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FIDEL VELAZQUEZ TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

Hydraulics & Pneumatics


Mr. José Manuel Romero Rosales
Report of the Practices in Class
Team Members:
Galicia Barrientos, Ernesto Cruz Cruz, Miguel Jasso Martinez, Jorge Alberto Mend
oza Valdez, Ernesto
Nicolas Romero, Mexico
May 28, 2008
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Team 1
Definition
The air is technology that uses compressed air as a mode of transmission of the
energy needed to move and operate mechanisms. Air is an elastic material and the
refore, by applying a force, it is compressed, maintains this compression and re
turn the stored energy when allowed to expand, according to the ideal gas law.
Pneumatic Valves
The pneumatic controls are made up of signaling elements, control elements and a
labor input. The signaling and control elements modulate the phases of work and
work items are called valves. Pneumatic and hydraulic systems consist of:
• • •
Data elements of command Bodies Work Items
For information processing and control elements is necessary to use devices that
control and direct the flow of a preset, which requires the availability of a n
umber of elements that make the desired functions on the control and direction o
f flow of compressed air. The principles of auto mechanics, the elements designe
d are sent manually or mechanically. When work requirements was needed to make t
he remote control, command elements were used per symbol tire. Currently, in add
ition to manual controls for the operation of these elements, the command proced
ures used to servo-pneumatic and electro-pneumatic engaged almost all of the inf
ormation processing and signal amplification. The great evolution of pneumatics
and hydraulics have, in turn, develop processes for the treatment and amplificat
ion of signals, and therefore today it has a very wide range of valves and distr
ibutors that allow us to choose the system that best suits the needs. There are
times when the command is done pneumatically or hydraulically and other forces u
s to use electricity for various reasons, especially when the distances are impo
rtant and there are no adverse circumstances.
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THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Team 1
The valves in general, have the following missions:
• • •
Regular distribute fluid flow pressure regulator
The valves are elements who rule or govern the implementation, and address unemp
loyment and the pressure or fluid flow sent by a hydraulic pump in a tank. In in
ternational parlance, the term valve or distributor is the general term for all
types such as slide valves, ball, seat, taps, etc. This is the definition of DIN
/ ISO 1219 following a recommendation of CETOP (Comité Européen des Transmissio
ns et Pneumatiques Oléohydrauliques). By function valves are divided into five g
roups: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Distribution channels or valves Stop valves Pressure valve
s Flow Shut-off
Pneumatic Circuits
There are two types of circuits. 1. Circuit closed ring: He whose final circuit
avoiding bouncing back to the origin of fluctuations and offer greater recovery
rate of leakage, since the flow comes from two sides. 2. Circuit open ring: He w
hose distribution is formed by branches which do not return to the origin, this
installation is cheaper but makes the compressor work harder when demand is high
or leaks in the system. These circuits in turn can be divided into four sub-sys
tems types of tires: 1. 2. 3. 4. System Automatic Manual Semi-automatic systems
software systems
Hydraulics & Pneumatics
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LABORATORY PRACTICES
Team 1
Laboratory Practices
1. Introduction
In these practices, it is intended that students become familiar with the elemen
ts of pneumatics, hydraulics and operation, and to be able to develop circuits t
hat meet the specifications of an industrial process.
2. Implementation of practices
Each exercise was carried out following the points below: - For pneumatic circui
ts, draw the phase diagram, including the signal lines. - Designing and drawing
the circuit diagram and simulate its operation, helping FluidSIM ® program. This
may only be made using the components listed below, and follow the criterion of
minimum number of elements used.€- Set up the circuit in the corresponding bank
. - Make the adjustments and proposed actions in each practice. - Answer the que
stions that arise in each practice. - Remove and save the circuit components. -
Make the report of the practice.
3. Available items
- A single acting cylinder - two double acting cylinders - a valve 5 / 2 way pil
ot operated with spring return pneumatic - 3 valves 5 / 2 way pneumatically pilo
ted - 3 valves 3 / 2 track operated by push button return Spring, normally close
d - a pressure control valve - 2-way flow control valves - a quick exhaust valve
- a valve concurrency (AND) - a selector valve (OR) - 1 roll limit switch norma
lly closed - 1 Roller limit switch normally closed retractable - a dealer
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LABORATORY PRACTICES
Team 1
4. Practices
This is the simplest circuit that took place in practice, and consists of: a sin
gle-acting cylinder 1 3 / 2 valve operated by push button and spring back when y
ou press the button, the process of change valve, allowing the pressure to flow
into the cylinder, which drives the piston, which returns through the return of
spring. This circuit was performed with 1 double acting cylinder 2 valves 3 / 2
operated by push button and spring back when pressed the first button, the plung
er is expelled by pressure, and to return it is necessary to press button 2. Thi
s circuit was performed with 1 double acting cylinder valve 5 1 / 2, 2 pneumatic
valves 3 / 2 operated by push button and spring back when a button is pressed,
the valve 5 / 2 changes position and the plunger is expelled, to return it will
have to press the 2 button causes the same effect on the valve 5 / 2.
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LABORATORY PRACTICES
Team 1
This circuit was performed with 1 double acting cylinder valve 5 1 / 2, 3 pneuma
tic valves 3 / 2 push button operated and spring return an OR gate OR gate opera
tes the no matter which way you apply pressure, and is button 1 or 2, the flowin
g pressure at the valve 5 / 2, allowing the plunger out of the cylinder and to r
eturn it just press the button 3, which changes the way valve 5 / 2.
This circuit was performed with 1 double acting cylinder valve 5 1 / 2, and retu
rn pneumatic valve spring 2 3 / 2 push button operated and spring return an AND
gate to ensure that the piston of the cylinder is expelled, it is have to press
buttons 1 and 2 at the same time, so that the gate is activated and allow the fl
ow pressure is not necessary a third button, and the valve 5 / 2 has a return sp
ring.
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LABORATORY PRACTICES
Team 1
This circuit was performed with 1 double acting cylinder valve 5 1 / 2, 2 pneuma
tic valves 3 / 2 driven back button and two control valves with spring-return op
eration is in principle the same as in practice March only that this added contr
ol valves, which slow the return trip time and the piston in the cylinder.
This circuit was performed with 1 double acting cylinder valve 5 1 / 2, and retu
rn pneumatic valve spring 2 3 / 2 operated by push button and a spring return va
lve 3 / 2 treadle and a spring return valve two gate-return regulatory This circ
uit is commonly used for high hazard operations, which must necessarily be opera
ted by two buttons and the pedal at the same time, plus it has a throttle, which
could delay tripping plunger.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Team 1
REFERENCES
Theoretical Framework: http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neum% C3% A1tico http://www.
sapiensman.com/neumatica/ http://www.euskalnet.net/jmfb/neunatica.htm http:/ / w
ww.neumaticanet.com.ar/ Power Circuits: FluidSIM ® v4.2 - Software & E-Learning
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