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Tensile test: calculation of stress
certainly has been on a lift, you've seen a load being lifted by a crane or seen
in his company, a crane carrying heavy loads back and forth. Besides the major
cargoes handled these situations, another fact certainly gets your attention: th
ey are the steel cables used in such equipment! Do you even know the effort that
these cables have to withstand the move these charges? Know how to call this ef
fort and how is it calculated? Knows that the determination of this kind of effo
rt and the specification of the dimensions cable are among the most frequently e
ncountered problems in the field of mechanics? Both overestimation and underesti
mation of the products can have serious consequences: the first because it gener
ates material waste, higher energy consumption and low performance, the second b
ecause the product will fail, and besides the injury, can cause serious accident
s, with irreparable damage . These considerations serve to illustrate how import
ant it is to know the strength of materials, which can be evaluated by mechanica
l testing. The most important mechanical test for determining the strength of ma
terials is the tensile test. If you are interested in deepening their knowledge
on these issues is on the right track. In this class you will have opportunity t
o know the measurement units used in tensile tests. Will know what is meant by s
tress and strain. And learn the formula to calculate the voltage at which the ma
terials are subjected during use. Stay with us!
What are the tensile
As you know, the mechanical properties are one of the most important characteris
tics of metals in their various applications in engineering, since the design an
d manufacture of products are mainly based on the behavior of these properties.
Our class
The determination of mechanical properties of materials is obtained by means of
mechanical tests, conducted on the product itself or on samples of specified siz
es and shapes, according to standardized procedures for the Brazilian and foreig
n. Stay inside the body of evidence is primarily used when the test result must
be compared with specifications of international standards.
A tensile test involves subjecting the material to an effort that tends to lengt
hen it to failure. The load stress is measured at the machine test.
In tensile testing the body is deformed by stretching, until the moment it break
s. Tensile tests allow us to know how materials react to tension, which limits t
he traction that support and from that moment burst.
Before the break, the deformation
Imagine a body attached at one end, subjected to a force, as in the illustration
. When this force is applied toward the longitudinal axis, we say that this is a
n axial force. At the same time, the force is perpendicular to the axial cross s
ection of the body. Note again the previous illustration. Note that the axial fo
rce is directed out of the body on which it was applied. When the axial force is
directed outwards from the body, it is an axial force of traction. The applicat
ion of an axial traction force trapped in a body produces a deformation in the b
ody, ie an increase in length with a decrease in cross-sectional area.
This increase in length is called the stretch. See the effect of stretching a bo
dy subjected to a tensile test.
In the Brazilian standard, the elongation is represented by the letter A and is
calculated by subtracting the initial length of the final length and dividing th
e result by the original length. In mathematical language, this statement can be
expressed by the following equality: Lf - A = Lo Lo Lo being that represents th
e original length before the test and Lf represents the final length after the t
est. Suppose you want to know the elongation suffered by a body of 12 mm, subjec
ted to an axial tensile strength, stood at 13.2 mm. Applying the formula above,
you are told that: A = Lf - Lo 13.2 to 12 1.2 Ã A = THA = 0.1 mm / mm Lo December
The unit mm / mm indicates that there is a deformation of 0.1 mm by 1 mm in size
of the material. It can also indicate the percentage deformation of way. To obt
ain the strain in percentage, simply multiply the previous result by 100. In our
example: A = 0.1 mm / mm '100 = 10%. And now, how about you try?
Checking understanding
Type in percentage value of the deflection corresponding to 0.2 cm / cm. Answer:
The correct answer is 20%. You must have arrived at this figure by multiplying 0
.2 by 100. There are two types of deformation, which occur when the material is
subjected to a pulling force: the elastic and plastic.
Elastic deformation: it is not permanent. Once terminated the efforts, the mater
ial returns to its original shape.
Plastic deformation: is permanent. Once terminated the efforts, the material rec
overs the elastic deformation, but is left with a residual plastic deformation,
not returning more to its original shape.
Tensile stress: what it is and how far
The tensile force acts on the cross-sectional area of the material. There is thu
s a relationship between the force applied and the area of material being requir
ed, called tension. In this module, the voltage will be represented by the lette
r T. In other words: Tension (T) is the ratio of a force (F) and a unit area (S)
: T = FS
Tip For purposes of calculating the stress borne by a material, it is considered
as a useful area of the material in this section the sum of the areas of massiv
e parts. For example: a wire rope for lifting weights, whose sectional area is 1
32.73 mm 2, February 2 consists of 42 turns of 1.2 mm, has a floor area 50.4 mm.
The unit of measure of force adopted by the International System of Units (SI) i
s the newton (N). Stay inside the unit kilogram-force (kgf) is still used in Bra
zil because most machines have scales available in this unit. But after the test
s, the strength values must be converted to Newton (N). The unit of area is the
square meter (m). For the measurement of voltage, is more often used his submult
iple, square millimeter (mm2). Thus, the tension is expressed mathematically as:
T = N 2 mm
Tune in for a long time, tension was measured in kgf / mm or psi (poundsquareinc
h, which means: PSI). With adoption of the International System of Units (SI) in
Brazil in 1978, these units were replaced by pascal (Pa). A multiple of that un
it, mega Pascal (MPa), has been used by a growing number of countries, including
See the table below converts the correspondence between these units of measureme
1N 1 1 1 MPa kgf kgf/mm2 = = = 0.454 kgf = 0.102 N/mm2 1422.27 lb 1 psi = 9.807
N = 0.102 = 9.807 MPa kgf/mm2
= 9.807 N/mm2
How about stop and apply what you've seen? Then, solve the following exercise.
Checking understanding
Knowing that the tension experienced by a body of 20 N/mm2, how do you express t
he same extent MPa? To give your answer, see the table of conversions, if necess
ary. Answer: ..............................................
If you correctly interpreted the table of conversions, your response should have
been 20 MPa. To quench the curiosity, see the conversion of that measure to: kg
f / mm ® is 1 MPa = 0.102 kgf / mm, then: 20 MPa = 2.04 kgf / mm and for: psi Â
® is a kgf / mm = 1422, 27 psi, then 2.04 kgf / mm = 2901.4308 psi
February 2 February 2 2
Calculating tension
A friend, who is riding a mechanical maintenance workshop, requested his help to
calculate the tension that must be supported by a steel rod of 2 4 mm section,
knowing that the material will be exposed to a force of 40 N. Simple, right? Kno
wing the force applied (F = 40 N) and which area of the second section of the ro
d (S = 4 mm), simply apply the formula: T = 10 NC 40 N Ã Ã T = T = 2 S 4 mm2 mm
So the tension that the cable must withstand is 10 N / mm. But if your friend wa
nts to know the answer in megapascal, the result is 10 MPa. Very good! For now,
if all the topics presented were clear, is already more than good. Before procee
ding to study the next lesson, solve the following exercises to make sure that e
verything was seen in this class has no more mysteries for you.
Exercise 1 Put an X (s) answer (s) that track (m) the sentence correctly: The te
nsile test has the purpose (s) to determine: a) () the limit of tensile strength
, b) () the impression of an indenter, c) () the diameter of the material tested
; d) () the elongation of the body tested. Exercise 2 When is the tensile test,
there may be two strains. Indicate with an X what they are in the sequence in wh
ich the phenomena occurring in the material. to) () plastic and elastic b) () an
d normal plastic c) () and regular plastic d) () and elastic plastic.
Exercise 3 Calculate the deformation suffered by a body of 15 cm, which after a
tensile test now provides 16 cm in length. Express the answer in a percentage. E
xercise April 2 Knowing that the tension of a body is equal to 12 N / mm€how mu
ch correspon2 of this tension in kgf / mm? (See the table of conversions, if nec
essary). Exercise May 2 What is the tension in MPa, suffered by a body with 35 m
m which is under the influence of a force of 200 kgf? (See the table of conversi
ons, if necessary).