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1.6 Paraphrasing

Note that an effective paraphrase usuaIly:

has a different structure to the original

has mainly different vocabulary

retains the same meaning

keeps some phrases from the original that are in common use
e.g. 'industrial revolution' or 'eighteenth eentury'

2 Practice A

Read the text below and then evaluate the three paraphrases n=besO.
eivine reasons.

1',11 lphl'llsing means changing the wording of a text 50 that it is

.110111 (I '1I11~ly difcrcnt from the original souree, without ehanging
111 lU aning. ''fective paraphrasing is a key academic skill
fi I 1 10 avoid the risk of plagiarism: ir demonstrares your Allen (2009) argues thal lhe best explanation for the British
111111 I I, rdlng of a source. This unit focuses ou teehniques for location of the industrial revolution is found by studying
1"1 llph . ing a part of thc note-making and summarising demand factors. By the early eighteenth century high wages
1'10 and cheap energy were both features of lhe British economy.
Consequently, the mechanisation of industry through such
inventions as the steam engina and mechanical spinning was
profilable because employers were able to economise on
1 h lamants of effective paraphrasing labour by spending on coal. At that time, no other country
had this particular cornbination of expensive labour and
1 Ilslng nd summarising are normaIly uscd together in essay writing,

11111 wh I summarising airns to reduce information to a suitable length, . abundant fuel:

I"" 11111usln .. rtcmpts to restate the relevant information. For example,
1111 IIIIIowln8 sentcnce:
(a) A focus on dernand rnav hlp to explain the UK origin of the
111r has been much debate about the reasons for the industrlal revolution, At.that time workers' pay was high, but
Il lu trlal revolution happening in eighteenth-eentury Britain, ei1E!rgy from coelwas inexpensive. This encouraged the
rtltl1 r than in France or Germany. '.development.of rnechanlcal inventions based on steam power,
which enabled bosses to save money by mechanising
I uul I b p. 1', phrased: production (Allen, 2009).

Why the industrial revolution occurred in Britain in the (b): The reason why Britain was the birthplace of the industrial
1 hteanth century, instead of on the continent, has been the revolution can be understood by analysing demand in lhe
ubj ct of considerable discussion. early 1700s, according to Allen (2009). He maintains that,
Part 1 The lvriting process 53 1.6 Paraphrasing
62 - __ .-_.- ---..----
-~. .'-' ------ --------- ._--.-_._-----_._. __ ._------.-_._-- ---_._-
uniquely, Britain had the critica I combination of cheap energy 4 Practice B
from coa I and high labour costs. This encouraged the adoption
of steam power to mechanise production, thus saving on li Read the followin~ text and then eracnse the techntsoes iIIustrafed
wages and increasing profitability. above.
(I Allen (2009) claims that the clearest explanation for the UK
location of the industrial revolution is seen byexamining
cJemand factors. By the eighteenth century cheap energy and FOUR WHEELS GOOO
hlgh wages were both aspects of the British economy. As a
r sult. the mechanisation of industry through inventions such The growth of the car industry parallels the development of
o the steam engine and mechanical spinning was profitable modern capitalism. It began in France and Germany, but took
b cause employers were able to save money on employees by off in the United States. There Henry Ford adapted the moving
p nding on cosI. At that time, Britain was the only country production line from the Chicago meat industry to motor
wlth Ignificant deposits of coal. manufacturing, thus inventing mass production. In the 1920s
Alfred Sloan's management theories helped General Motors to

beco me the world's dominant car company. Afterthe second
world war the car makers focused on the styling of their
products to encourage more frequent model changes. From
the.1970s there was criticism of the industry due to the
inefficiency of most vehicles, which used petrol wastefully. At
the .sarne time, trdes unins became increasingly militant in
T chniques for paraphrasing .defenca ofthelr rnernbers' jobs, Today the industry owns
.. some of the most tamous brands in the world. However, many
(11) li rn Ing vocabulary by using synonyms: .~
car rriakers 'ijre 'currentlv threatened by increased competition
rou > claims/ eighteenth century > 17005/ wages > labour and saturated markets,
t I oconomise > saving

NU. 1) not attcmpt to paraphrase every word, since some havc no

II 1 synonym, e.g. demand, economy, energy .: raJ Find svnorsms for the words underned,
(i) The ~ of the l&I industry parallels the developmeot of
(li) 11 nging word class:
ffi..QQ.e.rn capitalism.
xpl nation (n.) > explain (v.}j mechanical (adj.) > mechanise
(v.) I profitable (adj.) > profitability (n.) Example: The ~ of the automobile iodustry matches the
progress of contemporary capitalism.
(I h nging word order:
(ii) It ~ in France and Germaoy, but:tQQk.Qff in the United
.. the best explanation for the British location of the industrial States.
r volution is found by studying demand factors.
(iii) There Henry Ford ~ the moving production line trom the
>A focus on demand may help explain the UK origin of the Chicago meat industry to IIl.Q1Q[ manufacturing, thus inventing
Industrial revolution. mass production.

~ See Units 3.2 Academic vocabulary and 3.11 Synonyms

54 Part 1 The writing process 55 1.6 Paraphrasing
o ~ __ __ 'A_"' ~' __ '_ .. _~--_._._-.-.__ .... ~., - ---

_ rbJ Cham!e the word ctass of tOOunderlined words. and then re-write 5 Practiee C .
the sentences.
_: Use the same technique$ to paraphrase fhe fo/lowiOil text,
O) In the 1920s Alfred Sloan's management theories ~
General Motors to become the world's dominant car company.

Example: In the 1920s, with help from the managerial theories lHE PASl BELOW lHE WAVES
of Alfred Sloan, General Motors dominated the world's car
More than three million shipwrecks are believed to lie on the seabed, the result
of storms and accidents during thousands of years of sea-borne tradiog. These
Oi) After the seeond world war the ear makers ~ on the
wreeks offer marioe archaeologists valuable information about the culture,
~ of their produets, to eneourage more frequent model
technology and trade patterns of aneient eivilisations, but the vast majority have
beeo too deep to research. Scuba divers can ooly operate down to 50 metres,
(lll) From the 1970s there was eritjeism of the industry due to the
which Iimits operations to wrecks near the coast, which have often beeo
jnefficjency of most vehicles, which used petrol wastefully.
damaged by storms or plant growth. A few deep sea sites (such as the Titanic)
have been explored by maoned submarines, but this kind of equipment has been
r cJ ChalUle the word order of the followiOll sentences r other cnanses
toe expensive for less famous subjects, However, this situation has been changed
mal! be neededJ.
by the introduction of a new kind of mini submarine: the automatic underwater
(I) At the same time, trades unions became increasingly militant vehicle (AUV). This cheap, small craft is free moving and does not need an
10 defence of their members' jobs.
expensive mother-ship to control it, Now a team of American arehaeologists are
x mpte: t the same time increasingly militant trades unions plaoning to use ao AUV to explore ao area of sea north of Egypt which was the
ti 'fondad their members' jobs. approach to a major trading port 4,000 years ago.
(I ) day the industry owns some of the most famous brands in
til world.

) 11 w ver, many car makers are currently threatened by

10 r ased competition and saturated markets.

rdJ Combine ali these tecbnleues to paraphrase fhe parailraph as 1ullll


@ Paraphrasing>