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UPSC Civil Services Main 1995 - Mathematics

Calculus
Sunder Lal
Retired Professor of Mathematics
Panjab University
Chandigarh

January 9, 2010

Question 1(a) If g is the inverse of f and f 0 (x) = 1


1+x3
, then prove that g 0 (x) = 1+(g(x))3 .
Solution. Let f : D R, g : R D so that y = f (x), x = g(y), and (g f )(x) = x for
x D, and (f g)(y) = y for y R. Then by the chain rule
1 = (g f )0 (x) = g 0 (f (x))f 0 (x)
1
g 0 (f (x)) = 0
= 1 + x3 = 1 + (g(f (x)))3
f (x)
0
g (y) = 1 + (g(y))3 x = g(y)
which was to be proved.
Question 1(b) Taking the nth derivative of (xn )2 in two different ways, prove that
n2 n2 (n 1)2 n2 (n 1)2 (n 2)2 (2n)!
1+ 2
+ 2 2
+ 2 2 2
+ . . . + (n + 1 terms) =
1 1 2 1 2 3 (n!)2
Solution.
dn 2n (2n)! n
n
(x ) = 2n (2n 1) . . . (2n n + 1)xn = x (1)
dx n!
dr n!
Note that r (xn ) = n (n 1) . . . (n r + 1)xnr = xnr . Let f (x) = g(x) = xn .
dx (n r)!
dn dn
Then n (x2n ) = n (f g). Applying Leibnitzs formula
dx dx
n   n
dn 2n dn X n nr r X n! n! r n!
n
(x ) = n
(f g) = f g = x xnr
dx dx r=0
r r=0
r!(n r)! r! (n r)!
n n
X (n!)2 X n2 (n 1)2 . . . (n r + 1)2
= n!xn = n!x n
(2)
r=0
(r!)2 ((n r)!)2 r=0
12 22 . . . r2

1
Equating the right hand sides in (1), (2) and dividing thoughout by n!xn , we have the desired
result.

Question 1(c) Let f (x, y), which possesses continuous partial derivatives of degree 2, be a
homogeneous function of x and y of degree n. Prove that

2f 2f 2
2 f
x2 + 2xy + y = n(n 1)f
x2 x y y 2

Solution. See 2006 question 2(b).

Question 2(a) Find the area bounded by the curve


2
x2 y 2 x2 y 2

+ =
4 9 4 9
ZZ
x y
Solution. Let X = 2
,Y
= so that dx dy = 6 dX dY , and the required area
3
dx dy =
ZZ
6 dX dY , where the right integral is over the region bounded by (X 2 + Y 2 )2 = X 2 Y 2 .
We now switch over to polar coordinates X = r cos , Y = r sin , so (X 2 + Y 2 )2 =
X 2 Y 2 r4 = r2 cos2 r2 sin2 r2 = cos 2. Thus the required area = 6 the area
bounded by r2 = cos 2 = 24 the area bounded by r2 = cos 2 in the first quadrant, as the
curve is symmetrical about both coordinate axes.
Z 2 Z  
4 r 4 cos 2 sin 2 4
The required area = 24 d = 24 d = 24 = 6.
0 2 0 2 4 0

Question 2(b) Let f (x), x 1 be such that the area bounded by the curve y = f (x) and
2
the lines x = 1 and x = b is 1 + b 2 for all b 1. Does f attain its minimum, if so,
what is its value.
Z b Z
Solution. The given area is f (x) dx = 1 + b2 2 f (x) dx = 1 + x2 .
1
x 0
1 + x2 x 22x
1+x2 1
Differentiating, we get f (x) = . Clearly f (x) = 2
= 3 >
1+x 2 1+x (1 + x2 ) 2
0. Thus f is monotonically increasing, hence its minimum value is f (1) = 12 .

2
Question 2(c) Show that
1 2 3  n 1  (2) n12
... =
n n n n n
1 2 3 n 1
Solution. Let P = ... , so that
n n n n
1  1 2  2 n 1  n 1
2
P = 1 1 ... 1
n n n n n n
(We have paired the first term with the last and so on.).

We now use (x)(1 x) = so that
sin x

P2 = 2 . . .
sin n sin n sin n1
n

2 n1 n n1 2n1
We shall now prove that sin sin . . . sin = n1 , so that P 2 =
n1
n n n 2 n
(2) 2
P = as required.
n
2 n1 n
Proof of sin sin . . . sin = n1 :
n n n 2
Consider F (x) = xn 2 cos n + xn . If x = cos + i sin , then xn = cos n + i sin n for
all n, so xn + xn = 2 cos n. This shows that x 2 cos + x1 is a factor of F (x). The same is
true if we replace by r = + 2r , 0 r n 1. Hence F (x) = n1 (x 2 cos r + x1 ). Put
Q
n r=0
x = 1, then 2 2 cos n = r=0 (2 2 cos r ) 4 sin2 (n/2) = 22n nr=0 sin2 (r /2). Thus
Qn1 Q

n
sin2 (n/2) 2n2
Y
2 = 2 sin2 (r /2)
sin (/2) r=1

Letting 0, we have the result.

Paper II

Question 3(a) Find and classify the extreme values of the function f (x, y) = x2 + y 2 + x +
y + xy.

Solution. The extreme values are given by


f f
= 2x + 1 + y = 0, = 2y + 1 + x = 0
x y
Solving these, we get x = 13 , y = 13 . Thus there exists only one extreme value at
2f 2f 2f 2f 2 f 2 f  2 f 2
( 13 , 13 ). Now = 2, = 2, = 1. Since > 0, =3>0
x2 y 2 x y x2 x2 y 2 x y
at ( 13 , 13 ), it follows that f has a minimum at ( 31 , 31 ).

3
Question 3(b) Suppose is real and different from n, n Z, then prove that
Z Z
2 2
I= e(x +2xy cos +y ) dx dy =
0 0 2 sin

Solution. The region of integration is the first quadrant. Switching to polar coordinates,
we have
Z Z
2 2
I = er (1+2 cos sin cos ) r dr d
0 0
Z  r2 (1+2 cos sin cos )  
2 e 1
= d
0 1 + 2 cos sin cos 2 0
Z Z
1 2 d 1 2 sec2 d
= = (Put tan = z)
2 0 1 + 2 cos sin cos 2 0 sec2 + 2 tan cos
1 1 1
Z Z Z
dz dz dz
= 2
= 2 2
= 2
2 0 1 + z + 2z cos 2 0 1 cos + (z + cos ) 2 0 sin + (z + cos )2

1 1  z + cos 
= tan1
2 sin sin
  0  
1 1 1 1 1   
= tan cot = cot = tan
2 sin 2 2 sin 2 2 2

= as required.
2 sin