: Remember to use [Ctrl] + R to rotate the selected item, so it is clearer d
iagram parallel. Example 8. Combination of series and parallel.
Example 9. Determination of Thevenin equivalent. Calculate the Thevenin equivale
nt of the following circuit and then measure the parameters in the simulator.
Note: To put a name to the resistance Rx, we select and search the menu Circuit
Label option (or press the key combination [Ctrl] + L). Similarly nodes can be s
elected and placed the name A and B.
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For the VTH should we measure the voltage between A and B, when the Rx is not co
nnected.
VTH = 8 V. To obtain the Rth we measure the resistance between A and B, with pas
sive source and without Rx.
Rth = 8 Ω now build Thevenin equivalent circuit and compared the measurements of
voltage and current on Rx.
We obtain that Vx = 4444 V measuring the current Ix, we obtain 444 mA.
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Check now with the original circuit.
If you change the value of Rx (eg 160 Ω) we can see that the measurements are th
e same in the original circuit and the Thevenin equivalent (without having to re
calculate).
ORIGINAL CIRCUIT
THEVENIN EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
DE
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Example 10. Using two channels on the oscilloscope in the following circuit will
see the voltage of the circuit in two places simultaneously.
The greater amplitude sinusoidal measured corresponds to the channel A (which is
the source voltage, 220 V, 50 Hz). Since we are using a scale of 100 V / div an
d the wave exceeds the three divisions, the peak value is more than 300 V (220x1
.4 = 311 V) to 220 RMS. The lower amplitude sine corresponds to channel B (stres
s on the resistance of 50 ohms). It is important to note that if we replace the
cable that goes from the GROUND connector of the oscilloscope to the negative po
le of the source (which is also connected to ground) for a ground connection, th
e circuit does not change at all and simplifies the design used.
In a circuit may have multiple connections to ground at various places symbolizi
ng that all these points are connected together to ground.
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Example 11. Transformers The following circuit is the primary measure of a 2:1 t
ransformer on channel A (220V) and the secondary channel B (110V). There are thr
ee ground connections. One in the primary, secondary and one in the third on the
oscilloscope. We must interpret these three points are connected.
To change the parameters of the transformer have to double click on it, and then
press Edit.
The value "Primary-to-secondary turns ratio (n) is the value ratio that we call"
a ". In this example we are using a 2:1 transformer, or what is the same ratio
a = 2. The other parameters can be left as they are.
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Example 12. Equivalent resistance seen from the primary The meter can measure th
e Requivalente not seen from the primary (always get zero.) However,R we can ca
lculate this by dividing the equivalent voltage source
(Example 10V) by the measured current (25 mA). This gives a Requiv 400 ohms. R '
= a2.R = 4100 = 400 ohms
F) Solve the following circuit, for calculations first and then simulating and m
easuring the voltage values in R1 and R2.
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Example 13. Impedance matching transformer Assemble the following circuit on the
oscilloscope and measure the voltage at source and in the secondary.
G) Calculate the ratio of impedances to adapt. Calculate the voltage in the seco
ndary and compare with the simulation. It will get a value close to 1 volt effec
tive in the secondary. H) Repeat the above for an R1 with R2 50KΩ 2Ω, comparing
results to a 2:1 transformer and transformer impedances best to adapt.
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Example 14. Charging and discharging of a capacitor to the following example mus
t be incorporated to the elements and used a capacitor and a key. The key is in
the menu "Control" (it is three places after that symbolizes resistance from the
"Passive").
The key will appear with a caption that says [Space]. This means that while the
simulation is running the pressure in the keyboard space bar will change the pos
ition of the llave2. The key has two positions and three contacts. No need for a
ll contacts. To place it as shown in the circuit example was necessary to rotate
the key twice. Pressing Space will begin charging the capacitor. Note that the
values were selected to R, C time scale and scope so as to easily see the load c
urve of the capacitor. If we open and close the key periodically (by repeatedly
pressing the space bar) graphs are obtained as follows:
2
You can change the key that controls the key, simply click on the key. Simulatio
n Exercises - Electronics - Petrosino - 15
Example 15. Low Pass Filter
In the example we used a 5 V source with a frequency of 0.4 Hz oscilloscope time
scale is 0.5 sec / div and the vertical is 2V/div for both channels. I) Repeat
for R = 1KΩ and C = 2 mF, with a source frequency of 20 Hz Note that will be nec
essary for the oscilloscope time scale is related to the value of time constant
and / or the period source so you can see the signal on the oscilloscope J) Repe
at for R = 1KΩ and C = 2 mF, with a source frequency of 200 Hz K) Repeat the lat
ter case with a frequency of 2KHz. L) Change the location of R and C, so that it
behaves like pasaltos. Repeat the examples I, J, and K with this new case. If I
was unclear what you see you can disconnect the channel A (the source) or press
it the button "0" AC and DC control channel of the oscilloscope. This will leav
e visible only channel B. Then discuss what happens in this case.
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Example 15. Lowpass filter with alternate sources Connect the following circuit
M) Increase the value of the source frequency to 500 Hz What about the output? O
bserve the oscilloscope and multimeter. N) Reduce the value of the source freque
ncy to 20 Hz What about the output? Observe the oscilloscope and multimeter. O)
Repeat for f = 2 Hz (scale should be amended so that the signal oscilloscope can
be clearly seen). These recent cases are to have a circuit with fixed τ and go
changing he frequency. Can be verified ha he low frequency "pass" while high
are a enua ed. The same ype of phenomenon can be seen holding fixed frequency
(100 Hz, for example) and varying he value of τ so ha when τ is very small (
fas load) he load signal is almos equal o he source. When τ has values in e
rmedia e load signal is somewha smaller han he source and is ou da ed. Finall
y, when τ is very large (slow loading), he load signal is so small ha is almo
s invisible unless you change he ver ical scale of he oscilloscope. In he la
er case you will no ice ha he phase shif ends o be abou 90 degrees. P)
Experiencing varying τ in he oscilloscope o view signals men ioned. Q) Repea
he las exercise on sinusoidal wi h a high pass fil er.
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