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NSPCL BHILAI

NTPC SAIL Power Company (P) Ltd.


2X250 MW expansion power project, Bhilai
COLD START-UP PROCEDURE
DEFINITION:

The start-up of the unit when the metal temperature of the HP turbine Casing
inner surface temp is less than 150C. Normally this condition comes if the
unit is under shutdown for more than Five days.

PRE START-UP CHECKS:


All permits cancelled.
CW, ACW and DMCW systems are lined up and are available to be
kept in service.
DM tank levels and CST levels are adequate.
Both CW passes charged
Instrument air and plant air available on boiler side & turbine side.
(>5KSC)
Safety valve gags removed.
Ensure that Turbine side MOT centrifuge along with Heaters kept in
service to maintain oil temperature of 45 deg C in MOT.
Turbine is on barring gear. Monitor shaft eccentricity. Generally it will
be less than 50 Microns.
All gearbox oil levels OK.
All ID, FD, PA, BFP Lube oil pumps are running.
PA system available.
P&I checks completed.
All Electrical Buses are charged independently.
UCB DCS systems all are healthy.
All LVS panels are running for alarms monitoring.
Keep Both APHs support and guide bearing LOPs ready and oil levels
are OK.
D/A filled (>300 mm), Drum filled (-100mm), Hotwell (0mm ) filled.
Ammonia Dozing system made ready.
Fire fighting system (sprinklers, emulsifier, hydrants, extinguishers.) is
available.
UPS, 220 V DC system OK.
24 V systems is available and all DCS panels are ready with two
sources of supply.
Air/gas/condensate/feed water/ash paths are clear.
Ensure one CEP is in service
Aux. steam available. If Aux PRDS is not available in case of station
shutdown, then boiler is to be lighted up with LDO in AB elevation and
PRDS to be charged after charging MS line.
MOT ( > -50 mm) / Seal oil Vacuum Tank (150 mm) oil levels OK.
Check all oil pumps and keep One Aux. oil pump in service. Keep all
oil pumps SLCs in auto.
Ensure that All ESVs, IVs, CRH NRV gags are removed.
All oil guns clamped and burner front ready. (Atomizing steam/air
charged and burner oil guns steam/air leakages checked)
Bottom ash hopper and seal trough filled. Refractory cooling water
valve opened.
Ensure both passes ESP all auxiliaries including hopper heaters are in
service and are in Auto.
Ensure that AC scanner air fans is in service and DP>200 mm of WCL
Take clearance from AHM for ESP dry ash evacuation system
availability. Economizer hoppers gates opened and Economiser hoppers
water charged.
Keep HP bypass spray manual valves in closed condition till first mill is
taken in service.
All ERVs isolating valve opened.
APH soot blowing is to be lined up from Aux PRDS.
SH/RH/DRUM vents and startup vent opened.
MOT vapor extraction fan kept in service.
One BCEF is kept in service.
Spray water for LP bypass to be lined up.
CBD main isolating valve is lined up. Ensure that isolating valve at IBD
tank is kept opened. Check that B064 and B067 are operating and their
isolating valves are kept opened.
Ensure that EBD valves B074 and B075 are operating for controlling
the drum level in emergencies
Ensure that EBD valves B060 and B061 are operating for controlling
the drum level in emergencies
CBD tank quenching water valve is opened.
All turbine drains (4.5 m) opened. Confirm drain valves opening by
local inspection. And all the manual valves are also kept opened.
Keep H2 coolers isolating valves are in isolated condition. They are to
be opened before rolling the turbine.
Excitation system two supply sources from Normal Emergency
Switchgear for field flashing are extended upto excitation room.
Ensure GRP DC and AC supplies (from normal Emergency MCC) are
made ON.
GT, UAT coolers main & standby supplies are available. (from unit
ACDB both sections)
Reset all GRP relays. Eliminate all trip conditions in
boiler/turbine/generator.
Ensure that all Dampers and gates in primary air, secondary air and flue
gas path are lined up
Keep Ammonia dozing pump in service with 100% stroke ( before
starting BFP)
Keep HP flash tank attemperation manual isolating valve open
Keep valve sealing water lined up from both CEP and DM make up
system
Ensure that DMCW overhead tank make up lined from both normal and
CEP discharge.
Ensure that ATT , ATRS and EHTC are available.
Ensure that EHTC valves are lined up
Generator casing H2 pressure >2.7 ksc and seal oil pump is running and
all other seal oil pumps SLCs put in auto.
DG set is available and diesel tank level is normal.
Check that HP bypass OSUs are available and are inservice
Check that LP bypass HPSU(high pressure oil supply unit) is available
and system parameters are normal.
STARTUP PROCEDURE
Boiler pre light up preparation:
Keep at least one CW pump in service.
Keep ACW booster pump in service and one DMCW pump in serivice.
All available CT fans are kept in service.
Start one CEP and establish flow upto deaerator
Keep one BFP in recirculation and discharge valve closed
ENSURE all pre-start Conditions for purging and light up are satisfied.
PURGING
Start APHs, One ID and one FD fan. Increase airflow to 350 to 360 t/hr.
Maintain Furnace draft normal (-5 to -10 mm of WCL)
Start purging.
After completion of boiler purging MFT gets reset.

Boiler Light Up:

After Boiler Purging completed, line up both AB elevation and CD


elevation guns
Open HFO trip valve
Heat up the HFO in long Recirculation upto 100 Deg C before light up
of the boiler
Keep Burner tilt in horizontal position
Wind box pressure is to be maintained 40 mm of wcl by keeping SADC
in manual and keep 25 percent open.
Keep SADC of oil elevation to be taken in service at 25 percent in
forced condition.
Keep 20 percent feed water line FD020 lined up.
Prove AB elevation oil guns one by one at a time
Keep HFO pressure control valve in auto after proving first oil gun
Pressure set point to be maintained at 9 ksc for the first half an hour.
Later reduce it gradually to 8 ksc.
Start APH hot end and cold end soot blowing with steam from Aux
steam.
Ensure that flame is normal at local
Keep one BFP in service on recirculation with discharge valves and
integral bypass valves kept closed.
After some time, Boiler drum level starts swelling. Open CBD valve
and control drum level. Once drum level comes to normal, Open BFP
discharge valve and take flow to drum to maintain drum level.
Maintain rate of rise of drum metal temp. less than 2 degree per minute
and that of main steam temp. less than 50C by controlling oil firing.
Drum top bottom differential temp to be maintained below 50 oC
(maximum).
At 3 KSC of drum pressure close DRUM vents and at 5 ksc of drum
pressure close SH drains at APH elevations.
Keep start up vent in open condition.

VACCUM PULLING
Close RH vents & close vacuum breaker valve and Water sealing is
AVAILABLE.
Ensure condenser water box is charged.
Ensure that ACW booster pump is running and cooling water is
available to vacuum pumps coolers
Ensure that one CEP is in service and min condensate flow is
established.
Check both vacuum pumps are available and are ok at local. Line up
vacuum pumps as specified in vacuum pumps operating instructions
Open Aux. seal steam drains on turbine side and open seal steam root
valve at Aux. Steam header. Slowly charge the seal steam line after
ensuring sufficient heating of the line
Start one vacuum pump and observe vacuum.
As the vacuum reaches 0.7 ksc, charge seal steam and maintain a
pressure of 200 mm of WCL.
Start GSEB & open LP turbine exhaust hood spray valve.
Charge seal steam to turbine glands and maintain 200 mm of WCL
pressure.
Start another vacuum pump also if required.
Ensure that necessary vacuum of 0.1 ksc is acheived.

Charging of HP/LP bypass:


Ensure that Unit flash tank drain valves MS106 and MS105 and their
manual valves are kept open. Ensure that loop drain manual valve is
also kept open.
Keep HRH and CRH line drains CRH101, HRH 101, HRH102, HRH
103 and HRH 104 open. Ensure that their manual valves are also open
at local.
Keep HP bypass line drains BP 6 and 8 open. Ensure that their manual
valves are open at local.
As the pressure in the boiler drum starts rising, at around 6 ksc of
pressure open integral bypass line of boiler stop valves both sides left
and right.
After opening MS integral bypass line, monitor the temperature of of
MS strainer on turbine side. After nearly 30 minutes these lines will get
heated up fully
Open boiler stop valves. Boiler stop valves once open command given ,
they cannot be stopped in between.
Open HP bypass warm lines BP 3 and 4.
Open LP bypass warm up lines HRH 103 and HRH 104
Open HP bypass and LP bypass slowly.
Check turbine speed. It should not raise.
Regulate HP/LP bypass. (Final position: HP bypass 50% & LP bypass
full open).
Close start up vent & boiler stop valve drains MS 108 and MS118 on
boiler side.)
The downstream temperature set point can be varied depending on the
final hot reheat temperature requirements during start up which is about
300oC. (280oC to 340oC)
LP bypass operation can be done with automatic interface kept ON. It
will automatically open the bypass control valve to maintain the HRH
pressure. When HRH pressure reaches 12 Kg/cm2, The ACI will be
switched off.

TURBINE CONTROL VALVE HEATING:


Around 12 to 15 KSC pressure Turbine Control valve heating is to be
done.
Ensure that all MAL valves are open.
Reset the turbine after Criterias X1, X2 and X3 are satisfied.
Ensure starting device is brought to zero percent
Start up oil pressure is available
Slowly increase starting device.
Ensure HPSV opening.
Ensure IPSV opening.
Stop opening of the starting device at such a position that both ESVs
and IVs are opened. (Unit 1 it is ESV opens at 28 percent and IVs opens
at 38 percent. Unit 2 it is ESV opens at 18 percent and IVs opens at 26
percent.)
Check for turbine speed rise. If turbine speed rises, immediately trip the
turbine and passing of control valves should be checked and attended.
HP ESVs and control valves, heating starts and their respective temp.
Start increasing.
Surface and mean temp start rising.
Wait until the mean temperatures of HPCVs come to min. 200 - 250 oC.
Min. temp requirement for HPSV/HPCV is only for absolute cold
startups.
Parameters Build up and turbine rolling:
Maintain around 30 ksc of pressure and temperature of 300 deg C by
increasing the number of guns in service. Take CD elevation oil support
as well if required.
Operate Burner tilt ( between 40 % to 60 %) as per requirement so as to
maintain both SH & RH steam temperatures nearly same.
Ensure boiler side steam temperatures (MS &HRH) are achieved as
required from curves and are steady(MS Pr >30 ksc ,Temp > 300 deg
C , CRH Pr 8 ksc)
Turbine ESVs and IVs are already open for control valve heating.
Check for Criterias X4 and X5. These are to be satisfied for steam
entry to the turbine.
Maintain all TSE margins > 30 deg.
The metal temperatures of ESV/CV body are within 30 oC of the MS
temp preferably.
Ensure that the heating-up of stop/control valves is complete.
Keep Load set point 50 MW
Keep Max MW set point 150 MW
Keep Pressure set point 0 ksc
Select Initial pressure mode
RAISE speed reference set point to 600 rpm.
Open the Hydrogen cooler isolating valves
Ensure generator casing pressure is more than 2.7 ksc.
GT/UAT cooler fans and pumps should be made on
Raise the staring device position to >70 percent.
EHC starts increasing from its initial zero position.
Speed controller is in action during turbine rolling.
Once the turbine speed stabilizes around 600 rpm
Note down the Turbine parameters
HPCVs and IPCVs start opening.
Turbine speed starts rising to 600 rpm at a rate selected by TSE.
The JOP trips in auto as the turbine speed comes to 540 rpm.
Maintain turbine speed at 600 rpm and soak till required HP shaft temp
is attained. Minimum soaking period for cold start up is 60 minutes
even though HP casing temperature is achieved.
Maintain MS and HRH temperatures.
Ensure that Criteria X6 is satisfied.
Maintain all TSE margins more than 30 K.
RAISE turbine speed reference set point to 3000 rpm.
Turbine EHC's output starts increasing slowly.
Turbine control valves (HPCV & IPCV) start opening more.
Turbine speed starts increasing gradually at a rate decided by turbine
stress evaluator.
Ensure TSE margins to ensure a min. speed gradient of > 108 rpm
/minute to avoid DN/DT protection.
Critical speeds of our turbine are 1370, 1544, 2125 RPM
"Turbine/Gen. bearing vibration high" and "Turbine absolute shaft
vibration high" alarms may come when turbine speed crosses critical
speeds vibration levels increase appreciably and again become normal.
Bearing temperatures display an upward trend If vibrations are already
on higher side before the critical speeds, DO NOT ROLL and soak at
600 for some more time until vibrations become normal.
Maintain turbine speed at 3000 rpm
Soak until required X7 criteria is reached
After X7 is satisfied, Unit can be synchronized.

SYNCHRONISATION

After unit overhauls, Electrical maintenance department will carry out


the testing of Generator.
Give clearance to EMD for electrical testing
After E/M clearance, isolators are to be closed.
Before closing isolators ensure all Earth switches are opened &
temporary earths removed.
Close field breaker. Close command can be given either from DCS or
ECB.
After closing the field breaker take clearance EMD regarding the
Metrosil resistor contacts in AVR room. In case if the Resistor contacts
are not opened then proceed as per their instructions.
Switch ON the excitation either from DCS or from ECB
As excitation is switched ON generator output voltage automatically
builds up to 15.8 KV. Increase the voltage further up to 16.3KV either
form DCS or from ECB
Select the Generator circuit breaker which is to be closed by pressing
the selection button and release it immediately.
Keep breaker closing selection in ECB mode
Switch ON the synchroscope with the selector switch provided below it.
Based on the unit speed the synchroscope pointer will either rotate
clockwise or Anti clockwise. If unit speed is greater than grid speed
pointer will rotate in clockwise direction and if unit speed is less than
grid speed it will rotate in anti clockwise direction.
By raising/lowering the speed reference match the turbine speed with
the grid speed .when the speed is almost equal to that of grid speed
pointer will be in 12o clock position i.e vertically up direction at which
the green LED given in synchroscope glows confirming the sync
permissive.
When the green LED glows close the generator circuit breaker by
rotating the switch for closing.
The moment circuit breaker closes our generator should be in a position
to deliver power to grid. After synchronization, control reset button is to
be pressed and synchroscope is to be made off.
Take the block load of 20 to 25 MW by increasing speed set point.
Changeover from speed controller to load controller immediately. In
speed controller load hunting is more. Hence changeover should be as
fast as possible.
Changeover from speed control to load control:
After synchronization machine will be in speed control mode.
To take load control in service keep the load ref. set point greater than
the actual load. If load set point is more than actual load, then load
controller output starts increasing.
When this load ref. crosses the speed control output at around 23% load
control takes over speed control as per the maximum selection given.
When load control comes in action LOAD CONTROL ACTIVE will be
displayed on the screen. When load control comes in service, increase
the load set point by 5-10MW so that again speed control may not take
over.
Monitor the speed controller starts tracking the actual speed or not.
There after increase the load by increasing the load ref. set point as per
requirement.

Post Synchronization Activities:


Close HP and LP bypass after checking the status of reheater protection.
Close all turbine drains except HP turbine casing drain and CRH drain.
HP casing drain is to be closed at about 20 per cent of load. Close
turbine side drains. Close unit flash tank drains.
Monitor cold gas temperatures. Ensure that control valve is full open.
6.6 KV supply changeover to be done from station to unit at around 50
MW.
Charge all LPHs and deaerator extractions. Before charging LPHs
ensure that all their normal and alternate drips are lined up properly.
Charge HP heaters at 75 - 100 MW load.
After charging all heaters put their level controllers in auto to maintain
normal levels
Monitor the deaerator inlet and economizer inlet after charging the
heaters
Maintain the MS and HRH temperatures as per Temperature margins
from TSE.
Milling systems are to be lined up and to be kept in service as per the
temperature and TSE margin.
For a cold start up OEM recommendation mentions five hours for
achieving the full load. That is 0.7 MW per minute.
Monitor silica content in the drum. That will restrict the loading of the
machine very early.
Load the machine as per chemical parameters restrictions.

Taking Milling System in service:


Criteria for milling system to be kept in service
1. FG temperature outlet at Primary SH outlet 350 deg C or
more
2. FG inlet temperature at APH is >200 deg C
3. Atleast 3 guns are in service in any one elevation in which
milling system is to taken in service
Keep the cold air gate of any one top mill in open condition and open
its cold air damper partially so that some amount of flow is possible
through PA fan.
Start one PA fan after the above conditions are satisfied.
Ensure that PA fan discharge damper opens on auto
Load the PA fan and maintain PA header pressure of around 700 to 720
mm of WCL
Start the milling system to be taken in service
Open hot air gate and hot air damper open and increase the mill outlet
temperature
If mill outlet temperature reaches 75 deg C, then start the gravimetric
feeder to establish coal flow.
If one mill is in service and APH outlet temperature are more than 100
deg C then keep all ESP fields in service
MS and HRH Temperatures Rise very fast after putting the mill in
service. This aspect has to be given utmost importance before taking the
mill in service.

Starting Second PA fan :


At least two milling systems should be in service
Third milling system should be in service with minimum air flow
Start second PA fan
Load the second PA fan and first PA fan should be on auto.
After both fans are loaded properly keep both fans in auto.

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