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# , , -

, - . f (x) 0 [a, b] ,
. - , -
-
, - .
.
1-
1- , -
1. - 2- ,
, -
:

1.1. -
b
K(x, s)(s) ds = f (x),
, a
:
-
, -
2- .
(x) = K(x, s)(s) ds + f (x),
1.1.2.
(x) , f (x) , K(x, s) -
, . K(x, s) 2-
. -
, -
. :

1.1.1. x
(x) = K(x, s)(s) ds + f (x), a x b.
2- a
2- :
1- ,
b ,
1- -
(x) = K(x, s)(s) ds + f (x).
:
a

- x
, . - K(x, s)(s) ds = f (x).
: a x, s b ,
a
: K(x, s) C(a
x, s b), f (x) C([a, b]) , , -
: ,
:

b b b {
|K(x, s)| dx ds < +,
2
|f (x)|2 dx < +.K(x, s) = K(x, s), a s x,
a a a
0, x < s b.

1
2 2

2.
.
,
, ,
1.2. , -
.
- .
, - -
. .
,
.
2.1.
-
1.2.1.
,
:
b
(x) = K(x, s, (s)) ds, K(x, s, ) C(a x, s b; M M ).
a
x
f (x t)g(t) dt F (p)G(p),
M - 0
, .
,
:
1.2.2.
x

: (x) = f (x) + K(x s)(s) ds.
0

, :
b
(x) = K(x, s)F (s, (s)) ds,
a
x
(x) = sin x + 2 cos(x s)(s) ds.
K(x, s) . 0

:
1.2.3.

-
, - (x) (p),
, , : 1 p 1
(p) = +2 (p) (p) = .
1+p 2 1+p2 (p 1)2

b b b , -
:
(x) = f (x)+ K[1] (x, s)(s) ds+ K[1, 1] (x, s, z)(x)(z) ds dz+. . .
a a a

1 px px
(x) = res e = (e )p = xex .
p=1 (p 1)2 p=1
1.2.4.

x 2.2. -
(x) = F (x, s, (s)) ds,
a

F (x, s, ) - 2- , -
. :
2.4 3

## |||b a| max |K(x, s)| < 1. b

ax, sb
(x) = f (x) + R(x, s, )f (s) ds.
- a
:
,

(x) = k (K k f )(x), 1
k=0 (x) = f (x) + xs(s) ds
0
. (K k f )(x)
k - (Kf )(x) : :

b
K0 (x, s) = xs,
(Kf )(x) = K(x, s)f (s) ds.
a K1 (x, t) = xt,
, - 1
|| . xt
K2 (x, t) = xs st ds = ,
3
- 0
2- . , - 1
- || st xt
K3 (x, t) = xs ds = ,
, . 3 9
0
...
2.3. xt
Kn+1 = ,
3n
-

, -
.
xt 1 3xt
: R(x, t, ) = n
Kn+1 = n n = xt = .
3 3
n=0 n=0 1
3

## K0 (x, t) = K(x, t), :

K1 (t, s) = K(t, s),

K(x, s) 1
3xt
Kp (x, s) : (x) = f (x) + f (t) dt.
3
0

b
Kp (x, s) = K(x, t)Kp1 (t, s) dt. 2.4.
a

, , , -
, K(x, s) =
N
i=1 fi (x)gi (s) , -
. -
R(x, s, ) = k Kk+1 (x, s),
, -
k=0
:
K(x, s)
a x , s b -
N b N
. - (x) = fi (x) gi (s)(s) ds+f (x) = ci fi (x)+f (x),
: i=1 a i=1
4 3

b
ci = (s)gi (s) ds . -
a
+
gi (x) x - 1
g(x) = eixy f (y) dy.
[a, b] , - 2

ci :
f (y) :

N
ci = aik ck + bi , i = 1, . . . , N,
+
1
k=0 f (y) = eixy g(x) dx.
2

b b
aik = gi (x)fk (x) dx bi = gi (x)f (x) dx
a a
. 3.2. -
-
,
, - -
, -
K(x, s) .[1] :

dx
2.5. = F (t, x(t)), x(a) = x0 .
dt
2- , -
b
: (x) a K(x, t)(t)dt = f (x) , t a t :
K(x, t) f (x) -
, - . -
b t

n : a
(x)dx
x(t) = x0 + F (s, x(s)) ds.
k=1 kA (x k ) , x1 , x 2 , ...x n - -
[a, b] , A1 , A2 , ..., An a

(x) . - -
b
xk : (xk ) a K(xk , t)(t)dt = -
f (xk ) . - 2- .
n : (xk )
1837 . , -
m=1 K(xk , xm )(xm ) = f (xk ) . - , :
n -
n (x1 ), (x2 ), ...(xn ) , -
- x (t)+[2 (t)]x(t) = 0 ( = const), x(a) = 1, x (a) = 0.
(x) x1 , x2 , ...xn .
- -
: (x) = :
n
m=1 Am K(x, xm )(xm ) [1] .

## x (t) + 2 x(t) = g(t)

3. -
:
1888
. -, -
t
. , 1
1811 - x(t) = cos (t a) + g( ) sin (t ) d.
, . a

3.1.
t
1
x(t) = cos (t a) + ( ) sin (t )x( ) d
f (y) g(x) :
a
5

2- . 4. .
n - -

dn x dn1 x
n
+a1 (t) n1 +. . .+an (t)x(t) = F (t), t > a,
dt dt

## x(a) = C0 , x (a) = C1 , . . . , x(n1) (a) = Cn1 5.

- [1] . ., . ., . . -
2- . . .: , 1976. . 214.

[2] . ., . . :
. .: . 10 . . I. .. 5-
3.3. . .. : , 2004. . 42-43.
224 . ISBN 5-9221-0055-6.
, ,
-
, . 1823
, ,
6.
:
. . . : -
. .: , 1975.
x . ., . . -
()
f (x) = d, . .: , 2004.
x
0 ISBN 5-9221-0310-5.

f (x) , (x) . .. . -
- , 3- .. 1961.
1- . -
. ., . .
, -
. 2- , .. : -
-
, 2002. 160 . ISBN 5-9221-0275-3.
(
). , -

[2]

:

-
-
(, ) . -
, -
,
-
x , O t =
f1 (x) , f1 (x) .

-
O ,
:

x
() 1
d = 2gf1 (x), () = .
x sin
0
6 7 ,

7. ,
7.1.
: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%98%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%B3%D1%80%
D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B5_%D1%83%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%BD%
D0%B8%D0%B5?oldid=82996973 : Obersachse, Velikodniy, Drdaeman, Termar, Dstary, Infovarius, JAnDbot, VolkovBot,
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Luckas-bot, Rubinbot, ArthurBot, YroBot, Artem Korzhimanov, Galushin, Dinamik-bot, EmausBot, Roundabout, Arventur, Ebrambot,
22, D7eamer, Addbot, Neue heisenberg, TemirovBot, Ping08Bot : 18

7.2.
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Derived from en:File:WPint.png (deleted file) : Booyabazooka
interwiki_section_gear_icon.svg : Public domain : Universal Language Selector extension of MediaWiki, https://github.
com/wikimedia/mediawiki-extensions-UniversalLanguageSelector/blob/master/resources/images/cog-sprite.svg : Wikimedia
Foundation; Santhosh Thottingal <santhosh.thottingal@gmail.com> (according to File:Cog-ULS-gear-latest.png);

7.3.

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